Emotional Well-being and Mental Health: A Guide for Counsellors & Psychotherapists
Publication Year: 2014
Well-being is an important topic for many different professions. From health professionals to politicians, a number of fields seek to research, understand and promote wellbeing. As a concept at the heart of psychotherapeutic practice, it is essential that trainee and practising therapists understand the distinctive contribution to our understanding of well-being that each of these professions have made. In this unique text, author Digby Tantam explores the philosophical, political, economical, psychological, medical and spiritual perspectives on well-being through a psychotherapeutic lens, explaining current research data and summarising findings. Theoretical approaches are balanced with an insight into their practical applications, showing therapists how each approach can inform their practice and make a real difference to the life satisfaction and health of their clients.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Mapping the territory: the philosopher’s viewpoint – living well
- Chapter 2: The health economist’s viewpoint
- Chapter 3: The psychologist’s viewpoint: How happy are you?
- Chapter 4: The health worker’s viewpoint
- Chapter 5: The politician’s viewpoint
- Chapter 6: The extravert’s viewpoint
- Chapter 7: The spiritual viewpoint
- Chapter 8: The psychotherapist’s viewpoint
- Chapter 9: No viewpoint
- Chapter 10: Applied well-being
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10–04 Samsung Hub
© Digby Tantam 2014
First published 2014
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014930350
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-3109-0 (pbk)
Editor: Kate Wharton
Assistant editor: Laura Walmsley
Production editor: Rachel Burrows
Marketing manager: Camille Richmond
Cover designer: Lisa Harper-Wells
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in India at Replika Press Pvt Ltd
About the Author[Page vi]
Digby Tantam is Emeritus Professor at the University of Sheffield, an honorary visiting senior research fellow at the University of Cambridge and a director of the Septimus Group of companies. He has been a psychiatrist in the NHS for most of his working life, and was the first Professor of Psychotherapy to be appointed to a UK University. He is married to Emmy van Deurzen, and they share the joys and occasional tribulations of their four children, and a love of the British countryside, where they live.
Foreword by Emmy van Deurzen[Page vii]
Many of us are preoccupied with the question of how to live our lives well. We know that it will involve knowing more about health, happiness and well-being but we get confused by the sheer contradictions between the contentions of authors in that field and might conclude it is best just not to think about it all too much and live from day to day.
This book tackles the age-old question of how to live in a direct and pragmatic manner. It seeks to find answers to existential questions by gathering the facts and making sense of them whilst weeding out the myths that still abound around these matters.
More books have been written about this subject than any of us could ever read. Digby Tantam’s savvy summary of contemporary knowledge in this confusing field is concise and compelling in its clarity. From one chapter to the next he will guide you through the quagmire of fact and fantasy with the sure footedness of a highly experienced explorer and pathfinder.
Reading this book may therefore save you much trouble in your search for an authoritative text on the subject of well-being. It cuts right across the many different approaches to the science of happiness and gives you access to the different perspectives and angles that have evolved over the years. It summarizes the findings of philosophers, health economists, positive psychologists, health workers, politicians, religions and psychotherapists, showing you how to compare and contrast these views and go beyond them so that you begin to get a sense of what it all means.
When Digby and I started on a decade of happiness studies at the end of the nineties, as we co-directed the Centre for the Study of Conflict and Reconciliation at the University of Sheffield, we engaged in four funded projects to develop online masters programmes in existential psychotherapy in Europe together with many academic colleagues across the European Union. It soon became obvious that Digby’s vision of existential investigation was uniquely challenging. It was always securely tethered in scientific research, careful observation and diligent reasoning and yet it was invariably given powerful wings by his unstoppable intellectual energy and commitment to philosophical enquiry and his capacity for synthetic meta-understanding.
This book, which was to be a handbook for the course, started out as a joint project, but I soon realized that I would be unable to keep up with the breadth, depth and speed of his investigation and analysis, as he filled the pages with great panache and certainty of purpose.
Much of his writing formed the basis of the online course we teach at the New School of Psychotherapy and Counselling on Health and Well Being, but for this manuscript he has augmented the original project and gone beyond it. It is a pleasure to be able to express my admiration for the excellence of his work as well as my gratitude for the [Page viii]steadiness and incisiveness of his exploration of these issues. Our collaboration has touched my own thinking greatly and he has stimulated me to conceive of existential psychology in a new and more contemporary way. Existential therapists have often had great insights into the philosophical aspects of human living, but they have often neglected to combine these insights with the lucidity of psychological, political or economic thinking. The mastery we can achieve when combining all these different methods, is displayed in this volume.
Digby weaves his canvas tightly, as he deftly pulls together strands derived from many different branches of investigation. You will find here a kaleidoscopic and erudite exploration of happiness, health and well-being, which will enlighten and enliven your thinking. If you follow these various threads and allow yourself to question your previous assumptions, you will start seeing the unfolding of a new canvas on which to redraw your own therapeutic practice as well as the way in which you are living.
