EEO Law and Personnel Practices

Books

Arthur Gutman

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Dedication

    To my father, David Gutman; my wife, Valerie McClain; my son, Phillip McClain Gutman; and the memory of my mother, Anna Gutman.

    Copyright

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    Foreword

    The invitation to write the foreword for Dr. Arthur Gutman's second edition of EEO Law and Personnel Practices was easy to accept. How can one refuse an opportunity to celebrate the numerous successes represented by this book? First and foremost, a second edition signifies, especially in this book's case, well deserved critical and commercial success. In my humble opinion this opus is without peer as a comprehensive, scholarly yet practically useful treatment of EEO law and how it affects human resource management. Dr. Gutman has successfully navigated a quagmire of complexity; and, by means of a masterful organizational plan, he guides us through the manifold layers of issues, conflicts and scenarios.

    The book should prove useful to attorneys, human resource professionals, and scholars alike for it fulfills a diverse set of needs. As a reference source the book provides ready answers to numerous questions that may arise under EEO law. For example, the issue of a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) came up on an e-mail list of HR specialists. Specifically, the question was whether service staff in a Chinese restaurant (assuming it is large enough to be subject to Federal EEO law) could be restricted to those of Chinese origin. I turned to the applicable material in Chapter 2 and found that a BFOQ defense is unlikely to succeed due to customer or co-worker preference, or due to an expressed intention to promote an ethnic ambience. Rather the factors that would bolster a BFOQ defense are limited to whether the job's duties require the worker to be of a particular ethnicity, or whether customer safety or privacy is threatened.

    As a scholarly treatise, the book provides historical context and the chronology of twists and turns in the law. The discussion of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and how it emerged from a background of controversial U.S. Supreme Court decisions and a Presidential veto of an earlier version offers an excellent example.

    As a how-to manual for human resource managers and specialists, it is a treasure trove of practical advice flowing from EEO law and pertinent case law. A quote from the summary points of Chapter 3 in regard to the devilishly complex issue of sexual harassment captures this well:

    Sexual harassment policies should define harassment and express disapproval … supervisors need to be trained on the proper use of company policies, and their decisions need to be carefully scrutinized.

    Another aspect of the successes typified by this book is the notable achievement of its author in moving into an entirely different specialty from where he started. Dr. Gutman was trained in experimental psychology and gained a significant reputation for his research. When his interests changed he traveled a difficult road to arrive at his goal of becoming an industrial and organizational psychologist, and further a true expert in staffing and selection.

    Still another success embodied in this book is the creation of a most welcome source of knowledge about an area that is critical to the success of any organization's human resource function. Dr. Gutman has toiled mightily to insure that the book is up to date, no mean feat in itself, and as definitive as the state of the art allows. He himself is likewise a storehouse of knowledge which he is more than willing to share.

    Readers will discover these features as they delve into the book's contents. In so doing they will be intellectually stimulated and challenged to process the densely packed material. While not “light” reading, serious readers will be richly rewarded for grappling with a fascinating, complex, and critical aspect of our society's legal system.

    Edward L.Levine, Ph.D., Professor and Chairperson, Department of Psychology, University of South Florida

    Preface

    Seven years have passed since the first edition of EEO Law and Personnel Practices. That edition ended with the 1991–1992 Supreme Court calendar, and this edition ends with the 1998–1999 Supreme Court calendar. In between, there have been dynamic developments in both the law and science of personnel selection. Consequently, the content is freshened. However, the goals are the same: (a) to unite Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) law with the practices to which they apply and (b) to facilitate continued self-education. The book still is designed for nonlegal students and practitioners, and it still samples key issues in the law and in the science of personnel selection, but it does not, nor is it designed to, exhaust either domain. In short, as in the first edition, this book is a starting point, carrying with it the implication, and hopefully the inspiration, to read further and to stay updated.

    Structurally, this second edition maintains two major features from the first edition. First, each law is presented in terms of six dimensions (or questions): (a) protected classes (Who has rights?), (b) covered entities (Who has duties?), (c) covered practices (Which practices are prohibited?), (d) administrative procedures (How do claims reach court?), (e) remedies (What are the penalties for breaking the law?), and (f) judicial scenarios (How are claims decided at trial?). The purpose of these dimensions is to untangle overlapping and complementary features of the EEO laws as a group. Several of these laws protect the same classes but never in exactly the same way. For example, the differences in how race and gender are treated in Title VII, constitutional amendments, and Executive Order 11246 (on affirmative action) are inherently confusing but easier to understand, I believe, when each law is broken down dimensionally.

    Second, the chapter sequence is the same as in the first edition: Title VII (Chapters 2 and 3), Constitutional Claims (Chapter 4), the Equal Pay Act (Chapter 5), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (Chapter 6), Affirmative Action (Chapter 7), and the Americans With Disabilities Act (Chapter 8). This sequence is common in major law texts and handbooks, and for a good reason. Obviously, some key laws preceded Title VII (e.g., constitutional amendments, the Equal Pay Act). Dimension by dimension, however, Title VII is the broadest law, and the overlapping and complementary features of these earlier laws are easier to understand in comparison to Title VII. Even age and disability, which have their own laws, borrow key dimensional principles from Title VII.

    Nevertheless, there are key structural changes in the second edition, most notably within Chapter 1 (Introduction to EEO Law) and with the addition of Chapter 9 (Summary and Epilogue). Chapter 1 includes a more detailed description of each dimension through the “eyes” of Title VII. It then surveys the other major laws, focusing on their dimensional similarities and differences relative to Title VII. Chapter 9 serves a dual purpose by (a) highlighting major developments that occurred between the first and second editions and (b) previewing major areas of uncertainty as we enter the 21st century.

    Like the structure, the pedagogy also is a mixture of some things old and some things new. Regarding those things old, I have redoubled my effort to limit the “legalese,” explaining necessary terms and phrases in the text and listing commonly used acronyms inside of the front cover. However, a dictionary of legal terms is recommended. I again have eschewed the common legal style (numerical ordering with footnotes and references at the bottom of each page) in favor of the American Psychological Association style (conceptual headings and chapter endnotes). When used, the endnotes clarify issues discussed in the text. All references are listed at the end of the book including cases, books, journal articles, commonly cited laws, commonly cited guidelines and regulations, and (new to this edition) all updates in policy and enforcement guidance by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission since 1990.

    In addition, I again use pedagogical prompts and space savers. For example, numbers are used instead of letters when referencing amendments (e.g., the 14th Amendment instead of the Fourteenth Amendment) and circuit courts (e.g., the 1st Circuit instead of the First Circuit). Furthermore, when citing court decisions, the full case citations and shortened versions always are italicized (e.g., Griggs v. Duke Power, 1971; the Griggs ruling).

    Among those things new, the major pedagogical changes are within Chapters 2 to 8, where there are introductory paragraphs designed to prepare the reader for the major chapter headings and key objectives under each heading (in the form of questions). The subsequent discussions are then framed in terms of those objectives. There are more tables in this edition that are used to highlight key cases, legal scenarios, and key topics. As in the first edition, Chapters 2 to 8 end with discussions of compliance issues, but with a slightly altered structure (including lists of “do and don't” recommendations and selections of key focal issues). Finally, these middle chapters end with summary questions that focus on legal and practical situations, and the chapter summaries in the first edition are replaced with lists of key summary points.

    A key development over the past few years is the growing number of free resources available on the Internet. Many cases cited in this book are now available at sites such as http://www.yahoo.com and http://www.findlaw.com. Also available are public laws and regulations (e.g., http://www.eeoc.gov). Another key site is http://www.siop.org (for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology). In the spirit of this Zeitgeist, the author will develop a Web site on http://www.sagepub.com, with a grand opening scheduled for January 1, 2000. This Web site will contain links to case law, regulations, and other useful Web sites. I also will use it for updates on key cases and/or regulations as they emerge as well as for a place in which to exchange ideas. The Web site will be an ongoing development. All readers are invited to make substantive contributions.

