Effective Social Work with Children, Young People and Families: Putting Systems Theory into Practice


Steven Walker

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Practice Implications of Theoretical and Philosophical Foundations

    Part II: Dilemmas and Challenges in Applying Systems Theory in Practice

    Part III: Creating the Difference that Makes a Difference

  • The Natural Home

    SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.

    Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com


    View Copyright Page


    To Anna and Evie


    I first met Eileen Munro when I did postgraduate study in social work and social policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science nearly thirty years ago. This followed voluntary work with the Family Welfare Association in Hackney, East London. Eileen was among a group of inspiring, dedicated and knowledgeable people with expertise and skills in every aspect of social work. Today Professor Munro is one of the country's leading child protection experts and rightly was selected to review child protection for the coalition government that came to power in 2010.

    Others who have had an impact on me subsequently include: every client I have worked with; every student I have learned from; and every colleague I have worked with or been motivated by as a practitioner or academic. The following people especially require my gratitude: Joy Nield, Hugh Jenkins, Rose Rachman, Shula Ramon, Bob Holman, Lena Dominelli, Peter Leonard, Steve Herington, Jane Dutton, Annie Turner, Barry Mason, Damian McCann, Andrew Maynard, Maire Maisch, Ann Jackson-Fowler and Judy Hicks. There are many others I could mention and while space does not permit their inclusion here their absence does not imply a lesser importance to me: they will know who they are. I am also indebted to Sage and Sarah Gibson for their confidence and support and the practical help offered by Katie Forsythe and the copyeditor and proofreader. Any omissions in terms of copyright or acknowledgement are regretted and will be rectified upon notification.

    The strength and love I derive from Isobel and Rose ensure they are my bedrock and secure base, as well as the source of much support and inspiration. There is a symmetry about my beginnings in social work in Hackney more than three decades ago and the contemporary inner city borough as the crucible for the ideas and practices informing the Munro Report and its current impact on social work practice. The circle feels complete. Hindus and Buddhists have a word for this, Karma, which refers to actions/deeds that cause a cycle of cause and effect, or in Tibetan parlance, this means a continuous pursuit or flow of life. The cover image for this book is a Mandala, which is the Sanskrit word for a circle, and a variety of images can be found to symbolise this. The Celtic circle is also a variation on the theme of an unending circular link which is highly symbolic of systems theory.

    About the Author

    Steven Walker has worked in social work for thirty years, starting as a volunteer with the Family Welfare Association in Hackney, East London. His work has included all aspects of social work with children, young people and families: adoption and fostering; family support; child protection and safeguarding; residential child care; youth justice; therapeutic work; domestic violence and forced marriage. He is a senior social work academic, consultant and expert witness, with eight published books, and has recently conducted research into the mental health effects on young people suffering from cyber-bullying.


    It is reported that Nelson Mandela once said ‘There can be no keener revelation of a society's soul than the way in which it treats its children’ (Bakan, 2011). Bakan understands the importance of keeping children in mind in this thoughtful and compassionate text which echoes key themes throughout the following pages. The changing context of children and young people's services involving the planned structural, organisational and funding changes heralded in the Munro Report, together with an austere economic environment, highlights the need for every social work practitioner to develop the capacity to undertake unified assessments and interventions in a wide variety of settings – with individuals, families and groups–where there are child protection/safeguarding concerns. Central to this prospect are a reduction in long-criticised bureaucratic procedures, the notorious Integrated Children's System, and the release of social workers to allow them to spend more time with families using a systems theory framework. However, it is noteworthy that the present government has not ring-fenced any extra funding or produced an outcomes timetable or any definitive measure of how the Munro proposals are to be measured and evaluated. This book has not been written as a dry theoretical text: it uses systems theory lightly to inform relatively simple practice changes that can make a difference to the safety and well-being of children and young people.

    The different ways children's services will develop will increase the requirement for staff to understand their particular role and responsibilities and how to enhance working together with others within new organisational systems. Such activity needs to be understood in the context of statutory duties, agency requirements and the needs and wishes of service users, specifically those of children and young people, and firmly underpinned by anti-racist and anti-discriminatory practice.

    ‘Child protection’ and ‘safeguarding children’ are used synonymously throughout social work and other agencies concerned with children's welfare. These terms appear interchangeably in social work texts, yet they will mean different things to different people while official government policy guidance can add to any confusion about the distinction between the two. They indicate a shift that was meant to take place after the Laming inquiry into the death of Victoria Climbie, from a focus on investigative procedures designed to ‘prove’ abuse or harm which would lead to a child being placed on the Child Protection Register, and a care plan focused on their eventual removal from the register. The term ‘safeguarding children’ began to substitute ‘child protection’ as a signal that the focus for social work and other agencies would shift towards early intervention, the development of preventive resources and better working together/collaborative practice, especially communication between agencies. However, as Parton (2011) argues the recently elected government has shifted the emphasis back toward child protection, implying a policy of increased surveillance of vulnerable families and targeted interventions based on assumptions drawn from dubious risk assessment factors. Both of the above terms will feature in this text to acknowledge their currency and historical use among a variety of agency staff.

    Recent estimates from reputable researchers, including those from the Institute of Fiscal Studies (Jin, 2011), indicate that current government policies will push an extra 300,000 children below the poverty line, while England and Wales still imprison more 14 year olds than any other European Country (Home Office, 2010). Thus the social policy context, which is a crucial aspect of systems theory and practice, is challenging practitioners to think differently.

    In Britain at least one child dies each week as a result of adult cruelty. It has been estimated that about 5000 minors are involved in prostitution in Britain at any one time. In 2010 there were about 384,200 children in need in England. Of these 69,100 were looked after in state care while the rest were in families or living independently (DfES, 2010). By the end of the same year there were 21 per cent of children in Britain living in poverty, increasing their risk of neglect (DWP, 2011). One quarter of all rape victims are children. Seventy-five per cent of sexually abused children do not tell anyone at the time. Each year about 30,000 children are on child protection registers. Recorded offences of gross indecency with a child more than doubled between 1985–2010, but convictions against perpetrators actually fell from 42 per cent to 19 per cent. Fewer than one in fifty sexual offences results in a conviction, plus there is still a major shortfall in the supervision and treatment of sexual offenders thus reducing the opportunity to reduce re-offending rates.

    This statistics sample conveys the scale of the problem facing those who care about children's welfare and want to safeguard them. Individual and family-level factors have historically dominated the analysis and locus of child protection legislation, policy and practice. With the publication of the Munro Report (2011a) there is now an opportunity to ensure that the community-level factors inherent in child abuse and neglect are fully considered. There is now a more intensive focus on integrated work in safeguarding children and young people, and a reminder if one was needed to maintain every child at the centre of all activities. This means reinforcing the conclusions drawn from evidence that demonstrates that child abuse is everybody's business. And this does not just mean every professional working with children but the whole community system within which children and young people live, work, play and are educated.

    The police always remind us that they cannot stop crime without the help of the community and it is the same with safeguarding children. An African proverb states that it takes a whole village to raise a child, while ancient Maori custom expects whole communities to get involved when a family has a problem. This is not a manifesto against professionalism but an illustration of a neglected area in modern welfare organisation which has lost sight of the fundamentals in our computerised, technocratic and bureaucracy-driven culture. Our task is to find innovative ways to engage communities and other systems in safeguarding children by encouraging and enhancing people's protective instincts that are currently dulled by stress, anxiety, oppression, discrimination, and social exclusion. Or, as Lord Laming put it: ‘Safeguarding children and child protection are too seldom considered to be everybody's business’ (Laming Report, 2003).

    This book is divided into three parts: the practice implications of theoretical and philosophical foundations; the dilemmas and challenges in applying systems theory in practice; and creating the difference that makes a difference. A systems concept is that ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts’, which neatly describes the book and its tripartite layout. The chapters have been organised into these separate parts in order to help the reader navigate their way to specific areas of interest and to provide a linked, thematic process through which will flow practical pragmatic advice, guidance, reflective activities and case studies. Difference, connectedness, interactivity, circular causality, uncertainty, constant change, reflective practice and skilled supervision are some of the central tenets of systems thinking. This book will equip social workers, students, managers and trainers with the knowledge base, cognitive skills and alternative perspective necessary to understand and harness systems theory in making effective assessments, care plans and interventions. It will enable them to explore a crucial practice resource in work with children and families and learn how the contribution of participatory practice can enrich this experience. The chapters offer practical guidance for different interventions and approaches based on systems theory and assist social workers in considering creative ways in which these might be used in working in partnership with individuals, families, groups and the community.

    ‘Collaborative working’ and ‘partnership working’ are terms that are used frequently in the practice guidance and professional literature, but without a great deal of reflection about their theoretical base, what they mean, or how to realise them in practice. Reflective practice is easier said than done but is now more than ever a critical facet of modern social work that is constrained by cutbacks, shortages and time pressures. Reflective practice is another fundamental aspect of the Munro recommendations and this book illustrates throughout how it should be a core skill for all staff, as well as fundamental to the learning requirements for trainee/student social workers and experienced practitioners. It will challenge the orthodoxy for compartmentalising practice processes that lead to narrow, resource-driven procedures and conflicts between agencies by revealing more efficient working practices through a systems lens. The core interdisciplinary systems methods and models of child and young person practice skills shared by staff in human services will be highlighted, explored and critiqued using up-to-date evidence and knowledge. The aim will be to produce a rich, informative resource that can be valued by a range of practitioners requiring a synthesis of systems theory and social work practice in an accessible, understandable, pragmatic and practice-focused text: it hopes to offer social workers practical resources to draw upon and also enhance a progressive perspective that will deliver empowering, child-focused practice. There is a need to provide social workers with an accessible, practice-oriented book to help guide their work in the developing context of multi-disciplinary team working, joint budget arrangements, care management and integrated services.

