Development Theory: Deconstructions/Reconstructions


Jan Nederveen Pieterse

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Theory, Culture & Society

    Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It also publishes theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture, and new intellectual movements.

    EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, Nottingham Trent University


    Roy Boyne, University of Durham

    Nicholas Gane, University of York

    Scott Lash, Goldsmiths College, University of London

    Roland Robertson, University of Aberdeen

    Couze Venn, Nottingham Trent University


    The Theory, Culture & Society book series, the journals Theory, Culture &Society and Body &Society, and related conference, seminar and postgraduate programmes operate from the TCS Centre at Nottingham Trent University. For further details of the TCS Centre's activities please contact:

    The TCS Centre, Room 175

    Faculty of Humanities

    Nottingham Trent University

    Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK



    Recent volumes include:

    Sociology of Intellectual Life: The Career of the mind in and around Academy Steve Fuller

    Globalization and Football: A Critical Sociology

    Richard Giulianotti and Roland Robertson

    Saturated Society: Regulating Lifestyles in Consumer Capitalism

    Pekka Sulkunen

    Changing Bodies: Habitat, Crisis and Creativity

    Chris Shilling

    The Media City: Media, Architecture and Urban Space

    Scott McQuire


    View Copyright Page


    In memory of W.F. Wertheim, Gerrit Huizer, Vincent Tucker and Ranjit Dwivedi

    List of Tables and Figures

    • I.1 Précis of book treatment xvii
    • 1.1 Meanings of development over time 7
    • 1.2 Global hegemony and development theories 10
    • 1.3 Actors in development field: different stakeholders, different development 10
    • 1.4 Current trends in development theory 18
    • 5.1 Development theories and culture 76
    • 5.2 Development and culture 76
    • 6.1 Contrasting development models 101
    • 10.1 ICT4D and development policy 176
    • 11.1 Development perspectives and future options 187
    • 11.2 Another outline of the development field 188
    • 12.1 Trends in twenty-first-century globalization 205
    • 1.1 Dimensions of development theories 9
    • 1.2 General trends in development theory over time 13
    • 4.1 Mode of production and culture 56


    Most chapters in this book have appeared earlier as articles in journals and books and they have all been revised for this volume. I acknowledge the kind permission of the following publishers and copyright holders:

    Institute of Social Studies: ‘Dilemmas of development discourse: the crisis of developmentalism and the comparative method’, Development and Change (22, 1, 1991); ‘My paradigm or yours? Alternative development, post development, reflexive development’, Development and Change (29, 2, 1998). A newly added section in Chapter 5 draws on my review article ‘Tough Liberalism: the Human Development Report and cultural liberty’, Development and Change (36, 6, 2005).

    Routledge: ‘The development of development theory: towards critical globalism’, Review of International Political Economy (3, 4, 1996); ‘Trends in development theory’, in Ronen Palan (ed.), Global Political Economy (London, 2000); After post-development’, Third World Quarterly (20, 1, 2000).

    Frank Cass: ‘The cultural turn in development: questions of power’, European Journal of Development Research (7, 1, 1995). ‘Growth and equity revisited: a supply-side approach to social development’, European Journal of Development Research (9, 1, 1997) and in Cristóbal Kay (ed.), Globalisation, Competitiveness and Human Security (London, 1997). ‘Critical holism and the Tao of development’, European Journal of Development Research (11, 1, 1999).

    Zed Books: A short version of ‘Critical holism and the Tao of development’ appears in Ronaldo Munck and Denis O'Hearn (eds), Critical Development Theory: Contributions to a New Paradigm (London, Zed, 1999). ‘Delinking or globalization?’ appeared earlier in Economic and Political Weekly (29, 5, 1994).

    An early version of ‘Digital capitalism and development’ appeared in the Incommunicado Reader, edited by Geert Lovink and Soenke Zehle (Nederveen Pieterse, 2005a). This chapter has benefited from being presented at a Communication and Development workshop in Malmö (, and at the Incommunicado conference on Information for Development in Amsterdam 2005 ( I thank Linda Aitio for research assistance and Sanjay Gupta, Oscar Hemer and Dan Schiller for comments.

    Amsterdam University Press: An early version of Chapter 12 appeared in Doing Good or Doing Better: Development policies in a globalising world, edited by Peter van Lieshout, Monique Kremer and Robert Went and published by Amsterdam University Press for the Dutch Scientific Council for Government Policy (Nederveen Pieterse, 2009b). I thank Robert Went and other editors for their comments.

    I am indebted to many more friends and sources of inspiration than I can acknowledge. Friends and colleagues have commented on different chapters. I cordially thank Thomas Blom Hansen, Lisa Chason, Ranjit Dwivedi, Aurora Galindo, Des Gasper, Ananta Giri, Frank Hirtz, Gerrit Huizer, Sudipto Kaviraj, Cristóbal Kay W.D. Lakshman, Lily Ling, Gilbert Rist, Henk van Roosmalen, Jan Aart Scholte, David Slater, Thanh-dam Truong, Vincent Tucker, Peter Waterman, W.F. Wertheim and Chris Williams. Most chapters were written while I was at the Institute of Social Studies, an international graduate school in development studies in The Hague, and I am grateful to the Institute for many lessons learnt. I have been inspired by several generations of ISS students, particularly in the Politics of Alternative Development Strategies MA programme. To name only a few, my thanks go to Hanan and Wafa Abdel Rahman, Michael Chai, Daniel Chavez, Tony Chiejina, Mike Demel, Fiona Dove, Azza Karam, Sergio Lenci, Wangu Mwangi, Edgar Pieterse, Melania Portilla Rodriguez, Jeff Powell, Imad Sabi, Ali Salman, Kim Scipes, Albana Shala, Nahda Sh'hada Younis, PL. de Silva, Mukta Srivastava, Ignatius Swart, Stuart Todd, Reaz Uddin and Hasmet Uluorta.

