Dyslexia-Friendly Further & Higher Education
Publication Year: 2010
Written by authors with extensive experience of working with students with dyslexia, this book provides clear guidance and practical strategies for dyslexia-friendly practice for those working with young people aged 14 to 19 and adults in education or work-based training. Looking at how dyslexia impacts on learning, the authors suggest ways to improve the learning environment and explain how to help students develop the basic skills that will help them to make the transition from study to employment. Building on the latest research and understanding of dyslexia, they also consider overlapping syndromes, emotional and social issues, and funding.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Dyslexia and the Implications for 14–19 and Adult Learning
- Responsibilities, Duties and Requirements – What are We Expected to Do?
- Putting Dyslexia into Context
- The Origins of the Dyslexia-Friendly Approach
- The Dyslexia-Friendly Initiative in Post-16 Education
- Developing Literacy-Based Practice in FE and HE: Anchors and Keys
- The Debate: Is There Such a Thing as Dyslexia?
- Key Technique: Create a Dyslexia-Friendly Learning Setting
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Making Reasonable Adjustments?
- Case Study: Mike; Who Tutors the Tutor?
- Chapter 2: The Dyslexia-Friendly College
- FE Dyslexia Policy and Practice
- Widening Participation
- Provision and Pedagogy
- How is Dyslexia Identified in FE?
- Initial Assessment
- Assessment Implications
- The Role of the Support Tutor
- The Debate: Is There a Difference between Adult Dyslexia and Childhood Dyslexia?
- Key Technique: Alternative Assessments
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Students in FE?
- Case Study: David; Fearing for His Job
- Chapter 3: Dyslexia-Friendly Higher Education
- Dyslexia in HE and the Relationship to Professional Standards
- Fitness to Practice
- The Impact of Lifelong Learning Policy
- Identification and Screening
- What Does the Specialist Support Tutor Do?
- The Relationship of Dyslexia and Degree Type/Classification
- Assessment Implications and the Question of Examinations
- HE Dyslexia Policy
- The Debate: Does Discrepancy-Based Assessment Present a Problem in HE?
- Key Technique: Ladder Reading
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Students in HE?
- Case Study: Sanjay; Saying His Obvious Ability was Not Reflected in Exams
- Chapter 4: Dyslexia-Friendly Written Work
- Scholarship and Written Exposition
- The Nature of the Written Task
- Assessment of Written Work
- The Role of ICT and Assistive Technology
- The Role of Libraries
- The Debate: Is Proofreading Acceptable?
- Key Technique: Structure the Assignment
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Written Tasks?
- Case Study: Ted; the Missing Sticker
- Chapter 5: Dyslexia-Friendly Laboratory and Benchwork
- The Relationship of Dyslexia to the Demands of Laboratory and Bench Work
- The Skills Needed for Lab and Bench Work
- The Different Types of Lab and Bench Work Demanded in FE and HE
- Lab and Bench Work – The FE Perspective
- Dyslexia, Mathematics and Science
- Field Trips
- Dyslexia-Friendly Practice in Lab and Bench Work
- The Debate: Is Dyslexia a Separate Learning Difficulty from Dyscalculia?
- Key Technique: Memorising Technical Words
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Lab, Bench and Field Work?
- Case Study: Portia; Can Colour-Coding Be Used?
- Chapter 6: The Post-14 Context
- The Development of 14+ Provision in FE
- Transition at 14
- The Demands of a Vocational Perspective
- The Debate: Are There Tensions between the Different Emphases and Expectations in 14+ FE Provision?
- Key Technique: Flashcards
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Adjustments for all Students?
- Case Study: Amelia; a Challenging Student
- Chapter 7: Social and Emotional Aspects of Dyslexia-Friendly HE and FE
- The Importance of the Affective Domain
- Self-Esteem, Self-Image, Self-Concept and Self-Confidence
- Late Identification of Dyslexia
- When Emotional Considerations Overlap with Mental Health Issues
- The Debate: Is Dyslexia Used as an Excuse?
- Key Technique: Plan Lessons and Lectures to Anticipate Dyslexia Needs
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Affective and Emotional Considerations?
- Case Study: Loni; Tutor Time Lost in Tears
- Chapter 8: National and International Perspectives
- Dyslexia – A Global Phenomenon
- Dyslexia in the UK
- European Perspectives
- Dyslexia in the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand
- A Student with Dyslexia Studying Abroad
- Dyslexia and English as an Alternative Language
- The Debate – How Can Dyslexia Be Identified amongst Students for Whom English is an Alternative Language?
- Key Technique: Prepare Resources Using the Dyslexia-Friendly Practices
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Students from beyond the UK?
