Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and Tools for Self-Assessment & Accountability

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Edited by: David M. Fetterman, Shakeh J. Kaftarian & Abraham Wandersman

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Introduction and Overview

    Part II: Breadth and Scope

    Part III: Context

    Part IV: Theoretical and Philosophical Frameworks

    Part V: Workshops, Technical Assistance, and Practice

    Part VI: Conclusion

  • Dedication

    To Our Mothers

    who have nurtured and cared for us and brought us into this world to make a difference

    Elsie Fetterman

    Hasmik Khachatourian

    Hadassah Wandersman

    Copyright

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    Preface and Acknowledgments

    Empowerment evaluation served as the theme of the 1993 American Evaluation Association annual meeting as well as the basis for Fetter-man's presidential address. The topic stimulated conversations and arguments that spilled out into the hallways during the conference. Conference registration and attendance was at an all-time high and the conference chair attributed it directly to the theme. Clearly, it is a timely approach, reflecting the interests, needs, and practices of a significant number of evaluators. Empowerment evaluation has also touched a nerve among traditional evaluators, stimulating intense discussion in Evaluation Practice. This high level of intellectual and emotional engagement—both positive and negative—suggests that this approach speaks to issues at the very heart of the evaluation community. It acknowledges the significance of this new addition to the intellectual landscape—both as a contribution in its own right and as a tool in helping us refine and redefine evaluation use.

    The conceptualization and crystallization of an idea are, however, only the first steps. This collection builds on this idea, generating both knowledge about empowerment evaluation and specific tools to build capacity in this area. In addition, self-assessment and accountability are pervasive concerns in society and around the world, in government, business, foundations, nonprofits, and academe. Empowerment evaluation has provided a philosophy, theoretical framework, and methods to address systematically these concerns. This collection brings us to an important stage in the evolution of empowerment evaluation, refining theory and practice.

    This collection has been a team effort. Three editors brought their unique talents to this effort and worked diligently to make this dream a reality. Our contributors produced manuscripts of high quality under tight time lines. They responded to our critiques, incorporating our suggestions and in some cases using our comments as a catalyst for additional self-critique and improvement. In turn, they helped to shape our thinking about what empowerment evaluation is in theory and practice, often forcing us to rethink and revise our conception of the state of the art.

    We have come together from very different starting points. We come from academe, government, nonprofits, and foundations; some of us are academics, others are practitioners. Our areas of focus are as diverse as our roles and affiliations, including public education, substance abuse prevention programs, battered women's shelters, and programs for individuals with disabilities, for HIV prevention, and for adolescent pregnancy prevention. We share a commitment to evaluation as a tool to build capacity and foster self-determination and program improvement.

    We have benefited greatly from the support and critique of colleagues including Karen Kirkart, past president of the American Evaluation Association, and Daniel Stufflebeam, from the Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University. In their own way, each served to sharpen our conception of evaluation use and standards. The work of Jean Young, Allan Wicker, Wes Shera, Charles Usher, Nina Wallerstein, Rita O'Sullivan, and Arza Churchman was particularly informative and instructive, as they practice and theorize about empowerment evaluation in various settings. Many other colleagues also provided insights and assistance through their illuminating work and/or comments, including Will Shadish, Michael Scriven, Michael Patton, Eleanor Chelimsky, Ernest House, Chip Reichardt, Dianna Newman, Charles McClintock, Yvonna Lincoln and Egon Guba, John McLaughlin, Lois-ellin Datta, Bob Covert, Jim Sanders, Martha Ann Carey, and Jonathan Morell.

    The hazard in acknowledging our intellectual debt is that valued colleagues will be omitted, as an exhaustive list is not possible. Nevertheless, we want to acknowledge a few colleagues who have been laboring in these same fields for years, well before this conception of evaluation had crystallized. Jennifer Greene, Jean King, Mark Jenness, and Zoe Barley have made enormous contributions to the area of collaborative and participatory evaluation. Their work and that of colleagues who trace back to action research activity laid the groundwork for empowerment evaluation.

