Education Leadership: Ambiguity, Professionals and Managerialism

Books

Eric Hoyle & Mike Wallace

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Author Details

    Eric Hoyle is Emeritus Professor and Senior Fellow in the Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol. His major interests are in organization theory, the professions and professional development. He is author of The Politics of School Management and (with Peter John) Professional Knowledge and Professional Practice.

    Mike Wallace is a Professor of Education in the Department of Education, University of Bath. His research interest is in the management of change in education and other public services. He is author (with Keith Pocklington) of Managing Complex Educational Change and editor (with Louise Poulson) of the teaching text Learning to Read Critically in Educational Leadership and Management.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Evidence from PriceWaterhouseCoopers teachers' workload study 2
    • 1.2 Five intellectual projects pursued in the field of educational leadership and management 16
    • 2.1 Endemic internal organizational dilemmas 44
    • 2.2 Endemic external organizational dilemmas 45
    • 4.1 Characteristics of three ideal types of managerialism 69
    • 4.2 Opening up educational boundaries through school-based innovation 81
    • 4.3 An implicit HMI model of curriculum control in the ‘well-managed school’ 85
    • 4.4 The new ‘normal’ leadership and management in state-funded schools in England 92
    • 7.1 A continuum from transformational to laissez-faire leadership 133
    • 7.2 OFSTED criteria for judging school leadership and management effectiveness 137
    • 7.3 Impact of factors promoting environmental turbulence and stability on the planning process 149

    Preface

    We have selected irony as the organizing concept of this book because it offers a link between our five main concerns.

    Our first concern is to bring to the fore a perspective on organizations that has existed for some time but has remained marginal to the prescriptive leadership and management literature. This perspective acknowledges that organizations are characterized by ambiguities, dilemmas and incommensurable values. It recognizes that such characteristics are endemic. This is particularly so in educational organizations, on which we focus. The goals of educational organizations are both diverse and diffuse. They lead inevitably to the irony of unintended (as well as intended) consequences of well-intentioned actions. In the past, leaders and managers in state-funded schools have been content to live with the ironies of organizational life. They now have less of an option since the underlying purpose of educational reforms has been to eliminate ambiguity through tightly specifying the work of headteachers and teachers, coupled with equally tight surveillance and punitive measures for failure to meet this specification.

    Our second concern is to engage with the unintended consequences of the prevailing approach to the management of change: policy initiatives promulgated by central government coupled with the expectation that they will be efficiently implemented through strengthened leadership and management at the school level. Policies may be designed to improve learning and teaching, or to strengthen organizational leadership and management as a means of improving the educational activity that leadership and management support. While the raft of policies has brought considerable changes in structures and procedures in the education system, the core of the educational enterprise – learning and teaching – has remained relatively untouched. The irony here lies in the fact that, as each successive policy initiative comes to be seen as having brought unintended consequences, the response has been to develop corrective policies – which have themselves generated further unintended consequences.

    Our third concern is to suggest that the rhetoric currently dominating the discourse of policy and of leadership and management, encapsulated in the term ‘transformation’, is largely a myth. The irony here is that school staff are being urged to be ‘transformational’, implying the achievement of radical change, under conditions that actually constrain their opportunities for achieving change. Transformation at the school level means, in practice, finding more efficient ways of implementing government policy.

    Our fourth concern is to suggest that most headteachers and teachers have not wholly rejected recent educational reforms nor offered overt resistance, but have mediated government policies to render them congruent with the needs of students in individual schools in particular contexts. The irony here is that headteachers and teachers, through a stance of principled infidelity, are implementing policies that would not have worked if their prescriptions had been faithfully followed. In the interests of their students, headteachers and teachers are moderating the negative unintended consequences of central government policies.

    Our fifth concern is to suggest that perhaps a majority of headteachers and teachers are bringing to their work a scepticism towards government policies, a pragmatic approach towards their implementation, a sense of contingency in their relevance, and a constructivist approach to learning and teaching collaboratively pursued. These are some of the manifestations of what we have termed an ‘ironic orientation’, an approach that we endorse.

    Having briefly set out our purposes, it is necessary to indicate some of the considerations that have gone into writing what is unapologetically a ‘position’ book. In no way do we pretend to offer a detached account of the contemporary educational scene. For this reason we have written in the first person plural throughout.

    Our stance is sceptical but not cynical. There are no villains in the book. We believe that politicians, government advisers, inspectors, administrators, headteachers and teachers generally act in good faith and with a genuine desire to improve educational quality. However, it will be clear that our sympathies lie with those headteachers and teachers who persist, despite the power of external forces, in doing their best for their students as far as circumstances allow. We want to celebrate their efforts and to rescue these from their samizdat status.

