Effective Social Work with Children, Young People and Families: Putting Systems Theory into Practice
Publication Year: 2012
This book looks at the changing context of children and young people's services heralded by the structural, organizational and funding changes put forward in Eileen Munro's Review of Child Protection. It is strongly grounded in research and theory, and gives specific consideration to how systems theory can help practitioners in understanding families.
It highlights the need for every social work practitioner to develop the capacity to undertake unified assessments and interventions in a wide variety of settings with individuals, families, and groups where there are child protection and safeguarding concerns.
With case studies, interactive activities, summaries and guidance throughout, this book will be essential reading for all social work students and qualified social work practitioners, as well as all those involved in the field of child protection.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Practice Implications of Theoretical and Philosophical Foundations
- Chapter 1: Systems Theory
- Systems Theory
- Systems Theory and Intervention Practices
- Family Lifecycle and Transitional Challenges
- Key Elements in Systems-Based Work
- Decision Making
- Multicultural Systems
- Chapter 2: A Changing Working Environment
- From the GSCC to the Health and Care Professions Council
- Stages of the Safeguarding Process
- The Investigation and Initial Assessment
- The Children Act 1989
- The Children Act 2004
- The National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Midwifery Services 2004
- The Human Rights Act 1998
- Chapter 3: Contemporary Systems Methods and Models
- Methods, Models and Practice
- Intervening at the Structural Level
- Strategic Practice
- Systemic Family Therapy
- Brief Solution-Focused Work
- Contemporary Developments
- The Intrinsic Value of Systems Theory and Practice
- The Evidence Base
Part II: Dilemmas and Challenges in Applying Systems Theory in Practice
- Chapter 4: Prevention and Early Intervention
- The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989
- Factors Affecting Safeguarding Children in the Community
- Examples of Primary Prevention
- Examples of Secondary Prevention
- Examples of Tertiary Prevention
- Early Intervention Skills
- Reviewing the Work Process
- Change and Outcomes
- Case Closure
- Chapter 5: Children and Young People at Risk
- Reasons for Abuse
- General Risk Factors
- Specific Risk Factors
- Protective Factors
- Children's Concerns
- Types of Abuse
- Common Forms of Physical Abuse
- Characteristics Shown by Abusers who Emotionally Abuse
- Signs of Abuse
- Risk Assessment or Risk Management?
- Failing to Maintain Boundaries
- Defining Risk
- The Social Construction of Risk
- Chapter 6: Using Systems Theory in Assessment
- Understanding Assessment
- Practice Guidance
- The Common Assessment Framework
- The Process of the Common Assessment
- Elements of the CAF
- The Importance of Attachment
- Secure and Autonomous Patterns
- Avoidant-Dismissing Patterns
- Ambiralent-Preoccupied-Entangled Patterns
- Assessment as a Systems Process
- Post-Assessment Issues
Part III: Creating the Difference that Makes a Difference
- Chapter 7: Collaborative Systems or Combative Systems?
- Power within Systems
- The Individual within the System
- Multi-Disciplinary and Inter-Agency Working
- The Challenges in Working Together
- The Role of Advocacy
- Interprofessional Care
- Partnership Practice
- Interprofessional Systems and Relationships
- Changing Patterns of Service Delivery
- Overcoming the Hurdles to Implementation
- The Experience of Interprofessional Working
- Revolution or Evolution?
- Chapter 8: Social Inclusion and Cultural Awareness
- A Culturally Inclusive Theoretical Model
- Mental Health and Culture
- Defining Culture
- Conceptualising Culture
- Ethnicity and Culture
- Socially and Culturally Inclusive Practice
- Cultural Evolution and Systems Change
- Celebrating Diversity and Difference
- Globalisation and Identity
- Chapter 9: Towards an Integrated Appraisal and Evaluation
- Feminist-Informed Practice
- Evaluating Social Work: The People's Perspective
- Consumers as Producers of Welfare
- How to Evaluate
- The Social Work Dilemma
- Reflective and Reflexive Practice
- Building an Integrated Practice
- Chapter 10: Conclusion
The Natural Home
SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
© Steven Walker 2012
First published 2012
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011944780
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-5225-3 (pbk)
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Editor: Sarah Gibson
Assistant editor: Emma Milman
Production editor: Katie Forsythe
Copyeditor: Audrey Scriven
Proofreader: Kate Wood
Marketing manager: Tamara Navaratnam
Cover design: Lisa Harper
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Printed in India at Replika Press Pvt Ltd
To Anna and Evie[Page vi]
I first met Eileen Munro when I did postgraduate study in social work and social policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science nearly thirty years ago. This followed voluntary work with the Family Welfare Association in Hackney, East London. Eileen was among a group of inspiring, dedicated and knowledgeable people with expertise and skills in every aspect of social work. Today Professor Munro is one of the country's leading child protection experts and rightly was selected to review child protection for the coalition government that came to power in 2010.
Others who have had an impact on me subsequently include: every client I have worked with; every student I have learned from; and every colleague I have worked with or been motivated by as a practitioner or academic. The following people especially require my gratitude: Joy Nield, Hugh Jenkins, Rose Rachman, Shula Ramon, Bob Holman, Lena Dominelli, Peter Leonard, Steve Herington, Jane Dutton, Annie Turner, Barry Mason, Damian McCann, Andrew Maynard, Maire Maisch, Ann Jackson-Fowler and Judy Hicks. There are many others I could mention and while space does not permit their inclusion here their absence does not imply a lesser importance to me: they will know who they are. I am also indebted to Sage and Sarah Gibson for their confidence and support and the practical help offered by Katie Forsythe and the copyeditor and proofreader. Any omissions in terms of copyright or acknowledgement are regretted and will be rectified upon notification.
The strength and love I derive from Isobel and Rose ensure they are my bedrock and secure base, as well as the source of much support and inspiration. There is a symmetry about my beginnings in social work in Hackney more than three decades ago and the contemporary inner city borough as the crucible for the ideas and practices informing the Munro Report and its current impact on social work practice. The circle feels complete. Hindus and Buddhists have a word for this, Karma, which refers to actions/deeds that cause a cycle of cause and effect, or in Tibetan parlance, this means a continuous pursuit or flow of life. The cover image for this book is a Mandala, which is the Sanskrit word for a circle, and a variety of images can be found to symbolise this. The Celtic circle is also a variation on the theme of an unending circular link which is highly symbolic of systems theory.
About the Author
It is reported that Nelson Mandela once said ‘There can be no keener revelation of a society's soul than the way in which it treats its children’ (Bakan, 2011). Bakan understands the importance of keeping children in mind in this thoughtful and compassionate text which echoes key themes throughout the following pages. The changing context of children and young people's services involving the planned structural, organisational and funding changes heralded in the Munro Report, together with an austere economic environment, highlights the need for every social work practitioner to develop the capacity to undertake unified assessments and interventions in a wide variety of settings – with individuals, families and groups–where there are child protection/safeguarding concerns. Central to this prospect are a reduction in long-criticised bureaucratic procedures, the notorious Integrated Children's System, and the release of social workers to allow them to spend more time with families using a systems theory framework. However, it is noteworthy that the present government has not ring-fenced any extra funding or produced an outcomes timetable or any definitive measure of how the Munro proposals are to be measured and evaluated. This book has not been written as a dry theoretical text: it uses systems theory lightly to inform relatively simple practice changes that can make a difference to the safety and well-being of children and young people.
The different ways children's services will develop will increase the requirement for staff to understand their particular role and responsibilities and how to enhance working together with others within new organisational systems. Such activity needs to be understood in the context of statutory duties, agency requirements and the needs and wishes of service users, specifically those of children and young people, and firmly underpinned by anti-racist and anti-discriminatory practice.
‘Child protection’ and ‘safeguarding children’ are used synonymously throughout social work and other agencies concerned with children's welfare. These terms appear interchangeably in social work texts, yet they will mean different things to different people while official government policy guidance can add to any confusion about the distinction between the two. They indicate a shift that was meant to take place after the Laming inquiry into the death of Victoria Climbie, from a focus on investigative procedures designed to ‘prove’ abuse or harm which would lead to a child being placed on the Child Protection Register, and a care plan focused on their eventual removal from the register. The term ‘safeguarding children’ began to substitute ‘child protection’ as a signal that the focus for social work and other agencies would shift towards early intervention, the development of preventive resources and better [Page xiii]working together/collaborative practice, especially communication between agencies. However, as Parton (2011) argues the recently elected government has shifted the emphasis back toward child protection, implying a policy of increased surveillance of vulnerable families and targeted interventions based on assumptions drawn from dubious risk assessment factors. Both of the above terms will feature in this text to acknowledge their currency and historical use among a variety of agency staff.
Recent estimates from reputable researchers, including those from the Institute of Fiscal Studies (Jin, 2011), indicate that current government policies will push an extra 300,000 children below the poverty line, while England and Wales still imprison more 14 year olds than any other European Country (Home Office, 2010). Thus the social policy context, which is a crucial aspect of systems theory and practice, is challenging practitioners to think differently.
