Economic Revitalization: Cases and Strategies for City and Suburb
Publication Year: 2002
In Economic Revitalization: Cases and Strategies for City and Suburb Fitzgerald and Leigh answer the need for a text that incorporates social justice and sustainability into how we think about and practice economic development. It is one of the first to talk about how revitalization strategies are implemented in both cities and suburbs, particularly inner-ring suburbs that are experiencing decline previously associated only with inner-city neighborhoods. After setting the context with a brief history of economic development practice and its shortcomings, Fitzgerald and Leigh focus on six economic development strategies: sectoral strategies, Brownfield redevelopment, industrial retention, commercial revitalization, industrial and office property reuse, and workforce development.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Introduction: Why We Wrote This Book: A New Perspective on Local Economic Development Planning
- Central Cities and Older Suburbs: Examining the Common Ground
- Central Cities and Older Suburbs: Common Planning Practice?
- Our Goals in Writing This Book
- Chapter 1: Redefining the Field of Local Economic Development
- A Brief History of Local Economic Development Practice
- Phase 1: State Industrial Recruitment
- Phase 2: Political Critiques of Local Economic Development Activity
- Phase 3: Entrepreneurial and Equity Strategies
- Phase 4: Sustainability with Justice
- Phase 5: Privatization and Interdependence
- What Economic Development Should Be
- Incorporating Equity and Sustainability into Local Economic Development Practice
- Chapter 2: Sectoral Strategies for Local Economic Development
- Overview of Sectoral Strategies
- The Planning Process for Sectoral Strategies
- Do Sectoral Strategies Work?
- The Cases: Sectoral Strategies in a Traditional and High-Tech Sector
- Jane Addams Resource Corporation
- New Haven, Connecticut: Just in Time in Biotechnology
- Yale University's Role in Biotechnology
- Connecticut's BioScience Cluster
- New Haven's Role in Promoting Bioscience
- Lessons for Economic Development Practitioners
- Chapter 3: The Brownfield Redevelopment Challenge
- Introduction to the Brownfield Problem
- Barriers to Brownfield Redevelopment
- Legislation and Programs Affecting Redevelopment of Brownfields
- Federal Initiatives
- State Brownfield Initiatives
- Legal Liability Relief
- Financial Assistance
- Technical Assistance
- Characterizing a Community's Brownfield Problem
- Hazardous Waste
- Small-Quantity Generators of Hazardous Waste
- Information Gaps
- Environmental Site Assessments
- Cleanup of Contaminated Sites
- Brownlining, Environmental Justice, and Sustainability Issues of Brownfield Redevelopment
- Local Brownfield Programs
- Kalamazoo, Michigan
- Emeryville, California
- The Louisville-Jefferson County Landbank Authority
- Expanding Land Banks' Roles in Brownfields: Strategies for Funding Acquisition, Remediation, and Redevelopment
- Lessons for Economic Development Practice
- Chapter 4: Industrial Retention: Multiple Strategies for Keeping Manufacturing Strong
- Why Manufacturing Matters
- Industrial Retention Strategies in Chicago
- The Local Industrial Retention Initiative
- Planned Manufacturing Districts
- The First Battle: Creation of the Clybourn PMD
- The Kinzie Corridor PMD
- Industrial Corridors
- Tax Increment Financing
- Industrial Parks
- Experiences of other Cities and Suburbs in Protecting Manufacturing
- Industrial Retention in the Suburbs
- Lessons for Economic Development Practitioners
- Chapter 5: Commercial Revitalization in Central Cities and Older Suburbs
- The Main Street Approach
- Big Box Coping Strategies
- Reinventing the Strip and its Retail Centers
- Reinventing Sandy Springs Strip
- Lessons for Economic Development Practice
- Chapter 6: The Reuse of Office and Industrial Property in City and Suburb
- The Reuse of Office Properties
- The Future of Office Use in the Central Business District
- Demands for Smart Buildings
- The Reuse of Industrial Properties
- Just-in-Time (JIT) Production versus other Industrial Location Factors
- Industrial Property for Warehousing and Distribution
- Lessons for Economic Development
- Appendix: Issues in the Retrofitting of Office Buildings
- Chapter 7: Job-Centered Economic Development: An Approach for Linking Workforce and Local Economic Development
- The Legislative Environment
- The Seattle Jobs Initiative
- Program Overview
- Applying the Principles in Seattle
- Job-Centered Economic Development in a Suburban Context
- Can Job-Centered Strategies Create Systemic Change?
