Education, Research, and Practice in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Psychology: A Resource Manual
Publication Year: 2000
This volume will serve as a basic resource with information on salient lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered psychology issues and will furnish the reader with a range of references and other resources to explore each topic in greater depth.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Beyond Heterosexism and Across the Cultural Divide: Developing an Inclusive Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Psychology: A Look to the Future
- Chapter 2: Teaching Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Psychology: Contemporary Strategies
- Chapter 3: Including Sexual Orientation in Life Span Developmental Psychology
- Chapter 4: Confronting Heterosexism in the Teaching of Psychology
- Chapter 5: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Lives: Basic Issues in Psychotherapy Training and Practice
- Chapter 6: Including Transgender Issues in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Psychology: Implications for Clinical Practice and Training
- Chapter 7: Bisexuality in Perspective: A Review of Theory and Research
- Chapter 8: Lesbians, Gays, and Family Psychology: Resources for Teaching and Practice
- Chapter 9: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescent Development: Dancing with Your Feet Tied Together
- Chapter 10: Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation: Psychology's Evolution
- Chapter 11: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People of Color: A Challenge to Representative Sampling in Empirical Research
- Chapter 12: The Lesbian and Gay Workplace: An Employee's Guide to Advancing Equity
Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Issues, Volume 5[Page ii]
Gregory M. Herek
- 1. Lesbian and Gay Psychology: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications Edited by Beverly Greene and Gregory M. Herek
- 2. AIDS, Identity, and Community: The HIV Epidemic and Lesbians and Gay Men Edited by Gregory M. Herek and Beverly Greene
- 3. Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Among Lesbians and Gay Men Edited by Beverly Greene
- 4. Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice Against Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals Edited by Gregory M. Herek
- 5. Education, Research, and Practice in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Psychology: A Resource Manual Edited by Beverly Greene and Gladys L. Croom
Laura S. Brown, Ph.D.
Ellen Cole, Ph.D.
John P. De Cecco, Ph.D.
Oliva Espin, Ph.D.
Linda Garnets, Ph.D.
John C. Gonsiorek, Ph.D.
Arnold Kahn, Ph.D.
Douglas Kimmel, Ph.D.
Gary Melton, Ph.D.
Letitia Anne Peplau, Ph.D.
Pamela T. Reid, Ph.D.
Esther Rothblum, Ph.D.
Royce W. Scrivner, Ph.D.
Charles Silverstein, Ph.D.
Mark Snyder, Ph.D.
Leonore Tiefer, Ph.D.
Copyright © 2000 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Education, research, and practice in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered psychology: A resource manual/ edited by Beverly Greene and Gladys L. Croom.
p. cm. —(Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay issues; v. 5)
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-8039-5382-8 (cloth: acid-free paper)
ISBN 0-8039-5383-6 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
1. Gays—Psychology—Study and teaching. 2. Gays—Psychology—Research. 3. Gays—Mental health services. 4. Bisexuals—Pyschology—Study and teaching. 5. Bisexuals—Psychology—Research. 6. Bisexuals—Mental health services. 7. Transexuals—Psychology—Study and teaching. 8. Transexuals—Psychology—Research. 9. Transexuals—Mental health services. I. Greene, Beverly. II. Croom, Gladys L. III. Series.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Nageotte
Editorial Assistant: Heidi Van Middlesworth
Production Editor: Denise Santoyo
Editorial Assistant: Karen Wiley
Typesetter: Rose Tylak
Indexer: Teri Greenberg
Royce W. Scrivner 1939-1997[Page v]
This volume is dedicated to the memory of Roy Scrivner, a pioneer in lesbian and gay psychology. Roy was a psychologist with a national reputation for Zadvocacy, scholarly work in lesbian and gay psychology, pioneering contributions to lesbian and gay family psychology, and leadership in major psychology organizations. His contributions have had a significant impact on lesbian and gay psychology.
Roy received his doctorate in counseling psychology from the University of Texas at Austin in 1974. He went to work at the Dallas Administration Medical Center in 1975 and was in private practice in Dallas since 1980.
Professionally, Roy founded the APA Division of Family Psychology's Committee on Lesbian and Gay Family Issues and served as chair of that committee for several terms. He was also active in many other forums of professional psychology, including service to Division 44. In 1997, Roy received the Carolyn Atrneave Award from the Family Psychology Division for his outstanding contributions to diversity issues in family psychology. He was president of the Texas Psychological Association in 1992 and was quite possibly the first openly gay president of a state psychological association in the United States. Roy established the Texas Psychological Foundation's Lesbian and Gay Research Award in 1986 and was the recipient of the 1987 Distinguished Psychologist Award given by the Dallas Psychological Association. In 1992, Roy was instrumental in writing the brief filed by the Texas Psychological Association, supporting the repeal of the law prohibiting same-sex sexual relations. Roy's writings, his amicus briefs, and his testimony as an expert witness represent other significant contributions to the discipline and to the betterment of the lives of lesbians and gay men. Those who knew him regard his passing as the loss of a warm, sensitive, and supportive friend. This volume is dedicated to him in remembrance of his life and work. He will be greatly missed.[Page vi]
This volume is the fifth in the annual series, Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues, sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues (Division 44 of APA). This volume is devoted to providing a basic collection of resources for educators, practitioners, and researchers in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered (LGBT) Psychology.
