Engagement and Therapeutic Communication in Mental Health Nursing

Books

Sandra Walker

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Foreword

    One thing that can never be overlooked in mental healthcare is the complexity of human beings. Unfailingly individual, we all operate from a comprehensive array of cultural backgrounds and beliefs; various levels of knowledge and understanding; differing likes and dislikes; diverse life experiences and multiple behaviours. Learning to navigate these differences and managing to connect with others despite them, is one of the hardest tasks ahead of us in our quest for high quality care for those in mental distress. Research has consistently shown that it is the human relationships we develop that have the biggest impact on recovery in mental healthcare; successful engagement and therapeutic communication are essential in order to help people find their way out of the maze of problems that may have beset them.

    This book offers many practical suggestions as to how to ensure we successfully engage with those in our care, underpinned by a broad base of theory and evidence. The principles of person-centred recovery, validation, respect and dignity are themes that are interwoven throughout the chapters. The book provides practical exercises that will help the reader to develop a stronger sense of self both as a person and a professional while at the same time learning to put themselves in the shoes of the person they are caring for and always remembering that it is their values, not ours, that must direct our action.

    There are two outstanding themes, however, that bear further consideration as you embark on reading this text. The importance of self-awareness is a recurring theme throughout the chapters. It is essential that we are aware of our own cultural background, our own values, beliefs and attitudes, our non-verbal body language, our limitations and when we need to ask for help. The importance of supervision and reflective practice support this and are repeatedly highlighted as hallmarks of best practice. Additionally, curiosity is another, often reoccurring, theme. It is the way to ensure we are not hijacked by our own standpoint. To ask gentle probing questions of the position of the person in distress, to maintain a respectful curiosity in the face of behaviour we find difficult to understand, is key in helping us to work collaboratively with people to help them recover. The importance of these two themes cannot be underestimated.

    If you are a student nurse, a newly qualified nurse or even a nurse of some years’ standing looking for tips to update your portfolio of skills, this book will stand you in good stead for practice. It can be read as a whole but can also be dipped into section by section as you come across situations in practice, perhaps, that warrant further exploration of that particular subject. Engaging with this book will help you to become a more effective practitioner of the art of mental health nursing, enhancing your ability to connect with people of diverse backgrounds and needs.

    Sandra WalkerApril 2014

    Acknowledgements

    The authors and publisher wish to thank the following for permission to reproduce copyright material.

    Open University Press for the nursing qualities displayed in Figure 1.1, from Megan Ellis and Crispen Day (2013) The therapeutic relationship: engaging clients in their care and treatment, Chapter 12 in Norman, IJ and Ryrie, I (eds) The Art and Science of Mental Health Nursing: Principles and practice, pp172 and 174.

    David A Richards and Mark Whyte (2011) for Figures 4.1 and 4.2, Funnelling, reproduced with kind permission from Reach Out: National Programme Student Materials to Support the Delivery of Training for Psychological Wellbeing Practitioners Delivering Low Intensity Interventions (3rd Edition). London: Rethink.

    About the Authors

    Peter Bullard is the Accredited Psychological Wellbeing Practitioner (PWP) Quality Lead for the Isle of Wight Primary Care Mental Health service. He works with individuals suffering from anxiety and depression, and delivers low-intensity CBT interventions through different modalities. He graduated from Southampton University in 2010 and has worked on the course as a clinical educator since that year. He has an MSc in Transcultural Mental Health and Psychological Therapies. Before working in mental health services he had a background in physical fitness, completing his degree in Health and Fitness management, and working as an instructor and trainer in many different healthcare settings. He strongly believes in the value of combining therapeutic approaches with the application of improving well-being for individuals experiencing mental health problems.

    Simon Grist is a Lecturer in Mental Health and Programme Lead for the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Psychological Wellbeing Practitioner programme at the University of Southampton. A qualified mental health nurse and CBT therapist, prior to working at the university he was a CMHT manager, working extensively in crisis and home treatment teams and in substance misuse services.