    Before I thank the many individuals who helped me to complete this second edition, I want to reiterate a few points originally made in the first edition. First, I welcome any reader, but the book itself was designed for nonlegal students and practitioners. Second, my main goal is to preempt the need for litigation. I truly believe that with forethought, we can avoid workplace discrimination and, at the same time, build a more effective workforce. Third, many of the legal and personnel issues discussed in this book have commonsense application. However, many of the issues are complex. Therefore, time and again, I issue the following two refrains: (a) to seek legal advice from attorneys and (b) to consult with experts in the field of personnel selection.

    A number of people have been helpful to me in this revision. Once again, I have enjoyed working with the finest editor in the business, C. Deborah Laughton. I probably taxed her even more so in this edition than the previous one, but she remained a constant presence, pushing, listening, understanding—basically, doing exactly what was necessary to finish the project. I have known Deborah for 25 years, and she remains my favorite editor and my great friend. I also am indebted to Deborah's assistant, Eileen Carr. Without Eileen's help, I sincerely doubt that I could have met the crucial deadlines for a January 2000 publication date. I fully expect that some day in the not-too-distant future, Eileen also will be a great editor. I am also grateful to D. J. Peck, copy editor, Astrid Virding, production editor, and Marion Warren, designer, for their excellent editorial skills, and for enabling the book to be published on time.

    I am grateful to my students in the I/O Psychology program at Florida Tech. About 10 years ago, they inspired me to write the first edition, and over the past 7 years, I have enjoyed their continued encouragement and support. Unfortunately, there are too many to list by name. Therefore, as an expression of my affection for all of them, I cite the members of my most recent EEO class from the spring of 1999: Tom Chmielowski, Joy Easton, Rachel Gibson, Chris Holland, Lynn Lambert, Thomasa Tompkins, Elissa Ulibarri-Fontan, and Krista Venice. I taught this class with preliminary drafts of what turned out to be the final manuscript for this second edition. This class, and so many other students over the years, made this work both possible and enjoyable.

    I am grateful to many colleagues who reviewed various portions of the preliminary and/or final manuscripts, and with whom I have exchanged ideas, including Neil Christiansen, Rich Griffith, Lisa Steelman, Mike Coovert, David Morris, Jeff Rain, Thom Harrell, and Brian Cherry. Each one has, at one point or another, helped me to better understand critical features of EEO law. I am especially grateful to Ed Levine. This is the second time Ed has helped me, and his encouragement and support are near and dear to me. The beneficial effects of his constructive criticisms also are well represented in the pages of this book. I also am especially grateful to Ed Gac for valuable insights and suggestions, which also are well represented in the pages of this book. My hope is that I have done justice to those insights and suggestions.

    Lastly, I thank my family—my mom, Anna Gutman; my dad, David Gutman; my wife, Valerie McClain; and my son, Phillip McClain Gutman. I love them so dearly. My mom always will be with me in spirit. My dad, a Holocaust survivor, is a living inspiration to me. Together, they taught me how good life can be in a loving and nurturing environment. My wife, herself a clinical and forensic psychologist with interests and credentials in the law, spent countless hours reading drafts and exchanging ideas with me. Also, it is her beautiful artwork that inspired the cover of this book. My son is a beautiful and warm-hearted 11-year-old. I pray that he grows up in a society that, someday, will not require the laws discussed in this book.

  • Cases Cited

    Accord Shattuck v. Kinetic Concepts (CA5 1995) 49 F.3d 1106

    Ackerman v. Diamond Shamrock (CA6 1982) 670 F.2d 66

    Adarand v. Pena (1995) 115 S.Ct. 2097

    Adarand v. Pena (CA10 1999) 169 F.3d 1292

    Adkins v. Children's Hospital of the District of Columbia (1923) 261 U.S. 525

    Albermarle Paper v. Moody (1975) 422 U.S. 405

    Albertsons v. Kirkingburg (1999) WL 407456 (No. 98–591)

    Alden v. Maine (1999) WL 412617 (No. 98–436)

    Alexander v. Choate (1985) 469 U.S. 287

    Alexander v. Gardner-Denver (1974) 415 U.S. 36

    Allen v. Diebold (CA6 1994) 33 F.3d 674

    Allen v. Seidman (CA7 1989) 881 F.2d 375

    Allison v. Corrections (CA2 1996) 94 F.3d 494

    Altman v. New York City Health (CA2 1996) 100 F.3d 1054

    American Federation etc. v. Nassau County (1996) 96 F.3d 644

    American Federation etc. v. State of Washington (CA9 1985) 770 F.2d 1401

    American Nurses Association v. State of Illinois (CA7 1986) 783 F.2d 716

    American Tobacco v. Patterson (1982) 456 U.S. 63

    Anderson v. Baxter (CA7 1994) 13 F.3d 1120

    Anderson v. General Dynamics (CA9 1978) 589 F.2d 397

    Andrews v. Jones Truck Lines (D Kan. 1993) 741 F.Supp. 867

    Ansonia Board of Education v. Philbrook (1986) 479 U.S. 60

    Arizona Governing Committee etc. v. Norris (1983) 463 U.S. 1073

    Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing (1977) 429 U.S. 252

    Armstrong v. Martin Marietta (CA11 1996) 93 F.3d 1505

    Arnold v. United Parcel Service (CA1 1998) 136 F.3d 854

    Associated General Contractors v. Altshuler (CA1 1973) 490 F.2d 9

    Atonio v. Wards Cove (CA9 1993) 768 F.2d 1120

    Baert v. Euclid Beverage Ltd. (CA7 1998) 149 F.3d 626

    Baker v. California Land Title (CA9 1974) 507 F.2d 895

    Baldwin v. Franks (1887) 120 U.S. 678

    Barker v. Taft Broadcasting (CA6 1976) 549 F.2d 400

    Barnes v. Train (D D.C. 1974) 13 FEP Cases

    Barrett v. Omaha Bank (CA8 1984) 726 F.2d 424

    Barth v. Gelb (D.C. Cir. 1993) 2 F.3d 1180

    Bartlett v. Berlitz School of Languages of America (CA9 1983) 698 F.2d 1003

    Bartlett v. New York State (CA2 1998) 156 F.3d 321

    Baustian v. Louisiana (ED La. 1995) 910 F.Supp 274

    Bay v. Times Mirror (CA2 1991) 936 F.2d 112

    Beck v. University of Wisconsin Board of Regents (CA7 1996) 75 F.3d 1130

    Benson v. Northwest Airlines (CA8 1995) 62 F.3d 1108

    Berke v. Ohio Department of Public Welfare (CA10 Ohio 1980) 628 F.2d 980

    Bernard v. Gulf Oil (CA5 1989) 890 F.2d 735

    Berndt v. Kaiser Aluminum (CA3 1986) 789 F.2d 253

    Birkbeck v. Marvel Lighting (CA4 1994) 30 F.3d 507

    Board of Governors of University of North Carolina v. Department of Labor (CA4 1990) 917 F.2d 812

    Board of Regents v. Tomanio (1980) 446 U.S. 478

    Board of Trustees of Keene State College v. Sweeney (1978) 439 U.S. 24

    Bodenheimer v. PPG (CA5 1993) 530 F.3d 965

    Borrowski v. Valley Central School District (CA2 1995) 63 F.3d 131

    Boston Police v. Boston (CA1 1998) 147 F.3d 13

    Boyd v. Ozark Airlines (CA8 1977) 568 F.2d 50

    Bradley v. Pizzaco of Nebraska (CA8 1993) 7 F.3d 795

    Bradley v. University of Texas (CA5 1993) 3 F.3d 922

    Bragdon v. Abbot (1998) 118 S.Ct. 1206

    Breiland v. Advanced Circuits (D Minn. 1997) 976 F.Supp. 858

    Brener v. Diagnostic Center Hospital (CA5 1982) 671 F.2d 141

    Brennan v. City Department Stores (CA5 1973) 479 F.2d 235

    Brennan v. Goose Creek Consolidated Independent School District (CA5 1975) 519 F.2d 53

