Displacement, Revolution, and the New Urban Condition: Theories and Case Studies
Publication Year: 2014
Displacement, Revolution, and the New Urban Condition provides a window into the global urban contradiction through the lens of a Third World city. It is not a book on urban India, or a book on Ahmedabad city, or even a book on the Sabarmati River Front Development (SRFD) project, but it is a book that uses all these lenses to conceptualize urban exploitation.
The author develops a dialectical praxis of theory transfer that takes us from the First World to the Third World and back again. In the process, the arrow of theory transfer is not reversed, because theory cannot be transferred by simply changing the direction of the arrow; instead, an attempt is made to (re)produce and (re)inform different conceptual worlds by juxtaposing it with ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Copyright © Ipsita Chatterjee, 2014
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2014 by
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10.5/12.5 Adobe Garamond Pro by RECTO Graphics, Delhi and printed at Saurabh Printers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Displacement, revolution, and the new urban condition : theories and case studies / Ipsita Chatterjee.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Forced migration—Social aspects—Developing countries. 2. Urbanization—Developing countries—Social aspects. 3. Economic development projects—Developing countries. I. Title.
HB1951.C43 307.2—dc23 2014 2014001964
ISBN: 978-81-321-1660-8 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Shambhu Sahu, Vandana Gupta, Rajib Chatterjee and Rajinder Kaur
Cover image by Dr Waquar Ahmed
[Page v]For Waquar
Thank You for Choosing a SAGE Product![Page vi]
Thank you for choosing a SAGE product! If you have any comment, observation or feedback, I would like to personally hear from you. Please write to me email@example.com
—Vivek Mehra, Managing Director and CEO, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
SAGE India offers special discounts for purchase of books in bulk.
We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand.
For orders and enquiries, write to us at
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110044, India
E-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Get to know more about SAGE, be invited to SAGE events, get on our mailing list. Write today email@example.com
This book is also available as an e-book.
List of Images[Page ix]
- 2.1 Makeshift Stage Celebrating Ratha Yatra (Chariot Procession in Honor of Hindu Gods) in the Courtyard of the AMC, Ahmedabad, India 26
- 2.2 Saffron Arches with Pictures of Government Officials Constructed as a Part of the Celebration of Ratha Yatra (Chariot Procession in Honor of Hindu Gods) All over the City of Ahmedabad, India 26
- 2.3 Elephants Rented by the AMC Stand in Readiness for the Impending Chariot Procession 27
- 2.4 The Concept Plan 39
- 2.5 SRFD Project in 2006, with the Poor Still Inhabiting the Banks in Flimsy Huts Seen in the Distance 40
- 2.6 SRFD Project in 2010 40
- 3.1 The Enterprising Slum—Slum-dwellers Using the River to Serve the City with Informal Laundry Facilities 63
- 3.2 Inhabitants of the River, Khanpur Basti (Slum) along the River Sabarmati, Photograph Taken from a Bridge, 2010 63
- 3.3 A Muslim Home in Khanpur Made of Discarded Wood and Rope, 2010 64
- 3.4 Khanpur Basti (Slum) along the River Sabarmati; Snaking Lanes Barely Wide Enough for One Person Serve as a Sewage Disposal Artery as well, 2010 65
- 3.5 The City and the Slum Blend into One Another 65 [Page x]
- 3.6 Sabarmati Nagrik Adhikar Manch Business Card Displaying the Hindu “Om,” Muslim Star and Crescent, and Christian Cross to Emphasize the Need for Intercommunity Cooperation in the Sabarmati River Front Resistance Movement 68
- 3.7 Original Concept Plan Showing Rehabilitation Housing for Slum-dwellers Was Supposed to be Constructed in Close Proximity to the Slums along the River Banks 70
- 3.8 Over a Thousand Homes Have Been Removed and Constructions Are Underway, 2010 71
- 4.1 Vivekananda Mill Resettlement Site Is Complete—Muslim Families Who Went to Take a Look at Their Prospective Homes Were Chased Away 94
- 4.2 Wadaj Resettlement Site, Where a Few Muslim Families Find Themselves Uncomfortably Placed among a Majority Hindu Population 95
- 4.3 Ajit Mill Complex Has Been Resettled and Here Hindus Find Themselves in the Minority 96