    The term ‘leadership’ has only recently overtaken the term ‘management’ in political and practitioner discourse as the main descriptor for what is entailed in running and improving public service organizations. We recognize the distinction between leadership (making new things happen) and management (keeping new and existing things on track). However, because of the ambiguity in meanings of leadership and management we have throughout used the two terms in conjunction except where we are specifically dealing with differences. The conjoined terms equate to the single term ‘administration’ as used in North America over a long period.

    We are not advancing a theory, constructing a model, reviewing a literature, presenting a body of research data, or offering a set of procedural recommendations. We are simply offering an invitation to engage in a discussion. Hence we draw on an eclectic range of data and on a range of personal experiences in telling our story. Our approach is one of informed speculation.

    It must be stressed that we believe in the importance of school leadership and management. Schools need positive leadership and it is vital that they are effectively managed. We are concerned that school leaders and managers should have a suitable preparation for their difficult roles. But while we have no reservations about the importance of effective leadership and management, we do have reservations about managerialism – leadership and management to excess – because it is more likely to create problems for headteachers and teachers than to solve them.

    We fully recognize both that central government has a mandate to improve state funded education, and that attempting to bring about the necessary large-scale change is highly complex. But in our view the prevailing strategy is flawed because it underestimates the importance of headteacher and teacher agency and limits room for manoeuvre in school settings.

    Our approach is somewhat downbeat in that we do not prescribe what should be done. We offer no ‘magic bullet’ in the mode of many books to be found on airport bookstalls – most of which are probably abandoned by their purchasers on the arrival of the drinks trolley. In fact, our underlying argument is that the idea that there could be a ‘magic bullet’ for solving educational problems is wishful thinking. It follows that there is a need for a massive scaling down of the number and frequency of policy initiatives designed to eradicate ambiguity, and a complementary need to search for ways of reducing the press of leadership and management in schools.

    We are very conscious of the forces that would have to be overcome in reducing managerialism. We identify two in particular. One is the decline of trust within society. What might be called ‘the tragedy of the professions’ is that they have clung to their self-interested practices for so long that politicians have over-reacted in their mistrust of professions, and clients have become over-ready to turn to litigation. Yet we do not abandon the possibility of sustaining a principled professionalism. The other barrier is the effect of career patterns favouring those who can display managerial credentials and fluency in the managerial discourse, which understandably makes it difficult for many to deviate from managerialist expectations.

    Our ‘case’ is state funded schooling within the educational system of England and Wales, the source of most of our examples. But our account could equally apply to other public – and perhaps private – services in Britain and in other countries. Ambiguity is endemic in all organizations. Out of ambiguity arises irony. Overzealous attempts to remove ambiguities make life more difficult for front-line practitioners. An ironic orientation allows them to live with the external pressures imposed upon them. They continue to obtain job satisfaction, not from attending the ever-increasing number of committee meetings or completing ever-growing amounts of paperwork, but from doing their best for the people they serve in their contingent circumstances. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion of these issues.

    The book is timely. There are signs of a growing recognition of the dysfunctions of managerialism, particularly in terms of its impact on the workload of teachers, growing work-dissatisfaction, and the consequent problems of teacher recruitment and retention. Some politicians are coming to realize that the huge expenditure on accountability is having at best only a marginal impact on learning and teaching. It is thus highly cost ineffective, since the investment is largely in structural change and in accountability procedures. On the other hand, we accept that many politicians may find it difficult to abandon the belief that yet another policy initiative will put matters right. We aspire therefore to offer reassurance to those headteachers and teachers whose method of coping with current pressures is through what we term an ironic orientation.

    Our concerns are addressed in the book through a four-part structure. Part One introduces our approach to irony and demonstrates its generic applicability to education. Chapter 1 conceives irony in terms of unintended consequences and defines the key concepts of our ironic perspective. Chapter 2 explores diverse sources of endemic ambiguity, and their exacerbation by change, constituting preconditions of irony in schools as organizations. Chapter 3 adopts a complementary focus, showing how parallel sources of ambiguity stimulate equivalent ironies in the implementation of improvement policies across administrative system levels in education.

