Differentiating for the Young Child: Teaching Strategies Across the Content Areas, PreK-3

Books

Joan Franklin Smutny & S.E. Von Fremd

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  • Praise for Differentiating for the Young Child

    “The authors build a strong case for the WHY of differentiated instruction, and then go on to fill the pages with enticing examples of the HOW of differentiating instruction for each major subject area. Their presentation of lesson planning as a journey is a powerful metaphor that has the potential to transform classroom teaching! I loved the book! It was great fun!”

    Sharon Easterling, Executive Director, Delaware Valley Association for the Education of Young Children

    “Wrapped around a telling metaphor of a learning journey, Smutny and von Fremd provide the tools and the templates for differentiation for learners. Rich in practical ideas, rigorous in its applications, this is a ‘must-have’ research-based resource for differentiation for the young child.”

    Robin Fogarty, Professional Development Consultant, Chicago, IL

    “At last, a practical book that is tailored to the early years and focuses on the how to's of differentiating curriculum and instructional delivery.”

    Jim Grant, Staff Development for Educators, New Hampshire

    “The authors have done a remarkable job! I found the five-step sequence and the journey analogy absolutely brilliant. Even more profound is their ability to show how standards and district requirements can still be met, yet in a more developmentally appropriate way.”

    Patricia A. Phipps, Executive Director California Association for the Education of Young Children

    “The authors teach us to teach better. They use teacher voices, classroom stories, and solid foundations to guide the reader's thinking. Practical examples and specific guidelines make the book very useful without resorting to templates or gimmicks!”

    Carol Ann Tomlinson, Professor University of Virginia

    “Whenever anyone asks me for advice on parenting and educating young children, I refer them, without hesitation, to Smutny and von Fremd. Their very special talent is in helping adults nurture and cherish the creativity and learning joy that is so intrinsic in young children.”

    Susan Winebrenner, Author
    Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom

    Copyright

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    Foreword

    Providing for the needs of all young children is a hallmark of early childhood education. However, meeting the needs of all children is a goal that is elusive for many teachers. That is, until now. Joan Franklin Smutny and S. E. von Fremd provide the profession with an intelligent, readable, and highly useful book on how to differentiate the curriculum for young children with the goal of meeting a wide range of learning needs.

    Differentiated instruction is a wonderful means of providing for the learning and social needs of all young children. Teachers use a variety of methods, materials, and activities to make the curriculum more responsive to the abilities, challenges, learning styles, and interests of students. Through the strategies of differentiated instruction and a wider range of learning options, children of all backgrounds stand a better chance of reaching their potential, achieving at high levels, and becoming successful in school and life.

    Differentiated instruction is frequently likened to a never-ending escalator that enables students to continually learn at higher and higher levels. Unfortunately, many teachers don't know what it is, why they should implement it in their classrooms, or how to manage a learning environment based on its philosophy and ideas. These can become barriers to changing practices or even attempting to implement the principles of differentiated instruction.

    This book responds to the need for a user-friendly navigation system for primary teachers on their journey toward a more differentiated classroom. In addition to being an excellent resource and companion, the book acts as a guide for good teaching. After all, differentiated instruction is at the heart of all good teaching. Writing in an engaging and inviting style, the authors provide practical information and step-by-step instructions, guidelines, examples, and figures. All of these will enable primary teachers to begin to apply the strategies of differentiated instruction to their own classrooms.

    Differentiating for the Young Child shows how to use the special abilities, problems, learning styles, and interests of students to determine what children should be taught. It guides primary teachers in modifying their curriculum to meet student needs and create appropriate learning environments. The book also gives readers the essentials of assessing learners and their learning as a means of establishing a firm foundation for teaching. The authors understand that teachers who know their students well will be able to successfully implement differentiated instruction. They stress the important teacher role of engaging children in active learning, encouraging them to play a major role in their own learning, and helping them become responsible, independent learners.

    It is refreshing that Smutny and von Fremd emphasize the visual and performing arts as a means of differentiating the curriculum and learning. They demonstrate how to use the arts as a basis for learning across the curriculum and for engaging students in a holistic way in the process of learning. Through examples, teacher stories, and concise suggestions, they create a clear picture of how to apply the principles of differentiated instruction to all curriculum areas. Their examination of the role of assessment is particularly valuable in ensuring that students receive the education they need in all subject areas.

    This important book will be useful to all primary teachers who want to do a better job of teaching and who are authentically interested in ensuring that all of their children learn joyfully and well.