This book was made possible because of the cooperation and support of the poor and courageous people on the banks of the Sabarmati River who write this book every day in the day-to-day context of their everyday life. The reality of their existence, their constant struggle, and resilience inspires me—I want to acknowledge that I have merely attempted to conceptualize the concreteness of struggling people's everyday life, they do the hard work of living it and altering it. I am grateful to the South Asia Institute, University of Texas at Austin, for supporting me financially for my 2010 field trip to Ahmedabad. I am infinitely grateful to Paul Adams for walking me through the labors of book proposal writing and advising me in his own quiet way on life and work. Dick Peet's constant encouragement and loving presence egged me on when the going became tough. When I felt that I could not do it any longer—the material and conceptual struggles are too hard and it would be easy to give up, Dick's encouragement and faith in me kept me going. I am grateful to my parents who tolerated me and supported me even when they were not quite sure what I was up to in hundred degrees heat in Ahmedabad—Ma and Baba in their own little ways have always stressed the importance of deep understanding, analysis, and respect for the difficult realities that surround us. Waquar's ability to tolerate me baffles me, especially during this book-writing project when I was also balancing motherhood for the first time, and was not dealing with either of the tasks very well—no other person could have supported me the way he did. Waquar is an intellectual inspiration, a kind and generous human being, and a fantastic father. Little Nadia was six weeks old when I started writing this book, now she is two years old, in many ways, this book and Nadia are my two little ones who grew each day, I learnt so much from the book writing process and the [Page xii]motherhood process, I will never be the same again. I am also grateful to the Department of Geography, University of North Texas for graciously offering me a position that allowed me to intellectually and personally transit to a better place as I completed this book.
This book attempts to conceptualize the contemporary urban condition. I wanted to stress the importance of conceptualization, because it is a very hard thing to do, but it is the most important thing that a human being can do after eating. This may sound outrageous, but allow me to explain, eating is important for survival, it involves the complex act of putting food into the mouth, chewing it, and then digestion, which involves multiple acts of intestinal juices breaking up the food and converting it to energy. Conceptualization is the intellectual act of digestion, it involves the complex act of observing, feeling, touching, smelling, understanding, and recording the reality in which one is imbricated, and then synthesizing the heterogeneous, disjointed, scattered perceptions into a coherent theory that will allow someone else situated and imbricated in a different reality to understand and explain his/her world. Conceptualization allows us to build connections so that we can understand, explain, and ameliorate difficult realities with which we may not be immediately connected. Conceptualization is, therefore, an intensely political act, it is also very democratic—it enables us to be empathetic toward other people's realities, it allows us to explain those realities, share those realities, and participate in overhauling the oppressiveness of those realities. Without conceptualization there would be no democratic politics, because we would be stuck in our individual realities unable to share, act, and be agents of change for a more global context than the specificity of our very own lives. Conceptualization, therefore, forms the body politic of the global digestive process.
The urban condition needs conceptualization; because the world continues to become more urban, urbanization process continues unabated especially in the Third World. There are interesting books, monographs, articles, and opinion pieces on the contradictory nature [Page xiv]of contemporary urbanization as it continues to be fueled by processes of globalization. These interesting pieces talk about rural—urban migration fueled by changes in the agricultural sector as a result of structural adjustment ushered by globalization, they talk about informalization of urban labor and associated marginalizations, they discuss slum eviction and erasure of the poor, and they also talk about standardization of the urban landscape. The central logic that connects all these processes is the concept of exploitation—someone somewhere is being oppressed as a result of contemporary urbanization, and this exploitation is usually operationalized through some form of displacement—someone somewhere must move and hence produce space for someone else. This context of exploitation through displacement is the pivot on which the new urban condition is hinged, it is also the pivot around which most urban resistance is formulated. This process of displacement, therefore, needs conceptualization so that it can be transported from the very local contexts of its actualization to form the body politic of analysis of global urban condition.