Academic psychologists have been challenged to make psychology curriculums more inclusive. This often involves revising course material and content such that the full spectrum of sexual orientation identity, development, and life dilemmas are represented in undergraduate and graduate courses. Similarly, individuals responsible for training in other mental health disciplines, mental health agencies, and other venues that deliver psychological services to LGBT individuals have been appropriately challenged to make training competent practitioners a priority. Many practitioners who have had no training in LGBT psychology find themselves confronted with clients they feel ill-equipped to address. They often have the desire to develop clinical competencies in this area but may be at a loss to determine how to do so or where to begin. This volume is intended to serve as a basic resource with information on salient LGBT issues and to provide the reader with a range of references and other resources to explore each topic in greater depth.
In Chapter 1, 1 provide an overview of the conflated aspects of hetero-sexism and other forms of social oppression and their effects on diverse, and often invisible populations of LGB men and women. This discussion emphasizes the challenge that future LGBT psychology faces in exploring [Page x]the complex and varied meanings of sexual orientation across the parameters of ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, age, and patterned discrimination. In Chapter 2, Christine Browning and Craig Kain provide an excellent overview of the issues that should be considered when developing or teaching an LGB psychology course as well as a wealth of print and media resources, teaching exercises and strategies. While the LGB psychology course is an important component of a curriculum, it is equally important to integrate LGB issues into the spectrum of all psychology courses. Douglas Kimmel discusses in Chapter 3 the ethnocentric and heterocentric focus of developmental psychology courses taught in American universities as reflections of mainstream North American values. His chapter provides insights, questions, and guidelines for teaching life span developmental psychology in ways that reflect the realistic spectrum of sexual orientation. In Chapter 4, Jane Simoni examines heterosexist bias in psychology as it is reflected in psychology textbooks. She presents the results of a survey of current psychology textbooks and evaluates the level of adequacy of coverage of LGB issues. Her chapter also considers the degree to which relevant material is integrated into the topic or treated in a segregated fashion. Her findings describe varied forms of heterosexist content found in the texts surveyed. She also provides suggestions for psychology instructors for avoiding heterosexist bias in their teaching.
Psychologists and other mental health professionals who deliver psychological services to LGB men and women, as well as those who train clinicians will find Chapters 5 through 9 of particular interest. Kristin Hancock's Chapter 5 is a concise but rich review of the breadth of basic issues that should be considered in psychotherapy with LGB men and women. This chapter will be particularly helpful to clinicians who are unfamiliar with affirmative approaches to the treatment of LGB clients. Kathy Gainor's Chapter 6 focuses on descriptions of transgender issues in training and practice in the context of gender construction in Western society. She reviews definitions of transgenderism and its variations, common dilemmas faced by transgendered individuals, and considerations in psychotherapy with the diverse members of this group. Similarly, Ron Fox, in Chapter 7, discusses the development of more recent affirmative approaches to conceptualizing bisexual sexual orientation as a distinct rather than transitional sexual orientation.
In Chapter 8, Robert-Jay Green provides the reader with resources for working with lesbians and gay men in couples and families. His discussion [Page xi]includes treatment planning guidelines for practitioners as well as materials to create training modules for clinical supervision and teaching LGB family therapy courses and workshops. Lesbian and gay youth represent another group of LGB persons who are confronted with unique challenges and unique clinical needs. In Chapter 9, Joyce Hunter and Gerald Mallon view coming out and adolescent development as parallel processes and discuss developmental issues confronting LGB youth. They include case examples from their clinical work with LGB youth, most of whom are also members of ethnic minority groups.
Psychology has come a long way since pathology models dominated the landscape of organized psychology and clinical practice. Conversion therapy, aimed at changing lesbian and gay sexual orientation to heterosexual orientation was once deemed the most appropriate choice of therapy for lesbians and gay men. Douglas Haldeman, in Chapter 10, chronicles organized mental health's passage from conversion models to affirmative approaches. His discussion is specifically helpful to clinicians who are treating LGB people who express the desire to change their sexual orientation or are otherwise distressed and troubled by it.
The under representation of diverse groups of LGB individuals in empirical research has been a continuing problem in LGB psychology. Gladys Croom, in Chapter 11, reviews many of the challenges to conducting empirical research with adequate representation of LGB men and women of color. She discusses the implications of those omissions on research and on practice, to the extent that our research efforts inform practice, and offers strategies aimed at increasing the representation of these groups in research samples.
The heightened visibility of LGB people in the American mainstream has prompted changes in the workplace. Susan Gore highlights strategies designed to promote workplace equity and presents the results of a survey on LGBT workplace issues in Chapter 12.
The American Psychological Association maintains the LGB Concerns Office as a part of its Public Interest Directorate. Clinton Anderson, LGB Concerns Officer, provides us with APA's policy statements on LGB issues as well as resources available through that office.