    George S.Morrison, Professor, Velma E.Schmidt Endowed Chair, College of Education, University of North Texas, Denton, TX

    Acknowledgments

    Without the seminal work of Carol Ann Tomlinson, Susan Winebrenner, Grant Wiggins, and Jay McTighe, we could not have developed a structure for this volume. They have charted pathways for generations of teachers yet to come!

    For the first edition, we remain indebted to Nora Ruckers and Dorothy Massalski, whose insightful suggestions proved invaluable during the rewriting and editing process. Janet Bartell, Carol Creighton, Annie-Jo Fridgeirsson, Karen Morse, and Nate Stoffregen also contributed a variety of helpful materials during the early stages of the book.

    For the second edition, we must thank the many primary teachers for their candid responses to our questions about their successes, struggles, and hopes in adapting differentiation to their own classrooms. Their lives became the shapers and movers of this revision. In addition, we wish to acknowledge Carol Howe, an experienced educator and friend, who generously shared the perspective and insight we needed to make the book accessible to many more primary teachers.

    The expertise and patient support of David Chao, Brynn Saito, Libby Larson, Tina Hardy, and others at Corwin could not have been greater. They exemplify the highest standards in publishing and provided encouragement and guidance throughout the process of writing this book.

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:

    • Carole S. Campbell
    • Educator
    • Higher Ground Educational Consulting
    • Green Valley, AZ
    • Nancy H. McDonough
    • Second Grade Teacher
    • Walter Stillman School
    • Tenafly, NJ
    • Tammy Tiong
    • Elementary Special Education Teacher
    • Dulce Elementary School
    • Dulce, NM

    About the Authors

    Joan Franklin Smutny is founder and director of the Center for Gifted at National-Louis University. She directs programs for thousands of gifted children in the Chicago area annually. She also teaches creative writing in many of these programs as well as courses on gifted education for graduate students at the university. She is editor of the Illinois Association for Gifted Children Journal, contributing editor of Understanding Our Gifted and the Roeper Review, and a regular contributor to the Gifted Education Communicator, Parenting for High Potential and the Gifted Education Press Quarterly. Smutny has authored, coauthored, and edited many articles and books on gifted education for teachers and parents, including Igniting Creativity in Gifted Learners, K-6 (2009), Acceleration for Gifted Learners, K-5 (2007), Reclaiming the Lives of Gifted Girls and Women (2007), Differentiating for the Young Child, first edition (2004), and Designing and Developing Programs for Gifted Children (2003). Other recent credits include Underserved Gifted Populations (2003), Gifted Education: Promising Practices (2003), and Stand Up for Your Gifted Child (2001). In 1996, she won the NAGC Distinguished Service Award for outstanding contribution to the field of gifted education.

    S. E. von Fremd is an independent scholar, writer, and editor with a background in education, cultural studies, and dance. She performed with the Never Stop Moving Dance Company in Chicago under the direction of Reynaldo Martinez and taught creative dance and theater to children in the city and surrounding areas. Her interest in creativity and culture eventually led her to do a doctorate in performance studies at Northwestern University. This included a year's research in Uganda, where she focused on the role of popular theater and dance in reviving cultural identity and educating children and young people throughout the country. She has written several book reviews on African musical traditions, a monograph on the cultural legacy of Kenyan novelist Ngugi wa Thiong'o and Nigerian playwright Wole Soyinka, a monograph on refugees in Africa, and an article on the performing arts as a popular forum for education in Uganda. She has also given presentations on Uganda's creative artists under the reign of Idi Amin and on dance movements throughout the continent of Africa. She collaborated with Joan Smutny on the first edition of Differentiating for the Young Child (2004) as well as on Igniting Creativity for Gifted Learners, K–6 (2009).

