Effective Strategies for Teaching in K-8 Classrooms

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Kenneth D. Moore & Jacqueline Hansen

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    Preface

    Effective Strategies for Teaching in K-8 Classrooms is designed to prepare future elementary and middle school teachers to meet the challenges of today's complex, ever-changing classrooms. Becoming an effective teacher requires extensive knowledge and skills, as well as hard work, commitment, an inquiring mind, and the ability to learn from experiences. Although this quest for instructional excellence is rigorous, the satisfaction of helping future students realize their potential is well worth the effort. This book will provide aspiring teachers with the pedagogical content knowledge and skills they will need to become exemplary educators.

    Throughout this textbook we provide detailed descriptions of effective instructional methods coupled with planning and instructional theory. This approach causes prospective teachers to analyze their ability to translate what they have learned into effective instructional practices in their future classrooms. In short, it is our hope that future elementary and middle school teachers will value this book as a guide to sound educational practices. This text is intended for use in undergraduate general elementary and/or middle school methods courses, but it could be a useful reference for in-service teachers and a variety of courses.

    Instructional Theory into Practice

    We have all experienced teachers who earned high grades in college methods courses but weren't able to translate that theory into effective teaching in the real classroom. Therefore, we have integrated a “theory into practice” theme throughout this text. We explore ways to apply research-based practices and learning theories to improve classroom instruction. Whenever possible, we provide specific examples and master teacher's perspectives and experiences.

    No one can deny the profound, lifelong impact that effective teachers can have on their students. To make that impact positive, teachers must have both a deep understanding of the powerful principles of effective teaching and a clear sense of how these principles can be applied to the classroom. Effective teachers constantly reflect upon their practices and make instructional decisions based on a clear conception of how students learn best. They know that quality teaching is neither a bag of tricks nor a set of abstract principles; rather, it is an intelligent application of research-based teaching principles to address the reality of the classroom. This text will provide the theoretical knowledge and help you develop the practical skills needed to do the most important job you will ever do—teach.

    Organization of the Text

    Part I: Setting the Stage for Successful Learning provides an orientation to teaching. In Chapter 1, we explore what you need to know to become an effective K-8 teacher. You will learn about the art and science of teaching, effective teaching skills, constructivism, expectations and standards, accountability, and teacher licensure. Chapter 2 deals with how to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. We discuss team teaching and considerations for teaching children with special needs and children who are gifted and talented. We introduce you to several models of classroom management in Chapter 3. The importance of classroom management cannot be overemphasized. Indeed, a classroom must be well managed if learning is to take place.

    Part II: Sequencing and Organizing Instruction focuses upon the importance of careful instructional planning. Chapter 4 deals with the school curriculum and determining instructional intent. We present and discuss a comprehensive model of teaching and teach you how to set instructional goals, write objectives, and use the backward design approach to identify instructional intent. Chapter 5 focuses on developing course, unit, weekly, and daily lesson plans. We illustrate several practical lesson plan formats. Chapter 6 addresses student evaluation and assessment of student learning. You will learn about types and systems of evaluation, information sources, grading systems, and assigning grades.

    Part III: Designing Instruction to Maximize Student Learning relates to selecting instructional strategies. Chapters 7, 8, 9, and 10 focus on using the direct, authentic, and integrated teaching methods for instructional delivery. This part also includes a pertinent chapter on skills instruction, which stresses the importance of critical thinking and the development of creative thinking as part of the school curriculum.

    Features of the Text

    We have included several special features in Effective Strategies for Teaching in K-8 Classrooms to help you apply what you are learning. Each chapter begins with an overview and objectives. Scattered throughout each chapter are innovative focal points. The following sections also appear in each chapter: Reflections on Teacher Practice (two in each chapter), Reflect and Apply (two to three in each chapter), A Reflective Case Study, Through the Eyes of an Expert (except in Chapters 4 and 5), Summary, Discussion Questions and Activities, Tech Connection, Licensing Preparation/Praxis Connection, Portfolio Connection, and Connection With the Field. All these sections provide materials that address your present and future professional needs.

    We have created a student website (http://www.sagepub.com/mooreteachingk8) with various enrichment materials plus video clips of excellent teachers and interviews—each tied to a course topic within a chapter and highlighted by a special icon—to help you understand, analyze, and apply chapter concepts. In addition, two appendices provide information on microteaching and reflective teaching and on state licensure/certification and reciprocity

    Before We Begin

    To help you make a personal or academic connection with what you are about to read, each chapter starts with a Before We Begin prompt. This will provide you with a cognitive framework for the chapter's information.

    Overview

    The overview gives an annotated outline of the chapter's major concepts and organization. It represents a quick reference to the chapter content.

    Objectives

    Because all instructional activities should be tied to an instructional intent, we provide objectives at the outset of each chapter. These will give you an idea of what you are expected to be able to know and do as the result of reading the chapter and completing the chapter activities.

    Reflections on Teacher Practice

    A real-world feature of each chapter gives you the opportunity to hear directly from teachers in the field about topics to be explored. These reflections show the major principles in the chapter in action. Each reflection is an experience taken from a real-life situation. The reflection describes how principles were applied in classroom settings and the results of each application. They represent brief words of wisdom, strategies, and philosophy from teachers in our elementary and middle schools.