In Britain at least one child dies each week as a result of adult cruelty. It has been estimated that about 5000 minors are involved in prostitution in Britain at any one time. In 2010 there were about 384,200 children in need in England. Of these 69,100 were looked after in state care while the rest were in families or living independently (DfES, 2010). By the end of the same year there were 21 per cent of children in Britain living in poverty, increasing their risk of neglect (DWP, 2011). One quarter of all rape victims are children. Seventy-five per cent of sexually abused children do not tell anyone at the time. Each year about 30,000 children are on child protection registers. Recorded offences of gross indecency with a child more than doubled between 1985–2010, but convictions against perpetrators actually fell from 42 per cent to 19 per cent. Fewer than one in fifty sexual offences results in a conviction, plus there is still a major shortfall in the supervision and treatment of sexual offenders thus reducing the opportunity to reduce re-offending rates.
This statistics sample conveys the scale of the problem facing those who care about children's welfare and want to safeguard them. Individual and family-level factors have historically dominated the analysis and locus of child protection legislation, policy and practice. With the publication of the Munro Report (2011a) there is now an opportunity to ensure that the community-level factors inherent in child abuse and neglect are fully considered. There is now a more intensive focus on integrated work in safeguarding children and young people, and a reminder if one was needed to maintain every child at the centre of all activities. This means reinforcing the conclusions drawn from evidence that demonstrates that child abuse is everybody's business. And this does not just mean every professional working with children but the whole community system within which children and young people live, work, play and are educated.
The police always remind us that they cannot stop crime without the help of the community and it is the same with safeguarding children. An African proverb states that it takes a whole village to raise a child, while ancient Maori custom expects whole communities to get involved when a family has a problem. This is not a manifesto against professionalism but an illustration of a neglected area in modern [Page xiv]welfare organisation which has lost sight of the fundamentals in our computerised, technocratic and bureaucracy-driven culture. Our task is to find innovative ways to engage communities and other systems in safeguarding children by encouraging and enhancing people's protective instincts that are currently dulled by stress, anxiety, oppression, discrimination, and social exclusion. Or, as Lord Laming put it: ‘Safeguarding children and child protection are too seldom considered to be everybody's business’ (Laming Report, 2003).
This book is divided into three parts: the practice implications of theoretical and philosophical foundations; the dilemmas and challenges in applying systems theory in practice; and creating the difference that makes a difference. A systems concept is that ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts’, which neatly describes the book and its tripartite layout. The chapters have been organised into these separate parts in order to help the reader navigate their way to specific areas of interest and to provide a linked, thematic process through which will flow practical pragmatic advice, guidance, reflective activities and case studies. Difference, connectedness, interactivity, circular causality, uncertainty, constant change, reflective practice and skilled supervision are some of the central tenets of systems thinking. This book will equip social workers, students, managers and trainers with the knowledge base, cognitive skills and alternative perspective necessary to understand and harness systems theory in making effective assessments, care plans and interventions. It will enable them to explore a crucial practice resource in work with children and families and learn how the contribution of participatory practice can enrich this experience. The chapters offer practical guidance for different interventions and approaches based on systems theory and assist social workers in considering creative ways in which these might be used in working in partnership with individuals, families, groups and the community.
‘Collaborative working’ and ‘partnership working’ are terms that are used frequently in the practice guidance and professional literature, but without a great deal of reflection about their theoretical base, what they mean, or how to realise them in practice. Reflective practice is easier said than done but is now more than ever a critical facet of modern social work that is constrained by cutbacks, shortages and time pressures. Reflective practice is another fundamental aspect of the Munro recommendations and this book illustrates throughout how it should be a core skill for all staff, as well as fundamental to the learning requirements for trainee/student social workers and experienced practitioners. It will challenge the orthodoxy for compartmentalising practice processes that lead to narrow, resource-driven procedures and conflicts between agencies by revealing more efficient working practices through a systems lens. The core interdisciplinary systems methods and models of child and young person practice skills shared by staff in human services will be highlighted, explored and critiqued using up-to-date evidence and knowledge. The aim will be to produce a rich, informative resource that can be valued by a range of practitioners requiring a synthesis of systems theory and social work practice in an accessible, understandable, pragmatic and practice-focused text: it hopes to offer social workers practical resources to draw upon and also enhance a progressive [Page xv]perspective that will deliver empowering, child-focused practice. There is a need to provide social workers with an accessible, practice-oriented book to help guide their work in the developing context of multi-disciplinary team working, joint budget arrangements, care management and integrated services.
This book is primarily aimed at social workers, but because of the nature of the Munro concept this will be of great value to an interdisciplinary audience including health, education and youth work practitioners. It will offer a valuable resource for those employed in statutory, voluntary or independent organisations offering support to children, young people and their families in the context of the imperatives of Every Child Matters (2003), The Children Act (2004), The National Service Framework (2004), Children's Trusts, new Working Together guidance (2010), the Social Work Reform Board (2010), the new Capabilities Framework (2011) and the Munro Report (2011), in addition to government policy drivers requiring the integration of children's services and the expansion of providers in the third/charitable sector. It will also be particularly relevant to students undertaking foundation degrees in social care, the early years and social work degrees, as well as social work practitioners who are embarking on social work post-qualifying studies or training.Terminology
The terminology in this book has been kept as accessible as possible within the confines of the editorial guidelines and the intended audience. It is necessary however to explain how certain terms have been used in order to at least offer the reader sufficient context to understand their use. Principally there is still confusion and a lack of clarity about the terms ‘safeguarding children’ and ‘child protection’ as mentioned previously. Therefore both terms will appear throughout the text due to their continued use in legislative and practice guidance from government and employing organisations in health, social care and education contexts. This will ensure that the wide interprofessional readership feels included. ‘Culture’ is used in places where it is specifically defined but elsewhere it is used in the sense of the organisation of experience shared by members of a community, including their standards for perceiving, predicting, judging and acting. ‘Black’ is used in the contemporary accepted sense of meaning that group of people who by virtue of their non-white skin colour are treated in a discriminatory way and who experience racism at a personal and institutional level every day of their lives. ‘Race’ as a term is declining in use due to its origins in meaningless anthropological classifications by early imperialists seeking to legitimise their exploitation of indigenous land and wealth. It is a social construction but one that is still found in statutes, policy material and common parlance.
‘Therapy’ is used in the generic sense here to mean counselling, psychotherapy or systems practice that seeks to attend to the complex intra-familial and obscure web of connections within and between communities. ‘Ethnicity’ is subject to much [Page xvi]definitional debate in the literature, but for clarity and brevity the term is used throughout this text to mean the orientation it provides to individuals by delineating norms, values, interactional modalities, rituals, meanings and collective events (Sluzki, 1979). ‘Family’ is also a term around which there is some debate as it is both a descriptor and a socially prescribed term loaded with symbolism. In this book the term is used to embrace the widest ethnic and cultural interpretation possible, one that includes same sex partnerships, single parents, step families, kinship groups, heterosexual partnerships and marriage, extended family groupings and friendship groups or community living arrangements.England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
Within Britain there is huge diversity in the legislative and governmental guidance for safeguarding children and young people. This text has been generally based on English law for reasons of space and the avoidance of confusion. The Scottish system operates under its own legal system and system of guidance, while in Northern Ireland the health and social services boards make up a very different organisational context for child protection work. The devolved national assemblies in Scotland and Wales further add to this diversity. However, the book's contents have been adapted and designed to provide significant learning opportunities for practitioners in all the constituent countries of the United Kingdom and indeed other countries who are endeavouring to develop new ideas to tackle child abuse and provide appropriate family support: they will hopefully find much of value here.