    This book is primarily aimed at social workers, but because of the nature of the Munro concept this will be of great value to an interdisciplinary audience including health, education and youth work practitioners. It will offer a valuable resource for those employed in statutory, voluntary or independent organisations offering support to children, young people and their families in the context of the imperatives of Every Child Matters (2003), The Children Act (2004), The National Service Framework (2004), Children's Trusts, new Working Together guidance (2010), the Social Work Reform Board (2010), the new Capabilities Framework (2011) and the Munro Report (2011), in addition to government policy drivers requiring the integration of children's services and the expansion of providers in the third/charitable sector. It will also be particularly relevant to students undertaking foundation degrees in social care, the early years and social work degrees, as well as social work practitioners who are embarking on social work post-qualifying studies or training.


    The terminology in this book has been kept as accessible as possible within the confines of the editorial guidelines and the intended audience. It is necessary however to explain how certain terms have been used in order to at least offer the reader sufficient context to understand their use. Principally there is still confusion and a lack of clarity about the terms ‘safeguarding children’ and ‘child protection’ as mentioned previously. Therefore both terms will appear throughout the text due to their continued use in legislative and practice guidance from government and employing organisations in health, social care and education contexts. This will ensure that the wide interprofessional readership feels included. ‘Culture’ is used in places where it is specifically defined but elsewhere it is used in the sense of the organisation of experience shared by members of a community, including their standards for perceiving, predicting, judging and acting. ‘Black’ is used in the contemporary accepted sense of meaning that group of people who by virtue of their non-white skin colour are treated in a discriminatory way and who experience racism at a personal and institutional level every day of their lives. ‘Race’ as a term is declining in use due to its origins in meaningless anthropological classifications by early imperialists seeking to legitimise their exploitation of indigenous land and wealth. It is a social construction but one that is still found in statutes, policy material and common parlance.

    ‘Therapy’ is used in the generic sense here to mean counselling, psychotherapy or systems practice that seeks to attend to the complex intra-familial and obscure web of connections within and between communities. ‘Ethnicity’ is subject to much definitional debate in the literature, but for clarity and brevity the term is used throughout this text to mean the orientation it provides to individuals by delineating norms, values, interactional modalities, rituals, meanings and collective events (Sluzki, 1979). ‘Family’ is also a term around which there is some debate as it is both a descriptor and a socially prescribed term loaded with symbolism. In this book the term is used to embrace the widest ethnic and cultural interpretation possible, one that includes same sex partnerships, single parents, step families, kinship groups, heterosexual partnerships and marriage, extended family groupings and friendship groups or community living arrangements.

    England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Within Britain there is huge diversity in the legislative and governmental guidance for safeguarding children and young people. This text has been generally based on English law for reasons of space and the avoidance of confusion. The Scottish system operates under its own legal system and system of guidance, while in Northern Ireland the health and social services boards make up a very different organisational context for child protection work. The devolved national assemblies in Scotland and Wales further add to this diversity. However, the book's contents have been adapted and designed to provide significant learning opportunities for practitioners in all the constituent countries of the United Kingdom and indeed other countries who are endeavouring to develop new ideas to tackle child abuse and provide appropriate family support: they will hopefully find much of value here.