    Brennan v. J. M. Fields (CA5 1973) 488 F.2d 443

    Brewster v. Barnes (CA4 1986) 788 F.2d 985

    Bridgeport Guardians v. City of Bridgeport (CA2 1991) 933 F.2d 1140

    Bridges v. Bossier (CA5 1995) 92 F.3d 329

    Brooks v. AFC Industries (SD W.Va. 1982) 537 F.Supp. 1122

    Brown v. Board of Education (1954) 347 U.S. 483

    Brown v. Board of Regents of University of Nebraska (Nebr. 1986) 640 F.Supp. 674

    Brown v. CSI (CA5 1995) 82 F.3d 651

    Brown v. Gaston Dyeing Machine (CA5 1972) 457 F.2d 1377

    Brown v. St. Louis Police Department (CA8 1982) 691 F.2d 393

    Brumley v. Pena (CA8 1995) 62 F.3d 277

    Brunet v. City of Columbus (CA6 1995) 58 F.2d 251

    Bultmeyer v. Fort Wayne Community Schools (CA7 1996) 100 F.3d 1281

    Bundy v. Jackson (CA D.C. 1981) 641 F.2d 934

    Burch v. Fluor (D Mo. 1994) 65 EPD 43 227

    Burchell v. Department of Army (D S.C. 1988) 679 F.Supp. 1393

    Burlington v. Ellerth (1998) 118 S.Ct. 2257

    Burnett v. Grattan (1984) 468 U.S. 42

    Burns v. Southern Pacific (CA9 1978) 589 F.2d 403

    Burwell v. Eastern Airlines (CA4 1980) 633 F.2d 371

    Butts v. Nichols (SD Iowa 1974) 381 F.Supp. 573

    Byrne v. Board of Education (CA7 1992) 979 F.3d 560

    Cache Valley Electric v. UDOT (CA10 1998) 149 F.3d 1119

    Caldwell v. National Brewing (CA5 1971) 443 F.2d 1044

    California Federal Savings and Loan Association v. Guerra (1987) 479 U.S. 272

    Carey v. Mount Desert (D Maine 1998) 910 F.Supp. 7

    Cariddi v. Kansas City Chiefs (CA2 1977) 890 F.2d 569

    Carino v. University of Oklahoma Board of Regents (CA10 1984) 750 F.2d 815

    Carmi v. Metro St. Louis Sewer District (ED Mo. 1979) 471 F.Supp. 119

    Carrero v. New York City Housing Authority (1989) 890 F.2d 569

    Carrol v. Tallman (CA7 1979) 604 F.2d 1028

    Carroll v. General Accident Insurance Company of America (CA5 1990) 891 F.2d 1174

    Carter v. Gallagher (CA8 1971) 452 F.2d 315

    Chalk v. U.S. District Court (CA9 1988) 840 F.2d 701

    Champ v. Baltimore (D Md. 1995) 884 F.Supp. 991

    Champagne v. Servistar (CA1 1998) 138 F.3d 7

    Chiapuzio v. BLT (D Wyo. 1993) 826 F.Supp. 1334

    Chisholm v. Georgia (1793) 2 U.S. 40

    City of Newport v. Fact Concerts (1981) 453 U.S. 24

    City of Richmond v. Croson (1989) 488 U.S. 469

    Cleary v. U.S. Lines (CA3 1984) 728 F.2d 607

    Cleveland v. Policy Management (1999) 140 LED 2d 664 (No. 97–1008)

    Coalition v. Wilson (CA9 1997) 122 F.3d 718

    Coleman v. Jiffy June Farms (CA5 1972) 458 F.2d 1139

    College Savings Bank v. Florida Board (1999) 119 S.Ct. 2219.

    Collings v. Longview (CA9 1995) 63 F.3d 828

    Collins v. Hardyman (1952) 341 U.S. 651

    Combs v. Plantation (CA11 1997) 106 F.3d 1519

    Compston v. Borden (SD Ohio 1976) 424 F.Supp. 157

    Condit v. United Airlines (CA4 1977) 558 F.2d 1176

    Cone v. Hillsborough County (CA11 1991) 908 F.2d 908

    Connecticut v. Teal (1982) 457 U.S. 440

    Contractors Association of Eastern Pennsylvania v. Secretary of Labor (CA3 1971) 442 F.2d 159

    Contreras v. City of Los Angeles (CA9 1981) 656 F.2d 1267

    Cook v. Lindsay Olive Growers (CA9 1990) 911 F.2d 233

    Coral v. King County (CA9 1991) 941 F.2d 910

    Corne v. Bausch & Lomb (D Ariz. 1975) 390 F.Supp. 161

    Corning Glass Works v. Brennan (1974) 417 U.S. 188

    Corporation of Presiding Bishop v. Amos (1987) 483 U.S. 327

    County of Washington et al. v. Gunther (1981) 452 U.S. 161

    Crawford v. Medina General Hospital (CA6 1996) 96 F.3d 830

    Criado v. IBM (CA11 1998) 145 F.3d 437

    Dallas Fire Fighters v. Dallas (CA5 1998) 150 F.3d 438

    Dalton v. Subaru-Isuzu Automotive (CA7 1998) 141 F.3d 667

    Daugherty v. City of El Paso (CA5 1995) 56 F.3d 695

    Davis v. Dallas (CA5 1985) 777 F.2d 205

    Davis v. Monroe County (1999) 139 LED 2d 867 (No. 97–843)

    Davis v. U.S. Steel Supply (CA3 1982) 688 F.2d 166

    DeLuca v. Winer Industries (CA7 1995) 53 F.3d 793

    Despears v. City of Milwaukee (CA7 1998) 63 F.3d 635

    Dexler v. Tisch (D Conn. 1987) 660 F.Supp. 1418

    Diaz v. Pan American World Airways (CA5 1971) 442 F.2d 385

    Doane v. City of Omaha (CA8 1997) 115 F.3d 624

    Dodge v. Giant Food (CA D.C. 1973) 488 F.2d 1333

    Doe v. Garrett (CA11 1990) 903 F.2d 1455

    Doe v. Maryland (CA4 1995) 56 F.3d 1261

    Doe v. Syracuse School District (ND N.Y. 1981) 508 F.Supp. 333

    Domingo v. New England Fish (CA9 1984) 727 F.2d 1429

    Donaghy v. Omaha (CA8 1991) 933 F.2d 1448

    Dothard v. Rawlinson (1977) 433 U.S. 321

    Duckett v. Dunlop Tire (CA11 1997) 120 F.3d 1222

    Dutson v. Farmers (D Ore. 1994) 815 F.Supp. 439

    Earwood v. Continental Southeastern Lines (CA4 1976) 539 F.2d 1349

    Eckles v. Consolidated Rail (CA7 1996) 94 F.3d 1041, 1047

    Edelman v. Jordan (1974) 415 U.S. 651

    Ellert v. University of Texas (CA5 1995) 52 F.3d 543

    Ellison v. Brady (CA9 1991) 924 F.2d 872

    EEOC v. Aetna Insurance (CA4 1980) 616 F.2d 719

    EEOC v. Amego (CA1 1997) 110 F.3d 135

    EEOC v. ARAMCO (1991) 111 S.Ct. 1227

    EEOC v. Bordens (CA9 1984) 724 F.2d 1390

    EEOC v. Central Kansas Medical Center (CA10 1983) 705 F.2d 1270

    EEOC v. Cherokee Nation (CA10 1989) 871 F.2d 937

    EEOC v. Chicago Miniature Lamp Works (CA7 1991) 947 F.2d 292

    EEOC v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts (CA1 1988) 858 F.2d 52

    EEOC v. Consolidated Services Systems (CA7 1993) 989 F.2d 233

    EEOC v. Exxon (ND Texas 1997) 967 F.Supp. 208

    EEOC v. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond (CA4 1983) 732 F.Supp. 72