Bibliography[Page 187]1992) ‘Teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 16 (2): 229–38.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990030-U, and (2000) Fundamentals of Social Work in Selected European Countries. Lyme Regis: Russell House., and (1978) Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. New York: Erlbaum., , and (2000) Young Children's Rights. London: Save the Children/Jessica Kingsley.(1994) Young Children's Rights: Exploring Beliefs, Principles and Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.(1999) True Colours: Public Attitudes to Multiculturalism and the Role of the Government. London: IPPR.(1992) Promoting Women. London: Social Services Inspectorate/HMSO., and (2000) Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research. London: Sage.and (1997) Black and Ethnic Minority Young People and Educational Disadvantage. London: Runnymede Trust., , , and (Audit Commission (1994) Seen But Not Heard. London: HMSO.Audit Commission (2002) Recruitment and Retention: A Public Service Workforce for the Twenty-first Century. London: Audit Commission.1975) Radical Social Work. London: Edward Arnold.and (1980) Radical Social Work and Practice. London: Edward Arnold.and (1993) ‘Growing up with a chronic condition: transition to young adulthood for the individual with cystic fibrosis’, Holistic Nurse Practice, 8 (1): 8–15.and (2011) ‘The Kids Are Not All Right’, The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/22/opinion/corporate-interests-threaten-childrens-welfare.htm, accessed 14 May 2012(2000) Care Management and Community Care. Aldershot: Ashgate.(Baldwin, N. (ed.) (2000) Protecting Children, Promoting Their Rights. London: Whiting & Birch.2002) Communicating With Children and Adolescents: Action For Change. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02630672.2004.9689636and (1999) ‘Assessment of parents and young children: a child psychotherapy point of view’, Child Care Health and Development, 25 (1): 37–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2214.1999.00096.x, and (1993) Children's View of Child Protection Social Work: Social Work Monographs. Norwich: University of East Anglia.(1998) Basic Family Therapy. London: Blackwells Science.(1998) ‘Parent training programmes and behaviour problems: findings from a systematic review’, in A.Buchanan and B.Hudson (eds), Parenting, Schooling, and Children's Behaviour: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Alton: Ashgate.(1999) Paths to Empowerment. Bristol: Policy Press.and (2002) Managing Fragmentation. Aldershot: Ashgate.([Page 188]BASW (2012) BASW Response to the DfES Green Paper: Every Child Matters. Birmingham: BASW.1973) Steps to an Ecology of Mind. St. Albans: Paladin.(1996) Contesting Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/1013299ar(1999) Transforming Children's Lives: The Importance of Early Intervention. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.(2003) Child Protection: An Introduction. London: Sage.(1992) The Developing Child,(6th edn.New York: HarperCollins.1994) Lifespan Development. New York: HarperCollins.(1980) ‘Child maltreatment: an ecological approach’, American Psychologist, 35: 320–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.35.4.320(2002) ‘Working with abusing families in child abuse: defining understanding and intervening’, in K.WilsonA.James and (eds), The Child Protection Handbook. London: Balliére Tindall. Chapter 24.(2002) The Family Assessment. London: DH/Pavilion.and (1991) Family Preservation: A Brief Therapy Workbook. London: BT Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2894%2990015-9(1993) ‘Different and same: family therapy with Asian-American families’, Journal of Family and Marital Therapy, 19 (1): 31–9.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1993.tb00963.xand (2000) Building Solutions in Child Protective Services. New York: Norton.and (1997) Foster Care: A Research Review. London: HMSO.(1999) Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities. London: Gaskell.http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0213-61632009000300001(1999) Ethnicity: An Agenda for Mental Health. London: Gaskell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J123v26n03_06and (Bhui, K. and Olajide, D. (eds) (1999) Mental Health Service Provision for a Multi-cultural Society. London: Saunders.1998) Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experiences of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.and (2002) Introductory Sociology. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., , , , , and (1993) ‘Decisions to register children as at risk of abuse’, Social Work and Social Science Review, 4 (2): 101–18., and (1987) A Child in Mind: Protection of Children in a Responsible Society: The Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Circumstances Surrounding the Death of Kimberley Carlile. London: Borough of Greenwich.(1999) Chapter 8 Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. Chichester: Wiley.and (1993) ‘Over-chastisement, child non-compliance and parenting skills: a behavioural intervention by a family centre social worker’, British Journal of Social Work, 23 (5): 481–500.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/23.5.481(1969) Attachment and Loss. Vol 1. London: Hogarth.(1972) ‘The concept of human need’, New Society, 30 (3): 72.(2008) Analysing Child Deaths and Serious Injury through Abuse and Neglect: What Can We Learn? A Biennial Analysis of Serious Case Reviews. Nottingham: DCSF., , and (1997) Practising Social Work Law,and (2nd edn.London: Palgrave Macmillan.1982) Managing Risk and Uncertainty in Social Work: A Literature Review. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul., with , , , and ([Page 189]2002) Working with Adolescents: A Contemporary Psychodynamic Approach, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0265053042000180528(1978) Jung: Man and Myth. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(2000) ‘Blurred roles and permeable boundaries: the experience of multidisciplinary working in community mental health’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 8 (6): 425–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.2000.00268.x, and (1999) Family Therapy Theory and Practice,and (2nd edn.London: International Thompson.2002) ‘Child abuse: defining, understanding and intervening’, in K.Wilson and A.James (eds), The Child Protection Handbook. London: Balliére Tindall.(2002) ‘Family support’, in D.McNeish, T.Newman and H.Roberts (eds), What Works For Children? Effective Services for Children and Families. Buckingham: Open University Press.(2000) ‘Child protection: an unreflective practice’, Social Work Education, 19 (3): 253–63.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615470050024068(2003) Child Protection: Beyond the Rhetoric. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/714052808(1984). Family Therapy. London: Tavistock Publications.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203404379(2012) Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World’, Radio Times. Available at: http://www.radiotimes.com/episode/k5nkq/seven-wonders-of-the-buddhist-world, accessed 14 May 2012(1997) Social Work with Children and Families: Getting into Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0300443951060104and (1988) Report of the Inquiry into Child Abuse in Cleveland 1987, Cmnd 412. London: HMSO., (1998) Rewriting Family Scripts: Improvisation and Systems Change. New York: Guilford Press.(2003) ‘The Assessment Framework: a critique and reformulation’, in M.Calder and S.Hackett (eds), Assessment in Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.(Calder, M. (ed.) (2008) Contemporary Risk Assessment in Safeguarding Children. Lyme Regis: Russell House.2003) Assessment in Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.and (Calder, M. and Horwath, J. (eds) (1999) Working for Children on the Child Protection Register. Aldershot: Arena.1988) Unofficial Secrets. London: Virago.(Campbell, D. and Draper, R. (eds) (1985) Applications of Systemic Family Therapy. London: Grune & Stratton.1992) Social Work and Europe. London: Macmillan/BASW., and (2000) What Works with Children and Adolescents?London: Routledge.(1999) The Expanded Life Cycle: Individual, Family & Social Perspectives,and (3rd edn.Boston: Allyn & Bacon.1988) ‘A partnership with child and family’, Senior Nurse, 8 (4): 8–9.(1993) ‘Development and use of the partnership model of nursing care’, in G.Glasper and A.Tucker (eds), Advances In Child Health Nursing. London: Scutari.(2000) Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom: A Study on the Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect. London: NSPCC., , and (1994) ‘Assembling the evidence’, in Alderson, P. et al. (eds), What Works? Effective Social Interventions in Child Welfare. Barkingside: Barnardo's.([Page 190]2000) Training Together to Safeguard Children. London: NSPCC.and (1991) Multidisciplinary is Different: Sharing Perspectives. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.with (1997) Evaluating Social Work Effectiveness. Milton Keynes: OU Press.(1992) Evaluating Social Work Effectiveness. Buckingham: Open University Press., , and (Children's Society (2002) Thrown Away. London: The Children's Society.Christiansen, E. and James, G. (eds) (2000) Research with Children, Perspectives and Practices. London: Falmer.1989) ‘European child-abuse management systems, in comparison of child and parent training interventions’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65 (1): 93–109.(1999) Children's Needs: Parenting Capacity. London: DH., and (1998) Social Assessment Theory and Practice. Aldershot: Aldgate.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615470120107059(1997) ‘Beliefs about women's intergenerational family obligations to provide support before and after divorce and remarriage’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59 (1): 165–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353670, and (1998) Our Children at Risk: Children and Youth Issues. London: YMCA.(1987) Working With Child Abuse. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(2000) Child Abuse: Towards A Knowledge Base,(2nd edn.Buckingham: Open University Press.1978) Social Work Practice under Capitalism: A Marxist Approach. London: Macmillan.and (1997) ‘Socio-economic attainment, regional disparities, and internal migration’, European Sociological Review, 13 (1): 55–77.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a018206(1999) ‘Counselling psychology in the UK: the interface between practice and research’, The European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Health, 2 (1): 69–80.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13642539908400807(1999) ‘Not listening to patients: the use and misuse of patient satisfaction studies’, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45 (1): 1–6.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002076409904500101and (2007) ‘Assessment Frameworks: a critical reflection’, British Journal of Social Work, 37 (6): 1059–77.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl053, , and (1994) Counting on Families: Social Audit Report on the Provision of Family Support Services. London: Exploring Parenthood.