  • Bibliography

    Abrahams, N., Casey, K. and Daro, D. (1992) ‘Teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 16 (2): 229–38.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990030-U
    Adams, A., Erath, P. and Shardlow, S. (2000) Fundamentals of Social Work in Selected European Countries. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E. and Wall, S. (1978) Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. New York: Erlbaum.
    Alderson, P. (2000) Young Children's Rights. London: Save the Children/Jessica Kingsley.
    Alderson, P. (1994) Young Children's Rights: Exploring Beliefs, Principles and Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Alibhai-Brown, Y. (1999) True Colours: Public Attitudes to Multiculturalism and the Role of the Government. London: IPPR.
    Allan, M., Bhavnani, R. and French, K. (1992) Promoting Women. London: Social Services Inspectorate/HMSO.
    Alvesson, M. and Sköldberg, K. (2000) Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
    AminK., Drew, D., Fosam, B., Gillborn, D. and Demack, S. (1997) Black and Ethnic Minority Young People and Educational Disadvantage. London: Runnymede Trust.
    Audit Commission (1994) Seen But Not Heard. London: HMSO.
    Audit Commission (2002) Recruitment and Retention: A Public Service Workforce for the Twenty-first Century. London: Audit Commission.
    Bailey, R. and Brake, M. (1975) Radical Social Work. London: Edward Arnold.
    Bailey, R. and Brake, M. (1980) Radical Social Work and Practice. London: Edward Arnold.
    Baker, K. and Coe, L. (1993) ‘Growing up with a chronic condition: transition to young adulthood for the individual with cystic fibrosis’, Holistic Nurse Practice, 8 (1): 8–15.
    Bakan, J. (2011) ‘The Kids Are Not All Right’, The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/22/opinion/corporate-interests-threaten-childrens-welfare.htm, accessed 14 May 2012
    Baldwin, M. (2000) Care Management and Community Care. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Baldwin, N. (ed.) (2000) Protecting Children, Promoting Their Rights. London: Whiting & Birch.
    Bannister, A. and Huntington, A. (2002) Communicating With Children and Adolescents: Action For Change. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02630672.2004.9689636
    Baradon, T., Sinason, V. and Yabsley, S. (1999) ‘Assessment of parents and young children: a child psychotherapy point of view’, Child Care Health and Development, 25 (1): 37–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2214.1999.00096.x
    Barford, R. (1993) Children's View of Child Protection Social Work: Social Work Monographs. Norwich: University of East Anglia.
    Barker, P. (1998) Basic Family Therapy. London: Blackwells Science.
    Barlow, J. (1998) ‘Parent training programmes and behaviour problems: findings from a systematic review’, in A.Buchanan and B.Hudson (eds), Parenting, Schooling, and Children's Behaviour: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Alton: Ashgate.
    Barnes, M. and Warren, L. (1999) Paths to Empowerment. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Barton, A. (2002) Managing Fragmentation. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    BASW (2012) BASW Response to the DfES Green Paper: Every Child Matters. Birmingham: BASW.
    Bateson, G. (1973) Steps to an Ecology of Mind. St. Albans: Paladin.
    Baumann, G. (1996) Contesting Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/1013299ar
    Bayley, R. (1999) Transforming Children's Lives: The Importance of Early Intervention. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    Beckett, C. (2003) Child Protection: An Introduction. London: Sage.
    Bee, H. (1992) The Developing Child,
    6th edn.
    New York: HarperCollins.
    Bee, H. (1994) Lifespan Development. New York: HarperCollins.
    Belsky, J. (1980) ‘Child maltreatment: an ecological approach’, American Psychologist, 35: 320–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.35.4.320
    Bentovim, A. (2002) ‘Working with abusing families in child abuse: defining understanding and intervening’, in K.WilsonA.James and (eds), The Child Protection Handbook. London: Balliére Tindall. Chapter 24.
    Bentovim, A. and BingleyMilier, L. (2002) The Family Assessment. London: DH/Pavilion.
    Berg, I.K. (1991) Family Preservation: A Brief Therapy Workbook. London: BT Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2894%2990015-9
    Berg, I.K. and Jaya, A. (1993) ‘Different and same: family therapy with Asian-American families’, Journal of Family and Marital Therapy, 19 (1): 31–9.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1993.tb00963.x
    Berg, I.K. and Kelly, S. (2000) Building Solutions in Child Protective Services. New York: Norton.
    Berridge, D. (1997) Foster Care: A Research Review. London: HMSO.
    Bhugra, D. (1999) Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities. London: Gaskell.http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0213-61632009000300001
    Bhugra, D. and Bahl, V. (1999) Ethnicity: An Agenda for Mental Health. London: Gaskell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J123v26n03_06
    Bhui, K. and Olajide, D. (eds) (1999) Mental Health Service Provision for a Multi-cultural Society. London: Saunders.
    Bifulco, P. and Moran, K. (1998) Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experiences of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.
    Bilton, T., Bonnet, K., Jones, P., Lawson, T., Skinner, D., Stanworth, M. and Webster, A. (2002) Introductory Sociology. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Bingley-Miller, L., Fisher, T. and Sinclair, I. (1993) ‘Decisions to register children as at risk of abuse’, Social Work and Social Science Review, 4 (2): 101–18.
    Blom-Cooper, L. (1987) A Child in Mind: Protection of Children in a Responsible Society: The Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Circumstances Surrounding the Death of Kimberley Carlile. London: Borough of Greenwich.
    Blyth, E. and Cooper, H. (1999) Chapter 8 Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. Chichester: Wiley.
    Bourne, D. (1993) ‘Over-chastisement, child non-compliance and parenting skills: a behavioural intervention by a family centre social worker’, British Journal of Social Work, 23 (5): 481–500.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/23.5.481
    Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and Loss. Vol 1. London: Hogarth.
    Bradshaw, J. (1972) ‘The concept of human need’, New Society, 30 (3): 72.
    Brandon, M., Belderson, P., Warren, C. and Howe, D. (2008) Analysing Child Deaths and Serious Injury through Abuse and Neglect: What Can We Learn? A Biennial Analysis of Serious Case Reviews. Nottingham: DCSF.
    Braye, S. and Preston-Shoot, M. (1997) Practising Social Work Law,
    2nd edn.
    London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Brearley, P.C., with Hall, M.R.P., Jeffreys, P.M., Jennings, R., and Pritchards, S. (1982) Managing Risk and Uncertainty in Social Work: A Literature Review. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Briggs, S. (2002) Working with Adolescents: A Contemporary Psychodynamic Approach, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0265053042000180528
    Brome, V. (1978) Jung: Man and Myth. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Brown, B., Crawford, P. and Darongkamas, J. (2000) ‘Blurred roles and permeable boundaries: the experience of multidisciplinary working in community mental health’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 8 (6): 425–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.2000.00268.x
    Brown, J.H. and Christensen, D.N. (1999) Family Therapy Theory and Practice,
    2nd edn.
    London: International Thompson.
    Browne, K. (2002) ‘Child abuse: defining, understanding and intervening’, in K.Wilson and A.James (eds), The Child Protection Handbook. London: Balliére Tindall.
    Buchanan, A. (2002) ‘Family support’, in D.McNeish, T.Newman and H.Roberts (eds), What Works For Children? Effective Services for Children and Families. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Buckley, H. (2000) ‘Child protection: an unreflective practice’, Social Work Education, 19 (3): 253–63.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615470050024068
    Buckley, H. (2003) Child Protection: Beyond the Rhetoric. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/714052808
    Burnham, J. (1984). Family Therapy. London: Tavistock Publications.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203404379
    Butcher, D. (2012) Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World’, Radio Times. Available at: http://www.radiotimes.com/episode/k5nkq/seven-wonders-of-the-buddhist-world, accessed 14 May 2012
    Butler, I. and Roberts, G. (1997) Social Work with Children and Families: Getting into Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0300443951060104
    Butler-Sloss, E., LordJustice (1988) Report of the Inquiry into Child Abuse in Cleveland 1987, Cmnd 412. London: HMSO.
    Byng-Hall, J. (1998) Rewriting Family Scripts: Improvisation and Systems Change. New York: Guilford Press.
    Calder, M. (2003) ‘The Assessment Framework: a critique and reformulation’, in M.Calder and S.Hackett (eds), Assessment in Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Calder, M. (ed.) (2008) Contemporary Risk Assessment in Safeguarding Children. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Calder, M. and Hackett, S. (2003) Assessment in Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Calder, M. and Horwath, J. (eds) (1999) Working for Children on the Child Protection Register. Aldershot: Arena.
    Campbell, B. (1988) Unofficial Secrets. London: Virago.
    Campbell, D. and Draper, R. (eds) (1985) Applications of Systemic Family Therapy. London: Grune & Stratton.
    Cannan, C., Berry, L. and Lyons, K. (1992) Social Work and Europe. London: Macmillan/BASW.
    Carr, A. (2000) What Works with Children and Adolescents?London: Routledge.
    Carter, B. and McGoldrick, M. (1999) The Expanded Life Cycle: Individual, Family & Social Perspectives,
    3rd edn.
    Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Casey, A. (1988) ‘A partnership with child and family’, Senior Nurse, 8 (4): 8–9.
    Casey, A. (1993) ‘Development and use of the partnership model of nursing care’, in G.Glasper and A.Tucker (eds), Advances In Child Health Nursing. London: Scutari.
    Cawson, P., Wattam, C., Brooker, S. and Kelly, G. (2000) Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom: A Study on the Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect. London: NSPCC.
    Chalmers, I. (1994) ‘Assembling the evidence’, in Alderson, P. et al. (eds), What Works? Effective Social Interventions in Child Welfare. Barkingside: Barnardo's.
    Charles, M. and Hendry, E. (2000) Training Together to Safeguard Children. London: NSPCC.
    Charles, M. with Stevenson, O. (1991) Multidisciplinary is Different: Sharing Perspectives. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
    Cheetham, J. (1997) Evaluating Social Work Effectiveness. Milton Keynes: OU Press.
    Cheetham, J., Fuller, R., McIvor, G. and Petch, A. (1992) Evaluating Social Work Effectiveness. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Children's Society (2002) Thrown Away. London: The Children's Society.
    Christiansen, E. and James, G. (eds) (2000) Research with Children, Perspectives and Practices. London: Falmer.
    Christopherson, J. (1989) ‘European child-abuse management systems, in comparison of child and parent training interventions’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65 (1): 93–109.
    Cleaver, H., Unell, I. and Aldgate, J. (1999) Children's Needs: Parenting Capacity. London: DH.
    Clifford, D. (1998) Social Assessment Theory and Practice. Aldershot: Aldgate.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615470120107059
    Coleman, M., Ganong, L. and Cable, S. (1997) ‘Beliefs about women's intergenerational family obligations to provide support before and after divorce and remarriage’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59 (1): 165–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353670
    Collins, C. (1998) Our Children at Risk: Children and Youth Issues. London: YMCA.
    Corby, B. (1987) Working With Child Abuse. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Corby, B. (2000) Child Abuse: Towards A Knowledge Base,
    2nd edn.
    Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Corrigan, P. and Leonard, P. (1978) Social Work Practice under Capitalism: A Marxist Approach. London: Macmillan.
    Cote, GL. (1997) ‘Socio-economic attainment, regional disparities, and internal migration’, European Sociological Review, 13 (1): 55–77.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a018206
    Cowie, H. (1999) ‘Counselling psychology in the UK: the interface between practice and research’, The European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Health, 2 (1): 69–80.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13642539908400807