    For the second edition, I would like express my appreciation to graduate students at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and all those who commented on its theses, among others, Emin Adas, Chandler Armstrong, Serife Genis, Ravi Ghadge, Jin-Ho Jang, Jae Kim, Jongtae Kim, Amit Prasad, Ben Smith and Daniel Tessema. My perspective has been influenced by research trips to Asia, Africa and Latin America and friends and colleagues to whom I am indebted are too many to mention. I have appreciated probing questions by Tila Kumar and Amiya Das of Delhi University. I thank Chris Rojek at Sage for proposing the second edition. I thank Sharada Srinivasan for commenting on a draft. The usual disclaimer of course applies.

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Since the first edition of this book appeared in 2001 there have been momentous changes in the field of development policy and studies. Some are the deepening of trends that have long been in motion—in particular the rise of Asia and newly industrialized countries—and some have been radical ruptures. Among the latter, two major trend breaks are the weakening of neoliberalism and of American hegemony. Neither has left the stage but they have been on the losing side, face mounting problems and gather no new adherents. Neoliberalism—essentially the style of Anglo-American capitalism turned into doctrine—is crumbling from its own excesses and swerves from crisis to bubble to crisis. The weakening of American hegemony has been on the cards for some time but has been hastened by neoconservative overreach, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Originally the book outlined three main eras of development. First, the preludes to development in the 1800s and the catch-up policies from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century; second, the postwar Keynesian consensus, broadly 1950–1980; and third, the neoliberal era of the Washington consensus, 1980–2000. In the book's first edition, the main thrust was the tension between the Keynesian approach and the Washington consensus—in brief, the state-centred and the market-led approach, rippling and echoing through the development field in many ways. Thus, Chapter 11 (the then closing chapter) argues that the main tension in contemporary development policy and thinking is the rift between the Washington institutions (the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, aligned with the World Trade Organization (WTO)) and the human development approach (represented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other UN agencies, development ministries in developing countries and some agencies of development cooperation).

    Now the twenty-first century brings another phase of globalization and another era of development. It has only just begun. So far we know that neoliberalism is passé and the Washington consensus is no more; we know there are trend breaks and new trends, but it may be too early as yet to discern a new pattern. Among the new trends are the rise of the south, the growth of south-south relations in trade, energy and politics, and the growing role of leading emerging societies (including BRIC or Brazil Russia India China) and sovereign wealth funds from the global south. A further variable is economic instability in the United States, culminating in the economic crisis of 2008 and spreading outwards. The pendulum shifts toward greater state regulation, both in the west (‘we are all Keynesians now’) and as part of the rising influence of developmental states in the south. The BRIC economies are typically economies with large public sectors.

    Of the contours of this era we know, so far, that the major target of criticism of the previous period (and this book's first edition) is becoming a background issue, still pertinent, but now on the backburner. The imbalances in the world economy are so profound and structural that a major rebalancing is on the cards, although it is difficult to identify the specifics of a new development paradigm. Chapter 12, a new chapter, focuses on the emerging trends in the development field.

    Let me briefly indicate the main changes in this revised edition. I have updated and fine-tuned the entire text by streamlining formulations and refining arguments, adding some references. In Chapters 1 and 2, I have updated the closing section. Chapters 3, 5, 8 and 11 have undergone significant changes. I have revised Chapter 3 because its original keynote, critical globalism, is now a common platform and the literature on globalization and development has grown exponentially. I have expanded Chapter 5 on culture and development with a discussion of new literature such as the Human Development Report on Cultural Liberty in Today's Diverse World. In Chapter 8 I have fine-tuned and expanded the argument on social development.

    I have added a new chapter on digital capitalism and development (Chapter 10). This argues that information-for-development (ICT4D) is primarily driven by market expansion and market deepening. As the latest accumulation wave, digital capitalism generates information technology boosterism and cyber utopianism with the digital divide as a refrain. This chapter criticizes the discourses and policies of ‘bridging the digital divide’ and views information-for-development as part of a package deal in which cyber utopianism is associated, not exclusively but primarily, with marketing digital capitalism. The actual task of information-for-development is to disaggregate ICT4D. Less emphasis on the internet and more on telephone, radio and television would normalize and ground the discussion. I conclude by arguing that the ICT4D discussion should move away from development aid, NGOs and externally funded projects, to the central question of disembedding technology from capital.

    Chapter 11 on futures of development has undergone many changes, understandably because it was a forward-looking chapter. A new closing chapter discusses the main challenges of twenty-first-century globalization and development (Chapter 12).

    During the years when the book was written, and since then, several close friends passed away. Wim Wertheim, my teacher at the University of Amsterdam whose work on emancipation has continued to inspire me throughout the years, was a dear friend. Wim Wertheim's teaching on Southeast Asia and Indonesia and his views on emancipation and the importance of the peasant hinterland influenced me greatly and his long friendship meant a lot to me. Wim Wertheim died in 1998. Gerrit Huizer, director of the Third World Centre at Nijmegen University and a close friend and companion, passed away not long after Wim Wertheim. Gerrit's work on peasant movements also followed in the lines of emancipation studies. My dear friend Vincent Tucker died in a car accident near Cork, Ireland. Chapter 9 in this book is inspired by his work on the sociology of health; it was also the Inaugural Vincent Tucker Memorial Lecture at the University College of Cork, February 1998. Ranjit Dwivedi was a close friend at the Institute of Social Studies. We left the Institute around the same time. Shortly after defending his dissertation on the Narmada Valley protest movements, he left to take up a position at the Open University in England and I left for the University of Illinois. Less than a year later Ranjit died. I dedicate the second edition of this book with great affection and warmth to the memory of these dear friends and profound scholars.