(1997) ‘Patterns of attachment and sexual behaviour: risk of dysfunction versus opportunity for creating integration’, in L.Atkinson and K.Zucker (eds), Attachment and Psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199506001-00004(CSCI (2004) Factsheet: Children's Views and Report on Keeping Children Safe from Harm. London: Commission for Social Care Inspection.2004) ‘Like a fish in a bowl: parents’ perceptions of child protection services’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 137–57.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.837(1986) Dangerous Families. London: Routledge., , and (2000) An Introduction to Family Therapy. Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1997) Access to Assessment: Perspectives of Practitioners, Disabled People, and Carers. Bristol: Policy Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jse.2012.7, and (1999) ‘The joint practitioner - a new concept in professional training’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13 (4): 395–404.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829909010384, and ([Page 191]1997) ‘Sociology after society’, in D.Owen (ed.), Sociology After Postmodernism. London: Sage.(1997) In a Class Apart: A Study of School Nursing. Norwich: East Norfolk Health Authority.and (2002) Norfolk Family Support Teams Final Evaluation Report. Chelmsford: APU Centre for Research in Health and Social Care.and (1998) ‘The history of child abuse’, Journal of Psychohistory, 25 (3): 622–43.(1997) Not to be Ignored: Young People, Poverty and Health. London: Child Poverty Action Group., and (Department for Education and Employment (1998) Towards an Interdisciplinary Framework for Developing Work with Children and Young People. Childhood Studies Discipline Network. Conference presentation, Cambridge, Robinson College.Department for Work and Pensions (2003) Annual Report. London: HMSO.DES (1988) Child Protection in Schools. London: Department of Education and Science, Circular 4/88.1982) Patterns of Brief Family Therapy: An Ecosystemic Approach. New York: The Guilford Press.(DfE (2011) Revised Working Together Guidance. London: HMSO.DfES (2002) Don't Suffer in Silence: An Anti-bullying Pack for Schools. London: HMSO.DfES (2003a) Keeping Children Safe. London: HMSO.DfES (2003b) The Children Act Report 2002. Nottingham: HMSO.DfES (2003a) Children in Need. London: HMSO.DfES (2003b) Every Child Matters. London: HMSO.DfES (2004a) Refocusing Children's Services Towards Prevention: Lessons from the Literature. Research report 510. London: HMSO.DfES (2004b) The Children Act. Nottingham: HMSO.DfES (2005a) Common Core of Skills & Knowledge for the Children's Workforce. London: HMSO.DfES (2005b) Common Assessment Framework. London: HMSO.DfES (2006) Working Together to Safeguard Children: A Guide to Inter-agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. London: HMSO.DfES (2010) Children Looked After in England and Wales. London: DfES.DH (1988) Protecting Children: A Guide for Social Workers Undertaking a Comprehensive Assessment. London: HMSO.DH (1989a) Children Act. London: HMSO.DH (1989b) The Children Act 1989: An Introductory Guide for the NHS. London: HMSO.DH (1991a) Child Abuse: A Study of Inquiry Reports 1980–1989. London: HMSO.DH (1991b) Family Placements, the Children Act 1989, Guidance and Regulations, 3. London: HMSO.DH (1991c) Working Together under the Children Act 1989. London: HMSO.DH (1995) Child Protection: Messages from Research. London: HMSO.DH (1996) National Commission of Inquiry into Child Protection. London: HMSO.DH (1997) General Household Survey. London: HMSO.DH (1998) Disability and Discrimination Act. London: HMSODH (1999a) Working Together to Safeguard Children. London: HMSO.DH (1999b) Lac circular (99) 33. Quality Protects Programme: Transforming Children's Services 2000–01. London: HMSO.[Page 192]DH (1999c) Executive Summary, Convention on the Rights of the Child: Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child by the United Kingdom. London: HMSO.DH (1999d) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families. London: HMSO.DH (1999e) The Protection of Children Act. London: HMSO.DH (2000a) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families. London: HMSO.DH (2000b) Quality Protects: Disabled Children, Numbers and Categories. London: HMSO.DH (2001a) National Plan for Safeguarding Children from Commercial Sexual Exploitation. London: HMSO.DH (2001b) Children (Leaving Care) Act. London: HMSO.DH (2002) Child in Need Survey. London: HMSO.DH (2003a) Children Looked After by Local Authorities. London: HMSO.DH (2003b) Guidelines for the Appointment of General Practitioners with Special Interests in the Delivery of Clinical Services: Child Protection. London: HMSO.DH (2003c) The Victoria Climbié Inquiry. London: HMSO.DH (2003d) Green Paper: Every Child Matters. London: DH.DH (2003e) What to do if You Are Worried a Child is Being Abused. London: HMSO.DH (2004) National Service Framework for Children, Families, and Midwifery Services. London: HMSO.DH (2010a) Prioritising Need in the Context of Putting People First, a Whole System Approach to Eligibilty for Social Care. London: TSO.DH (2010b) Working Together. London: HMSO.DH (2011a) Health and Social Care Bill. London: HMSO.DH (2011b) Capabilities Framework. London: HMSO.DH/DfEE (1996) Children's Service Planning: Guidance for Inter-Agency Working. London: HMSO.DH/SSI (2002) Safeguarding Children: A Joint Chief Inspectors Report on Arrangements to Safeguard Children. London: DH.DHSS (1974a) Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Care and Supervision Provided in Relation to Maria Colwell. London: HMSO.DHSS (1974b) Non-accidental Injury To Children, LASSL (74), (13). London: DHSS.DHSS (1983) Child Abuse: A Study of Inquiry Reports 1973–1981. London: HMSO.DHSS (1986) Child Abuse - Working Together: A Draft Guide to Arrangements for Interagency Cooperation for the Protection of Children. London: HMSO.DHSS (1988) Working Together. London: HMSO.1999) ‘Psychiatric disorder among children at time of entering local authority care’, British Medical Journal, 319: 675–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7211.675, , , , and (1995) The Protection of Children, State Intervention and Family Life. Aldershot: Avebury., and (2002) Anti-oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(1998) ‘Anti-oppressive practice in context’, in R.Adams, L.Dominelli and M.Payne (eds), Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates. Basingstoke: Macmillan.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2007.751_2.x(Dominelli, L. (ed.) (1999) Community Approaches to Child Welfare. Aldershot: Ashgate.2003) ‘Mind the gap: the need for a generic bridge between psychoanalytic and systemic approaches’, Journal of Family Therapy, 25: 115–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00240(1988) Family Therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.([Page 193]2000) ‘The prevention of mental disorders in children and adolescents: future research and public-policy recommendations’, Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 81 (3): 294–303.and (1998) ‘Primary prevention programmes for children and adolescents are effective’, Journal of Mental Health, 7 (5): 454–69.(1997) ‘Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 25 (2): 115–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024654026646and (DWP (2011) A New Approach to Child Poverty: Tackling the Causes of Disadvantage and Transforming Families’ Lives. London: Department for Work and Pensions.1992) ‘Methodological issues and future directions in the evaluation of early intervention programmes’, Child Care, Health and Development, 18 (1): 15–28.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1992.tb00337.xand (1996) ‘School-based applications of the wraparound process: early results on service provision and student outcomes’, Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5: 83–99.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02234680, and (1996) ‘Lesbian and gay family issues’, Journal of Family Nursing, 2 (1): 10–29.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107484079600200102(1992) ‘Predicting peer competence and peer relationships in childhood from early parent-child relationships’, in R.Parke and G.Ladd (eds), Family-Peer Relationships. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.et al. (1993) Partnership in Child Protection. London: Office for Public Management/National Institute of Social Work.and (1996) Evaluating Good Practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan.and (1992) ‘Collaboration between nurses and physicians; no longer a choice’, Academic Medicine, 67 (5): 295–303.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199205000-00002(1995) ‘Training to think culturally: a multidimensional comparative framework’, Family Process, 34: 373–88.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1995.00373.x(1995) Integrated Mental Health Care: A Comprehensive Community-based Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and (1995) Child Protection Practice: Private Risks and Public Remedies. London: HMSO.and (1996) Study of Working Together “Part 8” Reports: Fatal Child Abuse and Parental Psychiatric Disorder, DH - ACPC Series, Report No. 1. London: HMSO.(2000) ‘Look, listen and learn’, Community Care, July. Sutton: Reed.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0260-6917%2892%2990173-L(2004) Contemporary Child Care Policy and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., and (2008) ‘Liquid social work: welfare interventions as mobile practices’, British Journal of Social Work, 38 (3): 561–79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl367(2001) Keeping Children Safe: Child Abuse, Child Protection and the Promotion of Welfare. Dublin: Framar.and (1994) ‘Against the grain: co-operation in child sexual abuse investigations’, in, M.Stephens and S.Becker (eds), Police Force Police Service: Care And Control In Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan.and (1985) Social Work Stress and Intervention. Aldershot: Gower.(1999) ‘Reducing the distance: mental health social work in general practice’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13 (4): 335–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829909010379, and (2012) Social Work: Critical Theory and Practice,(2nd edn.London: Sage.1976) ‘Social work and system theory’, British Journal of Social Work, 6 (1): 23–42.(2000) ‘Parental substance abuse and child protection in a British sample’, Child Abuse Review, 9 (4): 235–46.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0852%28200007/08%299:4%3C235::AID-CAR626%3E3.0.CO;2-4([Page 194]1991) Perspectives in Child Care Policy. London: Longman.(1996) ‘Consulting service users: the views of young people’, in M.Hill and J.Aldgate (eds), Child Welfare Services: Developments in Law, Policy, Practice and Research. London: Jessica Kingsley. pp. 88–97., , and (1984) State, Law and the Family. London: Tavistock.(1973) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.