    EEOC v. Francis Parker School (CA7 1994) 41 F.3d 1073

    EEOC v. Johnson & Higgins (CA2 1996) 91 F.3d 1529

    EEOC v. Joint Apprenticeship Committee (CA2 1990) 895 F.2d 86

    EEOC v. Liggett & Myers (CA4 1982) 690 F.2d 1072

    EEOC v. Massey (CA11 1997) 117 F.3d 1244

    EEOC v. Mississippi College (CA5 1980) 626 F.2d 477

    EEOC v. O&G (CA7 1991) 383 F.3d 872

    EEOC v. Pacific Press Publishing Association (CA9 1981) 676 F.2d 1272

    EEOC v. Prevo (CA6 1998) 135 F.3d 1089

    EEOC v. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary (CA5 1981) 651 F.2d 277

    EEOC v. State of Vermont (CA2 1990) 904 F.2d 794

    EEOC v. Steamship (CA1 1995) 48 F.3d 594

    EEOC v. Texas Instruments (CA5 1996) 100 F.3d 1173

    EEOC v. Townley Engineering (CA9 1988) 859 F.2d 610

    EEOC v. United Parcel Service (CA7 1996) 94 F.3d 314

    EEOC v. Universal Underwriters Insurance (CA8 1981) 653 F.2d 1243

    EEOC v. Wal-Mart Stores (D N.M. 1998) 11 F.Supp. 2d 1313

    EEOC v. Wayne Community College (CA6 1983) 723 F.2d 509

    EEOC v. Westinghouse Electric (CA3 1983) 725 F.2d 211

    EEOC v. Westinghouse Electric (CA3 1991) 925 F.2d 619

    Erebia v. Chrysler Plastic Products (CA6 1985) 777 F.2d 1250

    Espinoza v. Farrah (1973) 414 U.S. 86

    Estate of Mauro v. Borgess Medical Center (CA1 1998) 137 F.3d 1398

    Evans v. City of Evanston (CA7 1989) 881 F.2d 382

    Evans v. Federal Express (CA1 1998) 133 F.3d 137

    Evans v. McClain of Georgia (CA11 1997) 131 F.3d 957

    Ex Parte Young (1908) 209 U.S. 123

    Fallon v. State of Illinois (CA7 1988) 882 F.2d 1206

    Faragher v. City of Boca Raton (1998) 139 LED 2d 867 (No. 97–282)

    Farkas v. Texas Instruments (CA5 1967) 375 F.2d 629

    Farmer v. Philadelphia Electric (CA3 1964) 329 F.2d 3

    Feliberty v. Kemper (CA7 1996) 98 F.3d 274

    Ferdo v. Reno (CA7 1994) 21 F.3d 1391

    Fink v. New York City (CA2 1995) 53 F.3d 565

    Firefighters of Local Union 1784 v. Stotts (1984) 467 U.S. 561

    Fitzpatrick v. City of Atlanta (CA11 1993) 2 F.3d 1112

    Florida Board v. College Savings (1999) S.Ct. (No. 98–531)