    Yvonne Middlewick has been a mental health lecturer within the University of Southampton for six years. A dual registered nurse, RGN and RMN, she has had a varied career working with people of different ages. She started her career in a gynaecology and breast surgery unit, where she cared for people with complex psychological as well as physiological needs, rekindling her interest in mental health. As a result, she completed a post-qualifying mental health course at Bournemouth University, and later worked with older adults in a mental health setting before returning to an adult nursing environment to work with older people. Experience from both settings has helped Yvonne to holistically care for older people with complex needs.

    Dorothy Neal is a pseudonym used, at her request, to protect the identity of the service user who co-wrote her chapter. She has a long history of mental health problems as well as a full and active family life plus a love of dancing.

    Julia Pelle is a Senior Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing at Kingston University and St George's University London. She currently teaches on culture, ethnicity and diversity in mental health and social care to pre- and post-registration students. Julia maintains a research interest in family carers from Black and Ethnic Minority communities who care for relatives with an enduring mental health problem. She also worked as a Senior Nurse in an acute inpatient mental health setting before moving into health and social care education.

    Wendy Turton (RMN, MSc, BABCP Accred. Cognitive Therapist) is currently a Lecturer in Mental Health within the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Southampton and the Senior Psychological Therapist with a Mental Health Recovery Team in Portsmouth. Wendy trained in Leicestershire on an integrated Mental Health and Learning Disability nursing programme, choosing to focus her career on mental health, and in recent years on severe and enduring mental health problems, in particular the experience of psychosis. In 2004 Wendy set up the Psychosocial Interventions for Psychosis Service (PSIPS) within South East Hampshire, which she led for nine years. During this time Wendy was involved in clinical research, exploring the efficacy of Person-based Cognitive Therapy for Distressing Psychosis (Chadwick, 2006) and co-authored two award-winning short books on the experience of living with psychosis with MH service users; her ongoing research continues to focus on the lived experience of psychosis. Wendy also works with the CBT Programme Team at the University of Southampton.

    Sandra Walker is a Senior Teaching Fellow in Mental Health at Southampton University, where she is also a doctorate student researching the patient experience of the mental health assessment in the Emergency Department. She is a Qualified Mental Health Nurse with a wide range of clinical experience spanning more than 20 years. In addition to her university work, she is a professional musician and does voluntary work for various mental health organisations, including being the coordinator for the Hampshire Human Library – an international initiative aimed at reducing stigma through interaction and education of the public. She is the creative director of The Sanity Company, which publishes books aimed at helping children and young people develop good mental health and problem-solving skills.

    Janine Ward is an accredited Psychological Wellbeing Practitioner (PWP) and Mental Health Practitioner by background and has worked within forensic mental health, learning difficulties, community mental health and substance abuse teams. Janine currently leads the Southampton Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Low Intensity and Assessment Team and provides some clinical leadership across her employing Trust. She is seconded as a PWP educator at the University of Southampton and has worked within the Health Sciences Faculty for the last three years. Janine is currently studying for her PhD at Southampton.

    Andy Williams joined the Royal Navy at 18 and served for 22 years, during which time he trained as a Registered General Nurse and later a Registered Mental Nurse. Andy is a Master of Arts in Mental Health and a Bachelor of Nursing with Education in order to register for the education of nurses. On leaving the service, Andy secured a senior lecturer post with the MOD before accepting a post at Southampton University.

    Andy's teaching interests are in interpersonal and communication skills, bereavement and loss, post-traumatic stress disorder, spirituality, adult mental health, particularly around anxiety and depression, suicide and self-harm. He is involved in nurse education in pre- and post-qualifying programmes and IAPT education.