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    Language & Literacy
    Ada, A. F. (2003). A magical encounter: Latino children's literature in the classroom. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Adams, M. J. (1998). Beginning to read: Thinking about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Barton, R. M., & Booth, D. (1990). Stories in the classroom: Storytelling, reading aloud and role playing with children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Beaty, J. J. (1994). Picture book storytelling: Literature activities for young children. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.
    Bedard, M. (1992). Emily (B.Cooney, Illus.). New York: Doubleday Books for Young Readers.
    Bernhardt, E. (1988). ABCs of thinking with Caldecott books (With an introduction by N.Polette). O'Fallon, MO: Book Lures.
    Blakemore, C. (2002). Faraway places: Your source for picture books that fly children to 82 countries. Albany, WI: Adams-Pomeroy.
    Carter, P., McNeer, M., Faber, D., & Faber, H. (1992). Exploring biographies. New York: Scholastic.
    Davidson, J. (1995). Emergent literacy and dramatic play in early childhood education. Albany, NY: Delmar.
    Despain, P. L. (1993). Thirty-three multicultural tales to tell. Little Rock, AR: August House.
    Dyson, A. H. (1997). Writing superheroes: Contemporary childhood, popular culture, and classroom literacy. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Finney, S. (2000). Keep the rest of the class reading … while you teach small groups: 60 high-interest reproducible activities—perfect for learning centers—that build comprehension, vocabulary, and writing skills. New York: Scholastic.
    Finney, S. (2001). Using guided reading and literacy centers to help your students become better readers: Resource handbook. Bellevue, WA: Bureau of Education and Research.
    Flack, J. D. (1990). Mystery and detection: Thinking and problem solving with the sleuths. Englewood, CO: Teacher Ideas Press.
    Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    Heath, S. B., & Mangiola, L. (1991). Children of promise: Literate activity in linguistically and culturally diverse classrooms. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
    Jackman, H. L. (1999). Sing me a story! Tell me a song! Creative curriculum activities for teachers of young children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Koch, K. (1973). Rose, where did you get that red? Teaching great poetry to children. New York: Random House.
    Leimbach, J., & Eckert, S. (1996). Primary book reporter: Independent reading for young learners (E.Ahlin, Illus.). San Luis Obispo, CA: Dandy Lion.
    Livingston, M. C.(1992). I never told and other poems. New York: Margaret K. McElderry.
    Magsamen, S. (2001). The story of the heart. New York: Rizzoli International Relations.
    McGowan, M. (1994). Appreciating diversity through children's literature: Teaching activities for the primary grades. Englewood, CO: Teacher Ideas Press.
    Meier, D. (2000). Scribble, scrabble: Learning to read and write. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Moll, L. C. (1992). Literacy research in community and classrooms: A sociocultural approach. in R.Beach, J.Green, M.Kamil, & T.Shanahan (Eds.), Multidisciplinary perspectives in literacy research (pp. 211–244). Urbana, IL: National Conference on Research in English.
    Myers, R. E. (2002). Wordplay: Language lessons for creative learners. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
    National Center on Education and the Economy. (1999a). Reading and writing grade by grade. Washington, DC: Author.
    Newman, S. B., & Bredekamp, S. (2000). Learning to read and write: Developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Newman, S. B., & Roskos, K. A. (Eds.). (1998). Children achieving: Best practices in early literacy. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Norton, D. E. (2001). Multicultural children's literature: Through the eyes of many children. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Ortiz, M. (Ed.). (1998). Literacy instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse students. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Owacki, G. (2001). Make way for literacy! Teaching the way young children learn. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Polette, N. (1989). The best ever writing models from children's literature (P.Dillon, Illus.). O'Fallon, MO: Book Lures.
    Polette, N. (2000). Gifted books, gifted readers: Literature activities to excite young minds. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
    Pratt, L., & Beaty, J. J. (1999). Transcultural children's literature. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Robinson, V. B., Ross, G., & Neal, H. C. (2000). Emergent literacy in kindergarten: A review of the research and related suggested activities and learning strategies. San Mateo: California Kindergarten Association.
    Roskos, K., & Christie, J. (Eds.). (2000). Play and literacy in early childhood: Research from multiple perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Schenk de Regniers, B., Moore, E., White, M. M., & Carr, J. (1988). Sing a song of popcorn: Every child's book of poems. New York: Scholastic.
    Schickedanz, J. A. (1999). Much more than ABC's: The early stages of reading and writing. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Sky-Peck, K. (Ed.). (1991). Who has seen the wind? An illustrated collection of poetry for young people. New York: Rizzoli International Publications.
    Smutny, J. F. (1996). Enhancing linguistic gifts of the young. Understanding Our Gifted, 8(4), 1, 12–15.