- Case Study: Fredy; a Man of Many Languages
- Chapter 9: Dyslexia and Disability-Friendly Perspectives
- Theorising Dyslexia: The Present Position
- Dyslexia and other Difficulties
- Visual Stress, Scotopic Sensitivity, Meares-Irlen Syndrome
- The Debate – Is Dyslexia a Disability?
- Key Technique: Change the Colour of the Computer Screen
- What Does the Code of Practice Say about Diversity of Disability?
- Case Study: Grace; Experiencing Co-Occurring Learning Needs
Education at SAGE[Page ii]
SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets.
Our education publishing includes:
- accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development
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Find out more at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/education
© Barbara Pavey, Margaret Meehan, Alan Waugh 2010
First published 2010
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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This book is dedicated to Peter Pumfrey[Page vi]
The authors would like to thank Jane Stroud, Neil Gilbride, Robert Edwards, Sandy Cross, Christine McCall and others who have read extracts for us or discussed with us the points raised. We would also like to thank Orla ni Dhubhghaill, Trevor Spalding, Mary O'Grady, Janet Thomas and Alison Doyle for advice about Ireland; Marie Maunsell-Stuart for advice about 14+ provision in FE, and Professor Angela Fawcett of Swansea University for advice about the ISHEDS project.
We would like to acknowledge that the audit tool (Appendix 2) and the lesson/lecture plan in Appendix 6 follow similar items, but have been amended for FE and HE, to those developed in Pavey (2007). The essay-writing template and word count guidelines (Appendix 5) appear in Martin and Pavey (2008) and are published here with the permission of the University of Birmingham.
We are grateful to Naomi Garrett of Widgit Software, for providing us with the image at the start of Chapter 5. We would like also to thank Jude Bowen, Amy Jarrold and colleagues at Sage Publishing and Deer Park Productions.
Finally, we would like to thank our students, and also our colleagues in FE and HE who experience dyslexia in their own right, and whose experience and insight inform this book.
About the Authors[Page xii]
Barbara Pavey has been an inclusion and special education practitioner in a range of settings, including primary, secondary, specialist, FE and HE. She has been a SENCO and a local authority educational officer in SEN, and holds a rights-based view of education, focusing on helping practitioners to enable pupils and students to make progress. She is a senior lecturer in the Faculty of Education and Theology at York St John University.
Margaret Meehan has worked with adults with specific learning difficulties in HE for over 15 years. Initially working with dyslexic students who experienced difficulties with mathematics and science, Margaret subsequently worked with students across all disciplines. Her training in advanced counselling skills enables Margaret to understand how specific learning difficulties impinge on every aspect of daily living.
Alan Waugh has been involved with post-16 education for 12 years and has always worked with learners who have experienced specific learning difficulties, including dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorder. Currently Programme Area Manager for Learner Support at City College, Coventry, Alan works with a diverse range of learners and he advises colleagues in the curriculum areas.
Appendix 1 List of Acronyms[Page 97]
ADD Attention Deficit Disorder ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADSHE Association of Dyslexia Specialists in Higher Education AHEAD Association on Higher Education and Disability (North America) ALG Adult Learning Grant ALS Additional Learner Support AMA Advanced Modern Apprenticeship ASC Autistic Spectrum Conditions (e.g. Autism/Asperger's Syndrome) ASL American Sign Language BDA British Dyslexia Association BPS British Psychological Society CAO Central Applications Office CILIP Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals CoP Code of Practice CoVE Centre of Vocational Excellence CPD Continuous Professional Development DANDA Developmental Adult Neuro-Diversity Association DCD Developmental Coordination Disorder (also known as dyspraxia) DCSF Department for Children, Schools and Families DDA Disability Discrimination Act DDP Diploma Development Partnerships DEL Department for Employment and Learning DES Department of Education and Science DfES Department for Education and Skills DoE Department of Education DRC Disability Rights Commission DSA Disabled Students' Allowance DTLLS Diploma in Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector EBD Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties ESF European Social Fund FCF Financial Contingency Fund FE further education HE higher education HEA Higher Education Act HMIE Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education HND Higher National Diploma IA Initial Assessment ICT information and communications technology [Page 98]IDA International Dyslexia Association IEP individual education plan IFL Institute for Learning ILP Individual Learning Plan ISHEDS Identification and Support in Higher Education for Dyslexic Students L2 Second language LA Local Authority LD Learning Disability LDD Learning Disabilities and/or Difficulties LGN Lateral Geniculate Nucleus LSA Learner Support Agreement LSC Learning and Skills Council MIS Meares-Irlen Syndrome NVQ National Vocational Qualifications Ofsted Office for Standards in Education Patoss The Professional Association of Teachers of Students with Specific Learning Difficulties QAA Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education SEN Special Educational Needs SENCO Special Educational Needs Coordinator SENDA Special Educational Needs and Disability Act SENCoP Special Educational Needs Code of Practice SENDO Special Educational Needs and Disability Order SpLD Specific Learning Difficulty STEM Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics UCAS Universities and Colleges Admissions Service UID Universal Instructional Design WBL Work-Based Learning (refers to NVQ programmes) WRIT Wide Range Intelligence Test WRL Work-Related Learning (refers to 14–16 provision)
Appendix 2 Self-Evaluation/Audit Tool[Page 99][Page 100][Page 101][Page 102][Page 103][Page 104]
Dyslexia-Friendly Further and Higher Education © B. Pavey, M. Meehan and A. Waugh 2010[Page 105]
Dyslexia-Friendly Further and Higher Education © B. Pavey, M. Meehan and A. Waugh 2010
Appendix 3 Suggestions for a Policy on Dyslexia in FE/HE[Page 106]Assessment of a SpLD
- Dyslexia, a specific learning difficulty (SpLD), is a registered disability. Students who have a report by an educational psychologist or other appropriately qualified professional as evidence of a SpLD are eligible for appropriate support without compromising academic standards.