(Standard edition. Vol. 6. London: Hogarth Press.FRG (1986) FRG's Response to the DHSS Consultation Paper: Child Abuse - Working Together. London: Family Rights Group.2001) ‘Family therapy research: science into practice, practice into science’, in M.P.Nichols and R.C.Schwartz (eds), Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods,(5th edn.Boston: Alleyn & Bacon.1999) Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v23n01_09and (1991) ‘Evaluating social work effectiveness: a pragmatic approach’, in T.Furniss (ed.), The Multi-professional Handbook of Child Sexual Abuse. London: Routledge.(2003) Therapy Culture. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446213575.n6(1992) The Supervision of Child Protection Work. Aldershot: Avebury.(1998) Family Support: Practitioners Guide. Birmingham: Venture.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083v13n01_07(1984) ‘The study of stress and competence in children: a building block for developmental psychotherapy’, Child Development, 5: 97–111., and (Garratt, D., Roche, J. and Tucker, S. (eds) (1997) Changing Experiences Of Youth. London: Sage/Open University Press.1996) ‘A representational perspective of child abuse and prevention: internal working models of attachment and caregiving’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 20 (5): 411–24http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2896%2900016-6(1997) Talking About My Generation. London: NSPCC.and (1995) Needs, Risks and Family Support Plans: Social Services Departments Responses to Neglected Children. Norwich: University of East Anglia.and (1992) The Effectiveness of Child Protection Procedures. Nantwich: Social Information Systems., and (2011) ‘Decision-making tools and the development of expertise in child protection practitioners: are we “just breeding workers who are good at ticking boxes”?’, Child & Family Social Work, 10: 1365–2206.(1998) ‘The effects of organisational climate and inter-organisational coordination on the quality and outcomes of children's service systems’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 22 (5): 401–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2898%2900005-2and (GMC (1993) Confidentiality and Child Abuse. London: General Medical Council, July, No. 3.2004) Family Therapy - An Overview. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Learning.and (1991) ‘Sex, power and gender: a feminist analysis of the politics of passion’, Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 3: 63–83.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J086v03n01_04(1973) Social Work Practice: A Unitary Approach. South Carolina: University of South Carolina.http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/644219(1997) How we Feel: An Insight into the Emotional World of Teenagers. London: Jessica Kingsley.and (1989) Heroes of Their Own Lives. London: Virago.(1998) Family Therapy in Changing Times. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1954) Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. New York: Free.(2004) ‘The interface between the child welfare and criminal justice systems in England’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 312–23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.863([Page 195]1995) Preventing Anti-social Behaviour in At-risk Students. London: OERI.(1993) Representations of Youth: The Study of Youth and Adolescence in Britain and America. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1995) ‘The efficacy of parent training for promoting positive parent-toddler relationships’, Research in Nursing and Health, 18: 489–99.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770180605, and (2000) Reducing Domestic Violence, What Works?PRCU Briefing Note. London: HMSO.(1993) Domestic Violence: Action for Change. Cheltenham: New Clarion Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2011.01034.xand (1976) Problem Solving Therapy. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.(1993) ‘Culture, community, nation’, Cultural Studies, 7 (3): 16–29.(1995) Interagency Coordination in Child Protection. London: HMSO.(1992) Coordination and Child Protection: A Review of the Literature. London: HMSO.and (1988) Sociology: Theses and Perspectives. London: Unwin Hyman.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716297554001034(1991) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives,and (3rd edn.London: Collins Educational.Harbin, F. and Murphy, M. (eds) (2000) Substance Misuse and Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.1995) The Social Policy Contexts of Services to Prevent Unstable Family Life. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.(1991) ‘The social policy contexts of prevention in child care’, British Journal Of Social Work, 21: 341–59., and (1991) ‘Sex, lies and headaches: the problem is power’, Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 3: 39–61.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J086v03n01_03(2003) Partnership Made Painless. Lyme Regis: Russell House., , , and (2003) A Short History of Cultural Studies. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216934(2002) Social Work Practices: Contemporary Perspectives on Change. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218969(1930) Physikalische Prinzipien der Quantentheorie. Leipzig: Hirzel. (English translation, The Physical Principles of Quantum Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.)(1997) International Perspectives on Family Support. Aldershot: Ashgate., and (2010) Making Sense of Child and Family Assessment: How to Interpret Children's Needs. London: Jessica Kingsley.(2001) Culture, Health and Illness,(4th edn.London: Arnold.Hendrick, H. (ed.) (2005) Child Welfare and Social Policy: An Essential Reader. Bristol: Policy Press.1999) ‘Children as service evaluators’, Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 4 (4): 153–61.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1360641799002105(1998) ‘Sensitive topics and adolescents: making research about risk taking behaviours happen’, Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 21: 173–86., , and (2000) Making an Impact: Children and Domestic Violence. London: Jessica Kingsley., and (2001) ‘Supporting families with a mentally ill parent: European perspectives on interagency cooperation’, Child Abuse Review, 10: 351–65.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.701and (1999) Effective Ways of Working with Children and their Families. London: Jessica Kingsley.([Page 196]1996) ‘Engaging with primary-age children about their emotions and well-being: methodological considerations’, Children and Society, 10: 129–44., and (HMSO (1968) Local Authority and Allied personal Social Services. Cmnd 3703. London: HMSO.1981) Foundations of Family Therapy. New York: Basic Books.(2002) ‘Psychodramas with “at risk” youth: a means of active engagement’, in A.Bannister and A.Huntington (eds), Communicating With Children and Adolescents: Action For Change. London: Jessica Kingsley.(1999) ‘Small cultures’, Applied Linguistics, 20 (2): 23–64.(1998) ‘Working with fathers of children in need’, in R.Bayley (ed.), Transforming Children's Lives: The Importance of Early Intervention. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.(1995) All our Futures: The Impact of Public Expenditure and Fiscal Policies on Britain's Children and Young People. Barkingside: Barnardo's.(Home Office (1988) The Investigation of Child Sexual Abuse, Circular 52/1988. London: Home Office.Home Office (2000) Living Without Fear: Multi-agency Guidance for Addressing Domestic Violence. London: HMSO.Home Office (2004) The Bichard Report. London: HMSO.Home Office (2008) Crime in England & Wales. London: HMSO.Home Office (2010) Social Trends. London: HMSO.Home Office/DH (2001) Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings. London: HMSO.House of Commons (1997) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. London: HMSO.House of Commons, Health Committee (2009) Health Inequalities Report. London: HMSO.House of Lords (1986) Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority, 1 AC 112.2002) ‘Maintaining a focus on the child?’, Child Abuse Review, 11: 195–213.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.742(1986) Social Workers and their Practice in Welfare Bureaucracies. Aldershot: Gower.(1989) The Consumer's View of Family Therapy. London: Gower.(1999) Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment and Family Support. Basingstoke: Macmillan., , and (1991) Power in Caring Professions. London: Macmillan.(1995) The Emotionally Abused and Neglected Child: Identification, Assessment and Intervention. Chichester: Wiley.(2004) ‘Child protection at the community level’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 368–83.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.871(2000) Social Work Assessment and Intervention. Cambridge: Anglia Polytechnic University.and (2002) Foundations of Sociology. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2011) Poverty and Inequality. London: Institute of Fiscal Studies.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/873322617282(1996) Britain's Ethnic Minorities: An Analysis of the Labour Force Survey. London: Policy Studies Institute.(2002) ‘Developing a child concern model to embrace the framework’, in M.Calder and S.Hackett (eds), The Child Care Assessment Manual. Lyme Regis: Russell House.and (2005) Social Work with Children and Families. Exeter: Learning Matters.and (1972) Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. New York: Princeton University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1146.2010.01421(1999) A Practical Guide: Protecting Children. London: College of Health/Cassell.(2003) Protecting Children: A Practical Guide. London: Continuum.(2000) Alcohol, Drug and Mental Health Problems: Working with Families. London: National Institute of Social Work., and ([Page 197]2003) Children's Cultural Worlds. London: Wiley/OUP.and (1996) ‘When woman protection is the best kind of child protection: children, domestic violence and child abuse’, Administration, 44 (2): 118–35.(1995) Consumer Involvement Initiatives in Clinical Audits and Outcomes. London: College of Health.(1962) ‘The battered child syndrome’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 181: 1., , , and (1997) ‘Approaches to working with ethnicity and cultural issues’, in K.Dwivedi (ed.), Enhancing Parenting Skills. London: Wiley. pp. 59–77.(1999) Traveller Children: A Voice for Themselves. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2800%2900014-8(1995) ‘A training guideline of cultural competence for child and adolescent psychiatric residencies’, Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 26 (2): 125–36.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02353236(1971) ‘Race and IQ’, Courier, 24: 10.(1995) The Race Gallery. London: Jonathan Cape.(2005) Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Social Work. Exeter: Learning Matters.(1993) ‘Morbidity and death due to child abuse in New Zealand’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 17 (2): 233–47.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990043-5, , , and (1996) Treating Children Well: A Guide to Using the Evidence Base in Commissioning and Managing Services for the Mental Health of Children and Young People. London. Mental Health Foundation.