    Snow, C., Burns, M. S., & Hewitt, D. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Steele, L. (1989). Primarily poetry: Poetry lessons for grades K–3 (J.Thornley, Illus.). San Luis Obispo, CA: Dandy Lion Publications.
    Wayman, J. (1995). If you promise not to tell. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
    Social Studies
    Bartok, M., & Ronan, C. (1996). Indians of the Great Plains. Glenview, IL: Good Year Books.
    Berman, S., & La Farge, P. (Eds.). (1993). Promising practices in teaching social responsibility. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Bruchac, J., & Locker, T. (1996). Between earth and sky: Legends of Native American sacred places. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co.
    Cech, M. (1991). Global child: Multicultural resources for young children. New York: Addison-Wesley.
    Corsaro, W. A. (1985). Friendship and peer culture in the early years. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Cortes, C. (2000). The children are watching: How the media teach about diversity. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Cox, P. (2002). Tell me the continents. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The evolving self: A psychology for the third millennium. New York: HarperCollins.
    Daniels, R. (1990). Coming to America: The history of immigration and ethnicity in American life. New York: HarperCollins.
    Dyson, A. H. (1993). Social worlds of children learning to write in an urban school. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Gaylord, S. K. (1999). Multicultural books to make and share (Grades 1–6). New York: Scholastic.
    Giddens, A. (2000). Runaway world: How globalization is reshaping our lives. New York: Routledge.
    Glew, M. (2002). American government. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Goodwin, M. (1990). He-said-she-said: Talk as social organization among black children. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Jones, J. J. (1998). Chalk stories of extraordinary African-Americans (Portraits by J.Steele; chalk story drawings by P.Bleidorn). Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
    Kindersley, B., & Kindersley, A. (1995). Children just like me: A unique celebration of children around the world. New York: DK Publishing/United Children's Fund.
    Kreidler, W., & Wittall, S. T. (1999). Adventures in peacemaking (
    2nd ed.
    ). Cambridge, MA: Educators for Social Responsibility.
    Levine, E. (1993). If your name was changed at Ellis Island (W.Parmenter, Illus.). New York: Scholastic.
    Mattson, M. (1994). Environmental atlas of the United States. New York: Scholastic.
    National Women's History Project. (1986). 101 wonderful ways to celebrate women's history. Windsor, CA: National Women's History Project.
    Norton, D. (2003). Through the eyes of a child: An introduction to children's literature (
    6th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Paley, V. G. (1992). You can't say you can't play. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Paley, V. G. (1995). Kwanzaa and me: A teacher's story. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Risby, B., & Risby, R. (1994). Map activities for primary students. San Luis Obispo, CA: Dandy Lion Publications.
    Risinger, C. F. (1992). Current directions in social studies. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Roberts, J. L. (1995). Nelson Mandela: Determined to be free. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook.
    Savage, T., & Armstrong, D. (2004). Effective teaching in elementary social studies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Seefeldt, C. (2001). Social studies for the preschool/primary child. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Selwyn, D. (1995). Arts and humanities in the social studies (Bulletin 90). Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies.
    Sewall, M. (1986). The pilgrims of Plimoth. New York: Atheneum.
    Sewall, M. (1990). People of the breaking day. New York: Atheneum.
    Starkey, D. (1993). Atlas exploration. New York: Scholastic Reference.
    Varley, C., & Miles, L. (1993). The Usborne geography encyclopedia. London: Usborne.
    Wade, R. C. (1991). Joining hands. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr.
    Science
    Althouse, R. (1988). Investigating science with young children. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Bowden, M. (1989). Nature for the very young: A handbook of indoor and outdoor activities (M.Rishel, Illus.). New York: Wiley.
    Carin, A. A., & Bass, J. E. (2001). Teaching science as inquiry (
    9th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Casey, S. (1997). Women invent! Two centuries of discoveries that have shaped our world. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
    Cliatt, M. J. P., & Shaw, J. M. (1992). Helping children explore science: A sourcebook for teachers of young children. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Cole, J., & Degen, B. (1990). The magic school bus: Lost in a solar system. New York: Scholastic. [See also other books in the Magic School Bus series]
    Cook, J. G., & The Thomas Alva Edison Foundation. (1988). The Thomas Edison book of easy and incredible experiments. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.
    Cornell, J. (1989). Sharing the joy of nature: Nature activities for all ages. Nevada City, CA: Dawn Publications.
    Dickinson, T. (1987). Exploring the night sky: The equinox astronomy guide for beginners (J.Bianchi, Illus.). Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books.
    Doris, E. (1991). Doing what scientists do: Children learn to investigate their world. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Dunn, A. (1997). The children's atlas of scientific discoveries and inventions. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook.