    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services has been at the forefront of much of this work and should be recognized for its efforts and support of empowerment evaluation and this collection. The California Institute of Integral Studies has adopted this approach as part of its accreditation self-study and in so doing has created fertile ground for experimentation and knowledge development in this area. Stanford University, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and the University of South Carolina have been focal points for training and development of empowerment evaluation knowledge and tools.

    Program participants and community coalition members from across the United States and abroad have used empowerment evaluation to improve their own lives. As is the case in the adoption of any new approach, however, there has been some risk, and the dedication of all those involved in making this approach work is greatly appreciated. The Human Sciences Research Council and the Independent Development Trust in South Africa provided generous support to disseminate this approach and build capacity throughout their country. The University of Cape Town, the University of Natal, and Cape West in South Africa as well as the Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University graciously hosted presentations and opportunities for exchanges about empowerment evaluation.

    David Fetterman would like to acknowledge the efforts of Deborah Waxman, his lifelong companion, who devoted many hours helping him refine his thinking, writing, and practice in this new field and in developing this collection. He also appreciates his entire family's support and encouragement. This personal odyssey has taken him in the United States from inner cities to Washington, D.C., and internationally from Canada to South Africa. He also appreciates their tolerance of an onerous traveling schedule, a seemingly endless series of long late-night telephone calls, and weekend workshops, training, and facilitation. Empowerment evaluation is personally rewarding, but it is also a time-consuming and often labor-intensive process. Throughout it all, their support has been invaluable.

    Shakeh Kaftarian would like to acknowledge several people who have been instrumental in crystallizing, propelling, and supporting the developmental processes of her empowerment evaluation ideas in general and this book in particular. She would like to express appreciation to Elaine Johnson, the director of the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, whose unwavering support of rigorous, adaptive, and empowering methods of evaluation has promoted evaluation and accountability in federal programs, as well as special appreciation for Mary Jensen's support of this book, which she recognized as a timely and valuable addition to the evaluation literature and a useful tool for academics, practitioners, and bureaucrats alike. Shakeh would like to thank her fellow Community Partnership evaluators across the country, who have helped sharpen her interest in empowerment evaluation. Last, but not least, she would like to thank her family for maintaining their invaluable presence in her life throughout her many empowering and consuming “journeys.”

    Abe Wandersman would like to thank his CRU colleagues at the University of South Carolina (Bob Goodman, Co-PI) and Pam Imm, Matt Chinman, Erin Morrissey, Maury Nation, David de la Cruz, Erica Adkins, Cindy Crusto, Katie Davino, Diana Seybolt, Pam Goodman, Simon Choi, and the members of the community coalitions for substance abuse prevention (project directors James Brown, Dian Crain, Kelli Kennison, Paul Pittman, Johnetta Davis, Greg Sparkman, Sheryl Taylor, and Kenneth Wright). They have inspired him to wrestle with the challenges of empowerment evaluation. The realities of the everyday challenges in the community, along with the needs and resources for planning and implementing programs and policies that work, have been a fertile ground for collaboratively developing knowledge and tools. Abe would also like to thank his family for their wonderful love and support and for constructive dialogues, all of which contribute so much to who he is.

    Each of the authors in this collection believes that the time spent developing, cultivating, and refining this approach has been an investment in our communities and in the future. We realize that building capacity takes time and is a developmental process. Similarly, the development of empowerment evaluation will continue to take time as it evolves and adapts to new environments and new populations.

    DavidFetterman, Shakeh J.Kaftarian, AbrahamWandersman
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    DAVID M. FETTERMAN is a Professor, Director of Research and Evaluation in the School for Transformative Learning at the California Institute of Integral Studies, and Director of the M.A. Policy Analysis Program at Stanford University. He was formerly a Principal Research Scientist at the American Institutes for Research and a Senior Associate and Project Director at RMC Research Corporation. He received his Ph.D. from Stanford University in educational and medical anthropology. He has conducted fieldwork in both Israel (including living on a kibbutz) and the United States (primarily in inner cities across the country). He works in the fields of educational evaluation, ethnography, and policy analysis, and focuses on programs for dropouts and gifted and talented education.

    Dr. Fetterman is a past president of the American Evaluation Association and the American Anthropological Association's Council on Anthropology and Education. He has also served as the program chair for each of these organizations and has been elected a fellow of the American Anthropological Association and the Society for Applied Anthropology. In addition, he has received numerous awards for his contribution to evaluation.