    Application Activity

    This feature, appearing in most chapters, encourages you to pause and ponder the issues being presented throughout the chapter. These application features reinforce the content, examine contentious topics, and challenge you to explore how your own ideas and beliefs inform your teaching practice.

    Reflective Case Study

    This feature is designed to encourage you to learn more about the teaching profession by analyzing classroom scenarios and applying what you have learned through your assigned readings. These cases will help you think more deeply about issues and problems encountered in the classroom environment.

    Reflect and Apply Exercise

    These exercises present the most important ideas of the chapter for review and study. Each exercise uses a series of thought-provoking reflection questions embedded directly in the text material and application questions to help you develop deeper insights into the issues and concepts being discussed.

    Summary

    At the end of each chapter, we summarize the chapter's main points. The information is presented in bulleted form under each major chapter heading to make it easier to access the information.

    Discussion Questions and Activities

    The discussion questions and activities that follow each chapter provide critical and creative thinking activities that allow you to ponder and process issues brought up in the chapter. This gives you a chance to take what you have learned in the chapter and apply it to real-world teaching issues or problems in the classroom.

    Tech Connection

    This feature gives you the opportunity to further explore ways to use technology to enhance student learning and to manage your future classroom.

    Connection with the Field

    To help you learn how effective teachers apply theory to practice, this section has suggestions for field experiences, classroom observations, interviews with teachers and administrators, and interactions within the schools. We provide questions so you can gain additional insights into the classroom.

    Ancillaries
    Instructor's Teaching Site

    A password-protected instructor's manual is available at http://www.sagepub.com/mooreteachingk8 to help instructors plan and teach their courses. These resources have been designed to help instructors make the classes as practical and interesting as possible for students.

    • A test bank in Word offers a diverse set of test questions and answers for each chapter of the book. Multiple-choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for every chapter will aid instructors in assessing students' progress and understanding.
    • Carefully selected, web-based video links feature relevant content for use in either independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
    • Chapter-specific PowerPoint slide presentations offer assistance with lecture and review preparation by highlighting essential content, features, and artwork from the book.
    • Sample syllabi—for semester, quarter, and online classes—provide suggested models for creating the syllabus for your course.
    • Activities and assignments are lively and stimulating ideas for use both in and out of class reinforce active learning. The activities apply to either individual or group projects.
    Student Study Site

    An open-access student study site can be found at http://www.sagepub.com/mooreteachingk8. These resources can also be used by the instructor to supplement instruction. For each chapter, the site offers the following:

    • Video links feature relevant content for use in either independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
    • E-flashcards are a study tool that reinforces student understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
    • Flexible self-quizzes allow students to independently assess their progress in learning course material.
    • Web exercises and activities direct students to useful and current web resources, along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning.

    Acknowledgments

    We are, indeed, grateful to hundreds of students and teachers who provided critical feedback and served as invaluable sources in the preparation of this text. Moreover, we would like to thank the many educators who helped identify the major ideas presented in this textbook. Special gratitude also goes to the school districts that opened their doors to us and offered their support.

    We would like to thank those who reviewed the text for this edition. Instructors who reviewed this edition include

    • Elizabeth Sandall, Minnesota State University
    • Barbara Williams, Longwood University
    • Frank Brathwaite, D'Youville College
    • Yolanda Dunston, North Carolina Central University
    • Betty Crocker, University of North Texas
    • Danne Davis, Montclair State University

    Many professional colleagues contributed to this textbook. We are especially indebted to Dr. Sally Beisser at Drake University, who developed three of the lesson plan formats presented in Chapter 5. We also thank Veronica Russell, Martin Luther King Jr. Elementary School; Karen McCuiston, Kentucky Center for School Safety; Jennifer Dunnaway, Calloway County Middle School; Meagan Musselman, Murray State University; Keri Dowdy, Sedalia Elementary School; Carol A. Withrow, McNabb Elementary School; and Dr. Joy Navan, Murray State University for sharing their viewpoints in the Through the Eyes of an Expert features. We thank the administrators, teachers, and students of the Murray and Calloway County school districts and the Murray State University teacher candidates who volunteered to cooperatively create video clips for online resources. The textbook is much stronger due to the innovative ideas and expert efforts of these talented colleagues.

    We would also like to thank the staff at SAGE who helped bring this textbook to life. Diane McDaniel, who got the project started and kept it on track, deserves special thanks. Her leadership will always be remembered and appreciated. Special thanks also go to associate editor Leah Mori, who provided much technical and research assistance. Finally, we would like to thank our spouses, Susan and Allen, for their endless patience, support, and loving encouragement.

    Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium Correlation Chart

    This chart has been designed to indicate how the chapter text relates to sections of the Praxis II: Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) Tests and Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) standards. The left-hand column of the chart lists the INTASC knowledge standards. The center column contains the topics assessed in the PLT Tests. The right-hand column contains the chapters that correspond to the INTASC standards and the PLT Tests.