- Lessons for Economic Development Practitioners
- Chapter 8: Strategies and Progress for Local Economic Development
- Paths to Improving Local Economic Development Planning and Practice
- Evaluating the Strategies
- Incorporating Equity
- Incorporating Sustainability
- Applicability to Suburban Settings
- Issues of Implementation
- Negotiating Trade-Offs
- Gaining Political Support and Building Relationships
- Influencing the Legislative Environment
- The Role of the Practitioner
[Page ii]TO OUR PARENTS
LaVerne Schroeder Hufnagel
IN MEMORY OF Walter Frederick Hufnagel Thomas Watkins Leigh Henrianne Leigh Miles
Copyright © 2002 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Fitzgerald, Joan, Ph.D.
Economic revitalization: Cases and strategies for city and suburb / Joan Fitzgerald, Nancey Green Leigh.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-1655-5 (c) -- ISBN 0-7619-1656-3 (p)
1. Urban economics. 2. United States--Economic conditions. I. Leigh, Nancey Green. II. Title.
HT321 .F57 2002
02 03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Margaret Seawell
Editorial Assistant: MaryAnn Vail
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Typesetter: Siva Math Setters, Chennai, India
Indexer: Janet Perlman
Cover Designer: Michele Lee
The idea for this book was conceived on a Sunday bike ride we took one summer along the lakefront from central Chicago to the inner-ring suburb of Evanston. The actual writing of this book has taken us individually and jointly to many other cities and suburbs, and we would like to acknowledge the support of many along the way who have helped us realize its completion.
We would like to thank Catherine Rossbach, our first editor at Sage, who provided encouragement and support throughout the writing process. We also thank Sam White of the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee and Dick Bingham of Cleveland State University for reading drafts of early chapters and providing helpful comments and encouragement. Our current editor at Sage, Marquita Flemming, has provided valuable help during the final stages of completing the manuscript. Wim Wiewel, former director of the Great Cities Institute at the University of Illinois at Chicago, kindly provided Nancey Green Leigh with a visiting research fellow position for her research project on the office and industrial property markets of Chicago, which led to the fateful bike ride.
As a faculty fellow at the Great Cities Institute and a faculty member of the College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs at UIC, Fitzgerald thanks Wiewel and Great Cities Associate Director Lauri Alpern for their support. Kimberly Gester, Tom Stribling, and Jean Templeton provided research assistance for parts of several chapters. The late Rob Mier and Bennett Harrison were sources of personal and professional inspiration on placing social justice at the forefront of economic development.
Fitzgerald thanks staff and board members of the Jane Addams Resource Corporation for providing access to records, staff, students, and interviews for the case study in Chapter 2. Board Chair Hal Baron, Executive Director Michael Buccitelli, and Associate Director Anita Jenke Flores commented extensively on the manuscript. Jon Soderstrom, [Page x]head of the Office of Cooperative Research, was particularly helpful in providing background information on Yale's involvement in biotechnology and in making contacts with other key sources. Debra Pasquale, president of Connecticut United for Research Excellence, Inc. (CURE), also provided lengthy interviews and introductions to sources in state and city government.
Leigh wishes to acknowledge the Lincoln Institute on Land Policy for supporting her research project “Promoting More Equitable Brownfields,” which is drawn on in parts of Chapter 3, “The Brownfield Redevelopment Challenge.” She also is grateful for the brownfield research assistance of Georgia Tech master's student Crystal Welsh, and doctoral student Sarah L. Coffin.