    Crawford, M. and Kessel, A. (1999) ‘Not listening to patients: the use and misuse of patient satisfaction studies’, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45 (1): 1–6.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002076409904500101
    Crisp, B., Anderson, M., Orme, J. and Lister, P. (2007) ‘Assessment Frameworks: a critical reflection’, British Journal of Social Work, 37 (6): 1059–77.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl053
    Crisp, S. (1994) Counting on Families: Social Audit Report on the Provision of Family Support Services. London: Exploring Parenthood.
    Crittenden, P. (1997) ‘Patterns of attachment and sexual behaviour: risk of dysfunction versus opportunity for creating integration’, in L.Atkinson and K.Zucker (eds), Attachment and Psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199506001-00004
    CSCI (2004) Factsheet: Children's Views and Report on Keeping Children Safe from Harm. London: Commission for Social Care Inspection.
    Dale, P. (2004) ‘Like a fish in a bowl: parents’ perceptions of child protection services’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 137–57.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.837
    Dale, P., Davies, M., Morrison, T. and Waters, J. (1986) Dangerous Families. London: Routledge.
    Dallos, R. and Draper, R. (2000) An Introduction to Family Therapy. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Davis, A., Ellis, K. and Rummery, B. (1997) Access to Assessment: Perspectives of Practitioners, Disabled People, and Carers. Bristol: Policy Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jse.2012.7
    Davis, J., Rendell, P. and Sims, D. (1999) ‘The joint practitioner - a new concept in professional training’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13 (4): 395–404.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829909010384
    Dean, M. (1997) ‘Sociology after society’, in D.Owen (ed.), Sociology After Postmodernism. London: Sage.
    Debell, D. and Everett, G. (1997) In a Class Apart: A Study of School Nursing. Norwich: East Norfolk Health Authority.
    Debell, D. and Walker, S. (2002) Norfolk Family Support Teams Final Evaluation Report. Chelmsford: APU Centre for Research in Health and Social Care.
    DeMause, L. (1998) ‘The history of child abuse’, Journal of Psychohistory, 25 (3): 622–43.
    Dennehy, A., Smith, L. and Harker, P. (1997) Not to be Ignored: Young People, Poverty and Health. London: Child Poverty Action Group.
    Department for Education and Employment (1998) Towards an Interdisciplinary Framework for Developing Work with Children and Young People. Childhood Studies Discipline Network. Conference presentation, Cambridge, Robinson College.
    Department for Work and Pensions (2003) Annual Report. London: HMSO.
    DES (1988) Child Protection in Schools. London: Department of Education and Science, Circular 4/88.
    De Shazer, S. (1982) Patterns of Brief Family Therapy: An Ecosystemic Approach. New York: The Guilford Press.
    DfE (2011) Revised Working Together Guidance. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2002) Don't Suffer in Silence: An Anti-bullying Pack for Schools. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2003a) Keeping Children Safe. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2003b) The Children Act Report 2002. Nottingham: HMSO.
    DfES (2003a) Children in Need. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2003b) Every Child Matters. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2004a) Refocusing Children's Services Towards Prevention: Lessons from the Literature. Research report 510. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2004b) The Children Act. Nottingham: HMSO.
    DfES (2005a) Common Core of Skills & Knowledge for the Children's Workforce. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2005b) Common Assessment Framework. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2006) Working Together to Safeguard Children: A Guide to Inter-agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. London: HMSO.
    DfES (2010) Children Looked After in England and Wales. London: DfES.
    DH (1988) Protecting Children: A Guide for Social Workers Undertaking a Comprehensive Assessment. London: HMSO.
    DH (1989a) Children Act. London: HMSO.
    DH (1989b) The Children Act 1989: An Introductory Guide for the NHS. London: HMSO.
    DH (1991a) Child Abuse: A Study of Inquiry Reports 1980–1989. London: HMSO.
    DH (1991b) Family Placements, the Children Act 1989, Guidance and Regulations, 3. London: HMSO.
    DH (1991c) Working Together under the Children Act 1989. London: HMSO.
    DH (1995) Child Protection: Messages from Research. London: HMSO.
    DH (1996) National Commission of Inquiry into Child Protection. London: HMSO.
    DH (1997) General Household Survey. London: HMSO.
    DH (1998) Disability and Discrimination Act. London: HMSO
    DH (1999a) Working Together to Safeguard Children. London: HMSO.
    DH (1999b) Lac circular (99) 33. Quality Protects Programme: Transforming Children's Services 2000–01. London: HMSO.
    DH (1999c) Executive Summary, Convention on the Rights of the Child: Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child by the United Kingdom. London: HMSO.
    DH (1999d) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families. London: HMSO.
    DH (1999e) The Protection of Children Act. London: HMSO.
    DH (2000a) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families. London: HMSO.
    DH (2000b) Quality Protects: Disabled Children, Numbers and Categories. London: HMSO.
    DH (2001a) National Plan for Safeguarding Children from Commercial Sexual Exploitation. London: HMSO.
    DH (2001b) Children (Leaving Care) Act. London: HMSO.
    DH (2002) Child in Need Survey. London: HMSO.
    DH (2003a) Children Looked After by Local Authorities. London: HMSO.
    DH (2003b) Guidelines for the Appointment of General Practitioners with Special Interests in the Delivery of Clinical Services: Child Protection. London: HMSO.
    DH (2003c) The Victoria Climbié Inquiry. London: HMSO.
    DH (2003d) Green Paper: Every Child Matters. London: DH.
    DH (2003e) What to do if You Are Worried a Child is Being Abused. London: HMSO.
    DH (2004) National Service Framework for Children, Families, and Midwifery Services. London: HMSO.
    DH (2010a) Prioritising Need in the Context of Putting People First, a Whole System Approach to Eligibilty for Social Care. London: TSO.
    DH (2010b) Working Together. London: HMSO.
    DH (2011a) Health and Social Care Bill. London: HMSO.
    DH (2011b) Capabilities Framework. London: HMSO.
    DH/DfEE (1996) Children's Service Planning: Guidance for Inter-Agency Working. London: HMSO.
    DH/SSI (2002) Safeguarding Children: A Joint Chief Inspectors Report on Arrangements to Safeguard Children. London: DH.
    DHSS (1974a) Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Care and Supervision Provided in Relation to Maria Colwell. London: HMSO.
    DHSS (1974b) Non-accidental Injury To Children, LASSL (74), (13). London: DHSS.
    DHSS (1983) Child Abuse: A Study of Inquiry Reports 1973–1981. London: HMSO.
    DHSS (1986) Child Abuse - Working Together: A Draft Guide to Arrangements for Interagency Cooperation for the Protection of Children. London: HMSO.
    DHSS (1988) Working Together. London: HMSO.
    Dimigen, G., Del Priore, C., Butler, S., Evans, S., Ferguson, L. and Swan, M. (1999) ‘Psychiatric disorder among children at time of entering local authority care’, British Medical Journal, 319: 675–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7211.675
    Dingwall, R., Eekelaar, J. and Murray, T. (1995) The Protection of Children, State Intervention and Family Life. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Dominelli, L. (2002) Anti-oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Dominelli, L. (1998) ‘Anti-oppressive practice in context’, in R.Adams, L.Dominelli and M.Payne (eds), Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates. Basingstoke: Macmillan.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2007.751_2.x
    Dominelli, L. (ed.) (1999) Community Approaches to Child Welfare. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Donovan, M. (2003) ‘Mind the gap: the need for a generic bridge between psychoanalytic and systemic approaches’, Journal of Family Therapy, 25: 115–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00240
    Dryden, W. (1988) Family Therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Dulmus, C. and Rapp-Paglicci, L. (2000) ‘The prevention of mental disorders in children and adolescents: future research and public-policy recommendations’, Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 81 (3): 294–303.
    Durlak, J. (1998) ‘Primary prevention programmes for children and adolescents are effective’, Journal of Mental Health, 7 (5): 454–69.
    Durlak, J. and Wells, A. (1997) ‘Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 25 (2): 115–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024654026646
    DWP (2011) A New Approach to Child Poverty: Tackling the Causes of Disadvantage and Transforming Families’ Lives. London: Department for Work and Pensions.
    Eayrs, C. and Jones, R. (1992) ‘Methodological issues and future directions in the evaluation of early intervention programmes’, Child Care, Health and Development, 18 (1): 15–28.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1992.tb00337.x
    Eber, L., Osuch, R. and Redditt, C. (1996) ‘School-based applications of the wraparound process: early results on service provision and student outcomes’, Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5: 83–99.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02234680
    Eliason, M. (1996) ‘Lesbian and gay family issues’, Journal of Family Nursing, 2 (1): 10–29.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107484079600200102
    Elicker et al. (1992) ‘Predicting peer competence and peer relationships in childhood from early parent-child relationships’, in R.Parke and G.Ladd (eds), Family-Peer Relationships. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Evans, M. and Miller, C. (1993) Partnership in Child Protection. London: Office for Public Management/National Institute of Social Work.
    Everitt, A. and Hardiker, P. (1996) Evaluating Good Practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Fagin, C.M. (1992) ‘Collaboration between nurses and physicians; no longer a choice’, Academic Medicine, 67 (5): 295–303.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199205000-00002
    Falicov, C. (1995) ‘Training to think culturally: a multidimensional comparative framework’, Family Process, 34: 373–88.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1995.00373.x
    Falloon, I. and Fadden, G. (1995) Integrated Mental Health Care: A Comprehensive Community-based Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Farmer, E. and Owen, M. (1995) Child Protection Practice: Private Risks and Public Remedies. London: HMSO.
    Favlov, J. (1996) Study of Working Together “Part 8” Reports: Fatal Child Abuse and Parental Psychiatric Disorder, DH - ACPC Series, Report No. 1. London: HMSO.
    Fawcett, B. (2000) ‘Look, listen and learn’, Community Care, July. Sutton: Reed.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0260-6917%2892%2990173-L
    Fawcett, B., Featherstone, B. and Goddard, J. (2004) Contemporary Child Care Policy and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Ferguson, H. (2008) ‘Liquid social work: welfare interventions as mobile practices’, British Journal of Social Work, 38 (3): 561–79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl367
    Ferguson, H. and O'Reilly, M. (2001) Keeping Children Safe: Child Abuse, Child Protection and the Promotion of Welfare. Dublin: Framar.
    Fielding, N. and Conroy, S. (1994) ‘Against the grain: co-operation in child sexual abuse investigations’, in, M.Stephens and S.Becker (eds), Police Force Police Service: Care And Control In Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Fineman, S. (1985) Social Work Stress and Intervention. Aldershot: Gower.
    Firth, M., Dyer, M. and Wilkes, J. (1999) ‘Reducing the distance: mental health social work in general practice’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13 (4): 335–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829909010379
    Fook, J. (2012) Social Work: Critical Theory and Practice,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Forder, A. (1976) ‘Social work and system theory’, British Journal of Social Work, 6 (1): 23–42.
    Forrester, D. (2000) ‘Parental substance abuse and child protection in a British sample’, Child Abuse Review, 9 (4): 235–46.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0852%28200007/08%299:4%3C235::AID-CAR626%3E3.0.CO;2-4
    Fox-Harding, L. (1991) Perspectives in Child Care Policy. London: Longman.
    Freeman, I., Morrison, A., Lockhart, F. and Swanson, M. (1996) ‘Consulting service users: the views of young people’, in M.Hill and J.Aldgate (eds), Child Welfare Services: Developments in Law, Policy, Practice and Research. London: Jessica Kingsley. pp. 88–97.
    Freeman, M. (1984) State, Law and the Family. London: Tavistock.
    FreudS. (1973) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.
    Standard edition