    When the first edition of the book came out in 2001 I moved jobs from the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. From 2009 I am to be at the University of California, Santa Barbara, as Mellichamp Professor of Global Studies and Sociology.

    Jan NederveenPieterse, 2009


    This book represents my engagement with development studies over many years. To guide the reader here is a brief overview of the treatment and arguments in the different chapters.

    Chapter 1 is the substantive introduction to the book. It problematizes development knowledge and offers a stock taking of major trends in development thinking. Chapter 1 (Trends) and Chapters 11 (Futures) and 12 (Twenty-first century globalization) tie a ribbon around the book.

    Chapters 27 mainly consist of critical treatments of different approaches to development. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the career of development thinking in the mode of discourse analysis. Chapter 2 focuses on the deep legacies of Eurocentrism in developmentalism. Chapter 3 addresses the zigzag character of development thinking and its inconsistencies over time. Its closing argument on critical globalism is both analytic and programmatic. One of the limitations of discourse analysis (taken up in Chapters 1 and 7) is that it fails to engage the specifics of political economy. Chapter 4 revisits the political economy approach by way of a critique of Samir Amin's work. His thesis in favour of delinking is contrasted to globalization processes, continuing the argument of critical globalism in the previous chapter. Another theme is Amin's political economy approach to ‘culture’. Chapter 5 takes up various ways in which ‘culture’ has been incorporated into development discourse and policy.

    While alternative development is a critique of mainstream development, Chapter 6 subjects alternative development claims to a critical treatment, in particular the claim for an alternative development paradigm. Chapter 7 is a critique of post-development arguments and, I plead guilty here, a deconstruction of deconstruction. Chapters 47 address four critical approaches in development: prioritizing structures (political economy), prioritizing culture (culture and development), prioritizing social forces (alternative development) and prioritizing discourse (post-development).

    A book with just criticisms and goodbyes to paradigms would be too easy and not quite satisfactory, although this has long been the common fare in development studies. Lengthy analyses or critiques often conclude with just a brief note on ways forward and I would like to be more constructive and affirmative. Thus, Chapters 811 consist of programmatic treatments or reconstructions in the sense of affirmative and innovative turns and forward options for development. On balance these treatments argue more ‘for’ than ‘against’. Chapter 8 argues for extending the human development approach to social development and for a supply-side approach to social development, including taking on questions such as social capital. Chapter 9 is a philosophical and methodological reflection; it takes the arguments on Eurocentrism in Chapter 2 further and argues for critical holism as the Tao of development. Chapter 11 on futures of development takes the opening arguments on trends in development thinking and policy into the future tense, redefines development in light of the overall discussion, and concludes with reconstructions in development. A précis of the treatment is above (Table I.1). Chapter 12, new in the second edition, reflects on twenty-first century developments.

    Table I.1 Précis of book treatment
    Development thinkingOverview1
    Discourse analysisDevelopmentalism2
    History of development thinking3
    Political economyDependency theory and delinking4
    Culture and developmentCultural turn, anthropology5
    Alternative developmentSocial forces6
    Post-developmentDiscourse analysis as ideology7
    Human developmentCapacitation8
    ICT and developmentDisembedding technology from capital10
    International development cooperationCompartmentalizing macroeconomics and foreign aid12
    Globalization and developmentCritical globalism, global development3, 11, 12
    Intercultural developmentCultural difference as a catalyst4
    Social developmentSupply-side8
    Critical holismTao of development9
    Reflexive developmentCollective learning, reform platform11
    Development pluralism12

    Any of these approaches—discourse analysis, anthropology, cultural studies, alternative development, political economy, etc.—is a vantage point from which to probe the complexities of development. Any approach handled with depth and subtlety can be fruitful if it becomes an instrument and avenue of reflexivity This is the lesson I arrive at in the closing two chapters. Development is too complex to allow partial approaches to have their way—although these lend themselves to technical finesse and managerial intervention, the managerial fiction of knowledge and mastery itself is part of the problem. Combining different angles and approaches yields an holistic assessment of development. Fallibility and open-endedness are necessary features of development thinking and what matters in relation to any of these approaches is reflexivity; what matters is not merely what but also how. This also applies to holism itself: hence critical holism, lest holism become an all-purpose way out of the perplexities of development. These critical treatments are not dogmatic closures but contributions to reflexivity. And it applies to reflexivity lest it become snake oil: reflexivity must be politically enabling and serve an emancipatory interest.

    From the combination of terms in the title – deconstructions/reconstructions – it is obvious that this is not an exercise in deconstruction in the classic sense (cf. Willett 1999: 2–3) for then reconstructions would not belong. Reconstructions are ways ahead, forward options, contextual and time bound. In time they will yield other deconstructions and then other reconstructions will emerge, which is the way of things. Chapter 1 argues that development is a struggle. To be precise, development is a struggle over the shape of futures, a dramatic and complex struggle.