    National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education Correlation Chart

    This chart has been designed to indicate how the chapter text relates to the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) standards. The left-hand column of the chart lists the NCATE standards. The right-hand column of the chart contains the chapters that correspond to the NCATE standards.

  • Appendix A: Laboratory Experiences: Microteaching and Reflective Teaching

    The primary purpose of teacher education is to prepare aspiring teachers for the classroom. Because teaching is such a highly complex profession, however, becoming a skillful teacher takes plentiful practice. Future teachers cannot learn to teach just through classroom lectures and assignments. They need an opportunity to apply teaching principles and processes through application-type activities. In general, there are two ways such practice can be provided: (1) laboratory and (2) field-based experiences.

    Laboratory experiences usually take place on campuses whereas field-based experiences generally take place in public or private school classrooms. Of course, field-based experiences provide the most realistic experiences and thus are more desirable. But because public or private school classrooms are not readily available to most methods classes for practice purposes, application-type experiences are most commonly achieved through laboratory practice. Laboratory experiences come in two forms: (1) microteaching and (2) reflective teaching.

    Essentially, microteaching and reflective teaching differ only in the complexity of the experience. Whereas microteaching is concerned with the practice of a limited number of skills or behaviors, reflective teaching deals with the total teaching act.

    Microteaching

    Microteaching is an abbreviated laboratory experience that closely simulates what occurs in public or private classrooms. The teacher trainee teaches four to six students (peers) for 5 to 10 minutes. The main focus of microteaching is to provide a venue for practicing targeted teaching skills and behaviors.

    Microteaching is often an integral component of methods classes in teacher preparatory programs whereby the various skills and behaviors addressed are practiced and demonstrated. This technique allows preservice teachers to home in on a particular aspect of teaching by placing it “under a microscope” for close examination. Each session focuses on a specific skill or behavior until a satisfactory level of mastery is demonstrated. Demonstration lessons usually are recorded and critiqued by the teacher trainee and the instructor

    Microteaching simplifies the task of teaching by subdividing multifaceted teaching acts into simpler, less complex components. Because the teacher trainee is teaching a shorter, less complex lesson, he or she can better manage the lesson and focus it on a few major skills in the planning process. In addition, microteaching provides an opportunity for self-analysis and allows for constructive feedback from both the students being taught and an instructor. Recording the microteaching lesson offers a further advantage because the recording can be replayed as many times as necessary, and the viewer can focus on different aspects of a lesson with each viewing.

    Microteaching does not just involve getting up in front of a small group and teaching. The experience must be carefully planned. First, the teacher trainee carefully selects teaching skills or behaviors that can be practiced in the short time span. Targeted skills and strategies might include effective questioning techniques, the appropriate application of reinforcement, the effective use of stimulus variation, the implementation of a specific teaching method (discussion, teacher presentation, inquiry, discovery, exposition with interaction, etc.), or some combination of these skills or behaviors.

    Second, the teacher trainee chooses an appropriate topic that matches the targeted skill as well as the available instructional time. Not every topic is automatically appropriate for being taught by any method. For example, time constraints dictate that the topic be somewhat narrow—a single concept or subconcept that can be taught in a 5- to 10-minute time span. Therefore, the topic concept must be analyzed carefully in relation to the proposed method, procedure, and allotted time.

    Third, the teacher trainee narrows the topic to a single concept or subconcept. Once the concept or subconcept has been determined, the trainee specifies one or more objectives.

    The Microteaching Preparation Form in this appendix can be used by the teacher trainee in developing a 10-minute-long lesson.

    Finally, the teacher trainee and instructor evaluate the microteaching experience using a form such as the Microteaching Evaluation Form and Microteaching Self-Analysis Form. Some colleges of education might design their own evaluation instruments. The teacher trainee and instructor watch the recording of the microteaching lesson while rating the trainee's performance with respect to established performance criteria. They reflect upon and analyze the session to identify specific teaching skills that need additional practice.

    Reflective Teaching

    In response to a desire to provide quality on-campus laboratory and clinical teaching practice, Cruickshank (1987) developed the concept of reflective teaching. Essentially, reflective teaching is an expanded form of microteaching. Prospective teachers plan, teach, execute, and evaluate a full-length lesson. They focus upon how much their students (peers) learned as well as how satisfied the students were with the instruction. In effect, the potential teacher is called on to analyze and reflect on the teaching act itself.

    Specifically, as conceived by Cruickshank (1987), reflective teaching has the following components and characteristics:

    • The total class is divided into groups of four to six students.
    • One student from each group is selected (designated) to teach the group.
    • Designated teachers teach toward identical instructional objectives, using their own choice of teaching methods.
    • Designated teachers teach at the same time, either in nearby classrooms or in different parts of the same classroom, and are required to finish within the same period of time (usually 15 to 20 minutes).
    • Designated teachers focus on two things: (1) learner achievement and (2) learner satisfaction.
    • Learners (peers) are asked to be themselves and not to play the role of school-age students.
    • There must be a measurable product (evaluation) resulting from the teaching experience, so that teaching and learning can be determined.
    • A learner satisfaction form is completed by the learners following the administration of the evaluation.
    • After the reflective teaching sessions, the entire class reflects upon and discusses the different teaching acts that took place.
    • The next teacher is selected (designated), and the cycle repeats.