    Part Two introduces the notion of managerialism as excessive leadership and management. It traces ironies generated unwittingly by the implementation of central government managerialist policies that militate against educational improvement, especially those connected with reforms. Chapter 4 looks historically at the early and more recent rise of managerialism in school education, portraying how its promise radically to reduce ambiguity has been belied by the resultant ironic consequences. Chapter 5critically examines how managerialism threatens to produce self-serving leadership and management at the expense of educational activity.

    Part Three takes our critique of managerialism further by deconstructing the rhetoric of educational crisis and the urgency of system transformation which underpins managerialist reforms. Chapter 6 reveals ambiguities and associated ironies engendered by the gap between aspects of the mythical discourse of transformation and externally imposed constraints which leave school staff with little scope for transforming learning and teaching. Chapter 7 similarly scrutinizes the discourse of organizational leadership as a means of promoting educational transformation and the ambiguities and ironies that in reality restrict leadership to the transmission of centrally specified reforms.

    Part Four examines the ironies of school staff responses to managerialism and builds the case for more temperate approaches to educational administration. Chapter 8 looks at evidence that many, perhaps most, school staff are mediating reforms rather than endorsing them. Chapter 9 hypothesizes that most school staff have adopted an ironic orientation towards managerialism, which is actually highly appropriate for professional practice in relatively ambiguous circumstances. Chapter 10 sketches out what temperate educational administration and incremental improvement efforts might look like, supported by wise policies that are accepting of ambiguities and return professional practice in leading, managing and teaching to the heart of the service of education.

    EricHoyleMikeWallace

    Acknowledgements

    We owe a considerable intellectual debt to Professor James March, whose writings and conversations have strongly influenced our thinking. Mike Wallace was awarded a Senior Fellowship within the AIM (Advanced Institute of Management Research) initiative during 2003–05, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (award number RES-331-25-0011). His fellowship was focused on managing complex and programmatic change in the public services, and included exploring ambiguity in the change process and implications for coping effectively with it. Ideas and opinions expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not represent the view of the ESRC.