References[Page 173]2012). Capitals and capabilities: linking structure and agency to reduce health inequalities. Social Science & Medicine, 74(2), 236–244. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.10.028, & (2004). Adult attachment, parent emotion, and observed parenting behavior: mediator and moderator models. Child Development, 75(1), 110–122., , & (2005). A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage. Nature, 433(7021), 68–72., , , , , & (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitudes, intentions and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 22, 453–474., & (2012). Wars and child health: evidence from the Eritrean–Ethiopian conflict. Journal of Development Economics, 99(2), 330–340. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2012.04.001, , & (2007). Character strengths in the United Kingdom: the VIA Inventory of Strengths. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(2), 341–351. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.12.004, , , , , , . . . (2010). The dark side of love and life satisfaction: associations with intimate relationships, psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(2), 228–233. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.10.016, & (1997). N. F. S. Grundtvig: an introduction to his life and work. London: Darton, Longman, and Todd.(2012). Factors in narratives to questions in the short-term life review interviews of terminally ill cancer patients and utility of the questions. Palliative & Supportive Care, 1–8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1478951511000708, , , & (2008). Experiments in ethics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2008). Extraversion and the consequences of social interaction on affect repair. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1151–1161. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.11.009, & (2010). Homeric nostalgia. The Yale Review, 98(2), 37–64. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9736.2010.00598.x(2009). Why do soldiers rape? Masculinity, violence, and sexuality in the armed forces in the Congo (DRC). International Studies Quarterly, 53(2), 495–518., & ([Page 174], & (2010). A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. BMC Research Notes, 3(1), 300.2009). The relative contributions of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health, and social relationships to life satisfaction in the United States. Quality of Life Research, 18(2), 179–189. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-008-9426-2, , & (2008). The ethics of autism: among them, but not of them. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.(2011). The mismeasure of morals: antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas. Cognition, 121(1), 154–161. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2011.05.010, & (2010). Effects of oxytocin on recollections of maternal care and closeness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1012669107, , , , , , & (2007). Nostalgia and the emotional tone and content of song lyrics. The American Journal of Psychology, 120(3), 361–381.(1998). Ego depletion: is the active self a limited resource?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1252–1265., , , & (2008). The mental wealth of nations. Nature, 455(7216), 1057–1060., , , , , , . . . (2000). The Manichaean body: in discipline and ritual. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.(2007). The default self: feeling good or being right?Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(5), 187–189. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2007.02.004(2010). Escapism and the restoration of the self: how terror management theory shakes consumption patterns. Università della Svizzera Italiana.(2000). Cost-utility analysis in depression: the McSad utility measure for depression health states. Psychiatr Serv, 51(9), 1171–1176., , , & (1876). An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(2010). Body-Mass Index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. New England Journal Of Medicine, 363(23), 2211–2219. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1000367, , , , , , . . . (1998). Neuroscience of the mind on the centennial of Freud’s ‘Project for a scientific psychology’. New York: New York Academy of Sciences., & (2010). Why human lifespan is rapidly increasing: solving ‘longevity riddle’ with ‘revealed-slow-aging’ hypothesis. Aging (Albany NY), 2(4), 177–182.(1998). Preventing fatal diseases increases healthcare costs: cause elimination life table approach [see comments]. British Medical Journal, 316(7124), 26–29., , , & (2011). Ventral medial prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles mediate context-induced relapse to heroin. Nature Neuroscience, advance online publication: http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nn.2758.html–supplementary-information, , , , , , & ([Page 175], & (2011). Deconstructing the hedonic treadmill: is happiness autoregressive?Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(3), 224–236. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2011.01.0072011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(50), 20254–20259. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1112029108, , , , , & (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory. New York: Academic Press., & (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: is happiness relative?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(8), 917–927., , & (2006). Positive illusions: positively correlated with subjective well-being, negatively correlated with a measure of personal growth. Psychological Reports, 98(2), 407–413., & (2010). Two decades of terror management theory: a meta-analysis of mortality salience research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(2), 155–195., , & (2011). Social isolation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1231(1), 17–22. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06028.x, , , & (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 180–211., & (2012). Quiet: the power of introverts in a world that can’t stop speaking. Thorndike, ME: Center Point Pub.(2012). Social comparison and subjective well-being: does the health of others matter?Bulletin of Economic Research, 64(1), 31–55.(2013). Oxytocin pathways and the evolution of human behavior. Annual Review Of Psychology. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115110(2012). Are nature lovers happy? On various indicators of well-being and connectedness with nature. Journal of Health Psychology, 17(3), 379–388. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105311416873, , & (2001). Naturally occurring variations in maternal behavior in the rat are associated with differences in estrogen-inducible central oxytocin receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(22), 12736., , , & (2009). Please may I have a bike? Better yet, may I have a hug? An examination of children’s and adolescents’ happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 541–562. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9108-3(1993). Social support, individual differences and well-being: a study of small business entrepreneurs and employees. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66(4), 285–302. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1993.tb00540.x([Page 176], , & (2010). Pride, personality, and the evolutionary foundations of human social status. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(5), 334–347. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.02.0042012). Escaping the impulse to immediate gratification: the prospect concept promotes a future-oriented mindset, prompting an inclination towards delayed gratification. British Journal of Psychology, 103(1), 129–141. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02067.x, , & (2006). The effects of social status on biological aging as measured by white-blood-cell telomere length. Aging Cell, 5(5), 361–365., , , , , , . . . (2009). Religiosity/spirituality and mortality. Psychotherapy And Psychosomatics, 78(2), 81–90., , & (2007). Hunger of the body and hunger of the mind: African American women’s perceptions of food insecurity, health and violence. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour, 39(3), 116–125. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2006.11.005, & (2012). ‘They are happier and having better lives than I am’: the impact of using Facebook on perceptions of others’ lives. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking, 15(2), 117–121. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0324, & (1986). Neurophilosophy: toward a unified science of the mind-brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1994). La Rochefoucauld and the language of unmasking in seventeenth-century France. Geneva: Droz.(2004). Social relationships and health. American Psychologist, 59(8), 676–684. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.59.8.676(2009). Happiness unpacked: positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9(3), 361–368. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015952, , , , & (2011). Harnessing the placebo effect: the need for translational research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1572), 1922–1930., & (2007). Relations between personality and coping: a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(6), 1080–1107. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1680, & (1999). The black book of communism: crimes, terror, repression. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., & (2010). Dispositional mindfulness, meditation, and conditional goal setting. Mindfulness, 1(4), 204–214. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-010-0029-y, , , & (2003). Happiness in everyday life: the uses of experience sampling. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 185–199., & (2012). Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18–64 years: analysis of national survey data. BMC Public Health, 12, 95. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-95, & ([Page 177], & (2010). Religiosity, spirituality, and death attitudes in chronically ill older adults. Research on Aging, 32(2), 224–243.2003). Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of ‘comfort food’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(20), 11696–11701. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1934666100, , , , , , . . . (2012). What mediates links between age and well-being? A test of social support and interpersonal conflict as potential interpersonal pathways. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1–13. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9363-1, , & (1980). How is weakness of the will possible?Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(Department of Health (2010a). Healthy foundations life-stage segmentation model toolkit. London: Department of Health.Department of Health (2010b). Strategic review of health and social inequalities post-2010. London: HMSO.2006). Mortality prediction with a single general self-rated health question. A meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(3), 267–275. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.00291.x, , , , & (2011). Discordance between physician and patient self-rated health and all-cause mortality. The Ochsner Journal, 11(3), 232–240. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1043/1524-5012-11.3.232, & (2004). When the social self is threatened: shame, physiology, and health. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1191–1216. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00295.x, , & (2011). Happy people live longer: subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3(1), 1–43., & (1984). The independence of positive and negative affect. J Pers Soc Psychol, 47(5), 1105-1117., & (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. J Pers Assess, 49(1), 71-75. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13, , , & (2010). Wealth and happiness across the world: material prosperity predicts life evaluation, whereas psychosocial prosperity predicts positive feeling. Journal of Personality and Socal Psychology, 99(1), 52–61. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018066, , , & (1999). Subjective well-being: three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302., , , & (1999). Smiling in school yearbook photos: gender differences from kindergarten to adulthood. Psychological Record, 49(4), 543–553., , & (2011). Measuring well-being for public policy. London: Office for National Statistics., , & (2012). Urban ecology and urban ecosystems: understanding the links to human health and well-being. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4(4), 385–392. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2012.07.005([Page 178], & (2005). Social capital and social support on the web: the case of an internet mother site. Sociology Of Health & Illness, 7, 920–943.2005). Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption. Physiology & Behavior, 86(4), 559–567. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.08.023, , & (1876). Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine ou analyse électro-physiologique de l’expression des passions. Texte: Deuxième partie (partie scientifique), Troisième partie (partie esthétique). Deuxième édition. Paris: Librairie J.-B. Bailliere et Fils.(2013). Reaction and adaptation to the birth of a child: a couple-level analysis. Developmental Psychology, 49(4), 749–761. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028335, & (2010). The happiness–income paradox revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences., , , , & (Economic and Social Data Service (2012). Guide to the 1970 British Cohort Study. Retrieved 1 November 2012, from Universities of Essex and Manchester http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/bcs70/l33229.asp1930). The world as I see it. Forum and Century, 84, 193–194.(2009). Darwin’s contributions to our understanding of emotional expressions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1535), 3449–3451.(2012). Cross-cultural generality and specificity in self-regulation: avoidance personal goals and multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan. Emotion, 12(5), 1031–1040. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027456, , , , , & (2011). The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1572), 1889–1895., , , , & (2013). Associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction in the oldest-old. Results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skane. Journal of Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 845–853. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/cia.s45382, , & (2011). Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences., , , , , , . . . (1997). The life-cycle completed (Vol. 2). New York: W W Norton., & (2011). A bad taste in the mouth. Psychological Science, 22(3), 295–299., , & (2012). Communitarianism. In (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied ethics ((2ndedn) (pp. 516–521). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.2012). Appreciation uniquely predicts life satisfaction above demographics, the Big 5 personality factors, and gratitude. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(1), 59–63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.02.019([Page 179] (1995). The development of offending and antisocial behaviour from childhood: key findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Behaviour. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 929–964.1995). Are smiles a sign of happiness? Gold medal winners at the Olympic Games. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(6), 1113–1119., & (2011). Understanding in close relationships: an interpersonal approach. European Review of Social Psychology, 22(1), 316–363. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10463283.2011.633384, & (2004). Religion and life meaning: differentiating between religious beliefs and religious community in constructing life meaning. Journal of Aging Studies, 18(2), 171–185. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2004.01.005(1967). The problem of abortion and the doctrine of the double effect in virtues and vices. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978. (Originally appeared in the Oxford Review, Number 5, 1967.)(2013). Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980–2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. British Medical Journal, 346. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f1515, , , , , , . . . (1963). Man’s search for meaning : an introduction to logotherapy. New York: Washington Square Press.(2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367–1378. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1512(1913). The interpretation of dreams. New York: Macmillan.(2013). Personality, well-being, and health. Annual Review Of Psychology. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115123, & (2011). Cognitive beliefs and future time perspectives: predictors of mortality and longevity. Journal of Aging Research, 2011, 367902. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/367902, & (2005). Life satisfaction set point: stability and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 158–164. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124, & (2010). Brain switches utilitarian behavior: does gender make the difference?PLoS ONE, 5(1), e8865. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008865, , , , , , . . . (2013). Neuroticism and extraversion in youth predict mental wellbeing and life satisfaction 40 years later. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(6), 687–697. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2013.06.005, , , , & (2006). Spirituality and coping with life stress among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(7), 829–844. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.01.003([Page 180], & (2007). Money and mental wellbeing: a longitudinal study of medium-sized lottery wins. Journal of Health Economics, 26(1), 49–60. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2006.08.0042009). The rise and fall of the biopsychosocial model. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(1), 3–4.(1991). Modernity and self-identity. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(1998). The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: an exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychological Medicine, 28(3), 585–598., & (2002). Relationship of anhedonia and anxiety to social rank, defeat and entrapment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71(1–3), 141–151. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-0327(01)00392-5, , , , & (2013). Low levels of empathic concern predict utilitarian moral judgment. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e60418. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060418, & (1963). Stigma; notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1969). On face work. In Where the action is (pp. 1–36). London: Allen Lane.(2011). Misery loves company: when sadness increases the desire for social connectedness. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(11), 1438–1448. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167211420167, , & (2007). The choice of Hercules. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.(2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication I: associations with first onset ofDSM-IV disorders. Archives Of General Psychiatry, 67(2), 113–123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.186, , , , , , & (2012). Dance and emotion in posterior parietal cortex: a low-frequency rTMS study. Brain Stimulation, 5(2), 130–136. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2012.03.013, , & (2011). Genetic and neural dissociation of individual responses to emotional expressions in human infants. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1(1), 57–66., , , , , , & (2008). Risk for mania and positive emotional responding: too much of a good thing?Emotion, 8(1), 23–33., , , & (2012). Happiness as a motivator: positive affect predicts primary control striving for career and rducational goals. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167212444906, , & (2001). Weakness of will. In & (Eds), The Encyclopedia of Ethics ((2ndedn, pp. 1789–1792). New York: Routledge.2012). Physical activity and mental well-being in student nurses. Nurse Education Today, 32(3), 325–331. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2011.07.013(2012). NHS spending should focus on mental rather than physical health to promote wellbeing. British Medical Journal, 345. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e7914(Health and Social Care Information Centre (2011). Attitudes to mental illness. London: Health and Social Care Information Centre.[Page 181] (2010). Depression and the hyperactive right-hemisphere. Neuroscience Research, 68(2), 77–87. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2010.06.0132012). Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences., , , , , & (2010). How much is social capital worth? Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1612617, & (2012). World happiness report. New York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University., , & (Eds) (2012). Odyssey’s end: lay conceptions of nostalgia reflect its original Homeric meaning. Emotion, 12(1), 102–119. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025167, , , & (2009). Inequalities, social ties and health in France. Public Health, 123(1), e29–e34.(2013). Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?Psychology & Health, 28(3), 234–249. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2012.716838, , , & (2013). Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction. Journal Of Personality. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12050, , , , & (2010). Trajectory of life satisfaction and its relationship with subjective economic status and successful aging. Social Indicators Research, 99(3), 455–468. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9593-8(2010). The influence of age-related cues on health and longevity. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 632–648., , & (The selfish goal: autonomously operating motivational structures as the proximate cause of human judgment and behavior. Behavioral and Brain Science., & (to be published).2011). How should we define health?British Medical Journal, 343. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d4163, , , , , , . . . (2012). The impact of oxytocin administration and maternal love withdrawal on event-related potential (ERP) responses to emotional faces with performance feedback. Hormones and Behavior. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.11.008, , , , , , & (2013). Flourishing across Europe: application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Social Indicators Research, 110(3), 837-861. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9966-7, & (2008). Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness. Emotion, 8(5), 720–724., , & (2012). What does it feel like to be 100? Socio-emotional aspects of well-being in the stories of 16 centenarians living in the United Kingdom. Aging & Mental Health, 16(7), 811–818. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2012.684663, , & ([Page 182], & (2009). Spiritual transformation, psychological well-being, health, and survival in people with HIV. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 39(3), 263–281.1983). Stress inoculation in health care: theory and research. In & (Eds), Stress reduction and prevention (pp. 67–100). New York: Plenum.(1992). Shattered assumptions: towards a new psychology of trauma. New York: Free Press; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.(1903). Memorial edition (Vol. 16). Washington, DC: Lipscomb and Bergh.(2010). Are health and happiness the product of wisdom? The relationship of general mental ability to educational and occupational attainment, health, and well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 454–468. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019084, , & (1923). Psychological types: or, The psychology of individuation. London: Kegan Paul.(1999). Early childhood predictors of adult anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 46(11), 1536–1541., & (2010). Methodological issues in the neuroscience of moral judgement. Mind & Language, 25(5), 561–582. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2010.01401.x, & (2006). Determinants of health economic decisions in actual practice: the role of behavioral economics. Summary of the presentation given by Professor Daniel Kahneman at the ISPOR 10th Annual International Meeting First Plenary Session, May 16, 2005, Washington, DC, USA. Value Health, 9(2), 65–67. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2006.00084.x(2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: the day reconstruction method. Science, 306(5702), 1776–1780. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1103572, , , , & (1979). Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291., & (2010). Placebos without deception: a randomized controlled trial in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. PLoS ONE, 5(12), e15591. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015591, , , , , , . . . (1996). Does religious observance promote health? mortality in secular vs religious kibbutzim in Israel. Am J Public Health, 86(3), 341–346., , , , , & (2011). Whether, how, and when social anxiety shapes positive experiences and events: a self-regulatory framework and treatment implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(5), 786–799. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.03.012, , & (2012). Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians. Aging (Albany NY), 4(5), 359–367., , , & (2007). Human capital. Paris: OECD.(2012). The road not taken: life experiences in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for major depression. Molecular Psychiatry. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.55, & (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041–1056. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006, , & ([Page 183], , & (2010). The structure of the genetic and environmental influences on mental well-being. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2379–2384. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2010.1936152005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health [report]. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 539–548.(2014). Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder. Journal of Adolescence, 37(1), 37–46. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.10.005, , , & (1988 (1844)). Kierkegaard’s writings, XI: Stages on life’s way. Princeton: Princeton University Press.