    The goal of this process is to improve teaching skills through reflection on what was taught and how well it was taught. Each learner's achievement evaluation and lesson satisfaction is analyzed to elicit information relative to the effectiveness of the designated teacher. Reflection on this information is very instructive to the total class because the students can compare the different methodological approaches and become aware that the effectiveness of the approach depends on the objective(s) and the teacher.

    Because practice of the total teaching act is the ultimate goal of reflective teaching, students should be responsible for the development and presentation of a complete lesson. Thus, when planning for a reflective teaching session, the instructor should provide the instructional objective and, in most cases, a common evaluative instrument. The designated teachers, however, should plan a total lesson using a form similar to the Reflective Teaching Lesson Plan Format in this appendix.

    Immediate, objective feedback to the designated teachers is a major component in reflective teaching. To maintain objectivity, the evaluation instrument and peer comments focuses upon specific teaching skills, not personal characteristics. The instructor and peers complete an evaluation instrument such as the Reflective Teaching Evaluation Form. Moreover the designated teachers can watch a recording of their teaching efforts while completing a self-assessment using the same Reflective Teaching Evaluation Form. Instructor's and peers' feedback can be used in addressing the areas that the learners found inappropriate in a lesson presentation.

    Finally, grades are an important ingredient in any teacher preparatory program. Thus, the Reflective Teaching Evaluation Form should be based on the program criteria for effective teaching. As such, the instructor's, learner's, and designated teacher's self-evaluation of a teaching session can provide input for grades.

    Microteaching Preparation Form

    Microteacher:_________________________________Date:____________________________

    Course Title:____________________________________________________________________

    Use this form for preparation of your lesson. Prepare a copy for your instructor

    • Concept to teach:__________________________

    • Targeted teaching skill(s) or behavior(s):__________________________

    • Specific instructional objective(s):__________________________

    • Set induction:__________________________

    • Instructional procedures:__________________________

    • Closure:__________________________

    • Audiovisual materials and equipment needed:__________________________

    • Notes and comments:__________________________

    Microteaching Evaluation Form

    Microteacher:_______________________________________Date:_______________________________

    Subject:_________________________________________________________________________________

    Rate the teacher trainee on each skill area using this rating scale: (5) skill mastery; (1) much skill refinement needed.

    COMMENTS:

    Microteaching Self-Analysis Form

    Microteacher:_______________________________________Date:_______________________________

    Concept taught:__________________________

    Rate your teaching efforts on each skill area using this rating scale: (5) skill mastery to (1) much skill refinement needed.

    Watch the recording of your microteaching session as often as needed to collect data for the following items. Analyze the collected data and draw conclusions with respect to the behavior addressed in each item. Tally the number of times you…

    asked convergent questions
    asked divergent questions
    used students' names
    used wait time
    provided verbal reinforcement
    provided nonverbal reinforcement
    switched students' sensory channels

    TEACHER TALK VERSUS STUDENT TALK. As you view your recording, place a tally on the chart to represent who was talking approximately every 3 seconds. If no one was talking or if many people were talking simultaneously, then place a tally in the silence or confusion category. When you have finished, count the number of tallies in each category as well as the total number of tallies in the categories teacher talk and student talk combined. Use the following formulas to determine the percentage of teacher talk and student talk:

    • Percentage of teacher talk = (Tallies in teacher talk category/Total tallies in teacher talk + student talk categories) × 100
    • Percentage of student talk = (Tallies in student talk category/Total tallies in teacher talk + student talk categories) + 100
    Type of TalkTally Marks% of Time
    Teacher talk
    Student talk
    Confusion

    Which filler words or sounds did you use (“okay,” “you know,” or “uh”)? How many times did you use each word or sound?

    Filler Word or SoundTally Marks
    Reflective Teaching Lesson Plan Format

    Teacher:____________________________________________Date:________________________________

    Course title:______________________________________________________________________________

    Topic:___________________________________________________________________________________

    Instructional objective(s):__________________________________________________________________

    Set induction:____________________________________________________________________________

    Instructional procedures

    Closure:_________________________________________________________________________________

    Evaluation procedure:_____________________________________________________________________

    Instructional materials:____________________________________________________________________

    Notes and comments:_____________________________________________________________________

    Reflective Teaching Evaluation Form

    Teacher:____________________________________Date:__________________________

    Subject:__________________________________________________________________

    Rate the trainee teaching efforts on each skill area using this rating scale: (5) skill mastery to (1) much skill refinement needed. Please write additional comments and suggestions on the back.

    Appendix B: State Licensure/Certification and Reciprocity

    Students and teachers often need information related to licensure/certification as they prepare for a teaching career or as they relocate after obtaining certification in a state. Licensure/certification regulations vary a great deal among states. Some states offer relatively few licenses; others offer many. Most states require applicants to pass examinations such as the Praxis II or a state-developed exam before applicants can be granted a regular license. Although some states will grant a temporary license to an applicant licensed in another state, the applicant often has to fulfill additional requirements, such as a specific test or additional courses, to obtain a regular license.