    He has consulted for a variety of federal agencies, foundations, corporations, and academic institutions, including the U.S. Department of Education, National Institute of Mental Health, Centers for Disease Control, W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Walter S. Johnson Foundation, Syntex, the Independent Development Trust in South Africa, and universities throughout the United States and Europe.

    Dr. Fetterman is the General Editor for Garland Publication's Studies in Education and Culture Series. He has contributed to a variety of encyclopedias, including the International Encyclopedia of Education and the Encyclopedia of Human Intelligence. He is also the author of Speaking the Language of Power Communication, Collaboration, and Advocacy; Ethnography: Step by Step; Qualitative Approaches to Evaluation in Education: The Silent Scientific Revolution; Excellence and Equality: A Qualitatively Different Perspective on Gifted and Talented Education; Educational Evaluation; Ethnography in Theory, Practice, and Politics; and Ethnography in Educational Evaluation.

    SHAKEH JACKIE KAFTARIAN (Ph.D.) is a health psychologist. She is currently the Deputy Director of the Office of Scientific Analysis at the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) and an adjunct Research Professor at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. During her short tenure at the federal government, she has been instrumental in the initiation of multiple-site, comprehensive, and rigorous evaluation research projects for CSAP-sponsored community-based prevention grant programs, which involve significant conceptual, methodological, and practical challenges.

    She has served on a number of national and international advisory committees for mental health promotion and substance abuse prevention. She has been a pioneer member of the USA/USSR Telemedicine Spacebridge committee, which helped NASA in the initiation of the first collaborative scientific and health promotion endeavor between the two superpowers at the end of the cold war era.

    ABRAHAM WANDERSMAN (Ph.D.) is Professor of Psychology at the University of South Carolina—Columbia. He was interim Codirector of the Institute for Families in Society at the University of South Carolina. He performs research and evaluation on citizen participation in community organizations and coalitions and on interagency collaboration. He is a coauthor of Prevention Plus III and of many books and articles. He serves or has served on a number of advisory committees for prevention including the U.S. Conference of Mayors' Advisory Committee on HIV Community Prevention Planning, Technical Assistance Committee of the National Evaluation of CSAP Community Partnerships, Technical Support Group for the CSAP evaluation of Training and Technical Assistance, the Prevention Working Group of the Center for Mental Health Services. Dr. Wandersman is affiliated with the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program of the Medical University of South Carolina.

    About the Contributors

    ALETHA AKERS is a graduate of Bryn Mawr College, where she earned a B.A. in both biology and chemistry. Recently, she spent a year in Africa studying the role of traditional medicine in African health care systems on a Thomas J. Watson Fellowship. She has also conducted international public policy research with the Harry S. Truman Foundation and research on the Superfund Act with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. She will enter the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine to pursue an M.D. and master's in public health with a focus on international health, program planning, and management. Her research interests include the applications of traditional medicine in rural health care delivery, health care financing, and public policy development in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean.

    ARLENE BOWERS ANDREWS (Ph.D., L.I.S.W.) is Associate Director of the University of South Carolina (USC) Institute for Families in Society and Associate Professor at the USC College of Social Work. A social worker and community psychologist, she is a magna cum laude graduate of Duke University and completed her graduate degrees at the University of South Carolina. She is the author of Victimization and Survivor Services and several articles and book chapters regarding family violence prevention and community systems development. She recently wrote the handbook Helping Families Survive and Thrive: Ways Citizens Can Help to Strengthen Families in Their Communities. She was the founding executive director of Sistercare: Services to Abused Women and of the Council on Child Abuse and Neglect, Inc. She has served as a consultant and volunteer with numerous developing organizations, including the Nurturing Center, the Alliance for South Carolina's Children, the Rape Crisis Network, and Human Services Associates (HSA), a therapeutic family foster care agency.

    KAREN BASS (P.A.-C.) is a full-time Clinical Instructor at the University of Southern California's Physician's Assistant Program. She is a licensed physician's assistant. She is the Executive Director of the Community Coalition for Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment serving the South Los Angeles community. She has over 20 years of experience in community activism, has received numerous awards for her work in this area, and is a member of a number of professional organizations and community groups.