My term as coeditor of this series ends with this volume. I would like to express my appreciation to those who were instrumental in the completion of this volume as well as individuals who have supported my work in this series. Among them, special thanks to Dorith Brodbar of the New School for Social Research in New York City; my research assistant [Page xii]Dawnette Jones; Linda Onorato and Joan Wirth of the Psychology Department of St. John's University. I thank the contributors to this volume for their rich contributions, and as always, Sage Publications. I am particularly grateful to Rev. David M. O'Connell, President of the Catholic University of America, and to Dr. Jeffrey Fagen, Chair, Department of Psychology, of St. John's University for their ongoing and generous support of my research in ways that made my participation in this series possible. Finally, I thank my coeditor Gladys Croom for her enthusiastic and timely support as well as her distinct and substantive contributions to the shape and content of this volume.—BeverlyGreene
Appendix I: American Psychological Association Policy Statements on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns[Page 303]
Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Office
Public Interest Directorate
750 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242Discrimination Against Homosexuals
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on January 24-26,1975]
1975) Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620–651.(Child Custody or Placement
- The American Psychological Association supports the action taken on December 15, 1973, by the American Psychiatric Association, removing homosexuality from that Association's official list of mental disorders. The American Psychological Association therefore adopts the following resolution:
Homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social and vocational capabilities; Further, the American Psychological Association urges all mental health professionals to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations.
- Regarding discrimination against homosexuals, the American Psychological Association adopts the following resolution concerning their civil and legal rights:
The American Psychological Association deplores all public and private discrimination in such areas as employment, housing, public accommodation, and licensing against those who engage in or have engaged in homosexual activities and declares that no burden of proof of such judgment, capacity, or reliability [Page 304]shall be placed upon these individuals greater than that imposed on any other persons. Further, the American Psychological Association supports and urges the enactment of civil rights legislation at the local and state and federal level that would offer citizens who engage in acts of homosexuality the same protections now guaranteed to others on the basis of race, creed, color, etc. Further, the American Psychological Association supports and urges the repeal of all discriminatory legislation singling out homosexual acts by consenting adults in private (Conger, 1975, p. 633).
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on September 2 & 5,1976.]
The sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation of natural, or prospective adoptive or foster parents should not be the sole or primary variable considered in custody or placement cases (Conger, 1977, p. 432).1977). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1976: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 32, 408–438.(Employment Rights of Gay Teachers
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on January 23-25,1981]
WHEREAS, the American Psychological Association deplores all public and private discrimination in such areas as employment, housing, public accommodation, and licensing against those who engage in or have engaged in homosexual activities and declares that no burden of proof of such judgment, capacity, or reliability shall be placed upon these individuals greater than that imposed on any other person;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association protests personnel actions against any teacher solely because of sexual orientation or affectional preference (Abeles, 1981, p. 581).1981). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1980: Minutes of the annual meetings of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 36, 552–586.([Page 305]Use of Diagnoses “Homosexuality” and “Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality”
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on August 27 & 30,1987]
WHEREAS, the American Psychological Association has been on record since 1975 that “homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social and vocational capabilities”; and
WHEREAS, it appears that the ICD-9-CM is widely used either by mandate or choice by many psychologists nationwide in connection with third-party reimbursement, institutional-based service delivery, and research; and
WHEREAS, the next revision of the ICD is not anticipated to be completed until 1992 and may, according to current proposals, then contain the “ego-dystonic homosexuality” diagnosis which APA also opposes; and
WHEREAS, the Council of Representatives already has urged APA members not to use the proposed DSM-III-R diagnoses of Periluteal Phase Disorder, Self-Defeating Personality Disorder, and Sadistic Personality Disorder because they lack adequate scientific basis and are potentially dangerous to women;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association urge its members not to use the “302.0 Homosexuality” diagnosis in the current ICD-9-CM or the “302.00 Egodystonic Homosexuality” diagnosis in the current DSM-III or future editions of either document (Fox, 1988, p. 528).1988). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1987: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 43, 527–528.(Hate Crimes
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on February 5-7,1988]
WHEREAS, the experience of criminal and violent victimization has profound psychological consequences; and
WHEREAS, the frequency and severity of crimes and violence manifesting prejudice have been documented; and
WHEREAS, the American Psychological Association opposes prejudice and discrimination based upon race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or physical condition.
