- Subject index
The sharpening poverty contradictions and their links to a larger governance reality is the theme of this book. Enhanced understanding of the security and human rights situation in South Asia has also led to identification of alternative possibilities for innovative policy at both the micro and macro levels. Action research, which provides the material basis for formulating sustainable policy, differentiates this work from conventional development thinking and action. This material basis is provided by learning from the survival struggles of the poor themselves and new social movements in South Asia, and not from a priori theorizing and received wisdom from distant contexts. The book identifies critical elements in a more holistic interdisciplinary and analytical methodology. Another methodological innovation reflected in this work is the dialogical ...
Chapter 9: Towards a New Socialistic Pattern and the Welfare Model in Kerala, India
Towards a New Socialistic Pattern and the Welfare Model in Kerala, India
The Macro Context
Gram Swaraj or self-reliant and self-regulated villages as the building blocks of a strong India were central to the ideological framework of the national movement for political freedom (Mathew 1996). In spite of unequivocal propagation of the concept by Mahatma Gandhi, panchayats failed to find a place in the first draft of the Constitution.
Local self-governance (LSG) found mention only at two places in the Constitution of India until the 1992 amendments. The important one, Article 40C of the Directive Principles, reads:
The State shall take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such power and authority as may be ...