(1998) ‘Adolescents’ perception of physicians, nurses, parents and friends’, Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 27: 760.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00608.x(1969) ‘Interventions in social situations’. Philadelphia Association. Cited in Context, 60: 2–7, April 2002. Warrington: Association for Family Therapy and Systemic Practice.(2003) The Inquiry into the Death of Victoria Climbié. London: HMSO.(1995) Taking Part: Children's Participation in Decision-making. London: IPPR.(2000) ‘Towards a common ground in psychoanalysis and family therapy: on knowing not to know’, Journal of Family Therapy, 22: 61–82.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00138(1979) ‘Family therapy outcome research’, Journal of Family Therapy, 1 (4): 87–91.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j..1979.00481.x(Laufer, M. (ed.) (1985) The Suicidal Adolescent. London: Karnac.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026687387007000111994) Going Inter-professional. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203137796(1981) ‘Culture and psychiatry’, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26 (8): 522–9.(1975) ‘Towards a paradigm for radical practice’, in R.Bailey and M.Brake (eds), Radical Social Work. London: Arnold.(1997) Postmodern Welfare: Reconstructing an Emancipatory Project. London: Sage.(2003) Child Protection,(2nd edn.London: Hodder and Stoughton.1999) Prevention and Early Intervention with Children in Need. Aldershot: Ashgate.and (Lloyd, E. (ed.) (1999) Parenting Matters: What Works in Parenting Education?London: Barnardo's.1993) Child Abuse,and (2nd edn.Bristol: Jordan.2002) ‘Child protection’, in D.McNeish, T.Newman and H.Roberts (eds), What Works For Children? Effective Services for Children and Families. Buckingham: Open University Press.([Page 198]1995) What Works in the Early Years? Effective Interventions for Children and their Families. Barkingside: Barnardo's.and (1981) Strategic Family Therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9816-5_3(2001) Understanding Difference: The Meaning of Ethnicity for Young Lives. London: National Children's Bureau.http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09604521111185628(1997) ‘Integrated services for children and youth at risk: an international study of multidisciplinary training’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 11 (1): 99–108.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829709040248, and . (2010) Social Work Assessment. Exeter: Learning Matters.(1988) Against Therapy. London: Collins.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2126%2802%2900327-2(May, T. (ed) (2002) Qualitative Research in Action. London: Sage.1996) ‘Attachment patterns and their outcomes’, Human Development, 36: 206–23.(1998) Families and Kinship. London: Family Policy Studies Centre., and (McGoldrick, M., Pearce, J. and Giordano, J. (eds) (1982) Ethnicity and Family Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.2008) Listening to Children: A Practitioner's Guide. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03004430701379009(2002) ‘Involving children and young people in decision making’, in D.McNeish, T.Newman and H.Roberts (eds), What Works For Children?Buckingham: Open University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00868992and (Mental Health Foundation (1999) The Big Picture: Promoting Children's and Young People's Mental Health. London: Mental Health Foundation.1992) ‘Working with Bangladeshi families in the East End of London’, Journal of Family Therapy, 14 (3): 287–305.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j..1992.00461.x(2000) Well-being of Children in the European Union: New Economy. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0297.00480and (1997) The Art of Assessment. Birmingham: Venture.(2001) ‘Issues in international social work: resolving critical debates in the profession’, Journal of Social Work, 1 (1): 21–35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146801730100100103(2002) ‘Attachment security in couple relationships: a systemic model and its implications for family dynamics’, Family Process, 43 (3): 405–34., , and (1990) ‘Enhancement of social learning family interventions for childhood conduct disorders’, Psychological Bulletin, 108: 291–307.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.2.291and (2009) Assessment in Social Work,and (3rd edn.London: Macmillan.Ministry of Justice (2011) Re-offending of Juveniles: 2009 Cohort Statistics. London: Ministry of Justice1974) Families and Family Therapy. London: Tavistock Publications.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1998.tb01094.x(1984) Family Kaleidoscope. London: Harvard University Press.(1999) Globalization and the Welfare State. Northampton MA: Edward Elgar.(1997) Ethnic Minorities in Britain. London: Policy Studies Institute.and (1992) The ABC of Child Protection. Aldershot: Ashgate.http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2008.138412(2000) Having Someone Who Cares? Barriers to Change in the Public Care of Children. London: National Children's Bureau Enterprises Limited.(1996) Family Group Conferences: Messages from UK Practice and Research. London: Family Rights Group.and ([Page 199]1997) ‘Evaluating performance and change in mental health systems serving children and youth: an interorganizational network approach’, The Journal of Mental Health Administration, 24 (1): 4–22., and (1993) Supervision in Social Care. London: Longman.(1997) ‘Emotionally competent child protection organisations: fallacy, fiction or necessity?’, in J.Bates, R.Pugh and N.Thompson (eds), Protecting Children: Challenges and Change. Aldershot: Arena.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820020003919(1998) Understanding Families: Children's Perspectives. London: National Children's Bureau.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147130120500400109(1998) The Textbook of Children's Nursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.and (1983) ‘Sexual abuse of children in the United Kingdom’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 7: 147–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2883%2990066-2, and (Muncie, J., Wetherall, M., Dallos, R. and Cochrane, A. (eds) (1997) Understanding the Family. London: Sage.1982) ‘Humanising nursing home environments: the relevance of hospice principles’, International Journal of Ageing and Human Development, 15: 263–84.http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/NKHF-2WLK-VTRD-Q3NV, and (2005) ‘Improving practice: child protection as a systems problem’, Children and Youth Services Review, 27: 375–91.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.11.006(2008) Effective Child Protection,(2nd edn.London: Sage.2011a) The Munro Review of Child Protection - Interim Report: The Child's Journey. London: DfE(2011b) The Munro Review of Child Protection - A Child-Centred System: Final Report. London: DfE.(2005) ‘Where has child protection gone?’, The Political Quarterly, 76 (3).and (2011) ‘A systems approach to organisational change in children's social care’, British Journal of Social Work, 41: 726–43.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcr074and (1996a) The Child Protection Unit. Aldershot: Avebury.(1996b) Child Protection Specialist Units. Aldershot: Avebury.(1997) ‘Staff care in a multidisciplinary context’, in J.Bates (ed.), Protecting Children: Challenges and Change. Aldershot: Arena.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01080069(2000) ‘The interagency trainer’, in M.Charles and E.Hendry (eds), Training Together to Safeguard Children. London: NSPCC.(2003) ‘Keeping going’, in R.Harrison, G.Mann, M.Murphy, A.Taylor and N.Thompson (eds), Partnership Made Painless. Lyme Regis: Russell House.(2004) Developing Collaborative Relationships in Interagency Child Protection Work. Lyme Regis: Russell House.(2000) ‘Establishing and developing co-operative links between substance misuse and child protection systems’, in F.Harbin and M.Murphy (eds), Substance Misuse and Childcare. Lyme Regis: Russell House.and (1997) ‘The effects of infants’ behaviour on maternal mental health’, Health Visitor, 66 (2).(NCB (2005) Social Inclusion. London: National Children's Bureau.NCH (1979) Who Cares?London: National Children's Homes.NCH Action for Children (2010) Fact File. London: NCH.2002) Promoting Resilience: A Review of Effective Strategies for Child Care ServicesBarkingside: Barnardo's.([Page 200]NFPI (2010) Delivery of Parenting Skills Programmes. London: National Family and Parenting Institute.NISW (1982) Social Workers: Their Role and Tasks. London: National Institute of Social Work/Bedford Square Press.1992) ‘Foreword’, in C.Cloke and J.Naish (eds), Key Issues in Child Protection for Health Visitors and Nurses. London: NSPCC/Longman.and (NSPCC (1996) Childhood Matters: The Report of The National Commission of Inquiry into the Prevention of Child Abuse, Vol. 1. London: HMSO.NSPCC (2000) Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom. London: NSPCC.NSPCC (2010) Ten Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them: What Research Tells Us. London: NSPCC.1998) ‘A European perspective on early years training’, in L.Abbott and G.Pugh (eds), Training to Work in the Early Years: Developing the Climbing Frame. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1989) Working With Child Sexual Abuse. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1993) Emotional and Psychological Abuse of Children. Buckingham: Open University Press.(2008) Social Work with Children and Families,and (2nd edn.Exeter: Learning Matters.Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) (2002) The British Census 2001. London: HMSO.Ofsted (2008) Learning Lessons, Taking Action: Ofsted's Evaluations of Serious Case Reviews, April 2007-March 2008. London: DCSF.1999) ‘Educational needs of black children in care’, in R.Barn (ed.), Working With Black Children and Adolescents in Need. London: BAAF.(Okitikpi, T. and Aymer, C. (eds) (2008) The Art of Social Work Practice. Lyme Regis: Russell House.1994) A National Survey of Community Mental Health Teams: Team Structure. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638239409003798, and (1999) ‘Action leadership: the development of an approach to leadership enhancement for grassroots community leaders in children's mental health’, The Journal of Behavioural Health Services and Research, 26 (2): 171–85.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02287489, and (1996) ‘Five ways to describe a multidisciplinary team’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 10 (2): 163–71.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829609034099(1995) 1991 Census Statistical Papers 1–9. Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, London: Commission for Racial Equality.(Oxford English Dictionary (2010) Electronic version. Oxford: Clarendon.1990) ‘Child protection in Greece’, in A.Sale and M.Davies (eds), Child Protection Policies and Practice in Europe. London: NSPCC.