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association condemns harassment, violence, and crime motivated by such prejudice;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages researchers, clinicians, teachers, and policymakers to help reduce [Page 306]and eliminate hate crimes and bias-related violence and to alleviate their effects upon the victims, particularly those victims who are children, youth, and elderly;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association supports government's collection and publication of statistics on hate crimes and bias-related violence, provision of services for victims and their loved ones, and interventions to reduce and eliminate such crimes and violence, and policies that perpetuate them (Fox, 1988, p. 528).1988). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1987: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 43, 527–528.(Sodomy Laws and APA Convention
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on August 11 & 14,1988]
APA reaffirms its opposition to laws criminalizing consensual adult sexual behavior in private and directs the Board of Convention Affairs to consider the presence of such laws as a factor in the selection of future convention sites and in programming (Fox, 1989, p. 1026).1989). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1988: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 44, 1026.(U.S. Department of Defense Policy on Sexual Orientation and Advertising in APA Publications
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, August 18,1991]
WHEREAS, the American Psychological Association (APA) deplores discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; and
WHEREAS, APA will not let its publication, as advertising media, be used by others in support of discriminatory employment practices;
WHEREAS, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) maintains a policy that homosexual orientation is “incompatible with military service”; and
WHEREAS, the DoD will not knowingly admit bisexual, lesbian or gay individuals to military service, including research and clinical internship programs in psychology; and
WHEREAS, an average of 1,500 men and women are unfairly discharged from military service each year because their sexual orientation becomes known;
[Page 307]THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the APA opposes the DoD policy which finds homosexual orientation “incompatible with military service” and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA take a leadership role among national organizations in seeking to change this discriminatory DoD policy; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA will not permit its publications, as advertising media, to be used by the DoD after December 31,1992, unless the DoD policy that homosexual orientation “is incompatible with military service” has been rescinded by that date. (Fox, 1992, p. 927).1992). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1991: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 47, 927.(Resolution on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths in the Schools
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on February 28,1993]
WHEREAS, society's attitudes, behaviors, and tendency to render lesbian, gay and bisexual persons invisible permeate all societal institutions including the family and school system (Gonsiorek, 1988; Hetrick & Martin, 1988; Ponse, 1978; Uribe & Harbeck, 1992);
WHEREAS, it is a presumption that all persons, including those who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual, have the right to equal opportunity within all public educational institutions;
WHEREAS, current literature suggests that some youths are aware of their status as lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons by early adolescence (Remafedi, 1987; Savin-Williams, 1990; Slater, 1988; Troiden, 1988);
WHEREAS, many lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths and youths perceived to belong to these groups face harassment and physical violence in school environments (Freiberg, 1987; Hetrick & Martin, 1988; Remafedi, 1987; Schaecher, 1988; Uribe & Harbeck, 1992; Whitlock, 1988);
WHEREAS, many lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths are at risk for lowered self-esteem and for engaging in self-injurious behaviors, including suicide (Gibson, 1989; Gonsiorek, 1988; Harry, 1989; Hetrick & Martin, 1988; Savin-Williams, 1990);
WHEREAS, gay male and bisexual youths are at an increased risk of HIV infection (Savin-Williams, 1992);
WHEREAS, lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths of color have additional challenges to their self-esteem as a result of the negative consequences of discrimination based on both sexual orientation and ethnic/racial minority status (Garnets & Kirnmel, 1991);
[Page 308]WHEREAS, lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths with physical or mental disabilities are at increased risk due to the negative consequence of societal prejudice toward persons with mental or physical disabilities (Pendler & Hingsburger, 1991; Hingsburger & Griffiths, 1986);
WHEREAS, lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths who are poor or working class may face additional risks (Gordon, Schroeder, & Abramo, 1990);
WHEREAS, psychologists affect policies and practices within educational environments;
WHEREAS, psychology promotes the individual's development of personal identity including the sexual orientation of all individuals;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists shall take a leadership role in promoting societal and familial attitudes and behaviors that affirm the dignity and rights, within educational environments, of all lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths, including those with physical or mental disabilities and from all ethnic/racial backgrounds and classes;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists support providing a safe and secure educational atmosphere in which all youths, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths, may obtain an education free from discrimination, harassment, violence, and abuse, and which promotes an understanding and acceptance of self;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists encourage psychologists to develop and evaluate interventions that foster nondiscriminatory environments, lower risk for HIV infection, and decrease self-injurious behaviors in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists shall advocate efforts to ensure the funding of basic and applied research on and scientific evaluations of interventions and programs designed to address the issues of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in the schools, and programs for HIV prevention targeted at gay and bisexual youths;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists shall work with other organizations in efforts to accomplish these ends (DeLeon, 1993, p. 782).1993). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1992; Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 13 and 16,1992, and February 26-28,1993, Washington, DC. American Psychologist, 48, 782.(1987, September). Sex education and the gay issue: What are they teaching about us in the schools?The Advocate, pp. 42–48.([Page 309]1991). Lesbian and gay male dimensions in the psychological study of human diversity. In J.Goodchilds (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on human diversity in America (pp. 156–160). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., & , (1988). Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Heath Care, 9, 114–122., (1990). Age and social class differences in children's knowledge of sexuality. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19(1), 33–43., , & , (1989). Gay male and lesbian youth suicide. In M.Feinleib (Ed.), Report of the secretary's task force on youth suicide (Vol. 3, pp. 110–142). Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.(1989). Sexual identity issues. In M.Feinleib (Ed.), Report of the secretary's task force on youth suicide (Vol. 2, pp. 131–142). Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.(1988). Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescents. In E.Coleman (Ed.), Integrated identity for gay men and lesbians: Psychotherapeutic approaches for emotional well-being (pp. 25–43). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press., & (1986). Dealing with sexuality in a community residential service. Psychiatric Aspects of Mental Retardation Reviews, 5(12), 63–67., & (1991). Sexuality: Dealing with parents. Special Issue: Sexuality and developmental disability. Sexuality and Disability, 9(2), 123–130., & (1978). Identities in the lesbian world: The social construction of the selfWestport, CT: Greenwood.(1987). Adolescent homosexuality: Psychosocial and medical implications. Pediatrics, 79, 331–337.(1990). Gay and lesbian youth: Expressions of identity. New York: Hemisphere.(1988, Winter). Stresses on lesbian and gay adolescents. Independent Schools, pp. 29–35.(1988). Essential issues in working with lesbian and gay male youths. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 226–235.(1988). Gay and lesbian identity: A scoiological study. Dix Hills, NY: General Hall.(1992). Addressing the needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: The origins of PROJECT 10 and school-based intervention. In K.Harbeck (Ed.), Coming out of the classroom closet: Gay and lesbian students, teachers and curriculum (pp. 9–28). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press., & (Whitlock, K. (Ed.). (1988). Bridges of respect: Creating support for lesbian and gay youth. Philadelphia: American Friends Service Committee.Resolution on State Initiatives and Referenda
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on August 22,1993]
WHEREAS, referenda to limit anti-discrimination legislation as it applies to lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons have been proposed in several states and passed in one;
[Page 310]WHEREAS, the American Psychological Association has repeatedly stated its position that lesbian, gay, and bisexual orientation should not be the basis for discrimination;
WHEREAS, the American Psychological Association deplores the use of scientifically unsound research to support discrirrtination against lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association opposes the implementation of any state constitutional amendment or statute that prohibits anti-discrimiation legislation for lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons because there is no basis for such discrimination and such discrimination is detrimental to mental health and the public good;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Council of Representatives of the American Psychological Association directs the chief executive officer to undertake immediate initiative to disseminate scientific information on sexual orientation to the state psychological associations and provide support in their advocacy efforts in the prevention of or challenge to state legislation that prohibits antidiscrimination for lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the CEO of the American Psychological Association take immediate steps to disseminate scientific information on sexual orientation to policymakers and to the public and to provide consultation to parties involved in constitutional challenges to legislation that prohibits anti-discrimiation for lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in those states in which such constitutional challenges are occurring;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the CEO of the American Psychological Association will consult with the relevant state psychological association and will immediately consider a motion at the next Board of Directors meeting and the Council of Representatives meeting to neither sponsor meetings nor authorize participation of its representatives in meetings in any state in which a constitutional amendment or statute that prohibits antidiscrimination legislation for lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons has the force of law except when the purpose of the meeting is to work publicly to overturn the law in conjunction with state and local organizations. (DeLeon, 1994, p. 628)1994). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1993; Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 19 and 22,1993, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and February 25 and 27, 1994, Washington, DC. American Psychologist, 49, 628.(Resolution on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, August 14,1997]
[Page 311]WHEREAS, societal ignorance and prejudice about same gender sexual orientation put some gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning individuals at risk for presenting for “conversion” treatment due to family or social coercion and/or lack of information (Haldeman, 1994);
WHEREAS, children and youth experience significant pressure to conform with sexual norms, particularly from their peers;
WHEREAS, children and youths often lack adequate legal protection from coercive treatment;
WHEREAS, some mental health professionals advocate treatments of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people based on the premise that homosexuality is a mental disorder (e.g., Socarides et al., 1997);
WHEREAS, the ethics, efficacy, benefits, and potential for harm of therapies that seek to reduce or eliminate same-gender sexual orientation are under extensive debate in the professional literature and the popular media (Davison, 1991; Haldeman, 1994; Wall Street Journal 1997);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that APA affirms the following principles with regard to treatments to alter sexual orientation:
that homosexuality is not a mental disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1973); and
that psychologists “do not knowingly participate in or condone unfair discriminatory practices” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Principle D, p. 1600); and
that “in their work-related activities, psychologists do not engage in unfair discrimination based on … sexual orientation” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Standard 1.10, p. 1601); and
that “in their work-related activities, psychologists respect the rights of others to hold values, attitudes, and opinions that differ from their own.” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Standard 1.09; p. 1601); and
that “psychologists … respect the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, self-determination and autonomy” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Principle D, p. 1599); and
that “psychologists are aware of cultural, individual and role differences, including those due to …sexual orientation” and “try to eliminate the effect on their work of biases based on [such] factors” Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Principle D, pp. 1599-1600); and
that “where differences of … sexual orientation … significantly affect psychologist's work concerning particular individuals or groups, [Page 312]psychologists obtain the training, experience, consultation, or supervision necessary to ensure the competence of their services, or they make appropriate referrals” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Standard 1.08, p. 1601); and