  • References

    Akerjordet K , and Severinsson E ( 2004 ) Emotional intelligence in mental health nurses talking about practice. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 13: 16470.
    American Psychiatric Association (APA) ( 2013 ). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 5th Revision. Washington: American Psychiatric Association.
    Aseltine RH , and DeMartino R ( 2004 ) An outcome evaluation of the SOS Suicide Prevention Program. American Journal of Public Health, 94 (3): 44651.
    Asian M , and Smith M ( 2012 ) Promoting health and social inclusion, in Tee S , Brown J , and Carpenter D (eds) Handbook of Mental Health Nursing. London: Hodder Arnold.
    Barber P , Brown R , and Martin D ( 2012 ). Mental Health Law in England and Wales: A guide for mental health professionals (2nd edition). London: Learning Matters.
    Bear MF , Connors BW , and Paradiso MA ( 2007 ). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain (3rd edition). London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    Beck JS ( 1995 ). Cognitive Therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford.
    Bennett-Levy J ( 2006 ) Therapist skills: a cognitive model of their acquisition and refinement. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37 (1): 5778.
    Bennett-Levy J , Turner F , Beaty T , Smith M , Paterson B , and Farmer S ( 2001 ) The value of self-practice of cognitive therapy techniques and self-reflection in the training of cognitive therapists. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29: 20320.
    Bernard JM , and Goodyear RK ( 2004 ). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
    Bhui K , McCabe R , Weich S , Singh S , Johnson M , and Szczpura A ( 2013 ) THERACOM: A systematic review of the evidence base for interventions to improve therapeutic communications between black and minority ethnic populations and staff in specialist mental health services. BioMedCentral: Systematic Reviews, 2 (1): Article No. 15.
    Bowers L , Brennan G , Winship G , and Theodoridou C ( 2009 ). Talking With Acutely Psychotic People: Communication skills for nurses and others spending time with people who are very mentally ill. London: City University. Available online at www.iop.kcl.ac.uk/iopweb/blob/downloads/locator/l_436_Talking.pdf (accessed 14 June 2014).
    Bowers L , Brennan G , Winship G , and Theodoridou C ( 2010 ) How expert nurses communicate with acutely psychotic patients. Mental Health Practice, 13 (7): 246.
    Brown J ( 2012 ) The therapeutic use of self, in Tee S , Brown J , and Carpenter D (eds) Handbook of Mental Health Nursing London: Hodder Arnold.
    Brown P , Calnan M , Scriver A , and Szmukler G ( 2009 ) Trust in mental health services: a neglected concept. Journal of Mental Health, October 18 (5): 44958.
    Buckner L , and Yeandle S ( 2011 ). Valuing Carers 2011: Calculating the value of carers’ support. London: Carers UK.
    Cahill J , Barkham M , Hardy G , Gilbody S , Richards D , Bower P , Audin K , and Connell J ( 2008 ) A review and critical appraisal of measures of therapist-patient interactions in mental health settings. Health Technology Assessment, 12 (24).
    Campinha-Bacote J ( 2002 ) The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: a model of care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13 (3): 1814.
    Carers Trust ( 2012 ). What Is a Carer? Available online at www.carers.org/what-carer (accessed 4 August 2012).
    Castledine G ( 2010 ) Creative nursing: art or science? British Journal of Nursing, 19 (14): 937.
    Chadwick P ( 2006 ). Person-based Cognitive Therapy for Distressing Psychosis. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
    Commissioning Board, Chief Nursing Officer and Department of Health Chief Nursing Adviser ( 2012 ). Compassion in Practice. Available online at www.commissioningboard.nhs.uk (accessed 13 October 2013).
    Cross WM , and Bloomer MJ ( 2010 ) Extending boundaries: clinical communication with culturally and linguistically diverse mental health clients and carers. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 19 (4): 26877.
    Cummings J. ( 2012 ). Compassion in Practice: Nursing, midwifery and care staff – our vision and strategy. London: NHS Commissioning Board.
    De Bellis A , Bradley SL , Wotherspoon A , Walter B , Guerin P , Cecchin M , and Paterson J ( 2009 ). Come Into My World: How to interact with a person who has dementia: An educational resource for undergraduate healthcare students on person-centred care. Adelaide: Flinders University. Available online at http://nursing.flinders.edu.au/comeintomyworld (accessed 27 October 2013).