    Fromboluti, S., & Seefeldt, C. (1998). Early childhood: Where learning begins—geography. Washington, DC: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education.
    Full Option Science System (FOSS), Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. (2002a). Air and weather. Hudson, NH: Delta Education.
    Full Option Science System (FOSS), Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. (2002b). Balance and motion. Hudson, NH: Delta Education.
    Full Option Science System (FOSS), Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. (2002c). Pebbles, sand and silt. Hudson, NH: Delta Education.
    Gates, P. (1995). Nature got there first: Inventions inspired by nature. New York: Larousse Kingfisher Chambers.
    Gibson, G. (1996). Science for fun experiments. Brookfield, CT: Copper Beech Books.
    Great Expectation in Mathematics and Science (GEMS), Lawrence Hall of Science. (1996). Ant homes underground. Berkeley: Regents, University of California.
    Great Expectations in Mathematics and Science (GEMS), Lawrence Hall of Science. (1997). Treasure boxes. Berkeley: Regents, University of California.
    Haber, L. (1970). Black pioneers of science and inventions. New York: Harcourt Brace & World.
    Hammerman, E., & Musial, D. (1995). Classroom 2061: Activity-based assessments in science, integrated with mathematics and language arts. Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing.
    Haugland, S., & Wright, J. (1997). Young children and technology: A world of discovery. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
    Henderson, S. K. (1998). African-American inventors (Vols. 2–3). Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.
    Herriot, J. (1992). James Herriot's treasury for children. New York: St. Martin's.
    Hill, D. M. (1977). Mud, sand, and water. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Holt, B. G. (1993). Science with young children (Rev. ed.). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Karasov, N., Field, C., & Hunkel, C. (1991). Discovering wolves: A nature activity book. Middleton, WI: Dog-Eared Publications.
    Kellough, R. D. (1996). Integrating mathematics and science for kindergarten and primary children. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Liem, T. (1992). Turning kids on to science in the home: Our environment. Chino Hills, CA: Science Inquiry Enterprises.
    Locker, T. (1997). Water dance. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace.
    Locker, T. (2000). Cloud dance. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace.
    Locker, T. (2001). Mountain dance. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace.
    Locker, T. (2002). Walking with Henry: Based on the life and works of Henry David Thoreau. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing.
    Locker, T., & Christensen, C. (2001). Sky tree: Seeing science through art. New York: HarperCollins.
    Lowery, L. F. (1985). The everyday science sourcebook: Ideas for teaching in the elementary and middle school. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour Publications.
    Martin, D. (2000). Elementary science methods: A constructivist approach (
    2nd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
    National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1996). Technology and young children: Position statement on technology and young children—ages three through eight. Washington, DC: Author.
    National Science Resources Center. (1996). Resources for teaching elementary school science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    National Science Resources Center. (1997). Science for all children: A guide to improving elementary science education in your school district. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Nickelsburg, J. (1976). Nature activities for early childhood. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
    Overbeck, C. (1982). The world of ants. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner.
    Perdue, P. K. (1991). Science is an action word!Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Piaget, J. (1965). The child's conception of physical causality. Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams.
    Poppe, C. A., & Van Matre, N. A. (1988). K–3 science activities kit (N. A.Van Matre, Illus.). West Nyack, NY: Center for Applied Research in Education.
    Saul, W., & Newman, A. R. (1986). Science fare: An illustrated guide and catalog of toys, books, and activities for kids. New York: Harper & Row.
    Seefeldt, C., & Galper, A. (2002). Active experiences for active children: Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Sipiera, P. P. (1987). I can be an oceanographer. Chicago: Children's Press.
    Smith, J. C. (1988). What color is Newton's apple? Inquiry science for young children. Monroe, NY: Trillium.
    Wasserman, S., & Ivany, J. W. G. (1996). The new teaching elementary science: Who's afraid of spiders? (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Teachers College Press.
    Wilkes, A. (1996). The amazing outdoor activity book. New York: Dorling Kindersley.
    Wood, J. N. (1993). Woods and forests: Nature hide and seek book (M.Silver, Illus.). New York: Knopf.
    Mathematics
    Andrews, A. G., & Trafton, P. R. (2002). Little kids, powerful problem solvers: Math stories from a kindergarten classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Baroody, A. J. (with Coslick, R. T.). (1998). Fostering children's mathematical power: An investigative approach to K–12 mathematics instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Burns, M. (1993). Math and literature (K–3): Book one. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.
    Burns, M. (2000). About teaching mathematics: A K–8 resource (
    2nd ed.
    ). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.
    Charleworth, R. (2000). Experiences in math for young children. Albany, NY: Delmar.
    Copley, J. V. (Ed.). (1999). Mathematics in the early years. Washington, DC: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Donlon, C. (Ed.). (1998). The development of mathematical skills. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.
    Eckert, S., & Leimbach, J. (1993). Primarily math: A problem solving approach (A.Palouda, Illus.). San Luis Obispo, CA: Dandy Lion Publications.
    Fisher, L. (1987). Look around! A book about shapes. New York: Viking Kestrel.
    Freeman, C. (2003). Drawing stars: Building polyhedra. San Luis Obispo, CA: Dandy Lion Publications.
    Greenes, C. (1989). Math Games: Sparkling activities for early childhood classrooms. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.
    Hamilton, O. (2002). Super 7—Daily exercises in problem-solving: Number sense, computation, measurement, geometry, problem solving, patterns (S.O'Shaughnessy, Illus.). San Luis Obispo, CA: Dandy Lion Publications.
    Hirsch, E. S. (1996). The block book (
    3rd ed.
    ). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Hugel, B. (1998). Secret-code math: Kids solve math problems to crack secret codes and reinforce essential math skills. New York: Scholastic.
    Johnson-Foote, B. (2001). Cup cooking. Beltsville, MD: Gryphon House.
    Kamii, C. (1982). Number in preschool and kindergarten: Educational implications of Piaget's theory. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Kamii, C., & DeVries, R. (1980). Group games in early education. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Kamii, C. K. (with Houseman, L. B.). (2000). Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Teachers College Press.
    Kamii, C. K., & DeVries, R. (1993). Physical knowledge in preschool education: Implications of Piaget's theory. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Kenda, M., & Williams, P. S. (1995). Math wizardry for kids (T.Robinson, Illus.). New York: Scholastic.
    Kimble-Ellis, S. (1997). Math puzzlers: 25 reproducible puzzles, games, and activities that boost the math skills and up the fun!New York: Scholastic.
    Ma, L. (1999). Knowing and teaching elementary mathematics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Martin, L., & Miller, M. (1999). Great graphing. New York: Scholastic.
    McCracken, J. (1990). More than 1, 2, 3: The real basics of mathematics. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Pappas, T. (1989). The joy of mathematics. San Carlos, CA: Wide World Publishing/Tetra.
    Patterson, C. (1991). Let's celebrate math. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
    Payne, J. N. (1990). Mathematics for the young child. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
    Piaget, J. (1965). The child's conception of number. New York: Norton.
    Piaget, J. (1969). The child's conception of time. New York: Basic Books.
    Piaget, J., Inhelder, B., & Szeminska, A. (1960). The child's conception of geometry. London: Routledge.
    Polonsky, L. (Ed.). (2000). Math for the very young: A handbook of activities for parents and teachers. New York: Wiley.
    Principles and standards for school mathematics. (2000). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
    Rasmussen, G. (1995). Play by the rules: Creative practice in direction-following. Eugene, OR: Tin Man Press.
    Scales, B. (2000). Math: The missing learning center. Sacramento: California Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Shaw, J. M., & Blake, S. (1998). Mathematics for young children. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Upitis, R., Phillips, E., & Higgenson, W. (1997). Creative mathematics: Exploring children's understandings. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203445570
    Van DeWalle, J. (1994). Elementary school mathematics: Teaching developmentally (
    2nd ed.
    ). White Plains, NY: Longman.
    VandeCreek, B. (2001). Math rules! 1st–2nd grade enrichment challenge. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
    Washington, M. F. (1995). Real life math mysteries: A kid's answer to the question, “What will we ever use this for?”Waco, TX: Prufrock.
    Westley, J., & Randolph, M. (1987). Money and time (Windows on Mathematics Series). Sunnyvale, CA: Creative Publications.

    References

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    Carson, R. (1998). The sense of wonder (N.Kelsh, Photography). New York: Harper Collins.
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    Cohen, L. M., & Jipson, J. A. (1998). Conceptual models: Their role in early education for the gifted and talented child. In J. F.Smutny (ed.), The young gifted child: Potential and promise, an anthology (pp. 390–419) Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Coil, C., & Merritt, D. (2001). Solving the assessment puzzle: Piece by piece. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
    Cummings, C., & Piirto, J. (1998). The education of talented young children in the context of school reform. In J. F.Smutny (ed.), The young gifted child: Potential and promise, an anthology (pp. 380–389). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
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    Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
    Goertz, J. (2003). Searching for talent through the visual arts. In J. F.Smutny (ed.), Underserved gifted populations: Responding to their needs and abilities (pp. 269–277). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
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    Corwin: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”


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