Enforcing Police Accountability through Civilian Oversight
Publication Year: 2010
This book explores the sensitive issue of police accountability to civilian oversight bodies to control police excesses. At the center of the discourse lies the tacit acknowledgement that the enormous power and authority invested in the police does lead to corruption and excesses unless adequate checks and balances are installed. The book analyzes these checks and balances and how these can be made more effective. It puts forth a cross-national study of internal and external mechanisms for enforcing police accountability, and critically appraises the effectiveness of civilian oversight bodies. It also touches upon the working of National Human Rights Commission of India.
While supporting the role of civil oversight bodies in enforcing police accountability, the author also discusses scenarios of police resistance which have often paralyzed ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Police Accountability
- Chapter 3: Control by External Agencies
- Chapter 4: Civilian Oversight Bodies
- Chapter 5: Policing the Police—Experience in the United Kingdom
- Chapter 6: Police Oversight in Canada
- Chapter 7: Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Public Complaint Commission
- Chapter 8: Police Ombudsman in Northern Ireland
- Chapter 9: Independent Complaints Directorate
- Chapter 10: Police Complaints Authority—Australia
- Chapter 11: Police Oversight in Brazil
- Chapter 12: National Human Rights Commission and Police Oversight
- Chapter 13: Police Oversight in USA
- Chapter 14: Police Reforms in India and Neighboring Countries
- Chapter 15: Epilog
Copyright © Sankar Sen, 2010
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2010 by
Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
Sage Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
Sage Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
Sage Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street
#02-01 Far East Square
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10/12pt Berkeley by Star Compugraphics Private Limited, Delhi and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sen, Sankar, 1936–
Enforcing police accountability through civilian oversight/Sankar Sen.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Police misconduct. 2. Police—Complaints against. 3. Civilian review boards (Police administration) 4. Police administration—Citizen participation I. Title.
ISBN: 978-81-321-0453-7 (HB)
The Sage Team: Elina Majumdar, Shweta Tewari, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Nand Kumar Jha and Trinankur Banerjee.
For Gouri, Sandip and Saurav with love[Page vi]
It is yet another thought-provoking book from the facile and prolific pen of an old war-horse of police reforms. Sri Sankar Sen served as Director General of Police, Director of the Indian Police Academy and Director General in the National Human Rights Commission. I had the privilege of knowing this fine human being while he was in the Human Rights Commission. My admiration for him has since grown vastly as I watch his tireless effort to bring some meaning and sense to police culture of the day.
With the marked increase of violent crimes, acts of terrorism aided by sophisticated explosive devices; ruthless and cynical contempt for the suffering of thousands of innocent men, women and children; the inadequacies of the criminal justice system and the frequent extremely liberal judicial attitudes raise some difficult issues. There is increasing tendency to achieve political objectives by resorting to violent means and to “re-draw national boundaries by blood”. Strong laws granting adequate powers to the law enforcement machinery might become necessary to protect the society. But then, the quintessential prerequisite is the assurance that such vast powers are not abused. When strong laws are sought to be brought forth, the State must pause to think about the kind and quality of men to whom such powers are entrusted. Experience has shown that law enforcement agencies have not always attained the state of ethical and moral responsibility that ought to go with the possession of wide powers. It is human experience that unbridled authority has always tended towards excess and abuse. History has provided ample illustrations of unregulated power quickly degenerating into tyranny. The attempted cure becomes worse than the disease itself.
Summing up the consequences of police misbehavior, David H. Bayley observed that
the fear of police brutality might affect calls for police-service, readiness to assist the police, levels of emotion in police contacts, avoidance of police contact, latent disrespect, repressed anger, and inclination to believe the [Page x]worst about the police. As a general reaction, faced with a non-cooperative populace, police may resort to sweeps and searches; suspects who flee rather than talk may be more likely to be considered guilty and to be treated roughly; the anger and resentment fed by perceptions of police brutality may encourage protests and collective violence, reinforcing the police belief that only force will work; and belief in the prevalence of brutality may cause people to criticize the police no matter what they do.