that “psychologists do not make false or deceptive statements concerning… the scientific or clinical basis for … their services,” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Standard 3.03(a), p. 1604); and
that “psychologists attempt to identify situations in which particular interventions… may not be applicable… because of factors such as … sexual orientation” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Standard 2.04 (c), p. 1603); and
that “psychologists obtain appropriate informed consent to therapy or related procedures” [which] “generally implies that the [client or patient] (1) has the capacity to consent, (2) has been informed of significant information concerning the procedure, (3) has freely and without undue influence expressed consent, and (4) consent has been appropriately documented” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, Standard 4.02(a), 1992, p. 1605); and
”when persons are legally incapable of giving informed consent, psychologists obtain informed permission from a legally authorized person, if such substitute consent is permitted by law” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Standard 4.02(b), p. 1605); and
that “psychologists (1) inform those persons who are legally incapable of giving informed consent about the proposed interventions in a manner commensurate with the persons' psychological capacities, (2) seek their assent to those interventions, and (3) consider such persons' preferences and best interests” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 1992, Standard 4.02(c), p. 1605); and
that the American Psychological Association “urges all mental health professionals to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientation” (Conger, 1975, p. 633); and
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association opposes portrayals of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths and adults as mentally ill due to their sexual orientation and supports the dissemination of accurate information about sexual orientation, and mental health, and appropriate [Page 313]interventions in order to counteract bias that is based in ignorance or unfounded beliefs about sexual orientation.American Psychiatric Association. (1973). Position statement on homosexuality and civil rights. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 4, 497.American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47(12), 1597–1611.1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620–651.(1991). Constructionism and morality in therapy for homosexuality. In J. C.Gonsiorek and J. D.Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 137–148). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., (1994). The practice and ethics of sexual orientation conversion therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 221–227.(1997, January 9). Don't forsake homosexuals who want help. Wall Street Journal, p. A12., , , , & (Wall Street Journal (1997, January 23). Letters to the editor. Wall Street Journal, p. A17.Resolution on Legal Benefits for Same-Sex Couples
[Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives August 16,1998. As of this date, August 28, 1998, the text has not been reviewed and approved by the APA Recording Secretary.]
WHEREAS there is evidence that homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgement, stability, reliability, or general social and vocationalcapabilities (Conger, 1975) for individuals;
WHEREAS legislation, other public policy, and private policy on issues related to same sex couples is currently under development in many places in North America (e.g., Canadian Psychological Association, 1996);
WHEREAS the scientific literature has found no significant difference between different-sex couples and same-sex couples that justify discrimination (Kurdek, 1994;1983; Peplau, 1991);
WHEREAS scientific research has not found significant psychological or emotional differences between the children raised in different-sex versus same-sex households (Patterson, 1994);
WHEREAS APA has, as a long established policy, deplored “all public and private discrimination against gay men and lesbians in such areas as employment, housing, administration, and licensing …” and has consistently urged “the repeal of all discriminatory legislation against lesbians and gay men” (Conger, 1975);
[Page 314]WHEREAS denying the legal benefits that the license of marriage offers to same-sex households (including, but not limited to, property rights, health care decision-making, estate planning, tax consequences, spousal privileges in medical emergency situations and co-parental adoption of children) is justified as fair and equal treatment;
WHEREAS the absence of access to these benefits constitutes a significant psychosocial stressor for lesbians, gay men, and their families;
WHEREAS APA provides benefits to its members' and employees' domestic partners equivalent to those provided to members' and employees' spouses;
WHEREAS psychological knowledge can be used to inform the current public and legal debate on “same-sex marriage” (e.g., Baehr v. Levin);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that APA supports the provision to same-sex couples of the legal benefits that typically accrue as a result of marriage to same-sex couples who desire and seek the legal benefits; and
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA shall provide relevant psychological knowledge to inform the public discussion in this area and assist state psychological associations and divisions in offering such information as needed.Canadian Psychological Association. (1996). Policy statement on equality for lesbians, gay men, and their relationships and families. [Available from the Canadian Psychological Association.].1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620–651.(1993). The nature and correlates of relationship quality in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual cohabiting couples: A test of the individual dif0ference, interdependence, and discrepancy models. In B.Greene & G.M.Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical issues (pp. 133–155). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1993). Children of the lesbian baby boom: Behavioral adjustment, self-concepts, and sex role theory. In B.Greene & G.M.Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical issues (pp. 156–175). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1991). Lesbian and gay relationships. In J. C.Gonsiorek and J. D.Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 177–196). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(
Appendix II: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns at the American Psychological Association[Page 315]Clinton W.AndersonAvailable ResourcesLesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Office
American Psychological Association
750 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242
(202) 336-6041; FAX: (202) 336-6040
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual concerns at the American Psychological Association (APA) are handled by the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Office which is housed within the Public Interest Directorate. The major functions of the APA Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Office are:
- to support the APA Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns,
- to advocate policy,
- to disseminate psychological knowledge,
- to provide consultation and referral, and
- to represent the APA.
The office publishes an annual summary of its activities: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns at APA.