    Many changes can be anticipated in teacher licensure practices in the next few years. Indeed, most states are experimenting with and implementing alternative means of authorizing people to teach. Many mid-career professionals are showing interest in pursuing second careers in education. These older applicants have a college education and life experiences that make them attractive as teachers. Requirements for alternative routes to teacher licensure vary greatly. Some alternative certification programs prepare excellent teachers, whereas graduates from other programs leave the profession after a short stay. Here are resources to help you find state teacher certification addresses, telephone numbers, and websites, as well as general information on state reciprocity.

    State Teacher Certification Addresses

    Many states continually revise and pass new legislation relative to teacher licensure and certification. State departments also continuously update and revise their websites. Therefore, instead of providing often outdated state department information in this appendix, we are providing websites with the latest addresses, telephone numbers, state teacher certification requirements, and links to state departments of education. This information is provided at the following sites:

    These sites should provide the information students and teachers need as they consider relocating or as they move from state to state and seek licensure/certification information.

    Reciprocity

    Due to the growing teacher shortage, some state policy makers are mandating that their state accept out-of-state licenses without additional subsequent requirements. In these reciprocity agreements, one state recognizes the validity of another state's teacher certification program and grants equivalent certification to teachers who have moved from a cooperating state. The nature of the reciprocity agreements vary according to the state partnerships. Not all states have reciprocity. Some states mandate that their state accept certificates issued by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) instead.

    Many states have signed reciprocity agreements, which allow individuals certified in one state to be certified in others. However, certain requirements such as state or national examinations or state history are not waived. Candidates are usually given provisional certification, which is good for 1 year. They must meet all state requirements during the provisional year before a standard certificate is issued. Reciprocity does not always guarantee that a license will transfer directly from state to state but generally guarantees individuals will be awarded the closest comparable areas.

    Glossary

    Absolute grading system: Student grades given relative to performance against an established criterion—for example, 90% to 100%, A; 80% to 89%, B; 70% to 79%, C; and 60% to 69%, D.

    Active learning: Learning by doing with students engaged in reading, writing, discussing, and problem solving.

    Advance organizer: An introductory statement at the outset of instruction that provides a cognitive framework for new information that is to be presented.

    Affective domain: Learning domain in Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, 1956) concerned with values, attitudes, feelings, and emotions.

    Analysis: An examination of students' work for possible errors during or following instruction.

    Assertive discipline: A classroom management approach developed by Lee and Marlene Canter that states teachers have a right to teach and students have a right to learn.

    Assessment: Process of collecting a full range of information about students for the purpose of making educational decisions.

    Assistive technology (AT): Special tools designed to assist individuals who have special needs.

    Attitudes: Mind-sets toward a person, place, or thing.

    Authentic: Learning that is related to students' experiences and to the real world.

    Authentic assessment: An assessment procedure that has students demonstrate their ability to perform a particular task in a real-life situation.

    Authentic methods: Student-centered instruction with a wide range of participatory activities.

    Behavior modification: Shaping behavior by altering the consequences, outcomes, or rewards that follow the behavior.

    Beyond discipline: Classroom management approach that replaces the traditional, teacher-centered approach to classroom discipline with a democratic classroom community that recognizes the needs and interest of both teachers and students.

    Block scheduling: An instructional delivery pattern that divides schooltime into instructional blocks ranging from 20 to 110 minutes.

    Brainstorming: Instructional technique in which small groups of students generate ideas, solutions, or comments related to a specified topic. All initial answers are accepted, no matter how wrong they may seem to the teacher or other students.

    Broad questions: Questions that require students to defend or explain their response.

    Buzz group: Instructional technique in which a small work group shares opinions or reactions for a short period of time.

    Checklists: Assessment instruments used to judge whether or not specified criteria or characteristics are evidenced by a performance or product.

    Classroom management: Process of organizing and conducting classroom business to keep it relatively free of behavior problems.

    Closure: Activity that summarizes and reviews the lesson's main concepts and brings it to a logical conclusion.

    Cognitive domain: Learning domain, in Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, 1956), that focuses on information, thinking, and reasoning ability.

    Cognitive set: Mental framework that promotes positive transfer of new learning.

    Cognitive style: The means by which individuals process and think about what they learn.

    Competitive evaluation: Evaluation that compares each student's score with peer's scores.

    Computer-based instruction (CBI): Individualized approach that uses computers to present instructional information, ask questions, and interact with students.

    Concept attainment: Strategy designed to teach concepts through the presentation of examples and nonexamples.

    Constructivism: See constructivist approach.

    Constructivist approach: Approach to learning that actively involves students in constructing their own knowledge and understanding.

    Convergent questions: Questions that allow for only a few correct responses.

    Cooperative learning: Instructional technique in which students of mixed abilities work together as a team on an assigned task. Interdependence and support for all members of the group is stressed.

    Creative thinking: Process of assembling information to develop a whole new understanding of a concept or idea. Four stages generally associated with creative thought are (1) preparation, (2) incubation, (3) illumination, and (4) verification.

    Creativity: Capacity for producing imaginative, original products, or ways of solving problems.

    Critical thinking: Analyzing complex situations critically, using standards of objectivity and consistency, and arriving at tentative conclusions.