  • References

    Abdel-Malek, A. (1963) ‘Orientalism in crisis’, Diogenes, 44: 109–42.
    Abdel-Malek, A. (ed.) (1980/1983) Contemporary Arab political thought. London: Zed.
    Abraham, R., T.McKenna and R.Sheldrake (1992) Trialogues at the edge of the West. Santa Fe, NM: Bear.
    Abu-Lughod, L. (1990) ‘The romance of resistance: tracing transformation of power through Bedouin women’, American Ethnologist, 17 (1): 41–55.
    Adachi, I. (1996) The law of undulation. Tokyo: EVHA.
    Addo, H., S.Amin, G.Aseniero, A.G.Frank, M.Friberg, FFröbel, J.Heinrichs, B.Hettne, O.Kreye and H.Seki (1985) Development as social transformation. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
    Adelman, I. and C. TMorris (1967) Society, politics and economic development. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Adelman, I. and S.Robinson (1978) Income distribution policy in developing countries. Oxford and Washington, DC: Oxford University Press and World Bank.
    AfricanRights (1994) Humanitarianism unbound? Discussion Paper 5. London: African Rights.
    Agrawal, A. (1995a) ‘Dismantling the divide between indigenous and scientific knowledge’, Development and Change, 26 (3): 413–40.
    Agrawal, A. (1995b) ‘Indigenous and scientific knowledge: some critical comments’, Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 3 (3): 3–6.
    Ahmed, D.S. (1997) ‘Women and religion: problems and prospects’, in Women and religion: debates on a search. Lahore: Heinrich Böll Foundation, pp. 23–58.
    Ake, C. (1979) Social science as imperialism: the theory of political development. Ibadan: University of Ibadan Press.
    Akiwowo, A. (1988) ‘Universalism and indigenization in sociological theory: introduction’, International Sociology, 3 (2): 155–61.
    Akiwowo, A. (1999) ‘Indigenous sociologies: extending the scope of the argument’, special issue, International Sociology, 14 (2).
    Akyuz, Y. (2000) ‘The debate on the international financial architecture: reforming the reformers’, UNCTAD Discussion Paper148.
    Alavi, H. (1973) ‘The state in postcolonial societies: Pakistan and Bangladesh’, in K.Gough and H. PSharma (eds), Imperialism and revolution in South Asia. New York: Monthly Review Press, pp. 145–73.
    Albert, M. (1993) Capitalism against capitalism. London: Whurr.
    Alden, C. (2003) ‘Let them eat cyberspace: Africa, the G8 and the digital divide’, Millennium, 32 (3): 457–76.
    Almond, GA. (1964) ‘Comparative political systems’, in R.C.Macridis and B.E.Brown (eds), Comparative politics,
    revised edn
    . Homewood, IL: Dorsey pp. 50–64.
    AlSayyad, N. and A.Roy (2006) ‘Medieval modernity: on citizenship and urbanism in a global era’, Space and Polity, 10 (1): 1–20.
    Alvares, C. (1979) Homo faber. Bombay: Allied Publishers.
    Alvares, C. (1992) Science, development and violence: the revolt against modernity. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Alvesson, M. and K.Skjöldberg (1999) Reflexive methodology. London: Sage.
    Amin, A. (ed.) (1994a) Post-Fordism: a reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Amin, A. (1994b) ‘Post-Fordism: models, fantasies and phantoms of transition’, in Amin (ed.), pp. 1–39.
    Amin, A. (1997) ‘Beyond associative democracy’, New Political Economy, 3 (1): 309–33.
    Amin, A. and N.Thrift (1993) ‘Globalization, institutional thickness and local prospects’, Revue d’économie régionale et urbaine, 3: 405–27.
    Amin, A. and N.Thrift (1997) ‘Globalisation, socioeconomics, territoriality’, in R.Lee and J.Willis (eds), Society, place, economy. London: Arnold, pp. 151–61.
    Amin, A. and N.Thrift (eds) (2004) The cultural economy reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Amin, S. (1976) Unequal development. Sussex: Harvester Press.
    Amin, S. (1980) Class and nation, historically and in the current crisis. New York: Monthly Review Press (orig. Fr edn 1979).
    Amin, S. (1982) ‘Crisis, nationalism, and socialism’, in S.Amin, G.Arrighi, A.G.Frank and I.Wallerstein, Dynamics of global crisis. New York: Monthly Review Press, pp. 167–231.
    Amin, S. (1989) Eurocentrism. London: Zed (orig. French edn 1988).
    Amin, S. (1990a) Delinking: towards apolycentric world. London: Zed (orig. French edn 1985).
    Amin, S. (1990b) ‘Black Athena: la fabrication de la Grèce antique’, Ifda Dossier, 77: 93–4.
    Amin, S. (1990c) Maldevelopment: anatomy of a global failure. London: Zed.
    Amin, S. (1992) ‘The perils of utopia’, interview by Monty Narsoo, Work in Progress, December: 28–30.
    Amin, S. (1997) Capitalism in the age of globalization. London: Zed.
    Amin, S. (1999) Spectres of capitalism: a critique of current intellectual fashions. London: Zed.
    Amin, S. (2004) ‘Globalism or apartheid on a global scale’, in I.Wallerstein (ed.), The modern world-system in the longue durée. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, pp. 5–30.
    Amin, S. (2006) Beyond US hegemony?London: Zed.
    Amin, S., D.Chitala and I.Mandaza (eds) (1987) SADCC: prospects for disengagement and development in Southern Africa. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
    Anderla, G., A.Dunning and S.Forge (1997) Chaotics: an agenda for business and society for the 21st century. London: Adamantine Press.
    Anderson, P. (1998) The origins of postmodernity. London: Verso.
    Antweiler, C (1993) ‘Entwicklungsethnologie und Entwicklungssoziologie’, Entwicklungsethnologie, 2, (1): 40–60.
    Apffel-Marglin, F. and S.Marglin (eds) (1990) Dominating knowledge: development, culture and resistance. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Apffel-Marglin, F. and S.Marglin (eds) (1996) Decolonizing knowledge: from development to dialogue. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Appadurai, A. (ed.) (1986) The social life of things. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Apter, D.E. (1987) Rethinking development: modernization, dependency, and postmodern politics. London: Sage.