About the Editors[Page 338]
Beverly Greene, PhD, ABPP, is Professor of Psychology at St. John's University, and a certified clinical psychologist in private practice in New York City. A Diplomate in Clinical Psychology from the American Board of Professional Psychology, she is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Academy of Clinical Psychology. A recipient of a 1994 Distinguished Humanitarian Award from the American Association of Applied and Preventive Psychology, the Association for Women in Psychology's 1991 Women of Color Psychologies Publication Award, she received the 1992 Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Ethnic Minority Issues from Division 44 citing her development of lesbian affirmative theoretical perspectives and clinical applications with African American women. She is a recipient of 1995 and 1996 Psychotherapy With Women Research Awards from the Division of the Psychology of Women of APA; a 1995 Distinguished Publication Award and 1995 Women of Color Psychologies Publication Award from the Association for Women in Psychology for her coedited book, Women of Color: Integrating Ethnic and Gender Identities in Psychotherapy; and the 1996 Outstanding Achievement Award from the American Psychological Association's Committee on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Concerns.
She is a member of the editorial boards of numerous scholarly journals and has served as an Associate Editor of the journal Violence Against Women. She is an active contributor to a range of professional books and journals on topics including psychotherapy with African Americans, the effects of multiple identities in the psychologies of women of color, and [Page 339]the integration of training on cultural diversity in the delivery of clinical psychological services. She is coauthor of the undergraduate text, Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World, and coeditor of Psychotherapy with African American Women: Psychodynamic Perspectives.
Gladys L. Croom, PsyD, is a certified clinical psychologist and sole proprietor of Delwe Psychological Services in Homewood, Illinois. She is the Director of the Center for Intercultural Clinical Psychology at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. She received her Doctorate in Psychology from the Illinois School of Professional Psychology with a specialization in Health Psychology (1993) and is a member of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 9 44, and Family Psychology), the Association for Women in Psychology, the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, and the National Association of Forensic Counselors.
She is an active presenter at professional conferences and in service training. She has developed research on relationship expectations and self actualizing tendencies of African American lesbian and bisexual women, psychological effects of racism and homophobia, developing cultural competence in delivering psychological services to diverse populations, and psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men. Other research includes assessing the effects of interventions on school aged children living in high risk areas for exposure to PTSD triggers, and the effects of violence on children. Under the name “Jera,” she is a writer/performer, and the author of “If you see yourself, say Amen,” a performance piece divided into 5 poems that offers a woman-centered look at the struggles and conflicts in lesbian relationships.
A recipient of the Jacob Markovitz Memorial Scholarship, and the Award for Outstanding Doctoral Graduate of the Year from the Illinois School of Professional Psychology, she is also the recipient of the 1991 National Council of Professional Schools of Psychology Award for her outstanding contributions to the study of racial/ethnic diversity.
About the Contributors[Page 340]
Clinton W. Anderson, MA holds a master's degree in psychology from Harvard University. He has served as the American Psychological Association's (APA) Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Officer since 1987 and staffs the APA Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns. As LGB Concerns Officer he provides information, referral, and consultation on lesbian, gay, and bisexual issues to APA members, public policymakers, policy advocates, and the public. He also provides policy analysis, supports APA policy development, and advocates APA policy.
Christine Browning, PhD received her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Maine at Orono in 1984. She is currently a senior staff psychologist at the University of California, Irvine Counseling Center and in private practice. At UC-Irvine, she directs the Peer Counseling Program for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues and is a lecturer in women's studies where she has taught undergraduate classes on lesbian, gay, and bisexual psychology. She has served in a variety of capacities within Division 44 including President (1997-1998). She has also served on the APA Committee of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues and the APA Committee on Women. She has presented to numerous professional organizations and campus groups on lesbian, gay, and bisexual psychology and published in the area of lesbian psychology and women's issues.
Ronald C. Fox, PhD is a psychotherapist and clinical supervisor in private practice in San Francisco. He received his doctorate in clinical psychology from the California Institute of Integral Studies. He has [Page 341]presented scholarly papers, workshops, and in-service trainings on sexual orientation and sexual identity issues at graduate schools, community mental health agencies, and at professional and LGB community conferences. He is the author of a large-scale study of bisexual identity development and several chapters on bisexual issues in LGB psychology books. He is currently working on edited volumes on contemporary research on bisexuality and on affirmative psychotherapy with bisexual women and bisexual men. He has served as an elected Member-at-Large of the APA Division 44 Executive Committee, co-chair of the Committee on Bisexual Issues in Psychology, and a member of the Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy with LGB clients.
Kathy A. Gainor, PhD is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Montclair State University in Montclair, New Jersey. She has served as a counseling psychologist at the Rutgers College Counseling Center at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey in New Brunswick. She received her doctorate in counseling psychology from Michigan State University. Her publications and research interests include social cognitive factors affecting academic and career development in black students, racial identity development, psychotherapy with black women, cross-cultural supervision, and integrating cultural diversity in training and practice. She provides consultation and training on counseling gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth and college students.