    Cumulative records: Paper or electronic files containing information about students' academic history, test scores, vital statistics, and extracurricular activities.

    Curriculum: Systematic plan of instruction for a school system. The learning, intended and unintended, that takes place under the sponsorship of the school.

    Curriculum mapping: Long-term planning that identifies overarching instructional goals, state-mandated outcomes, methods of assessment, and instructional resources the teacher plans to use to attain the desired results.

    Daily lesson plans: Detailed outlines used to structure and sequence instructional activities for a single day.

    Decision making: Thinking that asks students to choose the best response from several options.

    Deductive thinking: Thinking that asks students to consider given generalizations and provide supporting data.

    Demonstration: Instructional method in which the teacher or some other designated individual stands before a class, shows something, and tells or leads a discussion about what is happening or has happened.

    Desist approach: Method of classroom management that gives the teacher full responsibility for regulating the classroom.

    Differentiated instruction: A teaching theory based on the premise that instructional content, process, and product should be adapted to meet the needs of all learners.

    Direct teaching: A structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, high academic expectations, effective use of class time, and minimal behavioral disruptions.

    Discipline: Systematically teaching students to assume responsibility for their behavioral choices.

    Discovery learning: Instructional method that focuses on intentional learning through supervised problem solving according to the scientific method. Students are encouraged to learn concepts and principles through their own exploration.

    Discussion: Small-group or whole-group activity during which students exchange and share ideas about an assigned topic.

    Dispositions: The values, commitments, and professional ethics that influence a teacher's behaviors toward students, families, colleagues, and communities and affect student learning, motivation, and development, as well as the educator's own professional growth.

    Divergent questions: Questions that allow for many right responses.

    Drill: Fixation of specific associations for automatic recall.

    Educational games: See simulations.

    Empirical questions: Questions that require students to integrate or analyze remembered or given information and supply a single, correct predictable answer.

    English as a second language (ESL): English language training for students whose first language is not English. Training is designed to help participants learn English reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills.

    English language learners (ELL): Learners who are beginning to learn English as a new language or have already gained some proficiency in English.

    Evaluate: Process of obtaining available information about students and using it to ascertain the degree of change in students' performance.

    Evaluative questions: Questions that require students to make a judgment or to place a value on something.

    Exposition teaching: Teaching method in which some authority—teacher, textbook, film, or microcomputer—presents information without overt interaction taking place between the authority and the students.

    Exposition with interaction teaching: Authority-presented instruction followed by questioning that determines whether information has been comprehended.

    Factual questions: Questions that require the recall of information through the mental processes of recognition and rote memory.

    Focusing questions: Questions used to direct students' attention to a lesson or to the content of a lesson.

    Formal curriculum: Intentional learning experiences at school.

    Formative assessment: Use of evaluation information to assess and provide feedback on students' progress during the learning process.

    Gallery walk: Students walk around the room, reviewing and reflecting upon one another's posted work.

    Gifted and talented (G/T) students: Learners with exceptional general intellect, specific academic ability, creative productive thinking, leadership ability, or visual and performing arts talents.

    Goals: Broad statements of instructional intent that describe the general purpose of instruction.

    Graphic organizers: Pictorial or graphical ways to organize written or oral information.

    Halting time: Teachers pause their talking to give students time to think about presented information or directions.

    Heuristic approach: Active, reflective teaching methods that involve students in problem solving and comprise modes of discovery, inquiry, simulations, and games.

    Inclusion: Practice of including students, regardless of their disabilities, in regular classroom instructional activities.

    Independent study: Instructional method in which students are involved in activities carried out with little or no guidance.

    Individualized instruction: Instructional method in which instruction is tailored to the interests, needs, and abilities of individual students.

    Inductive thinking: Thinking that asks students to make generalizations based on knowledge of specific examples and details.

    Informational objectives: Abbreviated instructional objectives that only specify the performance and product.

    Infusion approach: Method of teaching thinking skills in which the desired skill is used in conjunction with and incorporated into the regular curriculum.

    Inner discipline: Student's ability to exhibit self-control and to make responsible decisions.

    Inquiry: Instructional method that focuses on the flexible yet systematic process of problem solving.

    Inquiry demonstration: Instructional method in which students are asked to observe in silence.

    Inspection method: Grading system in which the teacher creates a frequency distribution of raw scores and assigns grades according to a natural break in the distribution.

    Instructional approach: Method of classroom management based on the premise that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems.

    Instructional objectives: Narrow statements of learning intent. Includes four components: (1) performance, (2) product, (3) conditions, and (4) criterion.

    Instructional strategy: The global plan for teaching a particular lesson. It includes the selected methodology as well as the sequence of instructional activities.

    Instructional units: A series of interrelated lessons focused upon common goals.

    Integrated directed teaching: Direct instruction combined with self-directed learning.

    Learning styles: The sets of cognitive, affective, and physiological behaviors through which an individual learns most effectively. They are determined by a combination of hereditary and environmental influences.

    Lesson procedure: Sequence of steps designed to lead students to the acquisition of the desired learning.

    Limited English proficiency (LEP): A designation for students with limited ability to understand, read, speak, or write English and whose first or primary language isn't English.