    . Vol. 6. London: Hogarth Press.
    FRG (1986) FRG's Response to the DHSS Consultation Paper: Child Abuse - Working Together. London: Family Rights Group.
    Friedlander, M.L. (2001) ‘Family therapy research: science into practice, practice into science’, in M.P.Nichols and R.C.Schwartz (eds), Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods,
    5th edn.
    Boston: Alleyn & Bacon.
    Fulcher, J. and Scott, M. (1999) Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v23n01_09
    Fuller, R. (1991) ‘Evaluating social work effectiveness: a pragmatic approach’, in T.Furniss (ed.), The Multi-professional Handbook of Child Sexual Abuse. London: Routledge.
    Furedi, F. (2003) Therapy Culture. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446213575.n6
    GadsbyWaters, J. (1992) The Supervision of Child Protection Work. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Gardner, R. (1998) Family Support: Practitioners Guide. Birmingham: Venture.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083v13n01_07
    Garmezy, N., Masten, A.S. and Tellegren, A. (1984) ‘The study of stress and competence in children: a building block for developmental psychotherapy’, Child Development, 5: 97–111.
    Garratt, D., Roche, J. and Tucker, S. (eds) (1997) Changing Experiences Of Youth. London: Sage/Open University Press.
    George, C. (1996) ‘A representational perspective of child abuse and prevention: internal working models of attachment and caregiving’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 20 (5): 411–24http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2896%2900016-6
    Ghate, D. and Daniels, A. (1997) Talking About My Generation. London: NSPCC.
    Gibbons, J. and Wilding, J. (1995) Needs, Risks and Family Support Plans: Social Services Departments Responses to Neglected Children. Norwich: University of East Anglia.
    Giller, H., Gormley, C. and Williams, P. (1992) The Effectiveness of Child Protection Procedures. Nantwich: Social Information Systems.
    Gillingham, P. (2011) ‘Decision-making tools and the development of expertise in child protection practitioners: are we “just breeding workers who are good at ticking boxes”?’, Child & Family Social Work, 10: 1365–2206.
    Glisson, C. and Hemmelgarn, A. (1998) ‘The effects of organisational climate and inter-organisational coordination on the quality and outcomes of children's service systems’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 22 (5): 401–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2898%2900005-2
    GMC (1993) Confidentiality and Child Abuse. London: General Medical Council, July, No. 3.
    Goldenberg, I. and Goldenberg, H. (2004) Family Therapy - An Overview. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Learning.
    Goldner, V. (1991) ‘Sex, power and gender: a feminist analysis of the politics of passion’, Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 3: 63–83.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J086v03n01_04
    Goldstein, H. (1973) Social Work Practice: A Unitary Approach. South Carolina: University of South Carolina.http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/644219
    Gordon, G. and Grant, R. (1997) How we Feel: An Insight into the Emotional World of Teenagers. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Gordon, L. (1989) Heroes of Their Own Lives. London: Virago.
    GorellBarnes, G. (1998) Family Therapy in Changing Times. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Gouldner, A. (1954) Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. New York: Free.
    Gray, J. (2004) ‘The interface between the child welfare and criminal justice systems in England’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 312–23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.863
    Gregg, S. (1995) Preventing Anti-social Behaviour in At-risk Students. London: OERI.
    Griffin, C. (1993) Representations of Youth: The Study of Youth and Adolescence in Britain and America. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gross, D., Fogg, L. and Tucker, S. (1995) ‘The efficacy of parent training for promoting positive parent-toddler relationships’, Research in Nursing and Health, 18: 489–99.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770180605
    Hague, G. (2000) Reducing Domestic Violence, What Works?PRCU Briefing Note. London: HMSO.
    Hague, G. and Malos, E. (1993) Domestic Violence: Action for Change. Cheltenham: New Clarion Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2011.01034.x
    Haley, J. (1976) Problem Solving Therapy. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.
    Hall, S. (1993) ‘Culture, community, nation’, Cultural Studies, 7 (3): 16–29.
    Hallett, C. (1995) Interagency Coordination in Child Protection. London: HMSO.
    Hallett, C. and Birchall, E. (1992) Coordination and Child Protection: A Review of the Literature. London: HMSO.
    Haralambos, M. (1988) Sociology: Theses and Perspectives. London: Unwin Hyman.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716297554001034
    Haralambos, M. and Holborn, M. (1991) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives,
    3rd edn.
    London: Collins Educational.
    Harbin, F. and Murphy, M. (eds) (2000) Substance Misuse and Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Hardiker, P. (1995) The Social Policy Contexts of Services to Prevent Unstable Family Life. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Hardiker, P., Exton, K. and Barker, M. (1991) ‘The social policy contexts of prevention in child care’, British Journal Of Social Work, 21: 341–59.
    Hare-Mustin, R. (1991) ‘Sex, lies and headaches: the problem is power’, Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 3: 39–61.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J086v03n01_03
    Harrison, R., Mann, G., Murphy, M., Taylor, A. and Thompson, N. (2003) Partnership Made Painless. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Hartley, J. (2003) A Short History of Cultural Studies. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216934
    Healy, K. (2002) Social Work Practices: Contemporary Perspectives on Change. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218969
    Heisenberg, W. (1930) Physikalische Prinzipien der Quantentheorie. Leipzig: Hirzel. (English translation, The Physical Principles of Quantum Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.)
    Hellinckx, W., Colton, M. and Williams, M. (1997) International Perspectives on Family Support. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Helm, D. (2010) Making Sense of Child and Family Assessment: How to Interpret Children's Needs. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Helman, C. (2001) Culture, Health and Illness,
    4th edn.
    London: Arnold.
    Hendrick, H. (ed.) (2005) Child Welfare and Social Policy: An Essential Reader. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Hennessey, E. (1999) ‘Children as service evaluators’, Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 4 (4): 153–61.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1360641799002105
    Hern, M., Miller, M., Sommers, M.J. and Dyehouse, J. (1998) ‘Sensitive topics and adolescents: making research about risk taking behaviours happen’, Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 21: 173–86.
    Hester, M., Pearson, C. and Harwin, N. (2000) Making an Impact: Children and Domestic Violence. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Hetherington, R. and Baistow, K. (2001) ‘Supporting families with a mentally ill parent: European perspectives on interagency cooperation’, Child Abuse Review, 10: 351–65.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.701
    Hill, M. (1999) Effective Ways of Working with Children and their Families. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Hill, M., Laybourn, A. and Borland, M. (1996) ‘Engaging with primary-age children about their emotions and well-being: methodological considerations’, Children and Society, 10: 129–44.
    HMSO (1968) Local Authority and Allied personal Social Services. Cmnd 3703. London: HMSO.
    Hoffman, L. (1981) Foundations of Family Therapy. New York: Basic Books.
    Hollander, H. (2002) ‘Psychodramas with “at risk” youth: a means of active engagement’, in A.Bannister and A.Huntington (eds), Communicating With Children and Adolescents: Action For Change. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Holliday, A. (1999) ‘Small cultures’, Applied Linguistics, 20 (2): 23–64.
    Holt, C. (1998) ‘Working with fathers of children in need’, in R.Bayley (ed.), Transforming Children's Lives: The Importance of Early Intervention. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    Holterman, S. (1995) All our Futures: The Impact of Public Expenditure and Fiscal Policies on Britain's Children and Young People. Barkingside: Barnardo's.
    Home Office (1988) The Investigation of Child Sexual Abuse, Circular 52/1988. London: Home Office.
    Home Office (2000) Living Without Fear: Multi-agency Guidance for Addressing Domestic Violence. London: HMSO.
    Home Office (2004) The Bichard Report. London: HMSO.
    Home Office (2008) Crime in England & Wales. London: HMSO.
    Home Office (2010) Social Trends. London: HMSO.
    Home Office/DH (2001) Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings. London: HMSO.
    House of Commons (1997) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. London: HMSO.
    House of Commons, Health Committee (2009) Health Inequalities Report. London: HMSO.
    House of Lords (1986) Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority, 1 AC 112.
    Howarth, J. (2002) ‘Maintaining a focus on the child?’, Child Abuse Review, 11: 195–213.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.742
    Howe, D. (1986) Social Workers and their Practice in Welfare Bureaucracies. Aldershot: Gower.
    Howe, D. (1989) The Consumer's View of Family Therapy. London: Gower.
    Howe, D., Brandon, M., Hinings, D. and Schofield, G. (1999) Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment and Family Support. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Hugman, R. (1991) Power in Caring Professions. London: Macmillan.
    Iwaniec, D. (1995) The Emotionally Abused and Neglected Child: Identification, Assessment and Intervention. Chichester: Wiley.
    Jack, G. (2004) ‘Child protection at the community level’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 368–83.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.871
    Jack, R. and Walker, S. (2000) Social Work Assessment and Intervention. Cambridge: Anglia Polytechnic University.
    Jenkins, R. (2002) Foundations of Sociology. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    JinW. (2011) Poverty and Inequality. London: Institute of Fiscal Studies.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/873322617282
    Jones, T. (1996) Britain's Ethnic Minorities: An Analysis of the Labour Force Survey. London: Policy Studies Institute.
    Jones, L. and O'Loughlin, T. (2002) ‘Developing a child concern model to embrace the framework’, in M.Calder and S.Hackett (eds), The Child Care Assessment Manual. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Jowitt, M. and O'Loughlin, S. (2005) Social Work with Children and Families. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Jung, C.G. (1972) Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. New York: Princeton University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1146.2010.01421
    Kay, J. (1999) A Practical Guide: Protecting Children. London: College of Health/Cassell.
    Kay, J. (2003) Protecting Children: A Practical Guide. London: Continuum.
    Kearney, P., Levin, E. and Rosen, G. (2000) Alcohol, Drug and Mental Health Problems: Working with Families. London: National Institute of Social Work.
    Kehily, J. and Swann, J. (2003) Children's Cultural Worlds. London: Wiley/OUP.
    Kelly, L. (1996) ‘When woman protection is the best kind of child protection: children, domestic violence and child abuse’, Administration, 44 (2): 118–35.
    Kelson, M. (1995) Consumer Involvement Initiatives in Clinical Audits and Outcomes. London: College of Health.
    Kempe, C.H., Silverman, F.N., Steele, B.F., Droegmueller, W. and Silver, H. (1962) ‘The battered child syndrome’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 181: 1.
    Kemps, C. (1997) ‘Approaches to working with ethnicity and cultural issues’, in K.Dwivedi (ed.), Enhancing Parenting Skills. London: Wiley. pp. 59–77.
    Kiddle, C. (1999) Traveller Children: A Voice for Themselves. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2800%2900014-8
    Kim, W.J. (1995) ‘A training guideline of cultural competence for child and adolescent psychiatric residencies’, Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 26 (2): 125–36.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02353236
    Klineberg, O. (1971) ‘Race and IQ’, Courier, 24: 10.
    Kohn, M. (1995) The Race Gallery. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Koprowska, J. (2005) Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Social Work. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Kotch, J.B., Chalmers, D.J., Fanslow, J.L., Marshall, S. and Langley, J.D. (1993) ‘Morbidity and death due to child abuse in New Zealand’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 17 (2): 233–47.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990043-5