Susan Gore, PhD is the principal of The Mentor Group, a consulting firm providing workforce diversity, communications, and mentoring program assistance to corporate and nonprofit clients. She received her doctorate in social psychology from Vanderbilt University and taught in the United States and Europe. She has served as executive director of the National Women's Studies Association and has worked in corporate marketing positions with GTE, the Paul Revere Companies, and as the first Director of Institutional Marketing for Working Assets. She established The Mentor Group in 1991 to devote her full attention to organizational consulting. She also is a frequently invited speaker on issues such as mentoring, gender and sexual orientation as a business issue. She is the author of a forthcoming book on gay issues in the workplace.
Robert-Jay Green, PhD is Professor and Director of Family/Child Psychology Training at the California School of Professional Psychology, [Page 342]San Francisco Bay Campus. Among his writings are two books, Lesbians and Gays in Couples and Families: A Handbook for Therapists (edited with Joan Laird, 1996); and Family Therapy: Major Contributions (edited with James L. Framo, 1981). He is a Fellow and Vice President for Public Interest and Diversity of Division 43 (Family Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA) and a Fellow of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). He currently serves on the editorial advisory boards of Family Process, Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, and Journal of Feminist Family Therapy.
Douglas C. Haldeman, PhD is a counseling psychologist in independent practice in Seattle. He is Clinical Professor of Psychology at the University of Washington, and past chair of the American Psychological Association's Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns. He has published and lectured extensively on clinical practice and training issues for those working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and is one of the authors of APA's policy on “Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation.” He is past president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues.
Kristin A. Hancock, PhD is Professor of Psychology at John F. Kennedy University's Graduate School of Professional Psychology in Orinda, California and a clinical psychologist in private practice. She is past chair of the Association of Lesbian and Gay Psychologists, past chair of the American Psychological Association's Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns, Committee on Women, and past president of Division 44. A Fellow of the American Psychological Association, she has received both the Distinguished Service and Professional Contribution Awards from Division 44 and the Outstanding Contribution Award from the Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns. She is currently serving as Co-Chair of a Division 44/Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Clients. Her work has focused on the education and training of psychotherapists in gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues.
Joyce Hunter, DSW is Director, Community Liaison Program, and Research Scientist at the HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies/New York State Psychiatric Institute, where she is currently examining a prevention/intervention program for youth, “Working It [Page 343]Out,” based on a video of scenes from the lives of lesbian/gay youth. She is also Assistant Professor at the Deparment of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. She is consulting editor of the Encyclopedia of AIDS, serves on the editorial board of Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, is co-founder of the Harvey Milk High School, and has written numerous journal articles.
Craig Kain, PhD received his doctorate in counseling psychology from the University of Southern California in 1990. He is currently a consultant and clinician in private practice in Long Beach, California. He is past chair of the graduate program in psychology at Antioch University Los Angeles and is the author of Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling (1996). He has been active in Division 44 in many capacities including newsletter editor and co-chair of the Public Policy Task Force. Currently, he is working as a consultant to promote graduate education on HIV/AIDS for the APA Office of Psychology Education (HOPE) program. He is a frequent presenter on the pedagogy of lesbian, gay, and bisexual courses.
Douglas C. Kimmel, PhD is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at City College, City University of New York where he had been on the faculty since 1970. He is author of Adulthood and Aging: An Interdisciplinary Developmental View (3rd ed., 1990; Japanese translaton, 1994); coauthor with Irving B. Weiner of Adolescence: A Developmental Transition (2nd ed., 1995); and coeditor with Linda D. Garnets of Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Male Experiences (1993). He was a Fulbright Lecture Professor in Japan (1994-1995). His work in lesbian and gay psychology include: chair of the Association of Lesbian and Gay Psychologists (1977), chair of APA's Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns (1983), president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian and Gay Issues (Division 44) of the American Psychological Association (1986-1987), and APA Council Representative for Division 44 (1992-1994). His research on older gay men began in 1976, and he was a cof ounder of SAGE (Senior Action in a Gay Environment) in New York City in 1977.
Gerald P. Mallon, DSW is Assistant Professor at the Hunter College School of Social Work. He also serves as director of Green Chimneys Children's Services Residential Program for gay/bi/transgendered youth. His current research focuses on child welfare practice with gay [Page 344]and lesbian children, youth, and families. He is also the author of Foundations of Social Work Practice with Lesbian and Gay Persons and We Don't Exactly Get the Welcome Wagon: The Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Adolescents in Child Welfare Systems.
Jane M. Simoni, PhD is a clinical psychologist who received her doctorate from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1993. She interned at UCLA's Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital and was a National Cancer Institute Fellow at the Institute for Prevention Research, University of Southern California School of Medicine. As an Aaron Diamond Postdoctoral Fellow at the Columbia University School of Social Work, she conducted a longitudinal study of coping and psychological adaptation among women living with HIV/AIDS. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor at Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York. Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, she is currently evaluating the efficacy of a peer support intervention to enhance adherence to medication regimens among men and women with HIV/AIDS. She has published extensively and presented nationally and internationally on her research and clinical interests, which incorporate aspects of clinical, community, health, and counseling psychology. Her main research focus is identifying how cultural strengths and social support mediate psychological well-being and resilience among stigmatized groups such as gays and lesbians, ethnic minorities, and people living with HIV/AIDS.