  • References

    Alexander, R. (1984) Primary Teaching. London: Cassell.
    AlexanderR. (1995) Versions of Primary Education. London: Routledge.
    Alexander, R. (1997) Policy and Practice in Primary Education. (
    2nd edn
    ) London: Routledge.
    Amis, K. (1997) The King's English: A Guide to Modern Usage. London: Harper Collins.
    Argyris, C. (1999) On Organizational Learning. (
    2nd edn
    ) Oxford: Blackwell.
    Argyris, C. and Schon, D. (1978) Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. London: Addison-Wesley.
    BacharachS.B., Bamburger, P., Conley, C. and Scott, B. (1990) ‘The dimensionality of decision-making in educational organizations’, Educational Administration Quarterly, 26 (2): 126–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X90026002003
    Bacharach, S. B. and Lawler, E. S. (1980) Power and Politics in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ball, S. (1990) Politics and Policy-making in Education. London: Routledge.
    Ball, S. (1998) ‘Educational studies, policy entrepreneurship and social theory,’ in R.Slee and G.Weiner with S.Tomlinson (eds) School Effectiveness for Whom?London: Falmer.
    Barber, M. (ed.) (1996) The National Curriculum: A Study in Policy. Keele: Keele University Press.
    Barnett, R. (1997) Higher Education: A Critical Business. London: SRHE/Open University Press.
    Baron, G. and Taylor, W. (eds) (1969) Educational Administration and the Social Sciences. London: The Athlone Press.
    Bass, B. (1985) Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.
    Becker, H., Geer, B., Hughes, E. and Strauss, A. (1961) Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Becker, H., Geer, B. and Hughes, E. (1968) Making the Grade: The Academic Side of College Life. New York: Wiley.
    Berger, P. and Luckmann, T. (1967) The Social Construction of Reality. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Berlak, A. and Berlak, H. (1981) The Dilemmas of Schooling. London: Methuen.
    Berlin, I. (1969) Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bernstein, B. (1967) ‘Open schools, open society?’, New Society, 10: 152–4.
    Bidwell, C. (1965) ‘The school as a formal organization’, in J. G.March (ed.) Handbook of Organizations. New York: Rand McNally. pp. 927–1022.
    Blase, J. and Anderson, G. (1995) The Micropolitics of Educational Leadership. London: Cassell.
    Board of Education (1937) Handbook of Suggestions for Teachers. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Bolam, R. (ed.) (1982) School-focused In-service Training. London: Heinemann.
    Bolman, L. and Deal, T. (1984) Modern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Bottery, M. (1998) Professionals and Policy: Management Strategies in a Competitive World. London: Cassell.
    Bottery, M. (2004) The Challenges of Educational Leadership. London: Paul Chapman.
    Bower, M. (1966) The Will to Manage: Corporate Success through Programmed Management. New York: McGraw Hill.
    Brundrett, M. (1998) ‘What lies behind collegiality: legitimation or control?’, Educational Management and Administration, 26 (3): 305–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X98263008
    Brunsson, N. (1989) The Organization of Hypocrisy. Chichester: Wiley.
    Bucher, R. and Strauss, A. (1961) ‘Professions in process’, American Journal of Sociology, 65: 325–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/222898
    Burns, J. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
    Caldwell, B. and Spinks, J. (1988) The Self Managing School. London: Falmer.
    Caldwell, B. and Spinks, J. (1992) Leading the Self Managing School. London: Falmer.
    Callahan, R. (1962) Education and the Cult of Efficiency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Carter, R. (1992) ‘The LINC project: the final chapter?’, mimeo. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
    Case, P., Case, S. and Catling, S. (2000) ‘Please show you're working: a critical assessment of the impact of OFSTED inspections on primary teachers’, British Journal of the Sociology of Education, 21 (4): 605–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713655370
    Central Advisory Council for Education (England) (1967) Children and their Primary Schools. (The Plowden Report). London: HMSO.
    Chambers, W. and R.Ltd (1998) The Chambers Dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd.
    Chubb, J. and Moe, T. (1990) Politics, Markets and America's Schools. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute.
    Cicourel, A. and Kitsuse, J. (1963) The Educational Decision Makers. New York: Bobbs Merrill.
    Clark, B. (1960) The Open Door College. New York: McGraw Hill.
    Collins (2001) Collins Concise Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins.
    Coopers and Lybrand (1988) Local Management of Schools. London: HMSO.
    Creemers, B. (1994) The Effective Classroom. London: Cassell.
    Cuckle, P., Hodgson, J. and Broadhead, P. (1998) ‘Investigating the relationship between OFSTED inspections and school development planning’, School Leadership and Management, 18 (2): 271–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632439869691
    Daily Telegraph (1991) ‘“Progressive” teaching was a £14m failure,’ 2 August.
    Dale, R. (1989) The State and Educational Policy. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Davison, C. and Kemshall, T. (1998) OFSTED Exposed!Instead: Walsall, UK.
    Deal, T. (1998) ‘The symbolism of effective schools’, in A.Westoby (ed.) Culture and Power in Educational Organizations. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 198–222.
    Department for Education and Employment (1998) Teachers Meeting the Challenge of Change. Cm 4614. London: DFEE.