Sankar Sen, in his book says: “Bad application of promiscuous use of powers to limit a person's human rights by such means of arrest, house-searches, stop and search, lead to bad relationship with the entire neighborhood, thereby rendering effective policing of those neighborhoods impossible.” It is trite that the efficiency of the police rests on public confidence. It is the public that supplies intelligence and information and without public support it is only a vain policeman who thinks he can do without public faith and support.
Around 60 years ago, a foreign scholar described Indian polity as a “functioning anarchy”. In the wake of the Indian Independence and emergence of the free Republic of India into the comity of Nations, speculations in the Western press, particularly the American, were rife that the stability of the new republic was tenuous. The Universal Adult Franchise, which was described as the greatest gamble of history, was considered by the Western Press to be too idealistic. Sixty years later the Western Journalistic tone changed. It was one of reluctant admiration. Indian Democracy, they said, was robust though chaotic. India's economic progress, they said, indicated that India was the first to achieve this “not through the raw muscle of the factory, but by its brain power”. India's GDP has now crossed trillion US $ mark. The American Intelligence Council's Report “Mapping the Global Future” indicates both strengths and weakness of India's Economic potential by 2020.
All human ambitions are subject to the paramount claims of death. Extending the metaphor, we might justifiably say that our whole ambitions, both economic and political, and as a civilized nation is subject to a sound criminal justice system. Use of physical force is the monopoly of the State. If private actors successfully and brazenly get away with the use of physical force to gain their own ends, the State is diminished and the faith of the people in their Government is eroded. If a sizeable section of the people lose faith in their Government and in the justice of their society a socially negative critical-mass occurs, resulting in widespread cynicism which unleashes a power of destruction. Something nearing this has already happened. Now politicians and administrators are groping for solutions elsewhere than where solutions are to be found.[Page xi]
Reform of Criminal Justice is too serious a matter to be left alone to the judges and policemen. History has been unkind to people whose thinking is not creative and who do not manage the forces of change. We shall have to admit that the Criminal Justice System has failed. Well-equipped, trained and honest policemen and policing are really non-existent, barring a few honorable exceptions who are too few to make a difference. Judiciary has to take big share of the blame. Court delays, untrained magistracy, lack of active case-flow management, desultory court practices, non-adherence to time schedules have contributed to the collapse. We have not learnt from our experiences or from the experience of other countries. The creation of the Court of Criminal Appeals in England was itself the result of ground-swell of dissatisfaction with the Criminal Justice System. More recently, the establishment of the Criminal Justice Review Board was itself the result of some serious miscarriages of Criminal Justice such as the “Guildford Four,” “Maguire Seven” and “Birmingham Six”. These instances were described by Lord Devlin as “as the Greatest Disasters that have shaken British Justice in my time”.
To hasten the collapse and heighten its disastrous consequences is the pervasive atmosphere of corruption. The honest citizen is perplexed and helpless. What an African potentate did in recent history is indeed the crowning glory of corruption. He erected his own statue in front of High Court Building of his State and etched below it in enduring granite a distortion of a famous biblical exhortation. It read “Seek Ye the Kingdom of Politics All Else Will Be Added Unto you”. The whole world was shocked but it only served to remind them of the political realities of the times. Democracy, the way it is practiced, can lead to electoral despotism and the tyranny of the majority. Alan Bullock described what happened in Hitler's Germany. Street Gangs, he said, came into possession of the resources of a great modern state. Gutter came to power. But Hitler never ceased to boast that it was by majoritarian democratic vote. This has lessons for our own democracy.
Yet, I believe India and Indians are not without hope. Not everything is lost yet. We have lost our way but surely we will find another. Such books and men like Sankar Sen will continue to remind us of this.
24 December 2009
Policing a democratic society is a difficult job. Protection of the fundamental rights of the people and compliance with law are the twin pillars of good policing in a democratic society. The mandate of the police to use force to curb violence and disorder raises the key issue that the police themselves should not indulge in abuse or misuse of force. The exercise of police power has to be subjected to checks and balances and, in order to be credible, have to be reliable, as well as, effective in their operation and must be perceived as such by the members of the community.