    JANNETTE Y. BERKLEY (B.S.E.E.) is pursuing her Ph.D. in Developmental and Child Psychology in the Human Development and Family Life Department at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. She is a Research Associate of the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies. Her work involves evaluating and providing technical assistance and community research to community health initiatives. Her research interests include community psychology, adolescent health issues, and promotion of academic and personal success of African American adolescents.

    DIDRA L. BROWN (M.A.) is pursuing her Ph.D. in clinical psychology at the California School of Professional Psychology in Los Angeles. She has a master's in clinical psychology from California State University, Dominguez Hills, and specializes in Afrocentric applications in mental health service delivery and research. Her current research focuses on the relationship between environmental issues and alcohol consumption patterns among African Americans. Her current projects include studies of the relationship between alcohol availability and consumption patterns in urban African American communities, malt liquor beer consumption patterns among African Americans, and the concentration of tobacco and alcohol advertisements in African American communities.

    FRANCES DUNN BUTTERFOSS (Ph.D.) is Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at the Center for Pediatric Research, Eastern Virginia Medical School, and Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters. She is currently the Principal Investigator on an evaluation grant for the community-based Virginia Caring Program and coinvestigator of a CDC immunization project (CINCH) under which she coordinates and evaluates coalition development. Her publications and presentations address both research and practice issues surrounding coalition effectiveness. She is a nationally recognized consultant on the development and maintenance of coalitions for immunizations; nutrition; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse prevention; and breast and cervical cancer prevention.

    MATTHEW J. CHINMAN is currently completing his clinical internship at the Psychology Section of the Department of Psychiatry at Yale University. Previously, he was pursuing his doctorate at the University of South Carolina (USC) in the Ph.D. Clinical/Community Psychology program. While at USC, he worked for 4 years as an evaluator of a Center for Substance Abuse (CSAP)-funded prevention project in Spartanburg, South Carolina, and helped design the evaluation methodology used there. His interests include evaluation methodology, benefits and costs of voluntary participation, and adolescent empowerment.

    MARGRET A. DUGAN is the owner of Redhawk Research, a firm specializing in participatory and empowerment evaluation practices as well as prevention programming for at-risk youth. She has held senior administration positions concerned with child advocacy and family well-being for two decades. Trained as a social psychologist, she has completed research investigation on resilience and protective factors in children of adversity. Her current research deals with children in crisis and selfassessment evaluation. She publishes, speaks, and consults nationally. She was honored by former first lady Barbara Bush as an outstanding child advocate in 1991.

    STEPHEN B. FAWCETT is Professor of Human Development and Director of the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas. In his work, he uses behavioral and community research methods to help understand and improve health and social concerns of importance to communities. A former VISTA volunteer, he has worked as a community organizer in public housing and low-income neighborhoods. He holds an endowed professorship, the Kansas Health Foundation Professorship for Community Leadership. He is coauthor of nearly 100 articles and book chapters in the areas of health promotion, community development, empowerment, self-help, independent living, and public policy.

    JACQUELINE L. FISHER (M.P.H., M.S.) is Coordinator for Site Development for the School/Community Sexual Risk Reduction Replication Initiative and a Research Assistant of the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Her work involves providing technical assistance and community research to community health initiatives. Her research interests include issues in the areas of public health, adolescent health, health promotion and education, and maternal and child health.

    PAUL FLORIN received his Ph.D. in clinical/community psychology from George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in 1981. He is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Rhode Island. For the past 15 years, he has been involved as both researcher and practitioner in the areas of citizen participation and community development. He has received grants from the National Science Foundation and Ford Foundation to systematically investigate citizen participation and community development. He has provided consultation, training, and technical assistance to communities, agencies, and governmental units wishing to plan and implement community approaches to health promotion programming. He has written on citizen participation, organizational effectiveness in community development, and training and technical assistance needs of community coalitions.