    Kurtz, Z. (1996) Treating Children Well: A Guide to Using the Evidence Base in Commissioning and Managing Services for the Mental Health of Children and Young People. London. Mental Health Foundation.
    Kyngas, E. (1998) ‘Adolescents’ perception of physicians, nurses, parents and friends’, Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 27: 760.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00608.x
    Laing, R.D. (1969) ‘Interventions in social situations’. Philadelphia Association. Cited in Context, 60: 2–7, April 2002. Warrington: Association for Family Therapy and Systemic Practice.
    Laming, H. (2003) The Inquiry into the Death of Victoria Climbié. London: HMSO.
    Lansdowne, G. (1995) Taking Part: Children's Participation in Decision-making. London: IPPR.
    Larner, G. (2000) ‘Towards a common ground in psychoanalysis and family therapy: on knowing not to know’, Journal of Family Therapy, 22: 61–82.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00138
    Lask, B. (1979) ‘Family therapy outcome research’, Journal of Family Therapy, 1 (4): 87–91.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j..1979.00481.x
    Laufer, M. (ed.) (1985) The Suicidal Adolescent. London: Karnac.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02668738700700011
    Leathard, A. (1994) Going Inter-professional. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203137796
    Leighton, A.H. (1981) ‘Culture and psychiatry’, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26 (8): 522–9.
    Leonard, P. (1975) ‘Towards a paradigm for radical practice’, in R.Bailey and M.Brake (eds), Radical Social Work. London: Arnold.
    Leonard, P. (1997) Postmodern Welfare: Reconstructing an Emancipatory Project. London: Sage.
    Lindon, J. (2003) Child Protection,
    2nd edn.
    London: Hodder and Stoughton.
    Little, M. and Mount, K. (1999) Prevention and Early Intervention with Children in Need. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Lloyd, E. (ed.) (1999) Parenting Matters: What Works in Parenting Education?London: Barnardo's.
    Lyon, C. and de Cruz, R. (1993) Child Abuse,
    2nd edn.
    Bristol: Jordan.
    MacDonald, G. (2002) ‘Child protection’, in D.McNeish, T.Newman and H.Roberts (eds), What Works For Children? Effective Services for Children and Families. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    MacDonald, G. and Roberts, H. (1995) What Works in the Early Years? Effective Interventions for Children and their Families. Barkingside: Barnardo's.
    Madanes, C. (1981) Strategic Family Therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9816-5_3
    Madge, N. (2001) Understanding Difference: The Meaning of Ethnicity for Young Lives. London: National Children's Bureau.http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09604521111185628
    Magrab, P., Evans, P. and HurrellP. (1997) ‘Integrated services for children and youth at risk: an international study of multidisciplinary training’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 11 (1): 99–108.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829709040248
    Martin, R. (2010) Social Work Assessment. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Masson, J. (1988) Against Therapy. London: Collins.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2126%2802%2900327-2
    May, T. (ed) (2002) Qualitative Research in Action. London: Sage.
    Mayseless, O. (1996) ‘Attachment patterns and their outcomes’, Human Development, 36: 206–23.
    McGlone, F., Park, A. and Smith, K. (1998) Families and Kinship. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    McGoldrick, M., Pearce, J. and Giordano, J. (eds) (1982) Ethnicity and Family Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
    McLeod, A. (2008) Listening to Children: A Practitioner's Guide. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03004430701379009
    McNeish, D. and Newman, T. (2002) ‘Involving children and young people in decision making’, in D.McNeish, T.Newman and H.Roberts (eds), What Works For Children?Buckingham: Open University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00868992
    Mental Health Foundation (1999) The Big Picture: Promoting Children's and Young People's Mental Health. London: Mental Health Foundation.
    Messent, P. (1992) ‘Working with Bangladeshi families in the East End of London’, Journal of Family Therapy, 14 (3): 287–305.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j..1992.00461.x
    Micklewright, J. and Stewart, K. (2000) Well-being of Children in the European Union: New Economy. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0297.00480
    Middleton, L. (1997) The Art of Assessment. Birmingham: Venture.
    Midgley, J. (2001) ‘Issues in international social work: resolving critical debates in the profession’, Journal of Social Work, 1 (1): 21–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146801730100100103
    Mikulincer, M., Florian, V., Cowan, P.A. and Cowan, C.P. (2002) ‘Attachment security in couple relationships: a systemic model and its implications for family dynamics’, Family Process, 43 (3): 405–34.
    Miller, G. and Prinz, R. (1990) ‘Enhancement of social learning family interventions for childhood conduct disorders’, Psychological Bulletin, 108: 291–307.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.2.291
    Milner, J. and O'Byrne, P. (2009) Assessment in Social Work,
    3rd edn.
    London: Macmillan.
    Ministry of Justice (2011) Re-offending of Juveniles: 2009 Cohort Statistics. London: Ministry of Justice
    MinuchinS. (1974) Families and Family Therapy. London: Tavistock Publications.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1998.tb01094.x
    MinuchinS. (1984) Family Kaleidoscope. London: Harvard University Press.
    Mishra, R. (1999) Globalization and the Welfare State. Northampton MA: Edward Elgar.
    Modood, T. and Berthoud, R. (1997) Ethnic Minorities in Britain. London: Policy Studies Institute.
    Moore, J. (1992) The ABC of Child Protection. Aldershot: Ashgate.http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2008.138412
    Morris, J. (2000) Having Someone Who Cares? Barriers to Change in the Public Care of Children. London: National Children's Bureau Enterprises Limited.
    Morris, K. and Tunnard (1996) Family Group Conferences: Messages from UK Practice and Research. London: Family Rights Group.
    Morrissey, J., Johnsen, M. and Calloway, M. (1997) ‘Evaluating performance and change in mental health systems serving children and youth: an interorganizational network approach’, The Journal of Mental Health Administration, 24 (1): 4–22.
    Morrison, T. (1993) Supervision in Social Care. London: Longman.
    Morrison, T. (1997) ‘Emotionally competent child protection organisations: fallacy, fiction or necessity?’, in J.Bates, R.Pugh and N.Thompson (eds), Protecting Children: Challenges and Change. Aldershot: Arena.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820020003919
    Morrow, V. (1998) Understanding Families: Children's Perspectives. London: National Children's Bureau.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147130120500400109
    Moules, T. and Ramsay, J. (1998) The Textbook of Children's Nursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
    Mrazek, P.J., Lynch, M.A. and Bentovim, A. (1983) ‘Sexual abuse of children in the United Kingdom’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 7: 147–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2883%2990066-2
    Muncie, J., Wetherall, M., Dallos, R. and Cochrane, A. (eds) (1997) Understanding the Family. London: Sage.
    Munley, A., Powers, C.S. and Williamson, J.B. (1982) ‘Humanising nursing home environments: the relevance of hospice principles’, International Journal of Ageing and Human Development, 15: 263–84.http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/NKHF-2WLK-VTRD-Q3NV
    Munro, E. (2005) ‘Improving practice: child protection as a systems problem’, Children and Youth Services Review, 27: 375–91.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.11.006
    Munro, E. (2008) Effective Child Protection,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Munro, E. (2011a) The Munro Review of Child Protection - Interim Report: The Child's Journey. London: DfE
    Munro, E. (2011b) The Munro Review of Child Protection - A Child-Centred System: Final Report. London: DfE.
    Munro, E. and Calder, M. (2005) ‘Where has child protection gone?’, The Political Quarterly, 76 (3).
    Munro, E. and Hubbard, A. (2011) ‘A systems approach to organisational change in children's social care’, British Journal of Social Work, 41: 726–43.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcr074
    Murphy, M. (1996a) The Child Protection Unit. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Murphy, M. (1996b) Child Protection Specialist Units. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Murphy, M. (1997) ‘Staff care in a multidisciplinary context’, in J.Bates (ed.), Protecting Children: Challenges and Change. Aldershot: Arena.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01080069
    Murphy, M. (2000) ‘The interagency trainer’, in M.Charles and E.Hendry (eds), Training Together to Safeguard Children. London: NSPCC.
    Murphy, M. (2003) ‘Keeping going’, in R.Harrison, G.Mann, M.Murphy, A.Taylor and N.Thompson (eds), Partnership Made Painless. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Murphy, M. (2004) Developing Collaborative Relationships in Interagency Child Protection Work. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Murphy, M. and Oulds, G. (2000) ‘Establishing and developing co-operative links between substance misuse and child protection systems’, in F.Harbin and M.Murphy (eds), Substance Misuse and Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Murray, A. (1997) ‘The effects of infants’ behaviour on maternal mental health’, Health Visitor, 66 (2).
    NCB (2005) Social Inclusion. London: National Children's Bureau.
    NCH (1979) Who Cares?London: National Children's Homes.
    NCH Action for Children (2010) Fact File. London: NCH.
    Newman, T. (2002) Promoting Resilience: A Review of Effective Strategies for Child Care ServicesBarkingside: Barnardo's.
    NFPI (2010) Delivery of Parenting Skills Programmes. London: National Family and Parenting Institute.
    NISW (1982) Social Workers: Their Role and Tasks. London: National Institute of Social Work/Bedford Square Press.
    Norman, A. and Brown, C. (1992) ‘Foreword’, in C.Cloke and J.Naish (eds), Key Issues in Child Protection for Health Visitors and Nurses. London: NSPCC/Longman.
    NSPCC (1996) Childhood Matters: The Report of The National Commission of Inquiry into the Prevention of Child Abuse, Vol. 1. London: HMSO.
    NSPCC (2000) Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom. London: NSPCC.
    NSPCC (2010) Ten Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them: What Research Tells Us. London: NSPCC.
    Oberheumer, P. (1998) ‘A European perspective on early years training’, in L.Abbott and G.Pugh (eds), Training to Work in the Early Years: Developing the Climbing Frame. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    O'Hagan, K. (1989) Working With Child Sexual Abuse. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    O'Hagan, K. (1993) Emotional and Psychological Abuse of Children. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    O'Loughlin, M. and O'Loughlin, S. (2008) Social Work with Children and Families,
    2nd edn.
    Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) (2002) The British Census 2001. London: HMSO.
    Ofsted (2008) Learning Lessons, Taking Action: Ofsted's Evaluations of Serious Case Reviews, April 2007-March 2008. London: DCSF.
    Okitikpi, T. (1999) ‘Educational needs of black children in care’, in R.Barn (ed.), Working With Black Children and Adolescents in Need. London: BAAF.
    Okitikpi, T. and Aymer, C. (eds) (2008) The Art of Social Work Practice. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Onyet, S., Heppleston, T. and Bushnell, N. (1994) A National Survey of Community Mental Health Teams: Team Structure. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638239409003798
    Oullette, P., Lazear, K. and Chambers, K. (1999) ‘Action leadership: the development of an approach to leadership enhancement for grassroots community leaders in children's mental health’, The Journal of Behavioural Health Services and Research, 26 (2): 171–85.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02287489
    Ovretveit, J. (1996) ‘Five ways to describe a multidisciplinary team’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 10 (2): 163–71.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829609034099
    Owen, D. (1995) 1991 Census Statistical Papers 1–9. Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, London: Commission for Racial Equality.