Police in democratic countries have to be accountable to multiple mechanisms. Police remain accountable to independent judiciary, civilian bodies like Ombudsman, Human Rights Commissions, etc. Since the 1980s, in many Western democratic countries, civilian oversight mechanisms have come into existence, making the police accountable to civilian oversight bodies. The police, thus, lost the monopoly in deciding if the police officers were treating the civilians right. Public demand for civilian oversight has acquired an edge because of the widely held perception that police superiors tend to protect their subordinates.
Police organizations in different countries of the world have also voiced strong opposition against civilian oversight agencies on the ground that they undermine police morale. Despite anecdotal evidence, there are no hard empirical data to support the contention that civilian review produces adverse impact on police morale and job performance. The emerging trend in democratic countries in the world is in favor of stronger forms of internal review.
Working of the Review Bodies and their impact on police functioning and the view points of the complainants have been discussed in the different chapters of the book. The real challenge before the Oversight Bodies is to convince the police leaders that adherence to rules and human rights norms will help the police to enjoy greater trust and cooperation from the civilians and function more efficiently. Indeed, willing [Page xiv]compliance is to be preferred to exacted deterrence. The purpose of civilian review should be to demonstrate to the communities that the police are responsible as an institution.
In India, the police accountability is poor. The police remain beholden in to the ruling party. Recently the Supreme Court in India in a landmark judgment in the case of Prakash Singh vs. Union of India has directed the Central and state governments to set up Police Complaints Authorities. Unfortunately the response of the Central and state governments as well as the police leadership is lukewarm. The political masters want the police to remain beholden to them and not function as genuine custodians of the rights and freedoms of the people. The country needs professional and accountable police and for this a strong movement of the civil society is called for.
Bibliography[Page 184]Primary SourcesGovernment Gazettes, Research Monographs, Reports and other PapersAmnesty International Report. 1978. Report of a Mission to Northern Ireland. London: Amnesty International Publications.Amnesty International Report. 2002. “Subhuman”: Torture, Overcrowding and Brutalization in Minas Gerais Police Stations. London: Amnesty International Publications.2005. “Public Awareness of the System of Complaints against the Police in Northern Ireland,” Working Paper. Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland-Research Report 01/2005..1991. Report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department. Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles..1995. Report of the Commission on Systemic Racism in Ontario Criminal Justice System.and .Fifth Report. 2007. Second Administrative Reform Commission (ARC). Public Order. June, Government of India.“Fitzgerald” Committee of Enquiry, Queensland. 1989. Report of a Commission of Enquiry Pursuant to Orders in Council. Brisbane, Queensland.1994. Report of the Commission to Investigate Allegations of Police Corruption and the Anti-Corruption Procedures of the New York City, Police Department. New York: The City of New York..Munir Report-Report of the Court of Enquiry constituted under Punjab Act II of 1954 to enquire into Punjab Disturbances of 1953, p. 387.NYCLU Special Report. 1998. 1993–1998. Five Years of Civilian Review: A Mandate Unfulfilled. July 5, 1998.2002. Special Investigation Unit: Annual Report. Toronto: Attorney General of Ontario..Police Executive Research Forum. 1981. Police Agency Handling of Citizen Complaints: A Model Policy Statement. Washington DC, Washington.[Page 185]Report of the Pattern Commission, Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland. 1999. A new beginning: Policing in Northern Ireland-The Report of the Independent Commission on policing for Northern Ireland: http://www.belfast.org.uk/report.htm.Report of the Race Relationship and Policing Task Force. 1989.Royal Commission Report on the police. 1962. Final Report..1981. The Scarman Report: The Brixton Disorders. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Victoria, 1978. Report of the Board of Enquiry into allegations against the members of the police force.Secondary SourcesBooks and Journals1963.”Administration of Complaints by Civilians against the Police,” Harvard Law Review, 77: 499–519.and .1997. “Independent Agency isn't Policing the Police, Critics Say,” New York Times, July 13..1969. Police and Political Development in India. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.1976. “Learning about Crime-The Japanese Experience,” Public Interest Summer, 55–68.1983. “Accountability and Control of Police: Lessons for Britain,” in T.Bennett (ed.), The Future of Policing. Cambridge: Institute of Criminology. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/30541291990. Patterns of Policing: A Comparative International Analysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.1991. “Preface,” in AndrewJ.Goldsmith (ed.), Complaints against the Police-The Trend to External Review. Oxford: Clarendon Press.1995. “Getting Serious about Police Brutality,” in PhilipC.Stenning (ed.), Accountability for Criminal Justice, pp. 93–111. Toronto: Toronto University Press.2002. “Law Enforcement and the Rule of Law,” Criminology and Public Policy, 2 (November): 133–54.1976. Addenda to the Report of the Board of Enquiry into Allegations against Members of the Victoria Police Force. Melbourne: Government Printer.2005. Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland-Research Report01/Public Awareness of the System of Complaints against the Police in Northern Ireland..1968. The People and the Police. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill.2007. The Guardian Today: Or the Way Britain Really Views Northern Ireland as Demonstrated by the Paisley and Adams Meeting at Stormont. Posted by Worldby Storm in Democratic Unionist Party, Northern Ireland, Website Publication..BreretonD. (ed.). 1997. Crime, Victims Surveys in Australia (pp. 111–38). Criminal Justice Commission.BreretonD. (ed.). 1999. Annual Report, Why CJC is Impressive?Criminal Justice Commission, Queensland, PCJC Report No. 50, December 9, pp. 26–27.2000. Criminology and Criminal Justice: An International Journal, Criminal Justice Commission, Queensland, British Society of Criminology, Australia.. [Page 186]2003. “Gripes or Grievances? What the Independent Complaints Directorate Statistics tell us (or not) Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation,” SA Crime Quarterly, 4 (June): 23–27..2000. “A Duty to Answer Questions? The Police the Independent Complaint Directorate and the Right to Remain Silent,” South African Journal on Human Rights, 16 Part 1., and .1998. “Policing their own Risks: Formal Risk Management Growing in Law Enforcement,” Business Insurance, 32: 10–13.1969. Police Power. Police Abuses in New York City. New York: Vintage Books.1997. “Giuliani to Aid Police-Monitoring Agency He had Fought,” New York Times, September 17..1965a. The Philadelphia Police Accountability and Responsibility, V. Rizzo F. Supp. 1289 (1973).1965b. “The Philadelphia Police Advisory Board,” Law in Transition Quarterly, 2: 179–85.2009. “Regarding the Guards Why Police Reforms Must Lead the UPA-II agenda,” Indian Express, August 5..1998. “Laying Down the Law: The Police, the Courts and Legal Accountability,” International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 26: 419–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ijsl.1998.0075and .2002. “Police and Politics in India, Colonial Concepts, Democratic Compulsions,” Indian Police, 1947–2002: 33..2005. Police and Politics in India. Delhi: Manohar Publishers..1994. Commonsense about Police Review. Philadelphia: Temple University Press..1987. “The Investigation and Disciplining of Police Misconduct: A Comparative View-London, Paris, Chicago,” Police Studies, 10: 1–15..1999. Police Union Casts Private Eyes on SIU. Toronto Star, January 22. A1..Fifth Report. 2007. Second Administrative Reform Commission (ARC). Public Order, June, Government of India.“Fitzgerald” Committee of Enquiry. 1989. Report of a Commission of Enquiry Pursuant to Orders in Council. Brisbane, Queensland.1987. Civilian Investigation and Review of Police Misconduct-An Insight into the Working of Chicago Police Department Office of Professional Standards. Unpublished MSS.1974. “Why the ‘Haves’ Come Out ‘Ahead’: Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change,” Law and Society Review, 9: 95–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3053023Goldsmith, Andrew (ed.). 1991. Complaints against the Police: The Trend to External Review. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0731129X.1996.9992005Goldsmith, Andrew (ed.). 