    VINCENT T. FRANCISCO is a Research Associate with the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development, Institute for Life Span Studies, University of Kansas. He is primarily interested in research in community development, especially in research that enhances community integration and support and works toward empowerment of marginalized groups. He is interested in the provision of technical support for the development of coalitions as well as evaluation of community-based intervention programs focusing on reduction of risk for substance abuse, assaultive violence, cardiovascular disease, and teen parenthood. He is coauthor of several research articles in prevention of substance abuse and cardiovascular disease. He is also a coauthor of several manuals for community development in the areas of strategic planning and evaluation of prevention initiatives. He has been a consultant for a variety of organizations, including private foundations, community coalitions and advocacy organizations, and governmental agencies.

    ELLEN GOLDSTEIN is the Community Liaison for the University of California, San Francisco, Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) and AIDS Clinical Research Center (ACRC) Department of General Internal Medicine. In this capacity, she is working to make research more accessible to AIDS service providers and program planners and make community resources and expertise more accessible to researchers. At CAPS, she manages a collaboration between scientists, funders (Northern California Grantmakers), and 11 CBOs in an effort to evaluate prevention efforts and promote science/service interaction. She has recently completed data collection on a national survey of HIV prevention program managers regarding the sources and types of information accessed for program planning. Additionally, she consults with the University of California's University-wide AIDS Research Program on the development of a statewide Prevention Initiative. As a volunteer, she has facilitated groups and trained people to provide support for people with AIDS. As a consultant, she has conducted an evaluation of the James Irvine Foundation's HIV/AIDS Grantmaking program and developed AIDS Awareness seminars for the Federal Reserve Bank and the YMCA. Her primary goal is to get people talking to each other.

    CYNTHIA A. GOMEZ (Ph.D.) is a Research Specialist at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) in the Department of Epidemiology and Bio-statistics at the University of California, San Francisco. She received her master's in psychology from Harvard University and her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Boston University. Prior to coming to CAPS, she spent 12 years working in community health settings, including 5 years as director of a child and family mental health center in Boston. In addition, she consulted at schools and community agencies regarding HIV/AIDS prevention models, and facilitated long-term support groups for physicians working with HIV-/AIDS-infected persons. Currently, she works as coinvestigator on projects geared primarily toward HIV/AIDS prevention in the Latino population, including projects focused on women and inmates as well as school-based HIV prevention curricula targeting sixth graders.

    ROBERT M. GOODMAN is Associate Professor in the Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, University of South Carolina. His areas of study include organization and community development, and the evaluation of these enterprises. He is currently evaluating projects for the National Cancer Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, as well as for several state health departments. In 1992, he received the Early Career Award from the Health Education and Health Promotion section of the American Public Health Association, and in 1994, he received the Health Promotion and Education Advocacy Award jointly sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and the Association for State and Territorial Directors of Public Health Education.

    CHERYL N. GRILLS (Ph.D.), a graduate of Yale University and UCLA, is Associate Professor of Psychology and Alcohol and Drug Studies at Loyola Marymount University. She is also a Research Associate of the UCLA Drug Abuse Research Center. Her research interests and current projects include research on an African-centered model of treatment engagement with African American substance abusers, research on traditional medicine in West Africa, and community partnership evaluation research. She is a member of the Association of Black Psychologists, is a founding member of the Institute for the Study of African Centered Intervention, is a licensed clinical psychologist in California, and consults on a number of prevention and treatment issues particularly regarding matters of cultural competence, multiculturalism, and Africentric interventions.

    KARI JO HARRIS is a Research Assistant for the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas. She has a master's degree in organization development and is currently pursuing a master's degree in public health and a Ph.D. from the University of Kansas. She is the lead site evaluator on an initiative to reduce adolescent pregnancy and on a replication of a school health project to reduce elementary school-aged children's risk for chronic diseases.

    NANCY F. JACOBS (Ph.D.) is the Executive Director of the Criminal Justice Research Center at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Her most recent experiences have focused on the development of technical assistance program evaluations that are designed in concert with criminal justice agencies, community-based organizations, and private not-for-profits. Recent activities have included formative, summative, and empowerment evaluations for several community partnerships funded by the federal government's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). Her work has also included a survey of private foundation grantmaking trends in criminal justice and an evaluation of a gun control project. In addition to completing a pilot study of a school-based drug prevention program (SPECDA) for the NYCPD and the New York City Board of Education, she has completed a study for a Special Task Force, appointed by the New York City Commissioner of Correction, to examine the use of force in the city's jails.