This book attempts to conceptualize urban exploitation through displacement from a Marxist perspective by arguing that although displacement is latent in most Marxist theories of exploitation, it is not brought to the forefront and hence, not deeply theorized largely because of the Marxist focus on labor rather than place/space. Lefebvre, David Harvey, and Neil Smith have devoted a lot of intellectual energy in conceptualizing the exploitations embedded in space through the concepts of production of space and uneven development. Ed Soja has talked about spatial justice rather than social justice. Dick Peet has conceptualized the geographies of power and Kevin Cox says that place is important in the globalization of injustice. All these ideas are very important and inspire this book; however, here, I have attempted to do something different, I have attempted to indicate how labor and laboring spaces are not two different things, labor produces herself through space; therefore when we talk about exploitation of labor we are implicitly talking about exploitation of spaces of existence. So, the issue here is not that some spaces have more capital than others (uneven development), or some places are chosen by neoliberal capital and others are not, but rather, estrangement of labor from itself which is the crux of the Marxist concept of “alienation” is also simultaneously estrangement of space. Therefore, all exploitations, but particularly, urban exploitation, must [Page xv]be conceptualized as “estranged spaces.” At least, that is how most resistance movements understand their material context of exploitation—as spaces taken away. It is important that we understand urban exploitation as a form of displacement and resistance as a politics of staying put. This is not to say that exploitation does not originate in wage relations, but rather to point out that exploitations originating in wage relations are actualized through spatial estrangement.
I have used examples from Ahmedabad city, India, more particularly the Sabarmati River Front Development (SRFD) project to provide the flesh and sinew that covers my central thesis on urban exploitation and displacement. The purpose here is not to provide another monograph of a Third World city's urban context, but rather, to conceptualize urban exploitation and resistance. In that context, this book is not about Ahmedabad's SRFD project, it is about beginning a serious conversation about the labor–space dualism that has been central in Marxist theories of exploitation. In doing that, I hope to answer the call for reversing theory transfer, that is, hopefully re-inform and re-engage with some theories (like gentrification, new urban politics, municipal neoliberalism, right to the city), that emerged in Euro America and which I find very helpful, but in the field, in a Third World city, these theories require some re-thinking. This is not some post-colonial project of destabilizing the “West,” because I do not believe that good theories, and usually good theories are those that shed light on various forms of oppression, can be clubbed as “western” or “non-western.” Theories on exploitation are global, because exploitation is a global condition; therefore, my attempt here is to re-engage with some important urban theories, which happened to emerge in Euro America but have been globally used. The Third World urban condition allows me to re-engage with them by bringing material examples of exploitation from places outside Euro America, thus hopefully, making these theories more global than they were before.
Ahmedabad city is a suitable place for material examples of exploitation, because Gujarat, the state in which Ahmedabad city is situated, has been touted as a “developed state” in India. The chief minister of Gujarat is being lauded for his global outlook toward development and is being pitched as the prime ministerial candidate for India. Development here is conceptualized as per capita growth, investment, greenness of the city, cleanliness of the roads, and beauty of the “modern” landscapes. [Page xvi]Unfortunately, Ahmedabad city, Gujarat, has a history of tense Hindu–Muslim communal relations, its landscape materializes class, caste, and Islamophobic exclusions, and the SRFD project is a vibrant fault line that reveals the striations of all these exploitations. The fieldwork for this book was carried out in 2006 and 2010 and hence the analysis, interpretations, and conceptualizations are based on data collected until 2010. The project, however, is ongoing and much displacement and resettlement has transpired since then.