    Department for Education and Skills (2004) National Standards for Headteachers. London: DFES.
    Department of Education and Science (1972) Teacher Education and Training. (The James Report). London: HMSO.
    Department of Education and Science (1989) Planning for School Improvement. London: DES.
    Department of Education and Science (1991) Development Planning: A Practical Guide. London: DES.
    Dimmock, C. and Walker, A. (2003) ‘Developing comparative and international educational leadership and management: a cross-cultural model’, in M.Preedy, R.Glatter and C.Wise (eds) Strategic Leadership and Educational Improvement. London: The Open University in association with Paul Chapman Publishing. pp. 77–92.
    Dixon, N. (1994) The Organizational Learning Cycle. London: McGraw Hill.
    Egan, G. (1988) Change Agent Skills: Assessing and Designing Excellence. San Diego: University Associates.
    Egan, K. (1997) The Educated Mind: How Cognitive Tools Shape our Understanding. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Elster, J. (1978) Logic and Society. New York: Wiley.
    Empson, W. (1930) Seven Types of Ambiguity. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Enright, D. (1984) The Alluring Problem: An Essay on Irony. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Evans, L., Packwood, A. and Neill, S. (1994) The Meaning of Infant Teachers' Work. London: Routledge.
    Evers, C. (1990) ‘Schooling, organisational learning and efficiency in the growth of knowledge’, in J.Chapman (ed.) School Based Decision Making and Management. London: Falmer Press.
    Evers, C. and Lakomski, G. (1996) Exploring Educational Administration. Oxford: Pergamon.
    Farrell, C. and Morris, J. (2004) ‘Resigned compliance: teacher attitudes towards performance-related pay in schools’, Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, 32 (1): 81–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143204039301
    Firestone, W. and Louis, K. S. (1999) ‘Schools as cultures’, in J.Murphy and K. S.Louis (eds) Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. (
    2nd edn
    ) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 297–322.
    Fullan, M. (2001) The New Meaning of Educational Change. (
    3rd edn
    ) New York: Teachers College Press.
    Galton, M. (1995) Crisis in the Primary Classroom. London: Fulton.
    General Teaching Council (2003) Keynote speech by Carol Adams to the North of England Education Conference. http://www.primaryheands.org.uk/documents/doc9html Accessed 31 December 2003
    Giddens, A. (1979) Central Problems in Social Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity.
    Glatter, R. (1972) Management Development for the Education Profession. London: Harrop.
    Gleeson, D. and Shain, F. (1999) ‘By appointment: governance, markets and managerialism in further education’, British Educational Research Journal, 25 (4): 545–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192990250409
    Greenfield, T. (1975) ‘Theory about organizations: a new perspective and its implications for schools’, in M.Hughes (ed.) Administering Education: International Challenge. London: Athlone Press. pp. 71–99.
    Gronn, P. (2000) ‘Distributed properties: a new architecture for leadership’, Educational Management and Administration, 28 (3): 317–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X000283006
    Gronn, P. (2003) ‘Distributing and intensifying school leadership’, in N.Bennett and L.Anderson (eds) Rethinking Educational Leadership. London:Sage. pp. 60–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216811
    Guardian (2003) ‘Schools cash for rail crash enquiry firm,’ 28 April.
    Haack, S. (2000) Manifesto of a Passionate Moderate: Uncomfortable Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hallinger, P. and Heck, R. (1999) ‘Can leadership enhance school effectiveness?’ in T.Bush, L.Bell, R.Bolam, R.Glatter and P.Ribbins (eds) Educational Management: Redefining Theory, Policy and Practice. London: Paul Chapman. pp. 178–190.
    Hanson, E. M. (1979) Educational Administration and Organizational Behaviour. (
    2nd edn
    ) Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Hargreaves, A. (1983) ‘The politics of administrative convenience’, in J.Ahier and M.Flude (eds) Contemporary Education Policy. London: Croom Helm. pp. 23–57.
    Hargreaves, A. (1994) Changing Teachers, Changing Times. London: Cassell.
    Hargreaves, A. (1997) ‘The cultures of teaching and educational change’, in B.Biddle, T.Good and I.Goodson (eds) International Handbook of Teachers and Teaching. London: Dordrecht: Kluwer. pp. 1287–1319.
    Hargreaves, A. (2003) Teaching in the Knowledge Society. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Hargreaves, A. and Tickle, L. (1980) Middle Schools: Origins, Ideology and Practice. London: Harper and Row.
    Hargreaves, D. and Hopkins, D. (1991) The Empowered School: The Management and Practice of Development Planning. London: Cassell.
    Harris, A. (2001) ‘Distributed leadership and school improvement’, Educational Management and Administration, 32 (1): 11–24.
    Helsby, G. (1999) Changing Teachers' Work. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Hirschman, A. (1970) Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hodgkinson, C. (1991) Educational Leadership: The Moral Art. Albany NY: SUNY Press.
    Hoy, W. and Miskel, C. (1996) Educational Administration: Theory, Research and Practice. (
    5th edn
    ) New York: McGraw Hill.
    Hoyle, E. (1965) ‘Organizational analysis in the field of education’, Educational Research, 7 (2): 94–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188650070202