    JOYCE KELLER received her first degree from the University of Dallas, an M.M. in piano from the St. Louis Institute of Music, an M.P.A. in accounting, and a Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Texas at Austin. She taught piano at Incarnate Word College in San Antonio and accounting at the University of Texas at Austin, where she received several teaching awards. She has evaluated numerous programs, including educational interventions in several Dallas-Fort Worth school districts, the education-job training offerings of the Texas JOBS program, and the effectiveness of the Texas probation system. Her efforts at empowerment evaluation at the Texas adult probation system and, most recently, at the Texas Department of Human Services, are described in this volume. In conjunction with the Texas Office of the State Auditor, she is currently writing a manual to further assist Texas state agencies in ongoing evaluation, including the assessment of the costs and benefits of interventions.

    HENRY M. LEVIN is the David Jacks Professor of Higher Education and Economics at Stanford University. He is also Director of the Center for Educational Research at Stanford (CERAS) and was the founding Director of the Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance (IFG). He received the Ph.D. in economics from Rutgers University in 1966. Prior to his arrival at Stanford in 1968, he was a Research Economist at the Brookings Institution. He has been a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, a Fulbright Professor at the University of Barcelona, and a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Beijing. He is a specialist in the economics of education and human resources. His work has focused specifically on cost-effectiveness, educational finance, educational and workplace productivity, and investment strategies for educationally at-risk students.

    RHONDA K. LEWIS (M.A.) is a doctoral student in the Human Development and Family Life Department and a Research Associate of the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas. She uses behavioral and community research methodologies to help contribute to understanding how communities work, and promotes health strategies to improve the health among people living in Kansas. Her research interests include self-help groups, disadvantaged populations, adolescent health issues, and the elderly.

    JEAN ANN LINNEY is Professor of Psychology and Associate Dean at the University of South Carolina. She received her doctoral degree in 1978 from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. For nearly 20 years, she has been active in research on prevention and school-based intervention, the development of community-based programs, and work with community agencies. Her current research interests are in the primary prevention of substance abuse among adolescents. She is a past President of the Society for Community Research and Action, and a Fellow of the American Psychological Association.

    CHRISTINE M. LOPEZ is a doctoral student in the Human Development and Family Life Department. She is also a Research Associate for the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas. She provides technical assistance to community initiatives that address issues of health promotion, such as reducing adolescent substance abuse. She is interested in community-based research in the areas of substance abuse, youth violence, and health promotion in rural settings.

    STEVEN E. MAYER earned his bachelor's degree from George Washington University, his master's from Ohio State, and his Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Minnesota in 1973, specializing in the question, “How does one know when an organization is working well?” His expertise includes the design of program evaluation projects and activities that result in stronger organizations and programs. He is skilled in quantitative and qualitative research methodology and in participatory strategies of evaluation. He is the Founder and Executive Director of Rainbow Research, a Minneapolisbased nonprofit organization with a mission “to assist socially concerned organizations in responding more effectively to social problems.” He has served on the faculties of the University of Minnesota and University of Georgia, and is currently adjunct faculty at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul.

    RICARDO A. MILLETT, Director of Evaluation for the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, monitors the development and implementation of evaluation strategies for foundation programming. His efforts focus on improving projects through greater communication, team building, and using evaluation as an integral part of programming. He also reviews proposals and makes site visits to existing and potential projects. Prior to joining the foundation, he served as senior vice president of planning and resource management for the United Way of Massachusetts Bay in Boston. He has been a leader in major collaboration initiatives that have brought community and corporate actors and their respective institutions together to support program activities in housing, antidrug and — violence programs, and child care. He has also published a book and several articles on the subject of citizen participation and community capacity building.

    ROGER E. MITCHELL (Ph.D.) received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Maryland and did postdoctoral work at the Social Ecology Laboratory at Stanford University Medical Center. He is currently Assistant Professor (Research) of Community Health at Brown University, and Coordinator of Prevention Research at the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies. Trained as a clinical-community psychologist, his research interests and publications have included the areas of program evaluation, development of informal helping networks, and application of stress, social support, and coping paradigms to examining psychological well-being. As a member of the Community Research and Services Team, he currently serves with colleagues as the evaluation team for three CSAP community partnership grants and one CSAP high-risk youth grant.