    Apthorpe, R. and D.Gasper (eds) (1996) Arguing development policy: frames and discourses. London: Frank Cass.
    Ariansen, P. (1998) Anthropocentrism with a human face’, Ecological Economics, 24 (2–3): 153–62.
    Arifa, K. (2002) Access to information by the socially disadvantages in developing countries with special reference to India’, Information Studies, 8 (3): 159–72
    Africa, K. (2002) Access to information by the socially disadvantaged in developing countries with special reference to India’, Information Studies, 8 (3): 159–72.
    Aronowitz, S. (1989) Science as power: discourse and ideology in modern society. London: Macmillan.
    Arrelano-Lopez, S. and J.F.Petras (1994) ‘Non-governmental organizations and poverty alleviation in Bolivia’, Development and Change, 25 (3): 555–68.
    Arruda, M. (1994) A creative approach to structural adjustment: towards a people-centred development’, in Cavanagh et al. (eds), pp. 132–44.
    Arruda, M. (1996) Globalization and civil society: rethinking cooperativism in the context of active citizenship. Rio de Janeiro: PACS (Alternative Policies for the Southern Cone).
    Ashraf, T. (2004) ‘Information technology and public policy: a socio-human profile of Indian digital revolution’, International Information & Library Review, 36 (4): 309–18.
    Ashton, J. and R.Laura (1999) The perils of progress. London: Zed.
    Attali, J.1997‘The crash of Western civilization: the limits of the market and democracy’, Foreign Policy, 107: 54–64.
    Ayto, J. (1990) Bloomsbury dictionary of word origins. London: Bloomsbury.
    Badie, B. (1989) ‘Comparative analysis in political science: requiem or resurrection?’Political Studies, 37 (3): 340–52.
    Balasubramaniam, A. (1987) Participatory action research. Singapore: Friedrich Naumann Stiftung.
    Banuri, T. (1990) ‘Modernization and its discontents: a cultural perspective on the theories of development’, in Apffel-Marglin and Marglin (eds), pp. 73–101.
    Banuri, T. et al. (1993) A North-South debate: the meaning of progress’, UNESCO Courier, 46, December.
    Banuri, T., S. RafiKhan and M.Mahmood (eds) (1997) Just development: beyond adjustment with a human face. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
    Bauman, Z. (1992) Intimations of postmodernity. London: Routledge.
    Bayat, A. (1998) Street politics: poor people's movements in Iran. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
    Bazin, M. (1987) ‘Tales of underdevelopment’, Race & Class, 28 (3): 1–12.
    Beck, U. (1992) Risk society: towards a new modernity. London: Sage.
    Beck, U. (1999) World risk society. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bell, D. (1978) The cultural contradictions of capitalism. New York: Basic Books.
    Bello, W. (1992) People and power in the Pacific. London: Pluto.
    Benedict, R. (1935) Patterns of culture. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Berger, P. and T.Luckmann (1967) The social construction of reality. London: Allen Lane.
    Berman, Marshall (1988) All that is solid melts into air. New York: Penguin.
    Berman, Morris (1984) The reenchantment of the world. New York: Bantam.
    Bernal, M. (1987) Black Athena: Afroasiatic roots of classical civilization: the fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785–1985. London: Free Association Press.
    Bernard, A., H.Helmich and P.B.Lehning (eds) (1998) Civil society and international cooperation. Paris: OECD.
    Bhabha, H.K. (1994) The location of culture. London: Routledge.
    Bhaduri, A. and D.Nayyar (1996) The intelligent person's guide to liberalization. New Delhi: Penguin.
    Bhagwati, J. (1997) A stream of windows: unsetting reflections on trade, immigration and democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bhalla, A. and F.Lapeyre (1997) ‘Social exclusion: towards an analytical and operational framework’, Development and Change, 28 (3): 413–34.
    Bharadwaj, K. and S.Kaviraj (1989) ‘Introduction’, in Bharadwaj and Kaviraj (eds), Perspectives on capitalism. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 9–19.
    Bhaskar, R. (1991) Philosophy and the idea of freedom. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bienefeld, M. (1994) ‘The New World Order: echoes of a new imperialism’, Third World Quarterly, 15 (1): 31–48.
    Black, M. (1992) A cause for our times: Oxfam the first fifty years. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bohm, D. (1980) Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Boon, J.A. (1990) Affinities and extremes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Booth, D. (1993) ‘Development research: from impasse to a new agenda’, in Schuurman (ed.), pp. 49–76.
    Booth, D. (ed.) (1994a) Rethinking social development. Harlow: Longman.
    Booth, D. (1994b) ‘How far beyond the impasse?’, in Booth (ed.), pp. 298–311.
    Bourdieu, P. (1976) ‘Les modes de domination’, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociale, 2 (2–3): 122–32.
    Bourdieu, P. (1988) Homo academicus. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Bourdieu, P. and J. -C.Passeron (1990) Reproduction in education, society and culture,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Bourdieu, P. and L.Wacquant (1992) An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Boyer, R. and D.Drache (eds) (1996) States against markets: the limits of globalization. London: Routledge.
    Broad, R. and C. MelhornLandi (1996) ‘Whither the North-South gap?, Third World Quarterly, 17 (1): 7–17.
    Brohman, J. (1995) ‘Economism and critical silences in development studies: a theoretical critique of neoliberalism’, Third World Quarterly, 16 (2): 297–318.
    Brohman, J. (1996) Popular development: rethinking the theory and practice of development. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brokensha, D., D.Warren and O.Werner (eds) (1980) Indigenous knowledge systems and development. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Brookfield, H. (1975) Interdependent development. London: Methuen.