    Oxford English Dictionary (2010) Electronic version. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Papatheophilou, A. (1990) ‘Child protection in Greece’, in A.Sale and M.Davies (eds), Child Protection Policies and Practice in Europe. London: NSPCC.
    Parekh, B. (2000) Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146879680100100112
    Parkinson, J. (1992) ‘Supervision vs control’, in C.Cloke and J.Naish (eds), Key Issues in Child Protection for Health Visitors and Nurses. London: NSPCC/Longman.
    Parsloe, P. (ed) (1999) Risk Assessment in Social Care and Social Work. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Parton, N. (1985) The Politics of Child Abuse. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Parton, N. (1991) Governing the Family. Basingstoke: Macmillan.http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/204674312X633180
    Parton, N. (1999) ‘Reconfiguring child welfare practices: risk, advanced liberalism and the government of freedom’, in A.S.Chambon, A.Irving and L.Epstein (eds), Reading Foucault for Social Work. Chichester: Columbia Press.
    Parton, N. (2002) Discovery and Inclusion: Submission to the Victoria Climbié Inquiry, Phase 2, Seminar 1. London: HMSO.
    Parton, N. (2011) ‘Child protection and safeguarding in England: changing and competing conceptions of risk and their implications for social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 41 (5): 854–75.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcq119
    Pawson, R. and Tilley, N. (1997) Realistic Evaluation. London: Sage.
    Payne, M. (1997) Modern Social Work Theroy. London: Macmillan.
    Payne, M. (2005) Modern Social Work Theory,
    3rd edn.
    Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Peace, G. (1991) Inter-professional Collaboration: Professional and Personal Perspectives, Part 2. Manchester: Boys’ and Girls’ Welfare Society.
    Pearce, J. (2000) ‘Front-line workers faced pressures of isolation, lack of support and chaos’, Community Care, Feb, 16–17.
    Pels, D. (2000) ‘Reflexivity one step up’, Theroy, Culture and Society, 17 (3): 1–25.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632760022051194
    Pentini-Aluffi, A. and Lorenz, W. (1996) Anti Racist Work with Young People. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Perelberg, R.J. and Miller, A.C. (eds) (1990) Gender and Power in Families. London: Routledge.
    Peters, R. and Barlow, J. (2003) ‘Systematic review of screening instruments to identify child abuse during the perinatal period’, Child Abuse Review, 12.
    Pickett, J. (individual interview, 2 April 1990) in Murphy, M. (1996) Child Protection Specialist Units. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Pickett, J. and Maton, A. (1979) ‘The interagency team in an urban setting: the special unit concept’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 3: 115–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2879%2990020-6
    Pierson, J. (2002) Tackling Social Exclusion. London: Routledge.
    Pieterse, J.N. (2004) Globalization and Culture. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110894110
    Pincus, A. and Minahan, A. (1974) Social Work Practice: Model and Method. London: Peacock.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02321216
    Pitts, J. (2001) ‘Korrectional kareoke: New Labour and the zombification of youth justice’, Youth Justice, 1 (2): 3–16.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147322540100100202
    Platt, D. (2011) ‘Assessments of children and families: learning and teaching the skills of analysis’, Social Work Education, 30 (2): 157–69.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2011.540381
    Plotnikoff, J. (1993) The Child Witness Pack: Helping Children to Cope. London: NSPCC/Childline.
    Plummer, D.C. (2001) ‘The quest for modern manhood: masculine stereotypes, peer culture and the social significance of homophobia’, Journal of Adolescence, 24: 15–23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.2000.0370
    Pocock, D. (1997) ‘Feeling understood in family therapy’, Journal of Family Therapy, 19: 279–98.
    Polnay, J. and Blair, M. (1999) ‘A model programme for busy learners’, Child Abuse Review, 8: 284–8.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0852%28199907/08%298:4%3C284::AID-CAR560%3E3.0.CO;2-H
    Powell, J. and Lovelock, R. (1992) Changing Patterns of Mental Health Care. London: Avebury.
    Preli, R. and Bernard, J.M. (1993) ‘Making multi-cultiralism relevant for majority culture graduate students’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 19 (1): 5–17.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1993.tb00961.x
    Pugh, G. and Smith, C. (1996) Learning to be a Parent. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/025576149903400105
    Ramon, S. (1999) ‘Social work’, in K.Bhui and D.Olajide (eds), Mental Health Service Provision for a Multi-cultural Society. London: Saunders.
    Rawson, D. (1994) ‘Models of interprofessional work: likely theories and possibilities’, in A.Smale, Tuson, G. and D.Statham, (2000) Social Work and Social Problems. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    RCP (1991) Physical Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children. London: Royal College of Physicians.
    Reder, P., Duncan, S. and Gray, M. (1993) Beyond Blame: Child Abuse Tragedies Revisited. London: Routledge.
    Reder, P. and Duncan, S. (2003) ‘Understanding communication in child protection networks’, Child Abuse Review, 12: 82–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.787
    Reder, P. and Lucey, C. (1995) Assessment of Parenting: Psychiatric and Psychological Contributions. London: Routledge.
    Rees, S. and Wallace, A. (1982) Verdicts on Social Work. London: Arnold.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03124078808549988
    Reimrs, A.S. and Treacher, A. (1995) Introducing User-friendly Family Therapy. London: Routledge.
    Revans, L. (2002a) ‘Laming probe reveals scope of communications breakdown’, Community Care, Feb.
    Revans, L. (2002b) ‘Social services take on wider role as councils combine departments’, Community Care, August.
    Reynolds, A.J. (1998) ‘Resilience among black urban youth: intervention effects and mechanisms of influence’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68 (1): 84–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080273
    Richards, M., Payne, C. and Shepperd, A. (1990) Staff Supervision in Child Protection Work. London: National Institute of Social Work.
    Riley, R. (1997) ‘Working together: inter-professional collaboration’, Journal Of Child Health, 1 (4): 191–4.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136749359700100409
    Rivett, M. and Rees, A. (2004) ‘Dancing on a razor's edge: systemic groupwork with batterers’, Journal of Family Therapy, 26 (2): 142–63.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6427.2004.00275.x
    Rivett, M. and Street, E. (2003) Family Therapy in Focus. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218914
    Robbins, D. (1998) ‘The refocusing children's initiative: an overview of practice’, in. R.Bayley (ed.), Transforming Children's Lives: The Importance of Early Intervention. London. Family Policy Studies Centre. pp. 86–90.
    Rodney, C. (2000) ‘Pathways: a model service delivery system’, in: N.N.Singh, J.P.Leung and A.N.Singh, International Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. London: Elsevier. pp. 421–30.
    Rogers, C. (2003) Children at Risk 2002–2003: Government Initiatives and Commentaries on Government Policy. London: National Family and Parenting Institute.
    Roth, A. and Fonagy, P. (1996) What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research. London: Guilford Press.
    Ruch, G. (2009) (ed.) Post Qualifying Child Care Social Work: Developing Reflective Practice. London: Sage.
    Ruddock, M. (1998) ‘Yes and but, and then again maybe’, in R.Davies (ed.), Stress in Social Work. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Rutter, M. (1985) ‘Resilience in the face of adversity’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 147: 598–611.http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.147.6.598
    Rutter, M. (1995) Psychosocial Disturbances in Young People: Challenges for Prevention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rutter, M. and Smith, D. (1995) Psychosocial Disorders in Young People: Time Trends and their Causes. London: Wiley.
    Rutter, M., Hersov, L. and Taylor, E. (1994) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444300895
    Ryan, M. (1999) The Children Act 1989: Putting it into Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Sale, A. and Davies, M. (eds) (1990) Child Protection Policies and Practice in Europe. London: NSPCC.
    Salford Centre for Social Work Research (2004) Education & Training for Inter-agency Working: New Standards. Manchester: University of Salford.
    Salmon, D. and Hall, C. (1999) ‘Working with lesbian mothers: their healthcare experiences’, Community Practitioner, 72 (12): 396–97.
    Sandbaek, M. (1999) ‘Children with problems: focusing on everyday life’, Children and Society, 13: 106–18.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1999.tb00112.x
    Sariola, H. and Uutela, A. (1993) ‘The prevalence and context of family violence against children in Finland’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 16 (6): 823–32.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990084-5
    SCIE (2003) Assessment in Social Work: A Guide for Learning and Teaching. London: Social Care Institute of Excellence.
    SCIE (2004) SCIE Research Briefing 9: Preventing Teenage Pregnancy in Looked After Children. Available at: http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/briefings/briefing09
    SCIE (2005) Knowledge Review - Learning and Teaching in Social Work Education-Assessment. London: Social Care Institute for Excellence.
    Scott, D. (1997) ‘Interagency conflict: an ethnographic study’, Child and Family Social Work, 2 (2): 73–80.
    Scrine, J. (1991) ‘Child abuse: do social work students get enough practice experience?’, Practice, 5 (2): 153–9.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09503159108411551
    Sebuliba, D. and Vostanis, P. (2001) ‘Child and adolescent mental health training for primary care staff’, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 6(2): 191–204.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104501006002003
    Seddon, D., Robinson, C. and Perry, J. (2010) ‘Unified assessment: policy, implementation and practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 40 (1): 207–25.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcn097
    Segal, H. (1975) An Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. London, Hogarth Press.
    Shardlow, S. and Payne, M. (1998) Contemporary Issues in Social Work: Western Europe. Aldershot: Arena.
    Shardlow, S., Davis, C., Johnson, M., Long, T., Murphy, M. and Race, D. (2003) Review of Education and Training for Inter-agency Working. Manchester: University of Salford.
    Sharman, W. (1997) Children and Adolescents with Mental Health Problems. London: Balliere-Tindall.
    Shaw, H. and Coles, D. (2007) Unlocking the Truth: Families Experiences of the Investigations of Deaths in Custody. London: Inquest.
    Shaw, I., Arksey, H. and Mullender, A. (2004) ESRC Research, Social Work and Social Care. London: SCIE.
    Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (2003) ‘Mobile transformations of “public” and “private” life’, Theory, Culture and Society, 20 (3): 107–25.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632764030203007
    Shepherd, S. (1991) ‘Aspects of the Children Act: - a medical perspective’, Health Trends, 23 (2): 51–3.
    Silberg, J. (2001) ‘Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: relationship and prognostic significance’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 179: 230–35.
    SimpsonE.L., Lichtenstein, P.Pedersen, N., Neiderhiser, J.M., Hansson, K. and Cederblad, M. (1996) ‘Conflict in close relationships: an attachment perspective’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71 (5): 899–914.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.5.899
    Sinclair, R., Garnett, L. and Berridge, D. (1995) Social Work and Assessment with Adolescents. London: National Children's Bureau.
    Skaff, L. (1988) ‘Child maltreatment coordinating committees for effective service delivery’, Child Welfare, LXVII (3): 217–30.
    Skidmore, D. (1994) The Ideology of Community Care. London: Chapman and Hall.
    Skills for Care/CWDC (2010) Common Induction Standards. London: Childrens Workforce Development Council.
    Slack, J. (2005) ‘ASBOs: lout Britain's new badge of honour’, Daily Mail, 30 June.
    Sluzki, C.E. (1979) ‘Migration and family conflict’, Family Process, 18 (4): 379–90.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1979.00379.x
    Smale, G., Tuson, G. and Statham, D. (2000) Social Work and Social Problems. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Smart, B. (1992) Michel Foucault. London: Routledge.
    Smith, S. (1999) ‘Primary prevention’, in Child Protection: The Role Of The Health Visitor in The Violence Against Children Study Group (Children, Child Abuse And Child Protection, Placing The Child Centrally). Chichester: Wiley. Chapter 9.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2009.00650.x