    Mainstreaming: Placing students with special needs in general education classrooms full-time or part-time.

    Mastery learning: Diagnostic-corrective-enrichment instructional model in which students work on objectives until mastery is achieved. Based on the assumption that every student is capable of achieving most of the course objectives if given sufficient time and appropriate experiences.

    Mastery learning system: See mastery learning.

    Measurement: Assignment of numerical values to objects, events, performances, or products to indicate the degree to which they possess the characteristics being measured.

    Mental Operation system: Four-category question model composed of factual, empirical, productive, and evaluative questions.

    Metacognition: Cognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing.”

    Metacognitive: See metacognition.

    Methodology: Carefully planned behaviors teachers use to influence learning.

    Microteaching: Technique of practicing teaching skills and processes in scaled-down and simulated situations.

    Minimum competency tests: Exit tests designed to ascertain whether students have achieved basic levels of performance in basic skill areas—such as reading, writing, and computation—before they can graduate or continue to the next level.

    Montessori method: A method of teaching, developed by Maria Montessori, based on a prescribed set of materials and physical exercises to develop students' knowledge and skills.

    Multiple intelligences: Howard Gardner's theory that individuals possess many forms of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.

    Narrow questions: Questions that solicit factual recall or one right answer.

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act: Legislation designed to ensure all public schools provide all students with highly qualified teachers and quality educational experiences and also increased academic accountability and federal support for education.

    Noncompetitive evaluation: Evaluation that compares students' progress toward meeting established criteria. students' scores are not compared with other students' scores.

    Norm group: A representative cross section of the intended testing population for a standardized test.

    Normal curve: Bell-shaped distribution that reflects the natural distribution of all sorts of things in nature.

    Objectives: Anticipated results or products of instruction. Unambiguous statements of instructional intent.

    Percentage grading system: Teacher records the percentage of correct responses for each assignment then averages the scores to determine a final grade.

    Performance assessment: Assessment in which students perform a task to demonstrate what they have learned.

    Point grading system: Teacher allocates points for student assignments and assigns grades according to an established grade range.

    Portfolios: Systematic, organized collections of evidence (e.g., projects, written work, and video demonstrations of skills) that document growth and development and that represent progress made toward reaching specified goals and objectives.

    Practice: Repeating of specified tasks or skills for the purpose of improvement.

    Preassessment: Activities used to ascertain students' prior knowledge about a topic before instruction takes place.

    Probing questions: Questions that follow a student response and require the student to think and respond more thoroughly than in the initial response.

    Problem solving: Instructional technique that focuses on the intentional elimination of uncertainty or doubt through direct, supervised experiences.

    Procedure(s): Sequence of steps designed to lead students to the acquisition of the desired learning.

    Productive questions: Broad, open-ended questions with many correct responses that require students to use their imaginations, think creatively, and produce something unique.

    Prompting questions: Questions that include the use of hints to aid students in answering or in correcting an initial response.

    Psychomotor domain: Learning domain concerned with muscular abilities and skills on a continuum ranging from the simple to the complex.

    Public Law 94–142 (PL 94–142): Federal law requiring provision of special education services to eligible students.

    Questionnaires: Lists of written statements regarding attitudes, feelings, and opinions to which the student responds.

    Rating scales: Assessment instruments listing specific criteria. Evaluators use a scale to indicate the degree to which these criteria are met.

    Reality therapy: William Glasser's theory of therapy in which individuals are helped to become responsible and able to satisfy their needs in the real world.

    Redirecting: Asking different individuals to respond to a question in light of, or to add new insight to, previous responses.

    Reflective teaching: Teacher as an informed and thoughtful decision maker, who analyzes past experiences in planning and teaching and in promoting thinking about the nature of teaching and learning.

    Reinforcement: Theory that says the consequences of an action strengthen or weaken the likelihood of the behavior or event.

    Relative grading system: students' grades given relative to performance of other students. Grading on the curve.

    Rhetorical questions: Questions asked, with no expected response, to emphasize a point or to capture students' attention.

    Ripple effect: Spread of behaviors from one individual to others through imitation.

    Role-playing: Instructional technique designed to let students assume the role(s) of individuals in a re-creation of an event or situation.

    Rubrics: Scoring guides with specific criteria that establish uniform student evaluation.

    Scaffold: Teachers assist students' acquisition of new concepts through modeling, discussion, and structured lessons.

    Schema theory: A theory that learners have internal, cognitive frameworks into which they fit new knowledge, concepts, and experiences.

    Self-discipline approach: Method of classroom management built on the premise that students can be trusted to evaluate and change their actions so their behaviors are beneficial and appropriate to the self and to the class as a whole.

    Self-fulfilling prophecy: Phenomenon in which believing that something will happen causes it to occur.

    Separate approach: View suggested by Rueven Feuerstein that students need special, focused instruction on thinking skills.

    Set induction: Something a teacher does at the outset of a lesson to get students' undivided attention, arouse their interest, and establish a conceptual framework.

    Simulations: Instructional techniques in which students are involved in models of artificial situations and/or events designed to provide no-risk experiences for students. Also referred to as educational games.