- In further education, learners will be assessed in accordance with the Joint Council for Qualifications guidelines. A suitably qualified specialist teacher employed by the college, a qualified psychologist or LA specialist will complete a diagnostic report determining the presence of a SpLD and a Form 8 will be completed to confirm the adjustments required. This should indicate information relating to a history of need or a history of provision, and arrangements should reflect the learner's ‘normal way of working’.
- The assessments used will be appropriate and reflect the recommendations of the SpLD Working Group 2005/DfES Guidelines (July 2005) for assessments of SpLDs in higher education.
- The assessment report will include recommendations for teaching and learning as well as access arrangements.
[Page 107]Reasonable Adjustments
- The institution is required by law to support disabled students effectively. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (SENDA) 2001 being Part IV of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995, states that the institution must:
- avoid discriminating against disabled students
- make reasonable adjustments to facilitate students' learning
- avoid creating unnecessary barriers to achievement, but not at the expense of academic standards
- be anticipatory; requiring departments to plan ahead for the needs of future students.
- The Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) places specific expectations on institutions to provide disabled students with the same opportunities as their peers through its Code of Practice for the Assurance of Academic Quality and Standards.
- In further education, the statutory regulation of external qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2004 (para 9) states that awarding bodies must ‘ensure access and equality of opportunity while safeguarding the integrity of the qualifications’.
What is Dyslexia?
- SENDA (DfES, 2001) uses the term ‘reasonable adjustment’ as the measure by which provision for disabled students is set.
- The term ‘reasonable adjustment’ is open to interpretation but it may be considered as: ‘A necessary accommodation or alteration to existing academic programmes, offering individuals the opportunity to demonstrate their abilities’ (Association of Dyslexia Specialists in Higher Education, ADSHE, 2007: 3, para. 2.2).
- [Institutions may want to give their preferred definition of dyslexia here, for example the BDA or Dyslexia Action definition, followed by:
- An explanation of how dyslexia is likely to affect students. For example, one of the aspects of dyslexia that affects literacy is a difficulty in associating sounds with pictures and is linked to relatively inefficient rapid information-processing capabilities and short-term memory. Consequently, dyslexic students experience difficulties in reading, writing, spelling and mathematics.]
Assessment and Examination Provision
- Recording lectures is considered a reasonable adjustment. Any recording is for private use only.
- In the case of a tutorial or seminar where the information may be shared and of a confidential nature, agreement of all those present is required.
Marking Coursework and Examination Scripts
- Fair assessment should be guaranteed for all students including those with particular assessment arrangements.
- In FE qualifications where learners are not completing examinations but are expected to show evidence of competence determining a particular level of ability, this evidence of competence can be presented by using mechanical, electronic and other aids, as long as the aids are generally commercially available.
- It is necessary to ensure that learners can meet the specified criteria and that adjustments reflect learners' normal ways of working.
- All assessed work submitted by students is eligible for marking with reference to the institution's guidelines.
- If the institution has a policy of anonymous marking, in order for the college or university to comply with the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act, students with SpLDs should have the opportunity to have [Page 108]their examination booklets and coursework endorsed. Their work may be identified by means of a stamp, sticker or other alternative according to the policy of the Institution.
- It may not be possible for students with SpLDs to identify their work, for example in a foreign language test where the grammar, punctuation and spelling is being assessed. This must be publicised explicitly in the module handbook.