1996. “What's Wrong with Complaint Investigation? Dealing with Difference Differently in Complaints against the Police,” Criminal Justice Ethics, 15: 36–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0731129X.1996.9992005Goldsmith, Andrew (ed.). 1999. “Better Policing, More Human Rights: Lessons from Civilian Oversight,” in E.Mendes et al. (eds), Democratic Policing and Accountability: Global Perspectives. Aldershot and Brookfield: Ashgate.2002. City of Toronto Audit Service: Performance Audit of the Public Complaints Process. Toronto Police Service..1977. Policing a Free Society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Balinger Publishing Company.. [Page 187]2000a. “Evaluating the New Civilian Complaints Board in Israel,” in AndrewJ.Goldsmith and ColleenLewis (eds), Civilian Oversight of Policing: Governance and Democracy and Human Rights, pp. 125–46. Portland: Hart Publishing..Herzog, Sergio. 2000b. “Suspect Police Officers Investigated by Former Police Officers: Good or Bad Idea,” Law and Policy, 23: 441–67.Home Office. 2003. Policing: Building Safer Communities Together, p. 14, London: HMSO.Homel. 1997. “Managing the Transformation of Queensland Commission,” Queensland Review, p. 37.1968. “The Civilian Review Boards Issues as Illuminated by the Philadelphia Experience,” Criminological, 6: 16–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1968.tb00195.x1972. “Organizational Aspects of Internal and External Review of the Police,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Sciences, 63: 427–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/11420701989. At the Scotland Yard-Police Review, December 1..2000. “Fantino Rips Watchdog: Current SIU May Not be Efficient”, Toronto Sun, December 22.2002. “Policing Diversity: Managing Complaints against Police,” Police Journal, 75 (July): 117–35. Vathek Publishing.1985. “Who Disciplines the Police? Who Should?,” in WilliamA.Geller (ed.), Police Leadership in America: Crisis and Opportunity, pp. 34–35. New York: Praeger..2000. “Back to the Future: The Death of Civilian Review of Public Complaints against the Police in Ontario, Canada,” in AndrewJ.Goldsmith and ColleenLewis (eds), Civilian Oversight of Policing: Governance, Democracy and Human Rights, pp. 63–83. Portland: Hart Publishing.2001. Judiciary Police Accountability for Gross Human Rights Violations: The Case of Bahia. Brazil: University of Notre Dame.1998. “Police Misconduct and Malpractices: A Critical Analysis of Citizens' Complaint,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 21: 80–96..1980. “Chicago's Answer to Police Brutality: The Office of Professional Standards,” The Police Chief, January: 16–17.1986–87. “Public Complaints against Police in Metropolitan Toronto-The History and Operation of the Office of the Public Complaints Commission,” Criminal Law Quarterly, 29: 115–44.and .1999. Complaints against the Police: The Politics of Reform. Sydney: Hawkins Press..2000. “The Politics of Civilian Oversight: Serious Commitment or Lip Service,” in AndrewJ.Goldsmith and ColleenLewis (eds), Civilian Oversight of Policing: Governance, Democracy and Human Rights, pp. 19–40. Portland: Hart Publishing..1999. “Civilian Oversight of Police in Australia,” Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 141 (December).and .1981. “The Civilian Police Commission: A Deterrent of Police Misconduct,” Journal of Urban Law, 59: 5–59. University of Detroit.1914. The Government of France, Italy And Germany. Mass: Harvard University Press..1986. The Governance of Police. London: Sweet and Maxwell.2007. “Civil Rights Group Faults: How Police are Policed,” New York Times, New York.[Page 188]1999. “The Independent Complaint Directorate-An Opportunity Wasted?,” South African Journal on Human Rights, 12(6): 419–48.2005. Strengthening Democratic Policing in South Africa: Enhancing and Coordinating the Internal and External Accountability Systems of the South African Police Service, Research Report written for Centre for the Study of Violence Reconciliation, South Africa..1999. The Taming of the Blue: Regulating Police Misconduct in South Africa. Pretoria: HSRC.1991. A Study of Police Complaints Commission. London: HMSO.and .1994. Report of the Commission to Investigate Allegations of Police Corruption and the Anti-Corruption Procedures of the New York City, Police Department, New York, The City of New York..Mollen Commission Report. 1997. p. 143.1998). Themes and Debates in Public Security Reforms: Internal Controls and Disciplinary Units. Washington, DC, Washington Office on Latin America.(1986). “Beyond the Blue Curtain-The Ombudsman's Role in Investigating Complaints against the Police in New South Wales,” Australian Journal of Public Administration, 45: 230–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8500.1986.tb01535.x(NYCLU Special Report. 