    DENNIS E. MITHAUG (Ph.D.) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Special Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. He has conducted and directed research and demonstration projects in special education since 1968, first at the University of Washington's Experimental Education Unit, Child Development and Mental Retardation Center; later, as Professor of Education and Director of the Center for Educational Research at the University of Colorado—Colorado Springs; and now as director of a federally funded project to develop self-determination skills in youth with disabilities. He received a B.A. in psychology from Dartmouth College and an M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology and an M. Ed, in education from the University of Washington. He is a former Dean of Education and a past President of the Council of Exceptional Children's Division for Research. He has published numerous books and articles, including two books, Self-Determined Kids: Raising Satisfied and Successful Children and Self-Regulation Theory: How Optimal Adjustment Maximizes Gain

    ADRIENNE PAINE-ANDREWS is Program Director for the Project Freedom Replication Initiative and Program Co-director for the School/ Community Sexual Risk Reduction Replication Initiative. She is also courtesy Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Development and Associate Director of the Work Group on Health Promotion & Community Development with the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas. She is primarily interested in research that promotes community development, enhances community integration and social support, and works to empower marginal groups. She is coauthor of several articles in the areas of self-help, community development, and health promotion.

    KIMBER P. RICHTER is a Research Assistant for the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas. She provides technical assistance to projects that seek to address such issues as reducing substance abuse among adolescents, increasing the use of advance directives, and reducing adolescents' risk for cardiovascular disease.

    JERRY A. SCHULTZ is Assistant Research Professor in the Work Group for Health Promotion and Community Development, which is a research, teaching, and technical assistance program of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies and the Department of Human Development, and he is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology, at the University of Kansas. He received his Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Kansas and has taught anthropology at the University of Nebraska. He is currently directing a rural health promotion initiative in Kansas and engaged in the development of an electronic technical assistance system for health promotion and community development. He has also worked extensively and published in the area of Native American education.

    JOHN F. STEVENSON received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Michigan in 1974. He is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Rhode Island, Associate Professor (Research) in the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, and a member of the Training Faculty at the Brown University Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies. He has been teaching and conducting evaluation research since 1977, when he received a National Science Foundation Faculty Fellowship to pursue this interest. His current research interests include evaluation of treatment and prevention programs for alcohol and other drug abuse.

    As a member of the Community Research and Services Team, he currently serves with colleagues as the evaluation team for three CSAP community partnership grants and one CSAP high-risk youth grant.

    ROBERT F. VALOIS (M.S., Ph.D., M.P.H.) is Associate Professor of Health Promotion & Education and Family & Preventive Medicine in the Schools of Public Health & Medicine at the University of South Carolina (USC), and also Associate Director of the Prevention Center at the USC School of Public Health. He holds a B.S. degree in health science from the State University of New York at Brockport. His M.S. degree in school health and his Ph.D. in community health/educational psychology are from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship, a U.S. Public Health Service Traineeship, and the M.P.H. degree in Health Behavior at the University of Alabama Medical Center, School of Public Health, at Birmingham. He has served as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. Public Health Service. His research is focused on adolescent health, sexuality education, tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse prevention, health promotion program planning, and evaluation.

    ELLA L. WILLIAMS is currently a doctoral student in the Department of Human Development and has been a Research Associate for the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas. She has experience in multicultural issues as they relate to community development and health promotion. She also has expertise in the area of substance abuse and drug-related violence.

    ROBERT K. YIN is President of COSMOS Corporation, a firm that provides applied research, technological support, and management assistance aimed at improving public policy, private enterprise, and collaborative ventures. Currently, at COSMOS, he is the Project Director for the Phase II National Evaluation of the Community Partnership Demonstration Grant Program. He is the author of numerous books and articles. His book on the case study method, Case Study Research: Design and Methods has had three editions (1984, 1989, 1994). He is a former member of the RAND Corporation (1970—1978) and a member of the Cosmos Club. He received his B.A. (magna cum laude) from Harvard College in 1962 (in history) and his Ph.D. in 1970 from the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


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