- Extensions to deadlines should be considered but successive extensions may not help the student.
- 25 per cent extra time in examinations and class tests (including practical sessions) is commonly recommended by needs assessors and educational psychologists for students who have been assessed with SpLDs.
- Needs assessors or educational psychologists may recommend other accommodations; for example, the use of a reader.
- These recommendations should be adopted at the request of the student and after discussion with the disability office.
- A reader or the use of screen-reading software cannot be provided where reading or understanding of written words is an element being assessed such as in Key Skills Communication. As an alternative it may be appropriate to offer extra time of 50 per cent.
- A learner with ASC or EBD may require a rest break and a separate room for examination or assessment.
Alternative Forms of Assessment
- Course assignments, when being marked, should reflect the knowledge demonstrated by a learner.
- Learners should not be penalised for errors in punctuation, spelling and grammar.
- Alternative forms of assessment should be considered when at the design stage of a module.
- In the case of professional examinations or where accuracy in written language is essential alternative forms of assessment may not be an option.
- Students should be involved in discussions concerned with an alternative assessment format.
- If it is not possible to make any adjustment, it must be clear on what grounds this decision has been made.
- If a student is assessed as having a SpLD during the course of an academic year and his or her marks are at the borderline for passing a module, re-marking completed coursework within that year should be considered, where practicable.
Appendix 4 Template Plan for Writing Essays[Page 109]
This works for anything that does not already provide a specific format, e.g. essays, dissertations, theses, business plans, reports, papers, books.
- Background → present position → way forward
- Tell them what you're going to tell them → tell them → tell them what you told them.
Dyslexia-Friendly Further and Higher Education © B. Pavey, M. Meehan and A. Waugh 2010
Appendix 5 Lecture Plan[Page 110][Page 111]
Dyslexia-Friendly Further and Higher Education © B. Pavey, M. Meehan and A. Waugh 2010
Appendix 6 Useful Websites[Page 112]
Association of Dyslexia Specialists in Higher Education: http://www.adshe.org.uk
Autism Research Centre: http://www.autismresearchcentre.com (Features the research and work of Professor Simon Baron-Cohen et al. There are useful research articles and information for educationalists and those involved with young people and adults with autistic spectrum and Asperger's syndrome difficulties.)
Beattie Resources for Inclusion in Technology and Education: http://www.BRITE.ac.uk (BRITE was set up in Scotland following the Beattie report into FE in Scotland. The website features a lot of good advice for teachers and students in further and higher education and also advice on assistive technology.)
British Dyslexia Association: http://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk (This is a registered charity committed to dyslexia-friendly teaching practices and providing information on dyslexia.)
The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals: http://www.cilip.org.uk (Represents staff and management involved in library and information services.)
The Developmental Adult Neuro-diversity Association (DANDA): http://www.danda.org.uk
Diploma Support Programme: http://www.diploma-support.org (Supports the 14–19 diploma programme with advice for schools and parents.)
Dyslexia Action: http://www.dyslexia-action.org.uk (Provides assessment centres throughout the UK and is one of the organisations responsible for the licensing of practitioners to carry out DSA assessments.)
The Dyslexia and Dyscalculia Interest Group (DDIG): http://ddig.lboro.ac.uk/www_links.html
Dyslexia at College: http://www.dyslexia-college.com (A support site for students at college or university.)
The Dyslexia SpLD Trust: http://www.thedyslexia-spldtrust.org.uk (Was launched in March 2009 and is supported by the British Dyslexia Association, Dyslexia Action, Helen Arkell Dyslexia Centre and Patoss. This site is aimed at practitioners and as an information and awareness raising site by all of these organisations.)
Dyspraxia Foundation: http://www.dyspraxiafoundation.org.uk (Provides support for those who experience dyspraxia and their families as well as advice for professionals.)
[Page 113]The Institute for Learning: http://www.ifl.ac.uk (Monitors the registration and CPD of teaching staff in FE.)
JISC TechDis Service: http://www.techdis.ac.uk (Aims to support the education sector by providing advice and guidance on assistive technology that will support learners with disabilities.)
National Association for Special Educational Needs: http://www.nasen.org.uk (Supports young people with special educational needs and the professionals who work with them.)
Patoss: http://www.patoss-dyslexia.org (Responsible for monitoring professional teachers who provide assessment and support throughout the UK for those experiencing dyslexia. Also provides licensed practitioner status to those carrying out DSA assessments.)
Teaching and Development Agency for Schools: http://www.tda.gov.uk (Responsible for the training and development of the school workforce. Features advice and guidance for those who would like to enter the teaching profession and for those who are already in the profession.)[Page 114]
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