    Hoyle, E. (1974) ‘Professionality, professionalism and control in teaching’, London Educational Review3 (2): 13–19.
    Hoyle, E. (1975) ‘Leadership and decision-making in education’, in M.Hughes (ed.) Administering Education: International Challenge. London: Athlone Press. pp. 30–44.
    Hoyle, E. (1986) The Politics of School Management. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Hoyle, E. (1994) ‘Organization theory’, in T.Husen and N.Postlethwaite (eds) International Encyclopaedia of Education. New York: Pergamon Press. pp. 6224–6227.
    Hoyle, E. (1995) ‘Changing concepts of a profession’, in H.Busher and R.Saran (eds) The Management of Professionals in Schools. London: Longman. pp. 59–70.
    Hoyle, E. (2001) ‘Teaching: esteem, status and prestige’, Educational Management and Administration, 29 (3): 139–152.
    Hoyle, E. and John, P. (1995) Professional Knowledge and Professional Practice. London: Cassell.
    Huber, G. (1991) ‘Organizational learning: the contributing processes’, Organizational Science, 2 (1): 124–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.88
    Huczynski, A. (1993) Management Gurus: What Makes Them and How to Become One. London: Routledge.
    Hughes, M. (1973) ‘The professional-as-administrator: the case of the secondary school head’, Educational Administration Bulletin, 2 (1): 11–23.
    Hughes, M. (ed.) (1974) Secondary School Administration: A Management Approach. (
    2nd edn
    ) Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    Jackson, P. (1968) Life in Classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    Jones, A. and Hendry, C. (1994) ‘The learning organization, adult learning and organizational transformation’, British Journal of Management, 5: 153–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.1994.tb00075.x
    Kuper, A. (1999) Culture: The Anthropologists' Account. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Lacey, C. (1977) The Socialization of Teachers. London: Methuen.
    Langford, G. (1985) Teaching as a Profession: An Essay in the Philosophy of Education. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Lawton, D. (1984) The Tightening Grip: Growth of Central Control of the Curriculum. Bedford Way Paper 21. London: University of London Institute of Education.
    Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D. and Steinbach, R. (1999) Changing Leadership for Changing Times. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Leithwood, K., LeonardC. and Sharratt, L. (1998) ‘Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools’, Educational Administration Quarterly34 (2): 243–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X98034002005
    Little, J. W. (1990) ‘The persistence of privacy: autonomy and initiative in teacher professional relations’, Teachers College Record91 (4): 508–36.
    Lortie, D. (1964) ‘Suggestions for long-term research on team teaching’, in J.Shaplin and H.Olds (eds) Team Teaching. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. pp. 270–305.
    Lortie, D. (1975) Schoolteacher. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Louis, K. S. and Miles, M. (1990) Improving the Urban High School. New York: Teachers College Press.
    MacGilchrist, B., Myers, K. and Reed, J. (1997) The Intelligent School. London: Paul Chapman.
    Machiavelli, N. (1979) ‘The discourses’, in P.Bondarello and M.Musa (eds) The Portable Machiavelli. London: Penguin.
    Maclure, S. (1970) ‘The control of education’, in The History of Education Society: The Government and Control of Education. London: Methuen.
    Maclure, S. (1998) ‘Through the revolution and out the other side’, Oxford Review of Education, 24 (1): 5–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498980240101
    Mangham, I. (1978) Interactions and Interventions. New York: Wiley.
    March, J. (1999) The Pursuit of Organizational Intelligence. Oxford: Blackwell.
    March, J. and Olsen, P. (1976) Ambiguity and Choice in Organisations. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.
    March, J. and Simon, H. (1958) Organizations. New York: Wiley.
    Marks, H. M. and Louis, K. S. (1999) ‘Teacher empowerment and the capacity for organizational learning’, Educational Administration Quarterly, 35 (Supplement): 707–50.
    MartinJ. and Frost, P. (1996) ‘The organizational culture war games: the struggle for intellectual dominance’, in S.Clegg, C.Hardy and W.Nord (eds) Handbook of Organizations. London: Sage. pp. 599–621.
    Mcdonnell, L. and Elmore, R. (1991) ‘Getting the job done: alternative policy instruments’, in A.Odden (ed.) Education Policy Implementation. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. pp. 157–83.
    McGovern, C. (1991) ‘Very peculiar practice for state schools,’The Mail on Sunday, 4 August.
    McLaughlin, M. (1991) ‘The RAND change agent study: ten years later’, in A.Odden (ed.) Education Policy Implementation. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. pp. 143–55.
    McLaughlin, K., Osborne, S. and Ferlie, E. (eds) (2002) New Public Management: Current Trends and Future Prospects. London: Routledge.
    Merton, R. (1957) Social Theory and Social Structure. (
    2nd edn
    ) New York: Free Press.
    Merton, R. and Barber, E. (2004) The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Meyer, J. W. and Rowan, B. (1988) ‘The structure of educational organizations’, in A.Westoby (ed.) Culture and Power in Educational Organizations. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 87–112.
    Miles, M. (ed.) (1964) Innovation in Education. New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, Bureau of Publications.
    Mintzberg, H. (1994) The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. New York: Free Press.