(2000) Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146879680100100112(1992) ‘Supervision vs control’, in C.Cloke and J.Naish (eds), Key Issues in Child Protection for Health Visitors and Nurses. London: NSPCC/Longman.(Parsloe, P. (ed) (1999) Risk Assessment in Social Care and Social Work. London: Jessica Kingsley.1985) The Politics of Child Abuse. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1991) Governing the Family. Basingstoke: Macmillan.http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/204674312X633180([Page 201]1999) ‘Reconfiguring child welfare practices: risk, advanced liberalism and the government of freedom’, in A.S.Chambon, A.Irving and L.Epstein (eds), Reading Foucault for Social Work. Chichester: Columbia Press.(2002) Discovery and Inclusion: Submission to the Victoria Climbié Inquiry, Phase 2, Seminar 1. London: HMSO.(2011) ‘Child protection and safeguarding in England: changing and competing conceptions of risk and their implications for social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 41 (5): 854–75.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcq119(1997) Realistic Evaluation. London: Sage.and (1997) Modern Social Work Theroy. London: Macmillan.(2005) Modern Social Work Theory,(3rd edn.Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.1991) Inter-professional Collaboration: Professional and Personal Perspectives, Part 2. Manchester: Boys’ and Girls’ Welfare Society.(2000) ‘Front-line workers faced pressures of isolation, lack of support and chaos’, Community Care, Feb, 16–17.(2000) ‘Reflexivity one step up’, Theroy, Culture and Society, 17 (3): 1–25.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632760022051194(1996) Anti Racist Work with Young People. Lyme Regis: Russell House.and (Perelberg, R.J. and Miller, A.C. (eds) (1990) Gender and Power in Families. London: Routledge.2003) ‘Systematic review of screening instruments to identify child abuse during the perinatal period’, Child Abuse Review, 12.and (Child Protection Specialist Units. Aldershot: Avebury.(individual interview, 2 April 1990) in (1996)1979) ‘The interagency team in an urban setting: the special unit concept’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 3: 115–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2879%2990020-6and (2002) Tackling Social Exclusion. London: Routledge.(2004) Globalization and Culture. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110894110(1974) Social Work Practice: Model and Method. London: Peacock.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02321216and (2001) ‘Korrectional kareoke: New Labour and the zombification of youth justice’, Youth Justice, 1 (2): 3–16.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147322540100100202(2011) ‘Assessments of children and families: learning and teaching the skills of analysis’, Social Work Education, 30 (2): 157–69.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2011.540381(1993) The Child Witness Pack: Helping Children to Cope. London: NSPCC/Childline.(2001) ‘The quest for modern manhood: masculine stereotypes, peer culture and the social significance of homophobia’, Journal of Adolescence, 24: 15–23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.2000.0370(1997) ‘Feeling understood in family therapy’, Journal of Family Therapy, 19: 279–98.(1999) ‘A model programme for busy learners’, Child Abuse Review, 8: 284–8.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0852%28199907/08%298:4%3C284::AID-CAR560%3E3.0.CO;2-Hand (1992) Changing Patterns of Mental Health Care. London: Avebury.and (1993) ‘Making multi-cultiralism relevant for majority culture graduate students’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 19 (1): 5–17.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1993.tb00961.xand (1996) Learning to be a Parent. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/025576149903400105and (1999) ‘Social work’, in K.Bhui and D.Olajide (eds), Mental Health Service Provision for a Multi-cultural Society. London: Saunders.(1994) ‘Models of interprofessional work: likely theories and possibilities’, in , and , (2000) Social Work and Social Problems. Basingstoke: Palgrave.([Page 202]RCP (1991) Physical Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children. London: Royal College of Physicians.1993) Beyond Blame: Child Abuse Tragedies Revisited. London: Routledge., and (2003) ‘Understanding communication in child protection networks’, Child Abuse Review, 12: 82–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.787and (1995) Assessment of Parenting: Psychiatric and Psychological Contributions. London: Routledge.and (1982) Verdicts on Social Work. London: Arnold.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03124078808549988and (1995) Introducing User-friendly Family Therapy. London: Routledge.and (2002a) ‘Laming probe reveals scope of communications breakdown’, Community Care, Feb.(2002b) ‘Social services take on wider role as councils combine departments’, Community Care, August.(1998) ‘Resilience among black urban youth: intervention effects and mechanisms of influence’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68 (1): 84–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080273(1990) Staff Supervision in Child Protection Work. London: National Institute of Social Work., and (1997) ‘Working together: inter-professional collaboration’, Journal Of Child Health, 1 (4): 191–4.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136749359700100409(2004) ‘Dancing on a razor's edge: systemic groupwork with batterers’, Journal of Family Therapy, 26 (2): 142–63.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6427.2004.00275.xand (2003) Family Therapy in Focus. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218914and (1998) ‘The refocusing children's initiative: an overview of practice’, in. R.Bayley (ed.), Transforming Children's Lives: The Importance of Early Intervention. London. Family Policy Studies Centre. pp. 86–90.(2000) ‘Pathways: a model service delivery system’, in: N.N.Singh, J.P.Leung and A.N.Singh, International Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. London: Elsevier. pp. 421–30.(2003) Children at Risk 2002–2003: Government Initiatives and Commentaries on Government Policy. London: National Family and Parenting Institute.(1996) What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research. London: Guilford Press.and (2009) (ed.) Post Qualifying Child Care Social Work: Developing Reflective Practice. London: Sage.(1998) ‘Yes and but, and then again maybe’, in R.Davies (ed.), Stress in Social Work. London: Jessica Kingsley.(1985) ‘Resilience in the face of adversity’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 147: 598–611.http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.147.6.598(1995) Psychosocial Disturbances in Young People: Challenges for Prevention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1995) Psychosocial Disorders in Young People: Time Trends and their Causes. London: Wiley.and (1994) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444300895, and (1999) The Children Act 1989: Putting it into Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.(Sale, A. and Davies, M. (eds) (1990) Child Protection Policies and Practice in Europe. London: NSPCC.Salford Centre for Social Work Research (2004) Education & Training for Inter-agency Working: New Standards. Manchester: University of Salford.[Page 203]1999) ‘Working with lesbian mothers: their healthcare experiences’, Community Practitioner, 72 (12): 396–97.and (1999) ‘Children with problems: focusing on everyday life’, Children and Society, 13: 106–18.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1999.tb00112.x(1993) ‘The prevalence and context of family violence against children in Finland’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 16 (6): 823–32.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990084-5and (SCIE (2003) Assessment in Social Work: A Guide for Learning and Teaching. London: Social Care Institute of Excellence.SCIE (2004) SCIE Research Briefing 9: Preventing Teenage Pregnancy in Looked After Children. Available at: http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/briefings/briefing09SCIE (2005) Knowledge Review - Learning and Teaching in Social Work Education-Assessment. London: Social Care Institute for Excellence.1997) ‘Interagency conflict: an ethnographic study’, Child and Family Social Work, 2 (2): 73–80.(1991) ‘Child abuse: do social work students get enough practice experience?’, Practice, 5 (2): 153–9.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09503159108411551(2001) ‘Child and adolescent mental health training for primary care staff’, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 6(2): 191–204.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104501006002003and (2010) ‘Unified assessment: policy, implementation and practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 40 (1): 207–25.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcn097, and (1975) An Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. London, Hogarth Press.(1998) Contemporary Issues in Social Work: Western Europe. Aldershot: Arena.and (2003) Review of Education and Training for Inter-agency Working. Manchester: University of Salford., , , , and (1997) Children and Adolescents with Mental Health Problems. London: Balliere-Tindall.(2007) Unlocking the Truth: Families Experiences of the Investigations of Deaths in Custody. London: Inquest.and (2004) ESRC Research, Social Work and Social Care. London: SCIE., and (2003) ‘Mobile transformations of “public” and “private” life’, Theory, Culture and Society, 20 (3): 107–25.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632764030203007and (1991) ‘Aspects of the Children Act: - a medical perspective’, Health Trends, 23 (2): 51–3.(2001) ‘Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: relationship and prognostic significance’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 179: 230–35.(1996) ‘Conflict in close relationships: an attachment perspective’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71 (5): 899–914.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.119, , , and (1995) Social Work and Assessment with Adolescents. London: National Children's Bureau., and (1988) ‘Child maltreatment coordinating committees for effective service delivery’, Child Welfare, LXVII (3): 217–30.(1994) The Ideology of Community Care. London: Chapman and Hall.(Skills for Care/CWDC (2010) Common Induction Standards. London: Childrens Workforce Development Council.2005) ‘ASBOs: lout Britain's new badge of honour’, Daily Mail, 30 June.([Page 204]1979) ‘Migration and family conflict’, Family Process, 18 (4): 379–90.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1979.00379.x(2000) Social Work and Social Problems. Basingstoke: Palgrave., and (1992) Michel Foucault. London: Routledge.(1999) ‘Primary prevention’, in Child Protection: The Role Of The Health Visitor in The Violence Against Children Study Group (Children, Child Abuse And Child Protection, Placing The Child Centrally). Chichester: Wiley. Chapter 9.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2009.00650.x(2002) ‘Where does the buck stop?’, Community Care, February.