    Florida v. Long (1988) 487 U.S. 223

    Foreman v. Babcock & Wilcox (CA5 1997) 117 F.3d 800

    Forrester v. White (1988) 484 U.S. 219

    Forrisi v. Bowen (CA4 1986) 794 F.2d 931

    Fountain v. Safeway Stores (CA9 1977) 555 F.2d 753

    Fullilove v. Klutznick (1980) 448 U.S. 448

    Furnco Construction v. Waters (1978) 438 U.S. 567

    Garcia v. Gloor (CA5 1980) 618 F.2d 264

    Garcia v. Spun Steak (CA9 1993) 998 F.2d 1480

    Gardner v. Morris (CA8 1985) 752 F.2d 1271

    Gathercole v. Global (CA9 1984) 727 F.2d 485

    Gaul v. Lucent Technologies (CA3 1998) 134 F.3d 576

    Geduldig v. Aiello (1974) 417 U.S. 484

    Geller v. Markham (CA2 1980) 635 F.2d 1027

    General Electric v. Gilbert (1976) 429 U.S. 125

    Gilbert v. City of Little Rock (CA8 1983) 722 F.2d 1390

    Gilbert v. Frank (CA2 1991) 949 F.2d 637

    Gile v. United Airlines (CA7 1996) 95 F.3d 492

    Gillespie v. State of Wisconsin (CA7 1985) 771 F.2d 1035

    Gilmer v. Interstate (1991) 500 U.S. 20

    Goluszek v. Smith (ND III. 1988) 697 F.Supp. 1452

    Goodman v. Heublein (CA2 1981) 645 F.2d 127

    Goodman v. Lukens Steel (1987) 482 U.S. 656

    Graham v. Richardson (1971) 403 U.S. 365

    Grant v. Bethlehem Steel (CA2 1980) 635 F.2d 1007

    Grayson v. Kmart, (CA11 1996) 79 F.3d 1086

    Great American Federal Savings & Loan Association v. Novotny (1979) 442 U.S. 366

    Green v. Missouri Pacific Railroad (CA8 1975) 523 F.2d 1290

    Green v. Safeway (CA10 1996) 98 F.3d 554

    Green v. USX (CA3 1988) 843 F.2d 1511

    Green v. Washington State (1997) WL 17802

    Gregory v. Ashcroft (CA8 1990) 898 F.2d 598

    Gregory v. Ashcroft (1991) 111 S.Ct. 2395

    Gregory v. Litton Systems (CA9 1972) 472 F.2d 631

    Grenier v. Cyanamid (CA1 1995) 703 F.3d 667

    Griffen v. Carlin (CA11 1985) 755 F.2d 1516

    Griffin v. Breckenridge (1971) 403 U.S. 88

    Griffin v. Kraft Foods (CA11 1995) 62 F.3d 368

    Griggs v. Duke Power (1971) 401 U.S. 424

    Guardians of New York v. Civil Service Commission (CA2 1980) 630 F.2d 79

    Guthrie v. Tifco (CA5 1991) 941 F.3d 374

    Hafer v. Melo (1991) 112 S.Ct. 358

    Hankins v. Gap (CA6 1996) 84 F.3d 797

    Harris v. Ford Motor (CA4 1981) 651 F.2d 609

    Harris v. Forklift (1993) 114 S.Ct. 367

    Harriss v. Pan Am World Airways (CA9 1980) 649 F.2d 670

    Hartman v. Petaluma (ND Calif. 1994) 841 F.Supp. 946

    Hayes v. Shelby Memorial Hospital (CA11 1984) 726 F.2d 1543

    Haynes v. W. C. Caye (CA11 1995) 52 F.3d 928

    Hazelwood School District v. United States (1977) 433 U.S. 299

    Hazen v. Biggins (1993) 507 U.S. 604

    Hedberg v. Indiana Bell Telephone (CA7 1995) 47 F.3d 928

    Heilweil v. Mount Sinai Hospital (CA2 1994) 32 F.3d 718

    Hendricks-Robinson v. Excel (CA7 1998) 154 F.3d 685

    Henson v. City of Dundee (CA11 1982) 682 F.2d 897

    Herman v. Western Financial (1994) 696 P.2d 595

    Hicks v. St. Mary's Honor Center (CA8 1996) 90 F.3d 285

    Hill v. Seaboard Coastline (CA11 1989) 885 F.2d 804

    Hodgson v. Behrens Drug (CA5 1973) 475 F.2d 1041

    Hodgson v. Brookhaven General Hospital (CA5 1970) 423 F.2d 719; 470 F.2d 729

    Hodgson v. Daisy Mfg. (CA8 1971) 445 F.2d 823

    Hodgson v. Fairmount Supply (CA4 1972) 454 F.2d 490

    Hodgson v. Golden Isles Convalescent Homes (CA6 1972) 468 F.2d 1256

    Hodgson v. Greyhound Lines (CA7 1974) 499 F.2d 859

    Hodgson v. Miller Brewing (CA7 1972) 457 F.2d 221

    Hodgson v. Pet (WD Pa. 1974) WH Cases 958

    Hodgson v. Security National Bank of Sioux City (CA8 1972) 460 F.2d 57

    Holbrook v. City of Alphreta (CA11 1997) 112 F.3d 1522

    Hollihan v. Lucky Stores (CA9 1996) 87 F.3d 362

    Hopwood v. Texas (CA5 1996) 78 F.3d 932

    Horace v. Pontiac (CA6 1980) 624 F.2d 765

    Horn v. Duke Homes (CA7 1985) 755 F.2d 599

    Howard v. Haverty (CA5 1980) 615 F.2d 203

    Huber v. Howard County (D Md. 1994) 849 F.Supp. 407

    Huddleston v. Roger Dean Chevrolet (CA11 1988) 845 F.2d 900

    Hudson v. MCI (CA10 1996) 87 F.3d 1167

    Hunt-Golliday v. Metro Water (CA7 1997) 104 F.3d 1004

    Hunter v. Erickson (1969) 393 U.S. 385

    Hurd v. Hodge (1948) 334 U.S. 24

    Hyland v. Fukada (CA9 1978) 580 F.2d 977

    In re Griffiths (1973) 413 U.S. 717

    In re National Airlines v. National Airlines (SD Fla. 1977) 434 F.Supp. 249

    Inda v. United Airlines (ND Calif. 1973) 405 F.Supp. 426

    International Association v. Boeing (CA9 1987) 833 F.2d 165

    International Brotherhood of Teamsters v. United States (1977) 431 U.S. 324

    International Union et al. v. State of Michigan (CA6 1989) 886 F.2d 766

    International Union et al. v. Johnson Controls (CA7 1989) 886 F.2d 871

    Jackson v. Seaboard Coastline (CA11 1982) 678 F.2d 992

    Jacobs v. Martin Sweets (CA6 1977) 560 F.2d 364

    Jacques v. Clean-Up Group (CA1 1996) 96 F.3d 506

    Jasany v. U.S. Postal Service (CA6 1984) 755 F.2d 1244

    Jett v. Dallas Independent School District (1989) 491 U.S. 701

    Johnson v. Bunny Bread (CA8 1981) 646 F.2d 1250

    Johnson v. Mayor and City Council of Baltimore (1985) 472 U.S. 353

    Johnson v. New York Hospital (CA2 1996) 96 F.3d 33

    Johnson v. New York Medical College (SD N.Y. 1997) WL 580708

    Johnson v. Pike Corporation of America (CD Calif. 1971) 332 F.Supp. 490

    Johnson v. Railway Express Agency (1975) 421 U.S. 454

    Johnson v. Tower Air (E.D. N.Y. 1993) 149 F.R.D. 461

    Johnson v. Transportation Agency of Santa Clara County (1987) 480 U.S. 616

    Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer (1968) 392 U.S. 409

    Jones v. Clinton (ED Ark. 1998) 900 F.Supp. 657

    Jones v. Oklahoma (CA10 1995) 1162 F.3d 1173

    Kaputska v. United Airlines (ND III. 1981) 25 PEP 1283

    Katz v. City Metal (CA1 1996) 87 F.3d 426

    Katz v. Dole (CA4 1983) 709 F.2d 251

    Keating v. Federal Aviation Administration (CA9 1979) 610 F.2d 611

    King v. Palmer (D D.C. 1985) 598 F.Supp. 65

    Knott v. Missouri Pacific Railway (CA8 1975) 527 F.2d 1249

    Koeber v. Westinghouse Electric (CA3 1973) 480 F.2d 240

    Kohnke v. Delta Airlines (ND III. 1996) WL 392222

    Kolstad v. American Dental Association (CA D.C. 1997) 108 F.3d 1431

    Kolstad v. American Dental Association (1999) WL 407481 (No. 98–208)

    Kopp v. Samaritan (CA8 1993) 63 FEP Cases 880

    Korte v. Diemer (CA6 1990) 909 F.2d 954

    Kouba v. Allstate (CA9 1982) 691 F.2d 873

    Kralik v. Durbin (CA3 1997) 130 F.3d 76

    Krauel v. Iowa Methodist Hospita (CA8 1996) 95 F.3d 674

    Kremer v. Chemical Construction (1982) 456 U.S. 461

    Kureshy v. City University of New York (ED N.Y. 1980) 561 F.Supp. 1098

    Laffey v. Northwest Airlines (D D.C. 1973) 366 F.Supp. 763

    Laffey v. Northwest Airlines (CA D.C. 1984) 740 F.2d 1071

    Langdon v. Department of Health and Human Services (D.C. Cir. 1992) 959 F.2d 1053

    Leftwich v. Harris-Stowe State College (CA8 1983) 702 F.2d 686

    Lehman v. Nakshian (1981) 453 U.S. 156

    Lemere v. Brumley (D D.C. 1988) 683 F.Supp. 275

    Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) 403 U.S. 602

    Lemons v. City and County of Denver (CA10 1980) 620 F.2d 228

    Leonard v. City of Frankfort Electric and Water (CA6 1985) 752 F.2d 189

    Levin v. Delta Airlines (CA5 1984) 730 F.2d 994

    Local 93 of International Association of Firefighters v. City of Cleveland (1986) 478 U.S. 501

    Local 28 of Sheet Metal Workers etc. v. EEOC (1986) 478 U.S. 421

    Loeb v. Textron (CA1 1979) 600 F.2d 1003

    Loiseau v. Department of Human Resources of Oregon (D Ore. 1983) 567 F.Supp. 1211

    Longo v. Carlisle DeCoppet (CA2 1976) 537 F.2d 685

    Lorance v. AT&T Technologies (1989) 490 U.S. 900

    Lorillard v. Pons (1978) 434 U.S. 575

    Los Angeles Department of Water & Power v. Manhart (1978) 435 U.S. 702

    Macklin v. Spector Freight Systems (CA D.C. 1973) 478 F.2d 979

    Maddox v. University of Tennessee (CA6 1995) 62 F.3d 843

    Madel v. FCI Marketing (CA8 1997) 116 F.3d 1247

    Malabarba v. Chicago Tribune (CA7 1998) 149 F.3d 690

    Mararri v. WCI Steel (CA6 1997) 130 F.3d 1180

    Marshall v. Building Maintenance (CA2 1978) 587 F.2d 567

    Marshall v. Dallas Independent School District (CA3 1979) 599 F.2d 1220

    Martin v. Wilks (1989) 490 U.S. 755

    Martinson v. Kinney Shoe (CA4 1997) 104 F.3d 683

    Massarsky v. General Motors (CA3 1983) 706 F.2d 111

    Matczak v. Frankford Candy & Chocolate (CA 3 1997) 136 F.3d 933

    Matthews v. Diaz (1976) 426 U.S. 67

    McClure v. Salvation Army (CA5 1972) 460 F.2d 553

    McCortsin v. U.S. Steel (CA5 1980) 621 F.2d 749

    McCreary v. Libbey-Owens (CA7 1997) 132 F.3d 1159

    McDaniel v. Mississippi Baptist (D Miss. 1995) 877 F.Supp. 321

    McDonald v. Pennsylvania (CA3 1998) 62 F.3d 62

    McDonald v. Santa Fe Transportation (1976) 427 U.S. 273

    McDonnell Douglas v. Green (1973) 411 U.S. 792

    McGuinnes v. University of New Mexico (CA10 1998) 170 F.3d 974

    McKay v. Toyota (CA6 1997) 110 F.3d 369

    McKee v. Bi-State Development Agency (CA8 1986) 801 F.2d 1014

    McKennon v. Nashville Banner (1995) 115 S.Ct. 879

    McKnight v. General Motors (CA7 1990) 908 F.2d 104

    McLaughlin v. Richland Shoe (1988) 486 U.S. 128

    McMillan v. Monroe County (1997) 520 U.S. 781

    McNemar v. Disney Store (CA3 1996) 91 F.3d 610

    Meeks v. Computer Associates (CA11 1994) 15 F.3d 1013

    Meja v. New York Sheraton Hotel (SD N.Y. 1978) 459 F.Supp. 375

    Mengine v. Runyon (CA3 1997) 114 F.3d 415

    Meritor v. Vinson (1986) 477 U.S. 57

    Metro Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission (1990) 111 LED 2d 445