    Snell, J. (2002) ‘Where does the buck stop?’, Community Care, February.
    Social Exclusion Unit (2002) Young Runaways. London: HMSO.
    Social Services Inspectorate (1998) Partners in Planning: Approaches to Planning Services for Children and Their Families. London: HMSO.
    Social Work Reform Board (2010) Building a Safe and Confident Future: One Year On. Leeds: Skills for Care.
    Speak, S., Cameron, S., Woods, R. and Gilroy, R. (1995) Young Single Mothers: Barriers to Independent Living. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    Speight, N. (1993) ‘Non-accidental injury’, in R.Meadow (ed.), The ABC of Child Abuse. London: System.http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6677.879
    Spencer, J. and Flin, R. (1990) The Evidence of Children. London: Blackstone.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008197300122299
    Spencer, N. (1996) ‘Race and ethnicity as determinants of child health: a personal view’, Child Health and Development, 22(5): 327–45.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1996.tb00435.x
    Stahmann, R. (2000) ‘Premarital counselling: a focus for family therapy’, Journal of Family Therapy, 22: 104–16.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00140
    Stanton, M. and Shadish, W. (1997) ‘Outcome, attrition and family-couples treatment for drug abuse: a meta-analysis and review of the controlled comparative studies’, Psychological Bulletin, 122: 170–91.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.122.2.170
    Statham, J. (2000) Outcomes and Effectiveness of Family Support Services: A Research Review. London: Institute for Education, University of London.
    Stein, M. and Wade, J. (2004) Helping Care Leavers: Problems and Strategic Responses. London: HMSO.
    Stevenson, O. (ed.) (1989) Child Abuse: Professional Practice and Public Policy. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Stevenson, O. (2000) ‘The mandate for inter-agency and inter-professional work and training’, in M.Charles and E.Hendry (eds), Training Together to Safeguard Children. London: NSPCC.
    Stokes, H. and Tyler, D. (2001) ‘The multi-dimensional lives of young people: young people's perspective of education, work, life and their future’, Scottish Youth Issues Journal, 3 (Autumn).
    Stone, M. (1990) Child Protection Work: A Professional Guide. London: Ventura.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.1996.tb00007.x
    Stuart, M. and Baines, C. (2004) Progress on Safeguards for Children Living Away from Home: A Review of Action Since People Like Us Report. York: JRF.
    Sutton, C. (1999) Helping Families with Troubled Children. Chichester: Wiley.
    Sylva, K. (1994) ‘School influences on children's development’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Professions, 35 (1): 135–70.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01135.x
    Sue, D., Ivey, A. and Penderson, P. (1996) A Theory of Multicultural Counselling and Therapy. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing.
    Target, M. (1998) ‘Approaches to evaluation, counselling and health’, The European Journal of Psychotherapy, 1(1): 79–92.
    Target, M. and Fonagy, P. (1996) ‘The psychological treatment of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders’, in A.Roth and P.Fonagy (eds), What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research. New York: Guilford Press.
    Taylor, B. and Devine, D. (1993) Assessing Needs and Planning Care in Social Work. London: Arena.
    Taylor, J. and Muller, D. (1995). Nursing Adolescents: Research and Psychological Perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
    Taylor, S. and Field, D. (1997) Sociology of Health and Health Care,
    2nd edn.
    Oxford: Blackwell Science.
    Taylor, C. and White, S. (2000) Practising Reflexivity in Health and Welfare. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Thatcher, M. (1990) NCH George Thomas Lecture. London: National Children's Homes.
    The Violence Against Children Study Group (1999) Children, Child Abuse And Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. Chichester: Wiley.
    Thoburn, J., Wilding, J. and Watson, J. (1998) Children in Need: A Review of Family Support Work in Three Local Authorities. Norwich: University of East Anglia/DH.
    Thomas, J. and Holland, S. (2010) ‘Representing children's identities in core assessments’, British Journal of Social Work, 40 (8): 2617–33.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp154
    Thomas, T. (1994) The Police and Social Workers. Aldershot: Gower.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09503158808416987
    Thompson, N. (2005) Understanding Social Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Thompson, N., Murphy, M. and Stradling, S. (1994) Dealing with Stress. London: British Association of Social Workers/Macmillan.
    Thompson, N., Murphy, M., and Stradling, S. (1998) Meeting the Stress Challenge. Lyme Regis: Russell House
    Tite, R. (1993) ‘How teachers define and respond to child abuse: the distinction between theoretical and reportable cases’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 17: 591–603.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990081-F
    Toledano, A. (1996) ‘Issues arising from intercultural family therapy’, Journal of Family Therapy, 18: 289–301.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6427.1996.tb00052.x
    Topss (2004) Occupational Standards for Social Work. Leeds: Training Organisation for Personal Social Services.
    Townsend, P., Davidson, N. and Whitehead, M. (eds) (1988) The Black Report and The Health Divide: Inequalities In Health. London: Penguin.
    Treacher, A. (1995) ‘Reviewing consumer studies of therapy’, in A.Treacher and S.Reimers (eds), Introducing User-friendly Family Therapy. London: Routledge. pp. 128–49.
    Treseder, P. (1997) Empowering Children and Young People: A Training Manual for Promoting Involvement in Decision-making. London: Save the Children.
    Trevino, F. (1999) ‘Quality of health care for ethnic/racial minority populations’, Ethnicity and Health, 4(3): 153–64.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557859998119
    Trevithick, P. (2005) Social Work Skills: A Practice Handbook,
    2nd edn.
    Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Trotter, J. (2000) ‘Lesbian and gay issues in social work with young people: resilience and success through confronting, conforming and escaping’, British Journal of Social Work, 30 (1): 115–23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/30.1.115
    Tseng Yueh-Hung (2002) ‘A lesson in culture’, ELT Journal, 56 (1): 11–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.1.11
    Tucker, N. and Gamble, N. (eds) (2001) Family Fictions. London: Continuum.
    Tucker, S., Strange, C., Cordeaux, C., Moules, T. and Torrance, N. (1999) ‘Developing an interdisciplinary framework for the education and training of those working with children and young people’. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13 (3): 261–70.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829909010369
    Tunstill, J. (1996) ‘Family support: past present and future challenges’, Child and Family Social Work, 1: 151–8.
    United Nations (1989a) The Conventions on the Rights of the Child. New York: UNICEF.
    United Nations (1989b) United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child. Geneva: UN.
    United Nations (1998) Human Rights Act. Geneva: UN.
    Utting, W. (1991) Children in the Public Care: A Review of Residential Child Care. London: HMSO.
    Utting, D. (1995) Family and Parenthood: Supporting Families, Preventing Breakdown. York: Joseph Rountree Foundation.
    Utting, W. (1993) ‘Foreword’, in M.Evans and C.Miller (eds), Partnership in Child Protection. London: Office for Public Management/National Institute of Social Work.
    Utting, W. (1997) People Like Us: The Report of the Review of Safeguards for Children Living Away from Home. London: HMSO.
    Valentine, C.A. (1976) ‘Poverty and culture’, in P.Worsley (ed.), Problems of Modern Society. London: Penguin.
    VanDenBerg, J. and Grealish, M. (1996) ‘Individualized services and supports through the wraparound process: philosophy and procedures’, Journal of Child and Family Studies. 5:7–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02234675
    Vetere, A. and Cooper, J. (2001) Domestic Violence and Family Safety: A Systemic Approach to Working with Violence in Families. London: Blackwell.
    Visser, M.A. and Moleko, AG. (1999) ‘High-risk behaviour of primary school learners’, Urban Health and Development Bulletin, 2 (1): 69–77.
    VACSG (1999) Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection, Placing Children Centrally. Wiley, Chichester: Violence Against Children Study Group.
    Von Bertalanffy, L. (1968) General Systems Theory:Foundation, Development, Application. New York: Brazillier.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSMC.1974.4309376
    Vostanis, P. and Cumella, S. (1999) Homeless Children: Problems and Needs. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199707000-00009
    Waldvogel, J. (1997) ‘The new wave of service integration’, Social Service Review, September: 463–84.
    Walker, K. (2002) ‘Exploitation of children and young people through prostitution’, Journal of Child Health, 6 (3) September.
    Walker, S. (2001a) ‘Consulting with children and young people’, International Journal of Children's Rights, 12: 1–12.
    Walker, S. (2001b) ‘Developing child and adolescent mental health services’, Journal of Child Health Care, 5 (2): 71–6.
    Walker, S. (2001c) ‘Tracing the contours of postmodern social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 31: 29–39.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/31.1.29
    Walker, S. (2001d) ‘Domestic violence: analysis of a community safety alarm system’, Child Abuse Review, 10 (3): 170–82.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.687
    Walker, S. (2002) ‘Family support and social work practice: renaissance or retrenchment?’, European Journal of Social Work, 5 (1): 43–54.
    Walker, S. (2003a) ‘Interprofessional work in child and adolescent mental health services’, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 8 (3): 189–204.
    Walker, S. (2003b) Working Together for Healthy Young Minds. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Walker, S. (2005) Culturally Competent Therapy: Working with Children and Young People. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Walker, S. and Akister, J. (2004) Applying Family Therapy: A Guide for Caring Professionals in the Community. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Walker, S. and Beckett, C. (2011) Social Work Assessment and Intervention,
    2nd edn.
    Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Walker, S. and Thurston, C. (2006) Safeguarding Children and Young People: AGuide to Integrated Practice. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Warner, N. (1993) Choosing with Care. London: HMSO.
    Wattam, C. (1999) ‘The prevention of child abuse’, Children & Society, 13: 317–29.
    Webb, S.A. (2001) ‘Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 31: 57–79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/31.1.57
    Webster-Stratton, C. (1997) ‘Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: a comparison of child and parent training interventions’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(1): 93–109.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.65.1.93
    Werner, E. (2000) ‘Protective factors and individual resilience’, in Handbook of Early Childhood Interventions,
    2nd edn.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 6.
    White, K. and Grove, M. (2000) ‘Towards an understanding of partnership’, NCVCCO Outlook, 7. London: NCVCCO.
    White, M. and Epston, D. (1990) Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. New York: W.W Norton.
    White, S., Hall, C. and Peckover, S. (2009) ‘The descriptive tyranny of the common assessment framework: technologies of categorization and professional practice in child welfare’, British Journal of Social Work, 39 (7): 1197–217.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcn053
    Whiting, L. (1999) ‘Caring for children of differing cultures’, Journal of Child Health Care, 3(4): 33–8.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136749359900300407
    Wilson, K. and James, A. (2002) The Child Protection Handbook. London: Balliére Tindall.
    Wright, S. (2004) ‘Child protection in the community: a community development approach’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 384–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.875
    Yelloly, M. (1980) Social Work Theory and Psychoanalysis. New York: Von Nostrand.
    Young, K. and Haynes, R. (1993) ‘Assessing population needs in primary health care: the problem of GOP attachments’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 7(1): 15–27.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829309014955

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website