    Moore, A., George, R. and Halpin, D. (2002) ‘The developing role of the headteacher in English schools: management, leadership and pragmatism’, Educational Management and Administration, 30 (2): 175–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02611X02030002508
    Morgan, C., Hall, V. and Mackay, H. (1983) The Selection of Secondary School Headteachers. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Morrison, K. (2002) School Leadership and Complexity Theory. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
    Muecke, D. C. (1969) The Compass of Irony. London: Methuen.
    Mueller, D. (1989) Public Choice Vol II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mulford, W. (1998) ‘Organizational learning and educational change’, in A.Hargreaves, A.Lieberman, M.Fullan and D.Hopkins (eds) International Handbook on Educational Change. London: Kluwer.
    National College for School Leadership (2003) Prospectus 2003/04. Nottingham: NCSL.
    Nias, J., Southworth, G. and Yeomans, R. (1989) Staff Relationships in the Primary School. London: Cassell.
    Odden, A. (ed.) (1991) Educational Policy Implementation. New York: SUNY Press.
    OED (1971) Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Office for Standards in Education (2003a) Inspecting Schools. London: OFSTED.
    Office for Standards in Education (2003b) Leadership and Management: What Inspection Tells us. Document No. HMI 1646. London: OFSTED.
    Office of Public Service Reform (2002) Reforming our Public Services: Principles into Practice. London: OPSR.
    Ogawa, R., Crowson, R. and Goldring, E. (1999) ‘Enduring dilemmas of school organisation’, in J.Murphy and K. S.Louis (eds) Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 277–95.
    O'Neill, O. (2002) A Question of Trust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (2003) Education at a Glance 2003. Paris: OECD.
    Osborn, M., McNess, E., Broadfoot, P. with Pollard, A. and Triggs, P. (2000) What Teachers Do. Changing Policy and Practice in Primary Education. London: Continuum.
    Osborne, D. and Gaebler, T. (1992) Reinventing Government. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Parkinson, C. N. (1985) Parkinson's Law or the Pursuit of Progress. London: Penguin.
    Pearn, M., Roderick, C. and Mulrooney, C. (1995) Learning Organizations in Practice. London: McGraw Hill.
    Pedler, M., Burgoyne, D. and Boydell, T. (1997) The Learning Company. (
    2nd edn
    ) London: McGraw Hill.
    Pentland, B. and Rueter, H. (1994) ‘Organizational routines and the grammar of action’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 39 (3): 484–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393300
    Perkin, H. (1989) The Rise of Professional Society, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203408629
    Perutz, M. (1998) I Wish I'd Made You Angry Earlier: Essays on Science, Scientists and Humanity. Cold Spring Harbor: Laboratory Press.
    Peters, T. and Waterman, R. (1982) In Search of Excellence. London: Harper and Row.
    Polanyi, M. (1971) Personal Knowledge. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Pollard, A., Broadfoot, P., Croll, P., Osborn, M. and Abbott, D. (1994) Changing English Primary Schools? The Impact of the Education reform Act at Key Stage One. London: Cassell.
    Popper, K. (1963) Conjectures and Refutations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Powell, C. and Paton, G. (eds) (1988) Humour in Society: Resistance and Control. London: Macmillan.
    Prawat, R. S. and Peterson, P. L. (1999) ‘Social constructivist views on learning’, in J.Murphy and K. S.Louis (eds) Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. (
    2nd edn
    ) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 202–36.
    PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2001) Teacher Workload Study: Interim Report. London: PriceWaterhouseCoopers.
    Primary Needs Independent Evaluation Project (1987) The PNP Coordinator: Opportunities and Ambiguities. (Interim Report No 5) Leeds: University of Leeds.
    Rait, E. (1995) ‘Against the current: organizational learning in schools’, in S. B.Bacharach and P.Mundell (eds) Images of Schools: Structures, Roles and Organizational Behaviour. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. pp. 71–107.
    Rhodes, R. (1997) Understanding Governance: Policy Networks, Governance, Reflexivity and Accountability. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Rowan, B. and Miskel, C. G. (1999) ‘Institutional theory and the study of educational organizations’, in J.Murphy and K. S.Louis (eds) Handbook of Research on Educational Administration, (
    2nd edn
    ) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 359–83.
    Schein, E. (1985) Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schmuck, R. and Runkel, P. (1971) Handbook of Organisational Development in Schools. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.
    Schon, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. New York: Basic Books.
    Schumpeter, J. (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen and Unwin.
    Senge, P. (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday.
    Sergiovanni, T. (1996) Moral Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Sergiovanni, T. and Corbally. T. (eds) (1984) Leadership and Organizational Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Smircich, L. (1983) ‘Concepts of culture in organizational analysis’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 339–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392246
    Southworth, G. (1995) Looking into Primary Headship. London: Falmer Press.
    Southworth, G. (1998) Leading Improving Primary Schools. London: Falmer Press.