    Metz v. Transit Mix (CA7 1987) 828 F.2d 1202

    Migra v. Warren City School District Board of Education (1984) 104 S.Ct. 892

    Milikin v. Bradley (1974) 418 U.S. 717

    Miller v. Bank of America (ND Calif. 1976) 418 F.Supp. 233

    Miller v. Cigna (CA3 1995) 47 F.3d 586

    Miller v. Illinois (CA7 1996) 107 F.3d 483

    Milton v. Scrivner (CA10 1995) 53 F.3d 1118

    Miners v. Cargill (CA8 1997) 113 F.3d 820

    Minker v. Baltimore United Methodist (D D.C. 1988) 669 F.Supp. 952

    Mistretta v. Sandia (CA10 1980) 639 F.2d 588

    Mohasco v. Silver (1980) 447 U.S. 807

    Monell v. Department of Social Services of the City of New York (1978) 436 U.S. 658

    Monroe v. Papes (1961) 365 U.S. 167

    Montelete v. Bolger (CA5 1985) 767 F.2d 1416

    Morrissey v. Boston Bank (CA1 1995) 54 F.3d 27

    Moses v. American Nonwovens (CA11 1996) 97 F.3d 446

    Muller v. Oregon (1908) 208 U.S. 412

    Murphy v. United Parcel Service (1999) 119 S.Ct. 1331

    Myers v. Hose (CA4 1995) 50 F.3d 278

    Nashville Gas v. Satty (1977) 434 U.S. 136

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. City of Evergreen (CA11 1982) 693 F.2d 1367

    Nelson v. Thornburgh (ED Pa. 1983) 567 F.Supp. 369

    New York City v. Beazer (1979) 440 U.S. 568

    Newland v. Dalton (CA9 1995)

    Newman v. Chevron (SD Texas 1997) 979 F.Supp. 1085

    Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock v. EEOC (1983) 462 U.S. 669

    Nichols v. Lewis (CA5 1998) 138 F.3d 563

    Nisperos v. Buck (ND Calif. 1989) 720 F.Supp. 1424

    Norcross v. Sneed (CA8 1985) 755 F.2d 113

    Northwest Airlines v. Transport Workers Union et al. (1981) 451 U.S. 77

    O'Connor v. Consolidated (CA4 1995) 56 F.3d 542

    O'Connor v. Consolidated (1996) 116 S.Ct. 1307

    O'Connor v. Viacom (CA2 1996) 104 Fed. 356

    O'Donnell v. Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse (SD Ohio 1987) 656 F.Supp. 263

    Officers for Justice v. Civil Service Commission (CA9 1992) 979 F.2d 721

    O'Keefe v. Niagra Mohawk (ND N.Y. 1994) 714 F.Supp. 622

    Oklahoma City v. Tuttle (1985) 471 U.S. 808

    Omnipoint v. Federal Communications Commission (CA D.C. 1996) 78 F.3d 620

    Onacle v. Sundowner (1998) 523 U.S. 75

    Oscar Mayer v. Evans (1979) 441 U.S. 750

    Ostrowski v. Atlantic Mutual (CA2 1992) 968 F.2d 188

    Oubre v. Entergy Operations (1998) 118 S.Ct. 838

    Paolillo v. Dresser (CA2 1987) 821 F.2d 81

    Passer v. American Chemical Society (D D.C. 1990) 53 FEP Cases 1442

    Patterson v. Chicago Association of Retarded Citizens (CA7 1998) 150 F.3d 719

    Patterson v. McLean Credit Union (1989) 491 U.S. 164

    Peightal v. Metro Dade (CA11 1994) 26 F.3d 1545

    Pembaur v. City of Cincinnati (1986) 475 U.S. 69

    Penny v. United Parcel Service (CA6 1997) 128 F.3d 408

    Peques v. Mississippi State Employment Service (CA5 1983) 699 F.2d 760

    Personnel Administrator v. Feeney (1979) 442 U.S. 256

    Peters v. City of Shreveport (CA5 1987) 818 F.2d 1148

    Phillips v. Martin Marietta (1971) 400 U.S. 542

    Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) 510 U.S. 1309

    Plessy v. Ferguson (1897) 163 U.S. 537

    Plott v. General Motors (CA6 1995) 71 F.3d 1190

    Police Officers for Equal Rights v. City of Columbus (CA6 1990) 916 F.2d 1092

    Pouncy v. Prudential Insurance (CA5 1982) 668 F.2d 795

    Prewitt v. U.S. Postal Service (CA5 1981) 662 F.2d 292

    Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989) 490 U.S. 228

    Protos v. Volkswagen of America (CA3 1986) 727 F.2d 129

    Public Employees Retirement System of Ohio v. Betts (1989) 492 U.S. 158

    Rabidue v. Osceola (CA6 1986) 805 F.2d 611

    Ralis v. Radio Free Europe (CA D.C. 1985) 770 F.2d 1121

    Ralph v. Lucent Technologies (CA1 1998) 135 F.3d 166

    Redmond v. GAF (CA7 1978) 574 F.2d 897

    Regents of Nebraska v. Dawes (CA8 1976) 522 F.2d 380

    Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978) 438 U.S. 265

    Riel v. Electronic Data Systems (CA3 1996) 99 3.Fd 678

    Robinson v. Shell Oil (1997) 117 S.Ct. 843

    Rodgers v. Lehman (CA4 1989) 869 F.2d 253

    Roe v. Wade (1973) 410 U.S. 113

    Rogers v. EEOC (CA5 1971) 454 F.2d 518

    Rogers v. International Marine (CA 1996) 87 F.3d 755

    Rosenfeld v. Southern Pacific (CA9 1971) 444 F.2d 1219

    Runyon v. McCrary (1976) 427 U.S. 160

    Runyon v. NCR (CA6 1986) 787 F.2d 1039

    Ruth v. Alvin Independent School District (SD Texas 1982) 532 F.Supp. 460

    St. Francis College v. Al-Khazraji (1987) 481 U.S. 604

    St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks (1993) 113 S.Ct. 2742

    St. Regis Paper v. Marshall (CA10 1979) 591 F.2d 612

    Salazar v. Marathon Oil (SD Texas 1980) 502 F.Supp. 631

    Salley v. Circuit City (DD Pa. 1997) WL 701302

    Sanders v. Dobbs House (CA5 1970) 431 F.2d 1097

    Sarsycki v. United Parcel Service (WD Okla. 1994) 862 F.Supp. 336

    Schaeffer v. San Diego Yellow Cabs (CA9 1972) 462 F.2d 1002

    Scheuer v. Rhodes (1974) 416 U.S. 232

    Schmidt v. Methodist Hospital (CA7 1996) 89 F.3d 342

    School Board of Nassau County v. Arline (1987) 480 U.S. 273

    Schultz v. First Victoria National Bank (CA5 1969) 420 F.2d 648

    Schultz v. Wheaton Glass (CA3 1970) 421 F.2d 259

    Shaare Tefila Congregation v. Cobb (1987) 481 U.S. 615

    Shafer v. Preston Memorial Hospital (CA4 1997) 107 F.3d 274

    Shiring v. Runyon (CA3 1996) 90 F.3d 827

    Showalter v. Allison Reed (D R.I. 1991) 767 F.Supp. 1205

    Sieberns v. Wal-Mart (CA7 1997) 125 F.3d 1019

    Siefken v. Arlington Heights (CA7 1995) 65 F.3d 664

    Simon v. Safelite Glass (CA2 1997) 128 F.3d 68

    Simon v. St. Louis (CA8 1984) 656 F.2d 316

    Sledge v. J. P. Stevens (ED N.C. 1989) 52 EPD

    Smith v. Ameritech (CA6 1997) 129 F.3d 857

    Smith v. Blue Cross (CA10 1996) 102 F.3d 1075

    Smith v. Pyro Mining (CA6 1987) 827 F.2d 1081

    Soroka v. Dayton Hudson (1989) Cal. H143579–3

    Southeastern Community College v. Davis (1979) 442 U.S. 397

    Spaulding v. University of Washington (CA9 1984) 740 F.2d 686

    Sprogis v. United Airlines (CA7 1971) 444 F.2d 1194

    Spurlock v. United Airlines (CA10 1972) 475 F.2d 216

    Starceski v. Westinghouse (CA3 1995) 54 F.3d 1089

    Stein v. National City Bank (CA6 1991)942 F.2d 1062

    Steiner v. Showboat (CA9 1994) 25 F.3d 1459

    Stephen v. P.G.A. Sheraton Resort (CA11 1989) 873 F.2d 276

    Stewart v. County of Brown (CA7 1996) 86 F.3d 107

    Stewart v. Happy Herman's Cheshire Bridge (CA11 1997) 117 F.3d 1278

    Stone v. City of Mount Vernon (CA2 1997) 118 F.3d 92

    Strathie v. Department of Transportation (CA3 1983) 716 F.2d 227

    Stuart v. Roache (CA1 1991) 951 F.2d 446

    Stutts v. Freeman (CA11 1983) 694 F.2d 666

    Sugarman v. Dougall (1973) 413 U.S. 634

    Summers v. State Farm (CA10 1988) 84 F2d 700

    Surrisi v. Conwed (CA8 1975) 510 F.2d 1088

    Sutton v. Atlantic Richfield (CA9 1981) 646 F.2d 407

    Sutton v. United Airlines (1999) WL 407488 (No. 97–1943)