    Socratic method: Questioning-and-interaction sequence used to draw information from students.

    Standardized tests: Commercially developed tests that samples students' achievement or behavior under uniform conditions with uniform procedures.

    Stimulus variation: Actions, behaviors, or behavior patterns designed to gain and maintain student attention during a lesson.

    Student work samples: Collection of students' work over a period of time that offers credible evidence of student learning and teacher effectiveness.

    Suchman inquiry: Inquiry approach developed by Richard Suchman whereby students are presented and asked to explain discrepant events.

    Summative assessment: Evaluation completed after instruction to determine the extent of student learning.

    Task group: Instructional technique in which a group of four to eight students is formed to solve a problem or complete a project.

    Teacher effectiveness training (TET): Self-discipline approach to classroom management conceived by Thomas Gordon that stresses establishment of positive working relationships between teachers and students. Focuses upon who owns the problem when it arises—teacher or student.

    Teacher presentation: Teacher tells and explains with little or no overt interaction with students.

    Teacher testing: Requirement, usually legislatively mandated, that teachers pass a test prior to certification.

    Teacher-made tests: Evaluative instruments developed and scored by a teacher for classroom assessment.

    Teacher-student planning: Participatory process that directly involves students in instructional planning.

    Teaching: Actions of someone who is trying to assist others to reach their fullest potential in all aspects of development.

    Technology learning centers: Centers or stations designed to develop student technology skills and/or technology concepts.

    Test: Task or series of tasks used to obtain systematic observations regarding ability, skill, knowledge, or performance.

    Thematic units: Units of instruction that are organized for interdisciplinary/cross-curricular teaching over a block of time.

    Thinking: Withholding judgment to use past knowledge and experience in finding new information, concepts, or conclusions.

    Transfer: students' ability to apply what they have learned in one area to novel learning situations inside and outside of the classroom.

    Unit planning: Planning that links goals and objectives, content, activities, resources and materials, and evaluation for a particular unit of study for a course.

    Virtual field trips: Guided exploration through the web to local or distance locations.

    Wait time: Time needed for students to consider their responses to questions. Wait time 1 is the initial time a teacher waits following a question before calling for the response. Wait time 2 is the total time a teacher waits for all students to respond to the same question or for students to react to each other's responses to a question.

    Weekly plan: Condensed version of a week's daily lesson plans, written on a short form provided by the school.

    Weighted grading system: Assignments are given a letter grade, and all grades are weighted in determining the final grade.

    Zone of proximal development (ZPD): A concept attributed to Lev Vygotsky that represents the area between a learner's actual developmental level and his or her level of potential development with outside assistance.

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    About the Authors

    Kenneth D. Moore grew up in Wichita, Kansas, where he attended Wichita North High School and later taught in the Texas public schools. He received his EdD degree in curriculum and instruction from the University of Houston. Dr. Moore has been involved in teacher education for more than 35 years at both the public school and higher education levels. During his tenure in higher education, he served as dean of teacher education for 12 years and worked closely with school administrators, classroom teachers, student teachers, and teacher education candidates. He has traveled extensively, serving as accreditation consultant and conducting workshops. Dr. Moore has authored three books, numerous journal publications, and an ERIC monograph, and he has presented many papers at regional and national conventions. He has also served as director of the Southwest Regional Association of Teachers of Science, president of the Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators, president of the Oklahoma Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, and president of the Arkansas Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. He is a past member of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) Board of Examiners (BOE). The texts he has authored include Classroom Teaching Skills (6th ed.), Effective Instructional Strategies: From Theory to Practice (2nd ed.), Clinical Supervision: A Practical Guide to Student Teacher Supervision (coauthored), and Middle and Secondary Instructional Methods. Currently, Dr. Moore is semiretired and lives with his wife, Susan, in Vian, Oklahoma, where he pursues his favorite projects, serves as an educational consultant, and continues to write.

    Jacqueline Hansen was born in the Rocky Mountains and raised in the suburbs of Denver, Colorado, where she graduated from Arvada West High School. She earned a BA in Elementary Education from Doane College in Crete, Nebraska, before moving to Grand Island, Nebraska, where she taught elementary school for 23 years. While she was teaching full time, she earned two masters degrees in education and education administration from the University of Nebraska at Kearney. She went on to earn an EdD degree in education administration, curriculum and instruction from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Now, as a teacher educator at Murray State University, Dr. Hansen strives to teach current and future teachers to love teaching as much as she does. Dr. Hansen has presented at the national and international levels and has authored numerous journal articles and a book chapter. She is past president of the Kentucky Association of Teacher Educators and is a member of Phi Delta Kappa and the International Reading Association. Dr. Hansen is the elementary program coordinator for the College of Education and serves on multiple committees, including vice chair of the Academic Council. As the education writer for the Stamp Services Group of the U.S. Postal Service, she helps to develop education kits correlating with special stamp issuances. Dr. Hansen lives with her beloved husband, Allen, and their four-legged fur people, Tipper, Dixie, and Cat Ballou, in Murray, Kentucky. In their free time, they enjoy exploring the Kentucky countryside on their Harley-Davidson motorcycle and in their Corvette.


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