    Starratt, R. (1995) Leaders with Vision: The Quest for School Renewal. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
    Steiner, G. (1979) Strategic Planning. New York: Free Press.
    Stoll, L. (1999) ‘Realising our potential: understanding and developing capacity for lasting improvement’, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 10 (4): 503–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/sesi.10.4.503.3494
    Swidler, A. (1986) ‘Culture in action: symbols and strategies’, American Sociological Review, 51 (2): 273–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095521
    Talbert, J. and McLaughlin, M. (1996) ‘Teacher professionalism and local school contexts’, in I.Goodson and A.Hargreaves (eds) Teachers’ Professional Lives. London: Falmer. pp. 127–53.
    Tan, C. H. (2000) ‘High-performance human resource strategies in learning schools’, The Learning Organization, 7 (1): 32–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09696470010313669
    Taylor, F. W. (1911) The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper and Brothers.
    Taylor-Gooby, P. and Lawson, R. (1993) (eds) Markets and Managers: New Issues in the Delivery of Welfare. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Tomlinson, H. (1998) ‘A response to Brundrett’, Educational Management and Administration, 26 (3): 317–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X98263009
    Tyak, D. and Cuban, L. (1995) Tinkering Towards Utopia: Reflections on a Century of Public School Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Vann, B. (1999) ‘Minorities in the United Kingdom: can principals ever be one of us?’, School Leadership and Management, 19 (2): 201–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632439969212
    Wallace, M. (1986) ‘The rise of scale posts as a management hierarchy in schools’, Educational Management and Administration, 14: 203–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/174114328601400306
    Wallace, M. (1989) ‘Towards a collegiate approach to curriculum management in primary and middle schools’, in M.Preedy (ed.) Approaches to Curriculum Management, Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 182–94.
    Wallace, M. (1996) ‘When is experiential learning not experiential learning?’ in G.Claxton, T.Atkinson, M.Osborne and M.Wallace (eds) Liberating the Learner: Lessons for Professional Development in Education, London: Routledge. pp. 16–31.
    Wallace, M. (1998a) ‘Innovations in planning for school improvement: problems and potential’, in A.Hargreaves, A.Lieberman, M.Fullan and D.Hopkins (eds) International Handbook of Educational Change, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press. pp. 1181–202.
    Wallace, M. (1998b) ‘A counter policy to subvert educational reform: collabration among schools and colleges in a competititve climate’, British Educational Research Journal, 24 (2): 195–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192980240206
    Wallace, M. (2003) ‘Managing the unmanageable? Coping with complex educational change’, Educational Management and Administration, 31 (1): 9–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X030311002
    Wallace, M. and Hall, V. (1994) Inside the SMT: Team Approaches to Secondary School Management. London: Paul Chapman.
    Wallace, M. and Huckman, L. (1999) Senior Management Teams in Primary Schools: The Quest for Synergy. London: Routledge.
    Wallace, M. and McMahon, A. (1994) Planning for Change in Turbulent Times: The Case of Multiracial Primary Schools. London: Cassell.
    Wallace, M. and Pocklington, K. (2002) Managing Complex Educational Change: Large-scale Reorganisation of Schools. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
    Wallace, M. and Poulson, L. (eds) (2003) Learning to Read Critically in Educational Leadership and Management. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216576
    Wallace, M. and Wray, A. (2002) ‘The fall and rise of linguists in education policymaking: from “common sense” to common ground’, Language Policy, 1: 75–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014552829698
    Weick, K. (1976) ‘Educational organizations as loosely-coupled systems’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21: 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391875
    Weick, K. (2000) Making Sense of the Organisation. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Weick, K. and Westley, F. (1996) ‘Organizational learning: confirming an oxymoron’, in S.Clegg, C.Handy and W.Nord (eds) Handbook of Organizational Studies. London: Sage. pp. 440–58.
    Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Weston, P., Barrett, E. and Jamison, J. (1992) The Quest for Coherence: Managing the Whole Curriculum 5–16. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research.
    Whitty, G., Power, S. and Halpin, D. (1998) Devolution and Choice in Education. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Williams, B. (2003) Truth and Truthfulness: An Essay in Genealogy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Williams, R. (1958) Culture and Society 1780–1950. London: Penguin.
    Willmott, R. (2002) Educational Policy and Realist Social Theory: Primary Teaching, Child-centred Philosophy and the New Managerialism. London: Routledge.
    Woods, P. (1995) Creative Teachers in Primary Schools. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Woods, P., Jeffrey, B., Troman, G. and Boyle, M. (1997) Re-structuring schools, Restructuring Teachers: Responding to Change in the Primary School. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Zinoviev, A. (1979) The Yawning Heights. London: Penguin.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website