    Swanks v. Washington Transit (CA D.C. 1997) 116 F.3d 582

    Taken v. Oklahoma (CA10 1997) 125 F.3d 1366

    Talevera v. Palm Beach County (CA11 1997) 129 F.3d 1214

    Talley v. U.S. Postal Service (CA8 1983) 720 F.2d 505

    Tavora v. New York Mercantile Exchange (CA2 1996) 101 F.3d 907

    Taxman v. Piscataway (CA3 1996) 91 F.3d 1547

    Taylor v. Jones (CA8 1981) 653 F.2d 1193

    Taylor v. Principal Financial Group (CA5 1997) 93 F.3d 155

    Teahan v. Metro-North Commuter (CA2 1991) 951 F.2d 511

    Terrell v. USAir (CA11 1998) 132 F.3d 621

    Texas Department of Community Affairs v. Burdine (1981) 450 U.S. 248

    Thomas v. Washington County School Board (CA4 1990) 915 F.2d 922

    Thompson v. Olsten (D Minn. 1994) 980 F.Supp. 1035

    Thompson v. Sawyer (CA D.C. 1982) 678 F.2d 257

    Tidwell v. Fort Howard (CA10 1993) 989 F.2d 406

    Timpken v. Vaughan (ND Ohio 1976) 413 F.Supp. 1183

    Tompkins v. Public Service Electric & Gas (D N.J. 1976) 422 F.Supp. 553

    Tooley v. Martin Marietta (CA9 1981) 648 F.2d 1239

    Torres v. Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services (CA7 1988) 859 F.2d 1523

    Treadwell v. Alexander (CA11 1983) 707 F.2d 473

    Troupe v. May Department Stores (CA7 1994) 20 F.3d 734

    Tuohy v. Ford (CA6 1982) 675 F.2d 842

    Turco v. Hoechst (CA5 1996) 101 F.3d 1090

    Turjic v. Holland (CA 6 1994) 85 F.3d 1211

    Turner v. North American (CA5 1992) 979 F.2d 55

    TWA v. Hardison (1977) 432 U.S. 63

    TWA v. Thurston (1985) 469 U.S. 111

    Tyndall v. National Education Centers (CA4 1994) 31 F.3d 209

    United Airlines v. McMann (1977) 434 U.S. 192

    United States v. City of Buffalo (WD N.Y. 1978) 457 F.Supp. 612

    United States v. City and County of San Francisco (CA9 1992) 979 F.2d 169

    United States v. County of Fairfax (CA4 1980) 629 F.2d 932

    United States v. Crosby (CA11 1995) 59 F.3d 1133

    United States v. Duquesne Light (WD Pa. 1976) 423 F.Supp. 507

    United States v. Georgia Power (CA5 1983) 695 F.2d 890

    United States v. Harris (1882) 106 U.S. 629

    United States v. Nassau County (ED N.Y. 1995) 749 F.Supp. 463

    United States v. New Orleans Public Service (CA5 1984) 723 F.2d 422

    United States v. Paradise (1987) 480 U.S. 149

    United States v. Philadelphia Board of Education (CA3 1990) 911 F.2d 882

    United States v. Seeger (1965) 380 U.S. 163

    United States v. State of New York (ND N.Y. 1990) 475 F.Supp. 1103

    United States v. Virginia (1996) 116 S.Ct. 2264

    United States v. Whitney National Bank of New Orleans (ED La. 1987) 671 F.Supp.

    United Steelworkers etc. v. Weber (1979) 443 U.S. 193

    University of Tennessee v. Elliot (1986) 478 U.S. 788

    Usery v. Tamiami Trail Tours (CA5 1976) 531 F.2d 224

    U.S. Postal Service Board of Governors v. Aikens (1983) 460 U.S. 711

    Utley v. Varian Associates (CA9 1987) 811 F.2d 1279

    Valerie v. National Football League Players (CADC 1997) 131 F.3d 198

    Vande Zande v. Wisconsin Department of Administration (CA7 1995) 44 F.3d 538

    Vaughn v. Pool Offshore (CA5 1982) 683 F.2d 922

    Vega v. Kodak (CA1 1993) 62 FEP Cases 1198

    Venters v. Delphi (CA7 1997) 123 F.3d 956

    Vichare v. AMBAC (CA2 1996) 106 F.3d 457

    Waggoner v. City of Garland (CA5 1993) 987 F.2d 1160

    Waldron v. SL Industries (CA3 1995) 56 F.3d 491

    Wallace v. Debron (CA8 1974) 494 F.2d 674

    Wallace v. Dunn (CA11 1992) 968 F.2d 1174

    Wallace v. SMC (CA7 1997) 103 F.3d 1394

    Wallace v. Veterans Administration (D Kan. 1988) 683 F.Supp. 758

    Wallin v. Minnesota (CA8 1998) 153 F.3d 681

    Walters v. Metro Educational Enterprises (1997) 117 S.Ct. 660

    Walton v. Mental Health (CA3 1999) 168 F.3d 661

    Wangness v. Watertown School District (D S.D. 1982) 541 F.Supp. 332

    Wards Cove Packing v. Atonio (1989) 490 U.S. 642

    Washington (Mayor, D.C.) v. Davis (1976) 426 U.S. 229

    Washington v. HCA of Texas (CA5 1998) 152 F.3d 464

    Washington v. Lake County (CA7 1992) 969 F.2d 250

    Washington v. Seattle (1982) 458 U.S. 457

    Waters v. Turner, Wood, & Smith Insurance Agency (CA11 1989) 874 F.2d 797

    Waters v. Wisconsin Steel Works of International Harvester (CA7 1970) 427 F.2d 476

    Watson v. Fort Worth Bank & Trust (1988) 487 U.S. 977

    Weeks v. Southern Bell Telephone (CA5 1969) 408 F.2d 228

    Weigel v. Target Stores (CA7 1997) 122 F.3d 461

    Weiler v. Household Finance (CA7 1996) 101 F.3d 519

    Weissman v. Shaare Emeth (CA10 1994) 38 F.3d 1038

    Wernick v. Federal Reserve Bank of New York (CA2 1996) 91 F.3d 379

    Wessling v. Kroeger (ED Mich. 1982) 544 F.Supp. 548

    West v. Gibson (1999) No. 98–238 (decided June 14)

    West Virginia v. Casey (1989) 499 U.S. 83

    Western Airlines v. Criswell (1985) 472 U.S. 400

    White v. Westinghouse (CA3 1988) 862 F.2d 56

    White v. York International (CA10 1995) 45 F.3d 357

    Whitebeck v. Vital Signs (CA D.C. 1997) 116 F.3d 588

    Whittlesey v. Union Carbide (SD N.Y. 1983) 567 F.Supp. 1320

    Wildman v. Lerner Stores (CA1 1985) 771 F.2d 605

    Wilking v. Ramsey (D Minn. 1998) 983 F.Supp. 848

    Will v. Michigan Department of State Police (1989) 491 U.S. 58

    Williams v. Channel Master (CA6 1996) 101 F.3d 346

    Williams v. General Foods (CA7 1974) 492 F.2d 399

    Williams v. Vukovich (CA6 1983) 720 F.2d 909

    Williams v. Widnall (CA10 1996) 79 F.3d 1003

    Willingham v. Macon Telegraph Publishing (CA5 1975) 507 F.2d 1084

    Wilson v. Southwest Airlines (ND Texas 1981) F.Supp. 292

    Wittmer v. Peters (CA7 1996) 87F.3d 916

    Wormley v. Arkla (ED Ark. 1994) 871 F.Supp. 1079

    Wright v. Olin (CA4 1982) 697 F.2d 1172

    Wright v. Universal Maritime (1998) 525 U.S. 70

    Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education (1986) 476 U.S. 267