Bibliography[Page 150]2002. “Gujarat violence: meaning and implifications,”Economic and Political Weekly, May 18. Available at http://www.epw.org.in/showarticles.php (accessed April 2005).AMC, AUDA, and CEPT. 2006–2012. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission: city development plan for Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad: Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority with Technical Support from CEPT University.2002. “Deep democracy: urban governmentality and the horizon of politics,”Public Culture, 14(1): 21–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-14-1-212005. The system of objects. London: Verso.2003. “Between violence and desire: space, power, and identity in the making of metropolitan Delhi,”International Social Science Journal, 55: 89–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2451.55010092006. “City retailers may miss out on big deals,”The Times of India, May 29.1986. Social Movement and Political Power. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.2011. “The new urban politics thesis: ruminations on MacLeod and Jones' six analytical pathways,”Urban Studies, 48(12 [September]): 2673–2685. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00420980114139482002. “Cities and geographies of actually existing neoliberalism,”Antipode, 34(3): 349–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00246and2009. “Seeds of dissent: the politics of resistance to Beijing's olympic redevelopment,” in M.Butcher and S.Velayutham (eds), Dissent and cultural resistance in Asia's cities pp. 14–32. London and New York: Routledge.1994. “Selling the inner city: regeneration and place marketing in London's Docklands,” in J.R.Gold and S.V.Ward (eds), Place promotion, pp. 133–152. New York: Wiley.2002. “City profile Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area: a globalizing city region,”Cities, 19(5): 357–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751%2802%2900036-7, , and1994. “Between leninism and radical pluralism: gramscian reflections on counter-hegemony and new social movements,”Critical Sociology, 20(3): 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089692059402000201and [Page 151]2001. “The global economy,” in D.Held and A.McGrew (eds), The global transformations reader, pp. 259–273. Cambridge: Polity Press.Census of India. 2001. Religion tables. Available at http://www.censusindia.net (accessed February 15, 2007).2009a. “Social conflict and the neoliberal city: a case of Hindu-Muslim violence in India,”Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 34(2): 143–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2009.00341.x2009b. “Violent morphologies: landscape, border and scale in Ahmedabad conflict,”Geoforum, 40(6 [November]): 103–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.08.0052011a. “From red tape to red carpet: violent narratives of neoliberalizing Ahmedabad,” in W.Ahmed, A.Kundu, and R.Peet (eds), India's new economic policy: a critical analysis, pp. 154–178. New York: Routledge.2011b. “Governance as ‘Performed,’ Governance as ‘Inscribed’: new urban politics in Ahmedabad,”Urban Studies, 48(12 [September]): 2571–2590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00420980114119402004. The politics of the governed: reflections on popular politics in most of the world. New York: Columbia University Press.1988. “Locality and community in the politics of local economic development,”Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 78: 307–325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1988.tb00209.xand1991. “Questions of abstraction in studies in the new urban politics,”Journal of Urban Affairs, 13: 267–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1991.tb00254.x1993. “The local and the global in the new urban politics: a critical view,”Environment and Planning D, Society and Space, 11(4): 433–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d1104332004. “The urbanization of the empire: megacities and the laws of chaos,”Social Text 81, 22(4 [Winter]): 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/01642472-22-4_81-92006. “Planet of Slums,”New Left Review, 26(March-April): 5–34.2011. “Governing the urban poor: riverfront development, slum resettlement and the politics of inclusion in Ahmedabad,”Economic and Political Weekly, XLVII(2): 49–56.2011. “The politics of persuasion: gendered slum citizenship in neoliberal Mumbai,” in R.Desai and R.Sanyal (eds), Urbanising Citizen-ship: perspectives on contested spaces in Indian cities pp. 82–108. New Delhi: SAGE.2013. “The politics of the evicted: redevelopment, subjectivity, and difference in Mumbai's slum frontier,”Antipode, 45(4): 844–865. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01023.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01023.x1988. The local state and uneven development pp. 145–162. Cambridge: Polity Press.and2003. Displacement, development, and modernity in the Colombian Pacific. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.1979. “New debates in urban planning: the impact of marxist theory within the United States,”International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 3(3 [September]): 381–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1979.tb00796.xand1995. Towards sustainable development: struggling over India's Narmada river. New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc.[Page 152]2005. The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Global Investors' Summit. 2007. Available at http://www.vibrantgujarat.com/highlights-vggis2007.html (accessed March 20, 2012).1993. “The city as commodity: the contested spaces of urban development,” in G.Kearns and C.Phillo (eds), Selling places pp. 145–162. Oxford: Peragamon Press.1971. Selections from prison notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wisehart.2002. “Globalization and the corporate geography of cities in the less-developed world,”Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(2): 320–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00293and2011. “New urbanism, neoliberalism, and urban restructuring,” in W.Ahmed, A.Kundu, and R.Peet (eds), India's new economic policy: a critical analysis pp. 76–96. New York: Routledge.1996. “The entrepreneurial city: new urban politics, new urban geographies?”Progress in Human Geography, 20(2): 153–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259602000201and1995. “The second industrial revolution: the cultural reconstructions of industrial regions,”Landscape Research, 20: 112–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014263995087064651989. “From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: the transformation in urban governance in late capitalism,”Geografiska Annaler, 71(1): 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4905032001. “Time-space compression and the postmodern condition,” in D.Held and A.McGrew (eds), The global transformations reader pp. 82–91. Cambridge: Polity Press.2003. The new imperialism. New York: Oxford University Press.2008. “Right to the city,”New left review, 53(September-October): 23–40.1997. “Labor as an agent of globalization and as a global agent,” in K.R.Cox (ed.), Spaces of globalization pp. 167–200. New York: Guilford Press.1999. Citizenship & identity. London and Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218129and2012. “Gujarat 2002: what justice for the victims?”Economic and Political Weekly, XLVII(8 [February 25]): 77–89.1993. Selling places. Oxford: Peragamon Press.and1999. “Revisiting the debate on people, place, identity and displacement,”Journal of Refugee Studies, 12(4): 384–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrs/12.4.3842000. “Globalizing Gujarat,”Economic and Political Weekly, August-September: 3172–3181.2002. Poverty and vulnerability in globalizing metropolis Ahmedabad. New Delhi: Manak.and1996. Writings on cities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.2000. The production of space. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.2007. Contesting neoliberalism: urban frontiers. NewYork: Guilford Press., , and [Page 153]2002. “From urban entrepreneurialism to “revanchist city?” On the spatial injustices of Glasgow's resistance,”Antipode, 34(3): 602–624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.002562011. “Urban politics reconsidered: growth machine to post-democratic city?”Urban Studies, 48(12): 2629–2660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00420980114157151997. “Conflict, the continuum and chronic emergencies: a critical analysis of the scope for linking relief, rehabilitation and development planning in Sudan,”Disasters, 21(3): 223–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-7717.00058, , , , and2002. “Communal space over life space,”Economic and Political Weekly, November 30. Available at http://www.epw.org.in/showarticles.php (accessed April 6, 2005).2011. “Branded and renewed? Policies, politics and processes of urban development in the reform era,”Economic and Political Weekly, XLVI(31): 56–64.2006. “Changing development priorities in emerging mega city: Ahmedabad,”Paper presented at the Conference on Tackling Exclusion: Shelter, Basic Services and Citizen's Rights in Globalizing Megacities of Asia, New Delhi, June 1–3.and2009. “From critical urban theory to the right to the city,”City, 13(2–3 [June-September]): 185–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/136048109029821772009. “Negotiating Beijing's identity at the turn of the twentieth century,” in M.Butcher and S.Velayutham (eds), Dissent and cultural resistance in Asia's cities pp. 33–52. London and New York: Routledge.1990. Capital volume 1. London: Penguin.1975. Collected worksvol. 4. Moscow: Progress Publishers.and2002. The communist manifesto. London: Penguinand2003. Right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space. New York: Guilford Press.2003. “Tale of two solitudes: comparing conflict and development induced internal displacement and involuntary resettlement,”International Migration, 41(5): 5–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-7985.2003.00259.xNDTV. 2010. Riverside story. Available at http://www.ndtv.com/news/blogs/a_fine_balance/riverside_story.php (accessed March 5, 2012).2011. “Special economic zones: space, law, and dispossession,” in W.Ahmed, A.Kundu, and R.Peet (eds), India's new economic policy: a critical analysis pp. 240–260. New York: Routledge.2011. “Imperialism, resources, and food security, with reference to the Indian experience,” in W.Ahmed, A.Kundu, and R.Peet (eds), India's new economic policy: a critical analysis pp. 217–239. New York: Routledge.2002. “Neoliberalizing space,”Antipode, 34(3): 380–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00247and2003. Unholy trinity. New York: Zed Books., , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and [Page 154]Planning Commission of India. 