(2003). What eminent people have said about the meaning of life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 43(1), 105–118., , , & (2012). The reciprocal interaction between serotonin and social behaviour. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(2), 786–798. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.12.009, , , & (2008). Studying the neurobiology of social interaction with transcranial direct current stimulation – the example of punishing unfairness. Cerebral Cortex, 18(9), 1987–1990., , , , , & (2005). The stability of life satisfaction in a 15-year follow-up of adult Finns healthy at baseline. BMC Psychiatry, 5, 4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-5-4, , , , & (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24(7), 1123–1132. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797612470827, , , , , , . . . (2013). Associations between personality traits and psychological well-being across time in middle adulthood. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(6), 748–756. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2013.07.002, , & (2012). Efficacy-mediated effects of spirituality and physical activity on quality of life: a path analysis. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10, 57. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-10-57, & (2008). The psychology of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Cognition & Emotion, 23(1), 4–41. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930802619031(2010). Feelings don’t come easy: studies on the effortful nature of feelings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(3), 520–534. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020008, , , & (2003). The contingent smile: a meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling. Psychological Bulletin, 129(2), 305–334., , & ([Page 184], , , , , & (2012). The immediate and delayed cardiovascular benefits of forgiving. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(7), 745–750. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31825fe96c2001). The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal, 322(7289), 763. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7289.763, & (2011). Happiness: lessons from a new science ((2ndedn). London: Penguin Press.2012). The causes of happiness and misery. In , & (Eds), The world happiness report (pp. 58–89). New York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University., , & (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer Pub. Co., & (2008). ‘A vengefulness of the impotent’: the pain of in-group inferiority and schadenfreude toward successful out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6), 1383–1396. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0012629, & (2012). Relationship quality and levels of depression and anxiety in a large population-based survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-012-0559-9, , , & (2008). Social connectedness, extraversion, and subjective well-being: testing a mediation model. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(5), 414–419. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.017, , & (1996). Why do bad moods increase self-defeating behavior? Emotion, risk tasking, and self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1250–1267., & (2000). Impact of stressful life events, depression, social support, coping, and cortisol on progression to AIDS. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(8), 1221–1228., , , , , , . . . (1970a). The relationship between Zen meditation and the development of accurate empathy. Dissertation Abstracts International, (11-A), 4778–4779.(1970b). Zen meditation and the development of empathy in counselors. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, (1), 39–74.(2006). Religion and happiness: consensus, contradictions, comments and concerns. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(3), 213–225. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13694670600615276, & (2009). Dynamic variation in pleasure in children predicts nonlinear change in lateral frontal brain electrical activity. Developmental Psychology, 45(2), 525–533. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014576, , , , & (2009). Empathy is associated with dynamic change in prefrontal brain electrical activity during positive emotion in children. Child Development, 80(4), 1210–1231. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01326.x, , , , , & (2011). Sources of spiritual well-being in advanced cancer. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 1(2), 149–153., , , , & ([Page 185] (2007). Long-term disability is associated with lasting changes in subjective well-being: evidence from two nationally representative longitudinal studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 717–730. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.19972003). Reexamining adaptation and the set point model of happiness: reactions to changes in marital status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 527–539. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527, , , & (2012). Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(4), 431–441. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2012.04.004, , , & (2009). Genetic and environmental factors influencing human diseases with telomere dysfunction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2(2), 114–130.(1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7(3), 186–189., & (1984). The hardy executive: health under stress. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin., & (2013). Attachment and internalizing behavior in early childhood: a meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 49(4), 672–689. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028793, , , & (2013). Relationships between level of spiritual transformation and medical outcome. Advances in Mind–Body Medicine, 27(1), 4–11., , & (2012). How daydreaming relates to life satisfaction, loneliness, and social support: the importance of gender and daydream content. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(1), 401–407. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2011.08.001, , & (1923). Xenophon in seven volumes. London: Heinemann Ltd.(2004). The status syndrome. London: Bloomsbury.(1968). Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Nostrand Co.(2007). Influence of exercise, walking, cycling, and overall nonexercise physical activity on mortality in Chinese women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(12), 1343–1350., , , , , , . . . (2011). Don’t hide your happiness! Positive emotion dissociation, social connectedness, and psychological functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 738–748. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022410, , , , , , & (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York: W. W. Norton.(2010). Behavioral activation interventions for well-being: a meta-analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(2), 105–121. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760903569154, , & (2009). Neurobiology of wisdom: a literature overview. Archives Of General Psychiatry, 66(4), 355., & (2000). Self-deception and emotion. Consciousness & Emotion, 1(1), 115–137. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/ce.1.1.07mel([Page 186], , & (2011). The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science, (6), 42. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-6-422013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of behavioral medicine: a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 81–95. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6, , , , , , . . . (2013). Interaction between oxytocin genotypes and early experience predicts quality of mothering and postpartum mood. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e61443. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061443, , , , , , . . . (1867). Utilitarianism ((3rdedn). London: Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer.1909). Autobiography. New York: P F Collier and Son.(2010). Mistreating psychology in the decades of the brain. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 716–743.(1965). Church participation and adjustment in old age. In & (Eds), Older people and their social world (pp. 113–124). Philadelphia: F A Davis., & (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 2693–2698., , , , , , . . . (2007). Moral judgments, emotions and the utilitarian brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(8), 319–321., & (2013). Valuing the EQ-5D and the SF-6D health states using subjective well-being: a secondary analysis of patient data. Social Science & Medicine, 77(0), 97–105. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.012, & (1991). Depression and anxiety in relation to social status: a prospective epidemiologic study. Archives Of General Psychiatry, 48(3), 223–229. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810270035004, , , , , & (2003). Finding meaning in a child’s violent death: a five-year prospective analysis of parents’ personal narratives and empirical data. Death Studies, 27(5), 381–404., & (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55(1), 56–67. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.55.1.56(2009). Levels of anxiety and depression as predictors of mortality: the HUNT study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(2), 118–125., , , , , & (2010). Enzymatic conversion of odorants in nasal mucus affects olfactory glomerular activation patterns and odor perception. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(48), 16391–16398. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.2527-10.2010, & (2007). Telomeric DNA length in cerebral gray and white matter is associated with longevity in individuals aged 70 years or older. Experimental Gerontology, 42(10), 944–950. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2007.05.003, , , , , , . . . ([Page 187] (1994). Affective empathy training with senior citizens using Zazen (zen) meditation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 55(5-A), 1193.2006). The long-term evolution of quality of life for disease-free breast cancer survivors: a comparative study in Belgium. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 24(3), 89–123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v24n03_05, & (2011). P01-557 – Effect of the worldwide crises on mental health. European Psychiatry, 26, Supplement 1, 561. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0924-9338(11)72268-4, , & (2012). Subjective well-being amongst community-dwelling elders: what determines satisfaction with life? Findings from the Dublin Healthy Aging Study. International psychogeriatrics/IPA, 24(2), 316–323. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610211001360, , , , , , . . . (2003). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms associated with longevity in a Finnish population. Human Genetics, 112(1), 29–33. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-002-0843-y, , , , , & (1882/2001). The gay science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1973). Behaviour as seen by the actor and as seen by the observer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 154–164., , , & (1974). Anarchy, state, and utopia. New York: Basic Books.(2010). Dissonances in self-reported health and mortality across denominational groups in Northern Ireland. Social Science & Medicine, 71(5), 1011–1017. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.05.042, & (2012). The structure of psychological life satisfaction: insights from farmers and a general community sample in Australia. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 976. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-976, , & (2011). Finding the key to happy aging: a day reconstruction study of happiness. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(6), 665–674. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbr040, , & (2010). Sex differences in the level and rate of change of physical function and grip strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study. Journal of Aging and Health, 22(5), 589–610., , , , & (2011). Priceless: the nonpecuniary benefits of schooling. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(1), 159–184., & (1996). One-session group treatment of spider phobia. Behaviour Research And Therapy, 34(9), 707–715.(1958). Selected writings. New York: Dover.(2002). Why Susie sells seashells by the seashore: implicit egotism and major life decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(4), 469–487., , & (1999). The Emperor’s new mind ((Paperbacked). Oxford: Oxford University Press.2012). Change in defense mechanisms during long-term dynamic psychotherapy and five-year outcome. The American Journal of Psychiatry. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11091403, & ([Page 188], & (2004). Character strengths and virtues: a handbook and classification. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association; Oxford: Oxford University Press.1907). Psycho-physical investigations with the galvanometer and pneumograph in normal and insane individuals. Brain, 30(2), 153–218., & (2003). Social capital for health: investigating the links between social capital and health using the British Household Panel Survey. NHS Health Development Agency., & (2012). Volunteering and subjective well-being in midlife and older adults: the role of supportive social networks. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67(2), 249–260. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbr154, , & (2001). Correlates of subjective health in older adults: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 16(3), 414–426. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-79184.108.40.2064(2011). Pharmacogenetics: past, present and future. Drug Discovery Today, 16(19–20), 852–861. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2011.08.006(2013). Is the emotion–health connection a ‘first-world problem’?Psychological Science, 24(4), 544–549. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797612457382, , & (2012). SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function. Cell Metabolism, 15(5), 675–690., , , , , , . . . (2002). Links in the chain of adversity following job loss: how financial strain and loss of personal control lead to depression, impaired functioning, and poor health. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(4), 302–312., , & (2012). Wellness as fairness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 49(1–2), 1–21. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-011-9448-8(2013). The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(2), 194–202. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031877, & (2000). Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. New York; London: Simon & Schuster.(2012). Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort. AGE, 34(3), 563–570. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-011-9256-y, , , , , & (2011). Electrophysiological correlates of perceiving and evaluating static and dynamic facial emotional expressions. Brain Research, 1376(0), 66–75. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.041, , & (2008). The impact of depressive symptoms and chronic diseases on active life expectancy in older Americans. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(5), 425–432. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31816ff32e, , & (2012). The containment of Dionysos: religion and politics in the Bacchanalia Affair of 186 BCE. International Political Anthropology, 5(2), 113–133.([Page 189], , , , , & (2009). Meta-analysis of the placebo response in antidepressant trials. Journal of Affective Disorders, 118(1–3), 1–8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.01.0292012). The adaptive threat bias in anxiety: amygdala‚ dorsomedial prefrontal cortex coupling and aversive amplification. Neuroimage, 60(1), 523–529. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.096, , , , & (2012). Bobby Kennedy on GDP: ‘measures everything except that which is worthwhile’. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2012/may/24/robert-kennedy-gdp(2012). Exploring links between shyness, romantic relationship quality, and well-being. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 45(4), 287–295. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029853, & (1999). Housing familiar male wildtype rats together reduces the long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 24(3), 285–300., , , , , , . . . (2012). Association between psychological distress and mortality: individual participant pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies. British Medical Journal, 345. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e4933, , , , , & (1968 (1930)). The conquest of happiness. New York: Bantam.(2004). Positive health: connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1383–1394., , & (2009). The concept of mind ((60th anniversaryedn). Abingdon: Routledge.1971). Sketch for a theory of the emotions. London: Methuen and Co.(2010). Amygdala integrates emotional expression and gaze direction in response to dynamic facial expressions. Neuroimage, 50(4), 1658–1665. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.01.049, , , & (1996). The effect of stress inoculation training on anxiety and performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(2), 170–186., , , & (2008). Distinct patterns of food offering and co-feeding in rooks. Animal Behaviour, 76(5), 1701–1707. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.07.023, , & (1994). Ressentiment ((newedn). Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.2004). Personality and life satisfaction: A Facet-Level Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(8), 1062-1075. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167204264292, , , & (2012). Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: relations to couples’ interactive reciprocity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(8), 1277–1285. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.12.021, , , & (2012). Facial expressions in response to a highly surprising event exceeding the field of vision: a test of Darwin’s theory of surprise. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(6), 657–664. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.04.003, & (2011). Policy: time to legislate for the good life. Nature, 477(7366), 532–533. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/477532a([Page 190], , & (2013). Prospective associations between unforgiveness and physical health and positive mediating mechanisms in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Psychology & Health. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2013.8564342010). Whatever does not kill us: cumulative lifetime adversity, vulnerability, and resilience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021344, , & (2009). Ability to delay gratification at age 4 years and risk of overweight at age 11 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(4), 303., , , , , , . . . (2011). Surveying transitional experience and subjective well-being: income, work, family. Economic Systems, 35(2), 139–157.(2012). Measuring national well-being: life in the UK, 2012. London: Office for National Statistics., , & (1975). Helplessness. On depression, development, and death. New York: W H Freeman and co.(2005). Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. The American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410, , , & (2003). Authentic happiness: using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for deep fulfillment. London: Nicholas Brealey.(2011). Flourish: a new understanding of happiness and well-being – and how to achieve them. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.(2005). From affliction to affirmation: narrative transformation and the therapeutics of Candomble mediumship. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42(2), 272–294.(1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. 1936. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230–231.(2011). Are positive psychology exercises helpful for people with depressive personality styles?The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(4), 260–272. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.577089, & (2008). Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on subjective well-being. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 52(2), 123–131., , & (2012). Variation in neural development as a result of exposure to institutionalization early in childhood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(32), 12927–12932., , , , & (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129(1), e232–246. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2663, & (2010). The structure of virtue: an empirical investigation of the dimensionality of the virtues in action inventory of strengths. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 714–719. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.007, , , & (2006). Treatment options in moderate and severe depression: decision analysis supporting a clinical guideline. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 189(6), 494–501., , , & ([Page 191], , , , , , & (1997). Terror management and cognitive-experiential self-theory: evidence that terror management occurs in the experiential system. Journal Personality and Social Psychology, 72(5), 1132–1146.2012). Self-defining memories, scripts, and the life story: narrative identity in personality and psychotherapy. Journal of Personality. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12005, , , & (2005). Ethics and intuition. Journal of Ethics, 9, 331–352.(2011). Genomics of human longevity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1561), 35–42., , , , , , . . . (2012). Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits. Hormones and Behavior, 61(3), 320–330. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.11.010, & (1976). Psychotherapeutic effects of transcendental meditation with controls for expectation of relief and daily sitting. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 44, 630–637.(1910). Short treatise on God, man and his well-being. [S.l.]. London: Adam and Charles Black.& (2011). Socio-economic position predicts grip strength and its decline between 79 and 87 years: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. Age and Ageing, 40(6), 749–752. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afr070, & (2008). Being good by doing good: daily eudaimonic activity and well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(1), 22–42., , & (2012). Distinctive biological correlates of positive psychological well-being in older men and women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(5), 501–508. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31824f82c8, , , & (2011). Positive affect measured using ecological momentary assessment and survival in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(45), 18244–18248. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1110892108, & (1999). The treatment of the long-term sequelae of child abuse. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry And Allied Disciplines, 40(1), 89–111.(2009). Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Retrieved from http://www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/en/index.htm, , & (2011). Facing death, gazing inward: end-of-life and the transformation of clinical subjectivity in Thailand. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 35(2), 113–133. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11013-011-9210-6(2011). Be yourself, believe in yourself, and be happy: self-efficacy as a mediator between personality factors and subjective well-being. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52(1), 43–48. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2010.00826.x, , & (2013). Partner-oriented self-regulation among bereaved parents: the costs of holding in grief for the partner’s sake. Psychological Science, 24(4), 395–402., , , , , & (2012). Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(4), 384–392. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.21719, , , , , & ([Page 192], , , , , , & (2011). Blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e21485. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.00214852010). Human rights and human well-being. New York: Oxford University Press.(1993). The developmental psychopathology of emotional disorders. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 86(6), 336–340.(2003). The flavour of emotions. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 76(Pt 1), 23–45.(2009). Can the world afford autistic spectrum disorder? Nonverbal communication, asperger syndrome and the interbrain. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.(1999). One reason for you, and one for me. The case for new evidential criteria for psychotherapy being needed and what those might be. In (Ed.), Evidence in the Balance. London: Routledge.(2008). Representation, corruption, and subjective well-being. Comparative Political Studies, 41(12), 1607–1630.(2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 615–623., , , , , & (2012). The long-term impact of war on health and wellbeing in Northern Vietnam: some glimpses from a recent survey. Social Science & Medicine, 74(12), 1995–2004. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.01.040, & (2008). Personality predictors of longevity: activity, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(6), 621–627. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817b9371, , , , & (2006). Personal agency in the stress process. Journal of Health Social Behaviour, 47(4), 309–323.(2009). Habituation: a history. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92(2), 127–134. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2008.07.011(2011). Health and gross national happiness: review of current status in Bhutan. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 4, 293–298. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S21095, , , & (2009). Emotions in motion: dynamic compared to static facial expressions of disgust and happiness reveal more widespread emotion-specific activations. Brain Research, 1284(0), 100–115. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.05.075, , & (2011). Subjective perception of health in elderly inpatients. International Journal of Psychology. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2011.626046, , , , , , & (2011). Chicken soup really is good for the soul. Psychological Science, 22(6), 747–753., & (2011). Emergence of a gene-by-socioeconomic status interaction on infant mental ability between 10 Months and 2 Years. Psychological Science, 22(1), 125–133. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797610392926, , , , & (2011). Happy aged people are all alike, while every unhappy aged person is unhappy in its own way. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e23377. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023377, , , , , , & ([Page 193] (2010). The future of finance: the LSE report. London: London School of Economics & Political Science.2012). Pathways of disadvantage: explaining the relationship between maternal depression and children’s problem behaviors. Social Science Research, 41(6), 1546–1564. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.06.003(1974). Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124–1131., & (2012). Gross national happiness and the GNH index. In , & (Eds), World happiness report. New York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University., , & (2009). Psychotherapy and the quest for happiness. London: SAGE.(2011). Daily suppression of discrete emotions during the work of police service workers and criminal investigation officers. Anxiety, stress, and coping, 24(5), 515–537. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2011.560665, , , & (2013). Impact of contour on aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions in architecture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences., , , , , , . . . (2003). Quality of life philosophy I. Quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life. The Scientific World Journal, 3, 1164–1175. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2003.102, , & (2006). What influence do major events in life have on our later quality of life? A retrospective study on life events and associated emotions. Medical Science Monitor, 12(2), SR9–15., , , & (2012). The relationship between extraversion, neuroticism and aspects of trait affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(6), 664–669. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.12.017, & (1953). Theory of games and economic behavior (, & (3rdedn). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.2012). Autistic traits are associated with diminished neural response to affective touch. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nss009, , & (1966). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2013). Sex and the pursuit of happiness: how other people’s sex lives are related to our sense of well-being. Social Indicators Research, 1–21. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0267-1(2013). Self-regulatory depletion enhances neural responses to rewards and impairs top-down control. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2262–2271. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797613492985, , , , & (1984). Sexual satisfaction among middle-aged couples: correlation with frequency of intercourse and health status. Maturitas, 6(3), 285–296. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-5122(84)90045-8, , & (2012). Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene is associated with pair-bonding and social behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 71(5), 419–426. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.09.002, , , , , , . . . ([Page 194], , , , , , . . . (2012). Age-specific and sex-specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet, 380(9859), 2071–2094.2014) Can well-being be measured using Facebook status updates? Validation of Facebook’s gross national happiness index. Social Indicators Research, 1–9. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-9996-9, , , & (2013). Relationships among higher-order strengths factors, subjective well-being, and general self-efficacy – the case of Israeli adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(3), 322–327. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.03.006, , , , & (2012). Associations between positive and negative affect and 12-month physical disorders in a national sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19(2), 197–210. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10880-011-9277-9(2012). Oxytocin administration to parent enhances infant physiological and behavioral readiness for social engagement. Biological Psychiatry. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.011, , & (2011). Happy orang-utans live longer lives. Biology Letters, 7(6), 872–874. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2011.0543, , & (1973). The experience of emotional and social isolation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2013). Predictors and characteristics of successful aging among men: a 48-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 76(4), 323–345.(2012). Intimate relationships and psychopathology. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15(1), 4–13. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-011-0107-2, & (1991). Phonoemotional profiling: a description of the emotional flavour of English texts on the basis of the phonemes employed in them. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2000(Oct.), 617–648.(2012). Relationship satisfaction and depressive symptoms in emerging adults: cross-sectional associations and moderating effects of relationship characteristics. Journal of Family Psychology: JFP: Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association, 26(2), 226–235. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027267, & (WHO ( 2006). Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948. New York: International Health Conference. Reproduced in WHO (2006). Basic Documents (45thedn). Geneva: World Health Organization.2013). Life satisfaction and feeling in control: indicators of successful aging predict mortality in old age. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(9), 1199–1208., , & (2011). Psychological weaknesses. In Ninja Hacking (pp. 151–165). Boston, MA: Syngress., & (2010). The spirit level: why equality is better for everyone (, & (Newedn). London: Penguin.[Page 195], , , & (2009). The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load. The Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 28 Suppl, 500S–516S.2010). Commentary: mindfulness and psychological process. Emotion, 10, 1–7.(2012). The dynamic role of personality states in mediating the relationship between extraversion and positive affect. The Journal of Personality, 80(5), 1205–1236. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00756.x, , , & (1986). Regular activities as indicators of subjective health status. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 9(1), 47–52., & (1958). Philosophical investigations (2nd Vol.). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(2012). Do existential variables mediate between religious-spiritual facets of functionality and psychological wellbeing. Journal of Religion and Health. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-012-9597-6, & (2010). Sexual activities, sexual and life satisfaction, and successful aging in women. J Sex Med, 7(7), 2401–2410. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01747.x, , , & (2007). Stress, coping, and well-being among the Yup’ik of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta: the role of enculturation and acculturation. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 66(1), 51–61., , , & (2010). Positive clinical psychology: a new vision and strategy for integrated research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 819–829. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.003, & (2008). Gratitude uniquely predicts satisfaction with life: incremental validity above the domains and facets of the five factor model. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(1), 49–54. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.02.019, , & (2012). Integrative approaches utilizing oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: from animal and human social behavior to autistic social dysfunction. The Journal of Neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 32(41), 14109–14117. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3327-12.2012, , , , , , & (2012). Would introverts be better off if they acted more like extraverts? Exploring emotional and cognitive consequences of counterdispositional behavior. Emotion, 12(2), 290–303. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025169, , & (2012). Big Five personality traits, job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in China. International Journal of Psychology: Journal international de psychologie. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2012.732700, , , , & (1997). Major depression and all-cause mortality among white adults in the United States. Annals of Epidemiology, 7(3), 213–218., , , , , & (2013). Identifying gender-specific developmental trajectories of nonviolent and violent delinquency from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 371–381. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.007, & (