Fitzgerald is appreciative of comments and insights on Chapter 4, “Industrial Retention: Multiple Strategies for Keeping Manufacturing Strong,” from Jon DeVries, Donna Ducharme, Bob Giloth, Jim Lemonides, Kari Moe, Dennis Vicchiarelli, and Luke Weisburg, all of whom were involved in economic development and industrial retention in Chicago at various times. Ben Wolters provided input and contacts on Seattle's industrial retention efforts.
For Chapter 5, “Commercial Revitalization in Central Cities and Older Suburbs,” Leigh is grateful for the research assistance of Georgia Tech student Jennifer Ball. She also thanks the staff of Sandy Springs Revitalization, Inc., John Cheeks, Alan Steinbeck, and Donna Gathers, for their assistance in preparing the chapter's case study through interviews, providing materials, and comments on the draft text.
For assistance in research that is drawn on in Chapter 6, “The Reuse of Office and Industrial Property in City and Suburb,” Leigh is thankful to Georgia Tech master's students Jonathan Hoffman and Peter Vaughn. She also gratefully acknowledges the support of the Lincoln Institute on Land Policy for her research project on the reuse of office and industrial vacant land in central cities. In particular, Leigh wishes to thank Rosalind Greenstein, director of Lincoln's Program on Vacant Land, for the interest and encouragement she has shown in her work.
Chapter 7 relied heavily on long interviews with several staff members of the Seattle Jobs Initiative and in several other Seattle organizations. In particular, Fitzgerald thanks Mary Jean Ryan, director of Seattle's Office of Economic Development, for candidly sharing progress, successes, and frustrations of the evolving Seattle Jobs Initiative. Several people offered valuable comments on the chapter: Bob Giloth, program officer at the [Page xi]Annie E. Casey Foundation; Alex Schwartz, associate professor at New School University; and Bob Watrus, policy analyst at the Northwest Policy Center at the University of Washington.
Finally, we acknowledge the support of our respective institutions, the City and Regional Planning Program at the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and Northeastern University. Jeann Greenway, at Georgia Tech, provided the last critical assistance that was needed to get this manuscript out the door.[Page xii]
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About the Authors[Page 267]
Joan Fitzgerald is Associate Professor and Associate Director of the Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern University. Prior to moving to Boston in 2000, she was on the faculty at the College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois at Chicago for nine years and a faculty fellow at the Great Cities Institute for three years. Fitzgerald has taught urban economic development and related courses for 12 years. Her research focuses on linking workforce and economic development. She has published in Economic Development Quarterly, The Review of Black Political Economy, Urban Affairs Quarterly, Urban Education, and The American Prospect. She is currently working on a book, Moving Up in the New Economy. The book focuses on how to build career ladders to living-wage jobs into workforce development programs. Fitzgerald holds B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees from the Pennsylvania State University.
Nancey Green Leigh is Associate Professor, specializing in economic development planning, in the Department of City and Regional Planning at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She obtained her B.A. in urban studies and a master's in regional planning from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a master's in economics and a Ph.D. in city and regional planning from the University of California at Berkeley. She is a former Woodrow Wilson Fellow and Regents Fellow of the University of California at Berkeley and past Vice President of the Association of the Collegiate Schools of Planning. She is a member of the American Institute of Certified Planners. Leigh teaches, conducts research, and publishes in the areas of local economic development planning, urban and regional development, industrial restructuring, and brownfield redevelopment. She is the author of Stemming Middle Class Decline: The Challenge to Economic Development Planning. Some of the journals she has published in are Economic Development Quarterly, The Review of Black Political Economy, Growth and Change, the Journal of Urban Technology, Economic Development Review, Commentary, the Journal of Planning Education and Research, and the Journal of Planning Literature.