    Deegan PE ( 1988 ) Recovery: the lived experience of rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11 (4): 1119.
    Department of Health (DH) ( 2005a ). NIMHE Guiding Statement on Recovery. London: DH.
    Department of Health (DH) ( 2005b ). Delivering Race Equality in Mental Health Care: An action plan for reform inside and outside services and the government's response to the independent inquiry into the death of David Bennett. London: HMSO.
    Department of Health (DH) ( 2007 ). Capabilities for Inclusive Practice. London: DH.
    Department of Health (DH) ( 2008a ). High Quality Care for All. London: DH.
    Department of Health (DH) ( 2008b ). Carers at the Heart of the 21st Century: Families and communities. London: HMSO.
    Department of Health (DH) ( 2012 ). Caring for Our Future: Reforming care and support. London: HMSO.
    Diederen KMJ , Daalman K , De Weijer AD , Neggers SFW , Van Gastel W , Dirk Blom J , Kahnl RS , and Sommer IEC ( 2011 ) Auditory hallucinations elicit similar brain activations in psychotic and nonpsychotic individuals. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38 (5): 107482.
    Dietrich S , Wittenburg L , Arensman E , Värnik A , and Hegerl U ( 2009 ) Suicide and self-harm, in Gask L , Lester H , Kendrick T , and Peveler R (eds) Primary Care Mental Health. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, pp 12545.
    Driscoll J ( 1994 ) Reflective practice for practise. Senior Nurse, 13: 4750.
    Egan G ( 2010 ). The Skilled Helper: A problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping (10th edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Egan G ( 2013 ). The Skilled Helper (10th edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole.
    Eriksen KA , Sundfor B , Karlsson B , Raholm MB , and Arman M ( 2012 ) Recognition as a valued human being: perspectives of mental health service users. Nursing Ethics, 19 (3): 35768.
    Fernando S ( 2010 ). Mental Health, Race and Culture (3rd edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Francis R (Chair) ( 2013 ). Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Enquiry. London: The Stationery Office.
    Freshwater D , and Stickley T ( 2004 ) The heart of the art: emotional intelligence in nurse education. Nurse Inquiry, 11 (2): 918.
    Gerrish K , Husband C , and Mackenzie J ( 1996 ). Nursing for a Multi-ethnic Society. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Gibbs G ( 1988 ). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Oxford Polytechnic.
    Hatfield A ( 1994 ) The family's role in caregiving and service delivery, in H Lefley , and Wasom M (eds) Helping Families Cope with Mental Illness. Newark, NJ: Harwood Academic Publishers.
    Heron J ( 2001 ). Helping the Client (5th edition). London: Sage.
    Hope R ( 2004 ). The Ten Essential Shared Capabilities: A framework for the whole of the mental health workforce. London: Department of Health.
    Horvath AO , and Greenberg LS (eds) ( 1994 ). The Working Alliance: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Wiley.
    Horvath AO , and L Luborsky ( 1993 ) The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61 (4): 56173.
    Johns C ( 1995 ) The value of reflective practice for nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 4: 2330.
    Kitwood T ( 1997 ). Dementia Reconsidered: The person comes first. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Kolb D ( 1984 ). Experimental Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Lipson JG ( 1999 ) Cross-cultural nursing: the cultural perspective. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 10 (1): 6.
    Luborsky L , Rosenthal R , Diguer L , Andrusyna TP , Berman JS , Levitt JT , Seligman DA , and Krause ED ( 2002 ) The Dodo bird verdict is alive and well – mostly. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9 (1): 212.
    N Mackay , and Barrowclough C ( 2005 ) A&E staff's perception of DSH: attributions, emotions and willingness to help. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44: 25567.
    Maddock GR , Carter GL , Murrell ER , Lewin TJ , and Conrad AM ( 2010 ) Distinguishing suicidal from non-suicidal deliberate self-harm events in women with borderline personality disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44: 57482.
    Marieb EN , and Hoehn K ( 2010 ). Human Anatomy & Physiology (8th edition). London: Benjamin Cummings.