(Social Exclusion Unit (2002) Young Runaways. London: HMSO.Social Services Inspectorate (1998) Partners in Planning: Approaches to Planning Services for Children and Their Families. London: HMSO.Social Work Reform Board (2010) Building a Safe and Confident Future: One Year On. Leeds: Skills for Care.1995) Young Single Mothers: Barriers to Independent Living. London: Family Policy Studies Centre., , and (1993) ‘Non-accidental injury’, in R.Meadow (ed.), The ABC of Child Abuse. London: System.http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6677.879(1990) The Evidence of Children. London: Blackstone.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008197300122299and (1996) ‘Race and ethnicity as determinants of child health: a personal view’, Child Health and Development, 22(5): 327–45.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1996.tb00435.x(2000) ‘Premarital counselling: a focus for family therapy’, Journal of Family Therapy, 22: 104–16.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00140(1997) ‘Outcome, attrition and family-couples treatment for drug abuse: a meta-analysis and review of the controlled comparative studies’, Psychological Bulletin, 122: 170–91.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.122.2.170and (2000) Outcomes and Effectiveness of Family Support Services: A Research Review. London: Institute for Education, University of London.(2004) Helping Care Leavers: Problems and Strategic Responses. London: HMSO.and (Stevenson, O. (ed.) (1989) Child Abuse: Professional Practice and Public Policy. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.2000) ‘The mandate for inter-agency and inter-professional work and training’, in M.Charles and E.Hendry (eds), Training Together to Safeguard Children. London: NSPCC.(2001) ‘The multi-dimensional lives of young people: young people's perspective of education, work, life and their future’, Scottish Youth Issues Journal, 3 (Autumn).and (1990) Child Protection Work: A Professional Guide. London: Ventura.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.1996.tb00007.x(2004) Progress on Safeguards for Children Living Away from Home: A Review of Action Since People Like Us Report. York: JRF.and (1999) Helping Families with Troubled Children. Chichester: Wiley.(1994) ‘School influences on children's development’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Professions, 35 (1): 135–70.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01135.x(1996) A Theory of Multicultural Counselling and Therapy. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing., and (1998) ‘Approaches to evaluation, counselling and health’, The European Journal of Psychotherapy, 1(1): 79–92.(1996) ‘The psychological treatment of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders’, in A.Roth and P.Fonagy (eds), What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research. New York: Guilford Press.and ([Page 205]1993) Assessing Needs and Planning Care in Social Work. London: Arena.and (1995). Nursing Adolescents: Research and Psychological Perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell Science.and (1997) Sociology of Health and Health Care,and (2nd edn.Oxford: Blackwell Science.2000) Practising Reflexivity in Health and Welfare. Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1990) NCH George Thomas Lecture. London: National Children's Homes.(The Violence Against Children Study Group (1999) Children, Child Abuse And Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. Chichester: Wiley.1998) Children in Need: A Review of Family Support Work in Three Local Authorities. Norwich: University of East Anglia/DH., and (2010) ‘Representing children's identities in core assessments’, British Journal of Social Work, 40 (8): 2617–33.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp154and (1994) The Police and Social Workers. Aldershot: Gower.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09503158808416987(2005) Understanding Social Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave.(1994) Dealing with Stress. London: British Association of Social Workers/Macmillan., and (1998) Meeting the Stress Challenge. Lyme Regis: Russell House, , and (1993) ‘How teachers define and respond to child abuse: the distinction between theoretical and reportable cases’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 17: 591–603.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990081-F(1996) ‘Issues arising from intercultural family therapy’, Journal of Family Therapy, 18: 289–301.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6427.1996.tb00052.x(Topss (2004) Occupational Standards for Social Work. Leeds: Training Organisation for Personal Social Services.Townsend, P., Davidson, N. and Whitehead, M. (eds) (1988) The Black Report and The Health Divide: Inequalities In Health. London: Penguin.1995) ‘Reviewing consumer studies of therapy’, in A.Treacher and S.Reimers (eds), Introducing User-friendly Family Therapy. London: Routledge. pp. 128–49.(1997) Empowering Children and Young People: A Training Manual for Promoting Involvement in Decision-making. London: Save the Children.(1999) ‘Quality of health care for ethnic/racial minority populations’, Ethnicity and Health, 4(3): 153–64.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557859998119(2005) Social Work Skills: A Practice Handbook,(2nd edn.Maidenhead: Open University Press.2000) ‘Lesbian and gay issues in social work with young people: resilience and success through confronting, conforming and escaping’, British Journal of Social Work, 30 (1): 115–23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/30.1.115(Tseng Yueh-Hung (2002) ‘A lesson in culture’, ELT Journal, 56 (1): 11–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.1.11Tucker, N. and Gamble, N. (eds) (2001) Family Fictions. London: Continuum.1999) ‘Developing an interdisciplinary framework for the education and training of those working with children and young people’. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13 (3): 261–70.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829909010369, , , and (1996) ‘Family support: past present and future challenges’, Child and Family Social Work, 1: 151–8.(United Nations (1989a) The Conventions on the Rights of the Child. New York: UNICEF.United Nations (1989b) United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child. Geneva: UN.[Page 206]United Nations (1998) Human Rights Act. Geneva: UN.1991) Children in the Public Care: A Review of Residential Child Care. London: HMSO.(1995) Family and Parenthood: Supporting Families, Preventing Breakdown. York: Joseph Rountree Foundation.(1993) ‘Foreword’, in M.Evans and C.Miller (eds), Partnership in Child Protection. London: Office for Public Management/National Institute of Social Work.(1997) People Like Us: The Report of the Review of Safeguards for Children Living Away from Home. London: HMSO.(1976) ‘Poverty and culture’, in P.Worsley (ed.), Problems of Modern Society. London: Penguin.(1996) ‘Individualized services and supports through the wraparound process: philosophy and procedures’, Journal of Child and Family Studies. 5:7–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02234675and (2001) Domestic Violence and Family Safety: A Systemic Approach to Working with Violence in Families. London: Blackwell.and (1999) ‘High-risk behaviour of primary school learners’, Urban Health and Development Bulletin, 2 (1): 69–77.and (VACSG (1999) Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection, Placing Children Centrally. Wiley, Chichester: Violence Against Children Study Group.1968) General Systems Theory:Foundation, Development, Application. New York: Brazillier.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSMC.1974.4309376(1999) Homeless Children: Problems and Needs. London: Jessica Kingsley.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199707000-00009and (1997) ‘The new wave of service integration’, Social Service Review, September: 463–84.(2002) ‘Exploitation of children and young people through prostitution’, Journal of Child Health, 6 (3) September.(2001a) ‘Consulting with children and young people’, International Journal of Children's Rights, 12: 1–12.(2001b) ‘Developing child and adolescent mental health services’, Journal of Child Health Care, 5 (2): 71–6.(2001c) ‘Tracing the contours of postmodern social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 31: 29–39.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/31.1.29(2001d) ‘Domestic violence: analysis of a community safety alarm system’, Child Abuse Review, 10 (3): 170–82.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.687(2002) ‘Family support and social work practice: renaissance or retrenchment?’, European Journal of Social Work, 5 (1): 43–54.(2003a) ‘Interprofessional work in child and adolescent mental health services’, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 8 (3): 189–204.(2003b) Working Together for Healthy Young Minds. Lyme Regis: Russell House.(2005) Culturally Competent Therapy: Working with Children and Young People. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2004) Applying Family Therapy: A Guide for Caring Professionals in the Community. Lyme Regis: Russell House.and (2011) Social Work Assessment and Intervention,and (2nd edn.Lyme Regis: Russell House.2006) Safeguarding Children and Young People: AGuide to Integrated Practice. Lyme Regis: Russell House.and ([Page 207]1993) Choosing with Care. London: HMSO.(1999) ‘The prevention of child abuse’, Children & Society, 13: 317–29.(2001) ‘Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 31: 57–79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/31.1.57(1997) ‘Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: a comparison of child and parent training interventions’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(1): 93–109.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.65.1.93(2000) ‘Protective factors and individual resilience’, in Handbook of Early Childhood Interventions,(2nd edn.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 6.2000) ‘Towards an understanding of partnership’, NCVCCO Outlook, 7. London: NCVCCO.and (1990) Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. New York: W.W Norton.and (2009) ‘The descriptive tyranny of the common assessment framework: technologies of categorization and professional practice in child welfare’, British Journal of Social Work, 39 (7): 1197–217.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcn053, and (1999) ‘Caring for children of differing cultures’, Journal of Child Health Care, 3(4): 33–8.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136749359900300407(2002) The Child Protection Handbook. London: Balliére Tindall.and (2004) ‘Child protection in the community: a community development approach’, Child Abuse Review, 13: 384–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.875(1980) Social Work Theory and Psychoanalysis. New York: Von Nostrand.(1993) ‘Assessing population needs in primary health care: the problem of GOP attachments’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 7(1): 15–27.http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829309014955and (