1998. Five Years of Civilian Review: A Mandate Unfulfilled, July 5, 1993–July 5, 1998.1968. The Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.1995. Edge of the Knife. New York: The New Press..1994. Common Sense about Police Reform. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.2002. Special Investigation Unit: Annual Report. Toronto: Attorney General of Ontario..2002. Building Public Confidence in Police through Civilian Oversight. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.and .Police Executive Research Forum. 1981. Police Agency Handling of Citizen Complaints: A Model Policy Statement, Washington DC.1997. “Giuliani Favours Internal Police Inquiries Over Review Boards,” New York Times, July 14..1985. The Politics of the Police. New York: St. Martin's Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1409827.1971. The Police and Public. Yale University Press..167. “Environment and Organization: A Perspective on the Police”. in DavidJ.Bordua (ed.), The Police. New York: John Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02804717and .1956. A New Study of Police History. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd..Report of the Race Relationship and Policing Task Force1989, Chair C. Lewis.Review of the Investigation of Complaints by the Internal Investigation Department of the Victoria Police: Report to the Minister for Police and Emergency Services, Melbourne.(unpublished).1997. Introduction to Policing in Canada. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall..1978. Scandal and Reform. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press..2002. “Corruption and the Blue Code of Silence,” Police Practice and Research, 3: 7–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15614260290011309. [Page 189]1983. Police and People in London: A Survey of Londoners. UK: Avebury Publishers. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-006-0001-8and .1961. Press Portrayal of the New York City Police Department with a content analysis of the New York Daily News and the New York Times of April 1, 1958 to October 1, 1958. New York: Bernard M. Baruch College..1991. “Civilian Oversight of the Police Complaints Process in the United States: Concerns, Developments and More Concerns,” in AndrewJ.Goldsmith (ed.), Complaints Against the Police: The Trend to External Review, pp. 291–322. Oxford: Claredon Press.1991. “The Police Complaints System in Northern Ireland,” in AndrewJ.Goldsmith (ed.), Complaints against the Police: The Trend to External Review. Oxford: Clarendon Press..1996. “Variety of Citizens review,” American Journal of Police, 15(3): 65–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07358549610129640.2001. Police Accountability: The Role of Citizen Oversight. Belmont: Wadsworth. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-373932-2.00380-X.2003. Core Principles for an Effective Police Auditor's Office. Report of the First National Police Auditors Conference Omaha. NE: University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Criminal Justice, Mimeo..1991. Civilian Review of the Police: A National Review of the 50 Largest Cities. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska.and .
About the Author[Page 198]
Sankar Sen is presently Senior Fellow at the Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi. A distinguished member of the Indian Police Service, from the Orissa cadre; he served in the Intelligence Bureau for seven years, and also as the Additional Director General, BSF, West Bengal. He was the Director of the National Police Academy, Hyderabad and the Director General (Investigation), National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). As the Director he was responsible for many innovative changes in the training programs of Indian Police Service officers. He was also deeply involved in the human rights sensitization of Indian police and personnel of para-military forces and improvement of the prison administration. He built up an excellent investigation wing of the NHRC. Sen was awarded the Police Medal for Meritorious Service in 1979 and President's Police Medal for Distinguished Service in 1986. A large number of his articles on law-enforcement, terrorism, drug trafficking, custodial justice, human rights, etc., have appeared in national dailies and well-known magazines in and outside the country. His publications include Indian Police Today (1994), Police in Democratic Societies (2000), Human Rights and Law Enforcement (2002) and Human Rights in Developing Society (2009).