    McHale J , and Felton A ( 2010 ) Self-harm: what's the problem? A literature review of the factors affecting attitudes towards self-harm. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 17: 73240.
    Mead N , and Bower P ( 2002 ) Patient-centred consultations and outcomes in primary care: a review of the literature. Patient Education and Counselling, 48 (1): 5161.
    Mental Health Foundation ( 2014 ). Recovery. Available online at www.mentalhealth.org.uk/help-information/mental-health-a-z/R/recovery (accessed 4 March 2014).
    Middlewick Y ( 2013 ) Engaging the person, in Walker S , Carpenter D , and Middlewick Y (eds) Assessment and Decision Making in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters.
    Middlewick Y , and Carpenter D ( 2013 ) Outcomes of assessment, in Walker S , Carpenter D , and Middlewick Y (eds) Assessment and Decision Making in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters.
    Milne D ( 2009 ). Evidence-based Clinical Supervision: Principles and practice. Chichester: BPS Blackwell.
    Mind ( 2011 ). Listening to Experience. London: Mind. Available online at www.mind.org.uk/campaigns_and_issues/report_and_resources/6051_listening_to_experience (accessed 7 October 2013).
    Mind ( 2013 ). Nearest Relatives under the Mental Health Act. London: Mind. Available online at www.mind.org.uk/mental_health_a-z/8064_nearest_relatives_under_the_mental_health_act (accessed 27 January 2013).
    Morgan C , Burns T , Fitzpatrick R , Pinfold V , and Priebe S ( 2007 ) Social exclusion and mental health: conceptual and methodological review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191: 47783.
    Murphy R , and Wales P ( 2013 ). Mental Health Law in Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters.
    Myles P , and Rushforth D ( 2007 ). A Complete Guide to Primary Care Mental Health. London: Robinson.
    National Black Carers and Carers Workers Network (NBCCWN) ( 2008 ). Beyond We Care Too: Putting black carers in the picture. London: Afiya Trust.
    National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health ( 2012 ). Service User Experience in Adult Mental Health (CG 136). Leicester and London: British Psychological Society and Royal College of Psychiatrists. Published online in December 2011 at www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13629/57542/57542.pdf (accessed June 2013).
    National Institute for Health and Clinical [now Care] Excellence (NICE) ( 2005 ). Violence: The short term management of disturbed/violent behaviour in in-patient psychiatric settings and emergence departments (CG 25). London: NICE.
    Norman I ( 2009 ) The art and science of mental health nursing: reconciliation of two traditions in the cause of public health. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46: 153740.
    Norman IJ , and Ryrie I ( 2013 ). The Art and Science of Mental Health Nursing: Principles and practice (3rd edition). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) ( 2008 ). The Code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. London: NMC. Available online at www.nmc-uk.org/Documents/Standards/The-code-A4-20100406.pdf (accessed 14 June 2013).
    Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) ( 2010a ). Standards for Pre-registration Nursing Education. London: NMC. Available online at http://standards.nmc-uk.org/Pages/Welcome.aspx (accessed 2 December 2013).
    Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) ( 2010b ). Essential Skills Clusters and Guidance for Their Use (Guidance G7.1.5b). Available online at www.standards.nmc-uk.org/Documents/Annexe3_%20ESCs_16092010.pdf (accessed 12 June 2013).
    O'Brien A , Famy R , and Singh S ( 2009 ) Disengagement from mental health services: a literature review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44: 55868.
    O'Carroll M , and Park A ( 2007 ). Essential Mental Health Skills. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier.
    CA Padesky , and Greenberger D ( 1996 ). Mind Over Mood. New York: Guilford Press.
    Pearce R ( 2006 ) Communicating and relating, in Trenoweth S , Docherty T , and Price I (eds) Nursing and Mental Health Care: An introduction for all fields of practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Pembroke L ( 2009 ) Them and us? How education and training can improve relationships between psychiatrists and service users. Open Mind, 157: 14.
    Peplau HE ( 1952 ). Interpersonal Relations in Nursing. New York: GP Putnam & Sons.