2002–2007. 10th Five Year Plan: urban development, chapter 6.1. Available at http://planningcommission.gov.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/10th/volume2/v2_ch6_1.pdf (accessed October 10, 2009).Planning Commission of India2007–2012. 11th Five Year Plan: urban infrastructure, housing, basic services and poverty alleviation, chapter 11. Available at http://planningcommission.gov.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/11th/11_v3/11v3_ch11.pdf (accessed October 10, 2009).2005. “Rethinking environmental racism: white privilege and urban development in southern California,”Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(1): 12–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.001822003. “Citizenship and the right to the global city: reimagining the capitalist world order,”International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(3): 564–590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.004671976. Place and placelessness. London: Pion.1999. “Relief and rehabilitation in eritrea: lessons and issues,”Third World Quarterly, 20(1): 129–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014365999139561999. The greater common good. Available at http://www.narmada.org/gcg/gcg.html (accessed March 5, 2012).2005. “Urban informality: towards an epistemology of planning,”Journal of American Planning Association, 71(2 [November 26]): 147–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/019443605089766892009. “Civic governmentality: the politics of inclusion in Beirut and Mumbai,”Antipode, 41(1): 159–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2008.00660.x2011. “Slumdog cities: rethinking subaltern urbanism,”International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35(2): 223–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2011.01051.x1998. “Religious liberty: freedom of choice or freedom of conscience,” in R.Bhargava (ed.), Secularism and its critics pp. 73–93. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.2002. “Semiotics of terror,”Economic and Political Weekly, 37(28): 870–876.1987. “Gentrification and rent gap,”Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 77(3): 462–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1987.tb00171.x1996. The new urban frontier: gentrification and the revanchist city. New York: Routledge.1998. “Giuliani time: the revanchist 1990s,”Social Text, 57: 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4668782002. “New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as a global urban strategy,”Antipode, 34: 427–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.002491984. “A class analysis of gentrification,” in J.Palen and B.London (eds), Gentrification, displacement and neighborhood revitalization pp. 43–64. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.and1980. “The socio-spatial dialectic,”Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 70(2 [June]): 207–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1980.tb01308.x2003. Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton Company.[Page 155]Summit Video. 2009. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKIPMnRrO1E (accessed October 10, 2009).1974. Topophilia: a study of environmental perception, attitudes and values. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.1985. “Mursi response to drought: some lessons for relief and rehabilitation,”African Affairs, 84(336 [July]): 331–346.2002. “Re-scaling, ‘scale fragmentation’ and the regulation of antagonistic relationships,”Progress in Human Geography, 26(6): 743–765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132502ph401oaUN. 2008. World urbanization prospects–the 2007 revision. New York: United Nations.2001. “The new Indian right,”New Left Review, May-June. Available at http://www.sacw.net/2002/achin_NewIndianRight.html (accessed February 2, 2012).2002. “Extracting values from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment,”Antipode, 34(3): 519–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.002532004. “Towards a contingent urban neoliberalism,”Urban Geography, 25(8): 771–783. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3618.104.22.16812002. “Wither Gujarat? violence and after,”Economic and Political Weekly, 37(11): 101–109.and2001. “Globalizing Singapore: debating transnational flows in the city,”Urban Studies, 38(7): 1025–1044. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980123947and
About the Author[Page 159]
Ipsita Chatterjee is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography, University of North Texas. She has also served as an assistant professor at the Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Texas at Austin, from 2009 to 2013, and a visiting assistant professor at the Department of Geography, Pennsylvania State University. Chatterjee's research focuses on the political, economic, and cultural dimensions of globalization, displacement, violence, and class/identity-based urban exclusions. She has authored articles in Urban Studies, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Geoforum, Gender, Place and Culture, among others.