    Brown, D.L. and D.Ashman (1996) Participation, social capital, and intersectoral problem-solving: African and Asian cases, Boston, Institute for Development Research Report 12 (2).
    Brown, D.L. and D.Ashman (1999) ‘Social capital, mutual influence, and social learning in intersectoral problem solving in Africa and Asia’, in Cooperrider and Dutton (eds), pp. 139–67.
    Burkey, S. (1992) People first: a guide to self-reliant participatory rural development. London: Zed.
    Burne, S. (ed.) (1995) Let the dawn come: social development, looking behind the clichés. London: Panos.
    Buvini, M., C.Gwyn and L.M.Bates (1996) Investing in women: progress and prospects for the World Bank. Washington, DC: Overseas Development Council.
    Camdessus, M. (1998) ‘Camdessus discusses new global architecture’, IMF Survey, 27 (10): 157, 161–3.
    Campbell, D. (2001) ‘Can the digital divide be contained?’International Labour Review, 140 (2): 119–41.
    Capra, F. (1988) Uncommon wisdom. London: Century Hutchinson.
    Capra, F. (1996) The web of life. New York: Doubleday
    Cardoso, F.H. (1993) ‘North-South relations in the present context: a new dependency?’, in Carnoy et al., pp. 149–60.
    Carmen, R. (1996) Autonomous development: humanizing the landscape. London: Zed.
    Carnoy, M. (1993) ‘Multinationals in a changing world economy: whither the nation state?’ in Carnoy et al., pp. 45–96.
    Carnoy, M., M.Castells, S.S.Cohen and F.H.Cardoso (1993) The new global economy in the information age. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Carr, B. (1999) ‘Globalization from below: labour internationalism under NAFTA, International Social Science Journal, 159: 49–59.
    Castells, M. (1993) ‘The informational economy and the new international division of labor’, in Carnoy et al., pp. 15–43.
    Castells, M. (1996) The information age, Vol. 1, The rise of the network society. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Castells, M. (1997) The information age, Vol. 2, The power of identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Cavanagh, J., D.Wysham and M.Arruda (eds) (1994) Beyond Bretton Woods: alternatives to the global economic order. London: Pluto.
    Center for the Study of the Global South (1994) Social summit, Copenhagen: expectations of the global South. Washington, DC: American University.
    Chambers, R. (1983) Rural development: putting the last first. London: Longman.
    Chandra, S. (2002) ‘Information in a networked world: the Indian perspective’, International Information & Library Review, 34 (3): 235–46.
    Chang, H. -J. (2002) Kicking away the ladder: development strategy in historical perspective. London: Anthem.
    Chang, H. -J. (2003) Globalisation, economic development and the role of the state. London: zed.
    Chang, H. -J. (2004) ‘The role of social policy in economic development: some theoretical reflections and lessons from East Asia’, in Mkandawire (ed.), pp. 246–61.
    Chang, H. -J. and I.Grabel (2004) Reclaiming development: an alternative economic policy manual. London: Zed.
    Chatterjee, P. (1986) Nationalist thought and the colonial world. London/Tokyo: Zed.
    Cheah, P. (1998) ‘The cosmopolitical — today’, in P.Cheah and B.Robbins (eds), Cosmopolitics: thinking and feeling beyond the nation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 20–43.
    Chen, X. (2005) As borders bend: transnational spaces on the Pacific Rim. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Chenery, H. et al. (1974) Redistribution with growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Chin, C. B.N. and J.H.Mittelman (2000) ‘Conceptualising resistance to globalisation’, in B.K.Gills (ed.), Globalization and the politics of resistance. London: Macmillan, pp. 29–45.
    Chirot, D. (1977) Social change in the twentieth century. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    ChossudovskyM. (1997) The globalization of poverty: impacts of IMF and World Bank reforms. London: Zed.
    Christopherson, S. (1994) ‘The fortress city: privatized spaces, consumer citizenship’, in A.Amin (1994a), pp. 409–27.
    Clark, J. (1991) Democratizing development: the role of voluntary organizations. London, Earthscan.
    Clarke, G. (1998) ‘Non-governmental organizations and politics in the developing world’, Political Studies, 46: 36–52.
    Cleveland, H., H.Henderson and I.Kaul (eds) (1995) The United Nations: policy and financing alternatives. New York: Apex Press.
    Clifford, J. (1988) The predicament of culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Clifford, J. (1992) ‘Travelling cultures’, in L.Grossberg, C.Nelson and P.Treichler (eds), Cultural studies. London: Routledge, pp. 96–116.
    Coco, A. and P.Short (2004) ‘History and habit in the mobilization of ICT resources’, Information Society, 20 (1): 39–51.
    Coetzee, J.K. (ed.) (1989) Development is for people. Halfway House, South Africa: Southern Book Publishers.
    Coleman, J.S. (1988) ‘Social capital in the creation of human capital’, American Journal of Sociology, 94: 95–120.
    Collier, P. (2007) The bottom billion: why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Collingsworth, T., J.W.Goold and P.J.Harvey (1994) ‘Time for a global new deal’, Foreign Affairs, 73 (1): 8–13.
    Colman, D. and F.Nixson (1994) Alternative views of development: underdevelopment and dependence’, in idem, Economics of change in less developed countries,
    3rd edn.
    London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 48–67.
    Comaroff, J. and J.L.Comaroff (eds) (2001) Millennial capitalism and the culture of neoliberalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Comfort, L.K. (1999) Shared risk: complex systems in seismic response. Amsterdam: Pergamon.
    Commission on Global Governance (1995) Our global neighbourhood (report). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Conger, L. (1998) A fourth way? The Latin American alternative to neoliberalism’, Current History, November: 380–84.