    Priebe S , Watts J , Chase M , and Matanov A ( 2005 ) Processes of disengagement and engagement in assertive outreach patients: qualitative study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 187: 43843.
    Prochaska JO , and DiClemente CC ( 1983 ) Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5 (3): 3905.
    Redley M ( 2010 ) The clinical assessment of patients admitted to hospital following an episode of self-harm: a qualitative study. Sociology of Health and Illness, 32 (3): 116.
    Repper J ( 2012 ) Recovery: a journey of discovery, in Tee S , Brown J , and Carpenter D (eds) Handbook of Mental Health Nursing. London: Hodder Arnold.
    Richards D , and Whyte R ( 2011 ). Reach Out: National programme student materials to support the delivery of training for psychological wellbeing practitioners delivering low intensity interventions (3rd edition). London: Rethink.
    Rogers C ( 1957 ) The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21 (2): 95103.
    Rogers C ( 1959 ) A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework, in Koch S (ed.) Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context. New York: McGraw Hill.
    C Rogers ( 1961 ). On Becoming a Person. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Roth A , and Pilling S ( 2007 ). The Competences Required to Deliver Effective Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy for People with Depression and with Anxiety Disorders. London: Department of Health. Available online at www.ucl.ac.uk/clinical-psychology/CORE/CBT_Competences/CBT_Competence_List.pdf (accessed 12 June 2013).
    Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych) ( 2009 ). Mental Health and Social Inclusion: Making psychiatry and mental health services fit for the 21st century. London: RCPsych. Available online at www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/social%20inclusion%20position%20statement09.pdf (accessed 13 June 2013).
    Shattell MM , Starr SS , and Thomas SP ( 2007 ) Take my hand, help me out: mental health service recipients’ experiences of the therapeutic relationship. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 16: 27484.
    Shepherd G , Boardman J , and Slade M ( 2008 ). Making Recovery a Reality. London: Salisbury's Centre for Mental Health (SCMH).
    Simon RI , and Hales RE (eds) ( 2012 ). American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Suicide Assessment and Management. Arlington, VA: APA.
    Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE) ( 2005 ). SCIE Research Briefing 11: The health and well-being of young carers. London, SCIE.
    Social Exclusion Unit ( 2004 ). Mental Health and Social Exclusion: Social Exclusion Unit report. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Available online at www.socialfirmsuk.co.uk/resources/library/mental-health-and-social-exclusion-social-exclusion-unit-report (accessed 14 June 2013).
    Spector RE ( 2004 ). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (6th edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
    Tate A ( 2010a ) Getting it right: caring for people who self-harm. Emergency Nurse, 18 (6): 323.
    Tate A ( 2010b ) A private matter. Emergency Nurse, 18 (4): 11.
    Taylor TL , Hawton K , Fortune S , and Kapur N ( 2009 ) Attitudes towards clinical services among people who self-harm: systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194: 10410.
    Van Dusseldorp LRLC , Van Meijel BKG , and Derksen JJL ( 2010 ) Emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20: 55562.
    Van Lutterveld R , Diederen KMJ , Koops S , Begemann MJH , and Sommer IEC ( 2013 ) The influence of stimulus detection on activation patterns during auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Research, 145: 2732.
    Vercammen A , Knegtering H , Bruggeman R , and Aleman A ( 2011 ) Subjective loudness and reality of auditory verbal hallucinations and activation of the inner speech processing network. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37 (5): 100916.
    Walker S , Carpenter D , and Middlewick Y ( 2013 ). Assessment and Decision Making in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters.
    Westbrook D , Kennerley H , and Kirk J ( 2011 ). An Introduction to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (2nd edition). London: Sage.
    Williams A ( 2013 ). The Listening Organisation. Cardiff: 1000 Lives Plus.
    Worden JW ( 2009 ). Grief Counselling and Grief Therapy: A handbook for the mental health practitioner (4th edition). Oxford: Routledge.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website