    Yott v. North American Rockwell (CA9 1979) 602 F.2d 904

    Young v. International Telephone & Telegraph (CA3 1971) 438 F.2d 757

    Zombro v. Baltimore City Police Department (CA4 1989) 868 F.2d 1364

    References for Frequently Cited Guidelines and Regulations

    EEOC
    Affirmative Action Appropriate Under Title VII29 C.F.R. 1608
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act29 C.F.R. 1625
    Equal Pay Act29 C.F.R. 1620
    Guidelines on Discrimination Because of National Origin29 C.F.R. 1606
    Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Religion29 C.F.R. 1605
    Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex29 C.F.R. 1604
    Record Keeping and Reporting Under Title VII and Americans With Disabilities Act29 C.F.R. 1602
    Regulations to Implement the Americans With Disabilities Act29 C.F.R. 1630
    Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures29 C.F.R. 1607
    Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Religion29 C.F.R. 1605
    Office of Contract Compliance Programs
    Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors41 C.F.R. 60–1
    Affirmative Action Programs41 C.F.R. 60–2
    Construction Contractors: Affirmative Action Requirements41 C.F.R. 60–4
    Rules for Administrative Proceedings41 C.F.R. 60–30
    Contractors for Supplies and Services41 C.F.R. 60–60

    Frequently Cited Laws

    From 29 U.S. Codes (Labor)
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 196729 U.S.C. 631
    Employment Retirement Income Security Act of 197429 U.S.C. 1001
    Equal Pay Act of 196329 U.S.C. 206(d)
    Fair Labor Standards Act of 193829 U.S.C. 204(f)
    National Labor Relations Act of 193529 U.S.C. 141
    Rehabilitation Act of 197329 U.S.C. 701
    From 42 U.S. Code (Public Health and Welfare)
    Americans with Disabilities Act of 199042 U.S.C. 12101
    Civil Rights Act of 199142 U.S.C. 1981A
    Executive Order 11246 of 1965 (reprinted from 3 C.F.R. 167)42 U.S.C. 2000-e4 (app. at 28–35)
    Reconstruction Civil Rights Acts of 1866, 1870, and 187142 U.S.C. 1981–1988
    Reorganization Plan 1 of 1978 (reprinted from 3 C.F.R. 321)42 U.S.C. 2000-e4 (app. at 39–40)
    Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 196442 U.S.C. 2000d
    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 196442 U.S.C. 2000e
    From other U.S. Codes
    Administrative Procedures Act of 19465 U.S.C. 701
    Freedom of Information Act of 19665 U.S.C. 552
    Immigration Reform and Control Act of 19868 U.S.C. 1324
    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 197438 U.S.C. 1681
    Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 197438 U.S.C. 2011

    EEOC Enforcement Guidelines and Related Documents since 1990

    Questions and Answers for Small Employers on Employer Liability for Harassment by Supervisors (June 20, 1999)

    Enforcement Guidance: Vicarious Employer Liability for Unlawful Harassment by Supervisors (June 20, 1999)

    Questions and Answers Regarding EEOC—Department of Labor Memoranda of Understanding (April 7, 1999)

    EEOC Memorandum of Understanding Providing for Cross-Training, Referrals, and Information Sharing on Compensation Discrimination Cases (April 7, 1999)

    EEOC—Office of Contract Compliance Programs Memorandum of Understanding Governing the Processing of Charges Under Title VII and Executive Order 11246 (April 7, 1999)

    Enforcement Guidance: Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship Under the Americans With Disabilities Act (March 1, 1999)

    Proposed Notice of Changes to the 1981 Memorandum of Understanding Between the EEOC and the Department of Labor (December 14, 1998)

    Memorandum of Understanding Between the EEOC and the Office of Special Counsel for Immigration Related Unfair Employment Practices (February 3, 1998)

    Enforcement Guidance: Application of Equal Employment Opportunity Laws to Contingent Workers Placed by Temporary Employment Agencies and Other Staffing Firms (December 8, 1997)

    Memorandum of Understanding Between the National Association of Attorneys General and the EEOC (November 12, 1997)

    Enforcement Guidance on Sex Discrimination in the Compensation of Sports Coaches in Educational Institutions (October 31, 1997)

    Policy Statement on Mandatory Binding Arbitration of Employment Discrimination Disputes as a Condition of Employment (July 10, 1997)

    Enforcement Guidance on the EEOC and Walters v. Metro Educational Enterprises (1997) (May 2, 1997)

    EEOC Enforcement Guidance on Non-Waivable Employee Rights Under the EEOC Enforced Statutes (April 11, 1997)

    EEOC Enforcement Guidance on the Americans With Disabilites Act and Psychiatric Disabilities (March 25, 1997)

    EEOC Enforcement Guidance on the Effect of Representations Made in Applications for Benefits on the Determination of Whether a Person Is a “Qualified Individual With a Disability” Under the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (February 12, 1997)

    Letter to National Labor Relations Board stating the commission's position that, under limited specified circumstances, Title I of the ADA permits an employer to give a union medical information about an applicant or employee (November 1, 1996)

    Enforcement Guidance on O'Connor v. Consolidated (1995) (September 18, 1996)

    EEOC Enforcement Guidance: Workers' Compensation and the Americans With Disabilities Act (September 3, 1996)

    Enforcement Guidance: Whether “Testers” Can File Charges and Litigate Claims of Employment Discrimination (May 22, 1996)

    Enforcement Guidance on After-Acquired Evidence and McKennon v. Nashville Banner (1995) (December 14, 1995)

    Americans With Disabilities Act Enforcement Guidance: Preemployment Disability-Related Questions and Medical Examinations (October 10, 1995)

    Enforcement Guidance: Questions and Answers About Disability and Service Retirement Plans Under the Americans With Disabilities Act (May 11, 1995)

    Compliance Manual, Section 902: Definition of the Term “Disability” (March 14, 1995)

    Executive Summary: Compliance Manual Section 902, Definition of the Term “Disability” Enforcement Guidance on Harris v. Forklift (1993) (September 9, 1993)

    Interim Enforcement Guidance on the Application of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 to Disability-Based Distinctions in Employer-Provided Health Insurance (June 8, 1993)

    Enforcement Guidance: Compensatory and Punitive Damages Available Under Section 102 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (July 14, 1992)

    Revised Enforcement Guidance on Recent Developments in Disparate Treatment Theory (July 14, 1992)

    Fact Sheet: The Family and Medical Leave Act, the Americans With Disabilities Act, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Policy Guidance on Current Issues of Sexual Harassment (March 19, 1990)

    Policy Guidance on Employer Liability Under Title VII for Sexual Favoritism (January 12, 1990)

    SOURCE: Available at http://www.eeoc.gov/publicat.html.

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    About the Author

    Arthur Gutman is Professor of Psychology and past chair of the I/O Psychology program at Florida Tech. He is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the American Evaluation Association. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from Syracuse University in 1975 and spent 2 years at the University of Colorado as a National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow and 2 years at Georgia State University. He has been at Florida Tech since 1979. He has consulted with public and private employers including the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the Florida Supreme Court, the U.S. Army and Air Force, the Brevard County Police Testing Center, Harris Corporation, and Holmes Regional Medical Center. His main teaching interests are in Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) law, statistics, and personnel selection. He has created and validated selection tests for manufacturing jobs, and he consults regularly as an expert witness on EEO claims.


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