    Connors, M. (1997) The race to the intelligent state: charting the global information economy in the 21st century. Oxford: Capstone.
    Constantino, R. (1985) Synthetic culture and development. Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies.
    Cooke, B. and U.Kothari (eds) (2001) Participation: the new tyranny?London: Zed.
    Cooperrider, D.L. and J.E.Dutton (eds) (1999) Organizational dimensions of global change: no limits to cooperation. London: Sage.
    Corbridge, S. (1994) ‘Post-Marxism and post-colonialism: the needs and rights of distant strangers’, in Booth (1994a), pp. 90–117.
    Corbridge, S. (ed.) (1995) Development studies: a reader. London: Edward Arnold.
    Corbridge, S. (1998) ‘“Beneath the pavement only soil”: the poverty of post-development’, Journal of Development Studies, 34 (6): 138–48.
    Corbridge, S. (2002) ‘Development as freedom: the spaces of Amartya Sen’, Progress in Development Studies, 2 (3): 183–217.
    Cornia, GA. (1999) Liberalization, globalization and income distribution. Helsinki: UNU Wider Working Paper 157.
    Cowen, M. P and R. WShenton (1996) Doctrines of development. London: Routledge.
    Cox, R.W. (1991) ‘Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method’, Millennium, 12 (2): 162–75.
    Craige, Betty Jean (1992) Laying the ladder down: the emergence of cultural holism. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Crehan, K. (1991) ‘Structures of meaning and structures of interest: peasants and planners in north-western Zambia’, in Kaarsholm (ed.), pp. 185–208.
    Crocker, D.A. (1991) ‘Insiders and outsiders in international development’, Ethics & International Affairs, 5: 149–73.
    Cross, M. (2005) ‘Ethiopia's digital dream’, Guardian Weekly, 19–25 August: 27.
    Crush, J. (ed.) (1996a) The power of development. London: Routledge.
    Crush, J. (1996b) ‘Introduction: imagining development’, in idem (ed.), pp. 1–23.
    Cullen, R. (2001) Addressing the digital divide’, Online Information Review, 25 (5): 311–20.
    Cypher, J.M. (1998) ‘The slow death of the Washington Consensus on Latin America’, Latin American Perspectives, 25 (6): 47–51.
    Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation (1975) ‘What now? Another development’, Development Dialogue, 1–2.
    Dahl, G. (2008) ‘Words as moral badges: a flow of buzzwords in development aid’, in B.Hettne (ed.), pp 172–99.
    Dallmayr, F. (1996) ‘Global development? Alternative voices from Delhi’, Alternatives, 21 (2): 259–82.
    Daly, H.E. and J.B.CobbJr. (1994) For the common good,
    2nd edn.
    Boston: Beacon Press.
    Dasgupta, P. (1988) ‘Trust as a commodity’, in D.Gambetta (ed.), Trust: making and breaking cooperative relations. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 49–72.
    Dasgupta, S. (1985) Towards a post-development era. London: Mittal.
    Dasgupta, S. and J. NederveenPieterse (eds) (2009) Politics of globalization. New Delhi and London: Sage.
    Davis, A. (1991) ‘Hazardous lives — social work in the 1980s: a view from the left’, in M.Loney et al. (eds), The state or the market: politics and welfare in contemporary Britain,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage, pp. 83–93.
    Davis, CM. (2001) ‘Information apartheid: an examination of the digital divide and information literacy in the United States’, PNLA Quarterly, 65 (4): 25–7.
    Davis, M. (1990) City of Quartz. London: Verso.
    Davis, P.J. and R.Hersh (1986) Descartes’ dream: the world, according to mathematics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Deacon, B., M.Hulse and P.Stubbs (1998) Global social policy. London: Sage.
    Desai, A.R. (ed.) (1971) Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies, 2 vols. Bombay: Thacker.
    Dessouki, A. E.H. (1993) ‘Globalization and the two spheres of security’, Washington Quarterly, 16 (4): 109–17.
    Development and social diversity — development in practice readers (1996)Oxford: Oxfam.
    Dicken, P. (2007) Global shift: mapping the changing contours of the world economy,
    5th edn.
    New York: Guilford.
    Donaldson, J.A. (2008) ‘Growth is good for whom, when, how? Economic growth and poverty reduction in exceptional cases’, World Development, 36 (11): 2127–43.
    Doornbos, M.R. (1989) The African state in academic debate, The Hague: Institute of Social Studies.
    Dore, R. (1992) ‘Goodwill and the spirit of market capitalism’, in Granovetter and Swedberg (eds), pp. 159–80.
    Dore, R. P (2000) Stock market capitalism/welfare capitalism: Japan and Germany versus the Anglo-Saxons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Drabek, A.G. (ed.) (1987) Development alternatives: the challenge for NGOs in World Development, 15, Supplement: 1–261.
    Drahos, P. (2003) ‘The global intellectual property ratchet in the information age: consequences and costs’, National University of Singapore.
    Drahos, P. and J.Braithwaite (2002) Information feudalism: who owns the knowledge economy?New York: New Press.
    Drèze, J. and A.Sen (1989) Hunger and public action. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    DSE (1994) Social security in Africa: old age, accident and unemployment. Berlin: Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung.
    DuBois, M. (1991) ‘The governance of the Third World: a Foucauldian perspective on power relations in development’, Alternatives, 16: 1–30.
    Duffield, M. (1996) ‘The globalisation of public policy: managing the systemic crisis in the South’, Birmingham, School of Public Policy, unpublished paper.
    Dumont, R. (1965) Lands alive. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Dumont, R. (1974) Utopia or else…London: André Deutsch.
    Dunn, D. (1986) ‘Synchronisms: toward a phenomenological science’, International Synergy Journal, 1: 2–8.
    Edwards, M. (1999) Future positive: international cooperation in the 21st century. London: Earthscan.
    Edwards, M. and D.Hulme (eds) (1992) Making a difference: NGOs and development in a changing world. London: Earthscan.
    Edwards, M. and G.Sen (1999) ‘NGOs, social change and the transformation of human relationships: a 21st century civic agenda’, unpublished paper.
    Eisenstadt, S.N. (1966) Modernization: protest and change. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Eisenstadt, S.N. (2000) ‘Multiple modernities’, Daedalus, 129 (1), special issue: 1–30.
    Eisenstadt, S.N. (ed.) (2002) Multiple modernities. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Ekins, P. (1992) A new world order: grassroots movements for global change. London: Routledge.
    Elliott, E. and D.Kiel (1997) ‘Nonlinear dynamics, complexity and public policy’, in Eve et al. (eds), pp. 64–78.
    Elson, D. (1993) ‘Gender-aware analysis and development economics’, Journal of International Development, 5 (2): 237–47.
    Elson, D. (2004) ‘Social policy and macroeconomic performance: integrating the economic and the social’, in Mkandawire (ed.), pp. 63–79.
    Enloe, C. (1990) Bananas, beaches and bases. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Escobar, A. (1985) ‘Discourse and power in development: Michel Foucault and the relevance of his work to the Third World’, Alternatives, 10: 377–400.
    Escobar, A. (1992a) ‘Planning’, in Sachs (ed.) (1992a), pp. 132–45.
    Escobar, A. (1992b) ‘Reflections on “Development”: grassroots approaches and alternative politics in the Third World’, Futures, June: 411–36.
    Escobar, A. (1995) Encountering development: the making and unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Escobar, A. (1996) ‘Imagining a post-development era’, in Crush (ed.) (1996a), pp. 211–27.
    Esman, M.J. and N.T.Upton (1984) Local organizations: intermediaries in rural development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Esping-Andersen, G. (1994) ‘Welfare states and the economy’, in Smelser and Swedberg (eds), pp. 711–31.
    Esposito, J.L. (1992) The Islamic threat: myth or reality?New York: Oxford University Press.
    Esteva, G. (1985) ‘Beware of participation’, and ‘Development: metaphor, myth, threat’, Development: Seeds of Change, 3: 77 and 78–79.
    Esteva, G (1992) ‘Development’, in Sachs (ed.), pp. 6–25.
    Esteva, G and M.S.Prakash (1998) Hope at the margins: beyond human rights and development. London: Zed.
    Eve, R.A. (1997) Afterword’, in Eve et al. (eds), pp. 269–80.
    Eve, R.A., S.Horsfall and M.E.Lee (eds) (1997) Chaos, complexity and sociology. London: Sage.
    Fabian, J. (1983) Time and the other: how anthropology makes its objects. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Fagan, G.H. (1999) ‘Cultural politics and (post) development paradigm(s)’, in Munck and O'Hearn (eds), pp. 178–95.
    Falk, R. (1994) On humane governance: towards a new global politics. Cambridge: Polity.
    Fals-Borda, O. (1985) ‘Wisdom as power’, Development: Seeds of Change, 3: 65–7.
    Fanon, F. (1967) The wretched of the earth. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Faux, J. (1999) ‘Lost on the Third Way’, Dissent, 46 (2): 67–76.
    Fei, J., G.Ranis and S.Kuo (1979) Growth with equity: the Taiwan case. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Femia, J.V. (1981) Gramsci's political thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ferguson, J. (1990) The anti-politics machine: ‘development’, depoliticisation and bureaucratic power in Lesotho. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ferguson, J. (1999) Expectations of modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Fernandes, R.C. (1993) ‘Looking for alternatives after the cold war’, Cultures and Development: Quid Pro Quo, 15: 6–14.
    Feyerabend, P. (1975) Against method. London: New Left Books.
    Fine, B. (1999) ‘The developmental state is dead — long live social capital?’, Development and Change, 30 (1): 1–20.
    Fischer, F.G. (1993) ‘Emergence of a circumspect society: introducing reflexive institutions’, Futures, 25 (10): 1077–82.
    FitzGerald, E. V.K. (1991) ‘Kurt Mandelbaum and the classical tradition in development theory’, in K.Martin (ed.), Strategies of economic development. London: Macmillan, pp. 3–26.
    Florida, R. (2008) Who's your city?New York: Basic Books.
    Foley, G (1999) Learningin social action. London: Zed.
    Fors, M. and A.Moreno (2002) ‘The benefits and obstacles of implementing ICTs strategies for development from a bottom-up approach’, Aslib Proceedings, 54 (3): 198–206.
    Foucault, M. (1980) Power/knowledge. C.Gordon (ed.). New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, M. (1984) ‘Nietzsche, genealogy, history’, in P.Rabinow (ed.), The Foucault reader. New York: Pantheon, pp. 76–100.
    Frank, A.G. (1969) Latin America: underdevelopment or revolution. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Frank, A.G. (1971) Sociology of development and underdevelopment of sociology. London: Pluto.
    Frank, A.G. (1981) Crisis: in the Third World. New York and London: Holmes and Meyer.
    Frank, A.G. (1996) ‘The underdevelopment of development’, in S.Chew and R.Denemark (eds), The underdevelopment of development. London: Sage, pp. 17–55.
    Frank, A.G. (1998) Re Orient: global economy in the Asian age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Friberg, M. and B.Hettne (1985) ‘The greening of the world — towards a nondeterministic model of global process’, in Addo et al., pp. 204–70.
    Friedman, E. (ed.) (1982) Ascent and decline in the world-system. London: Sage.
    Friedman, T.L. (2000) The Lexus and the olive tree: understanding globalization,
    2nd edn.
    New York: Anchor.
    Friedman, T.L. (2005) The world is flat. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux.
    Friedmann, J. (1992) Empowerment: the politics of alternative development. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Fukuyama, F. (1995) ‘Social capital and the global economy’, Foreign Affairs, 74 (5): 89–103.
    Fukuyama, F. (1996) Trust: social virtues and the creation of prosperity. London: Penguin.
    Galbraith, J.K. (1996) The good society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Gao, Z. (1995) ‘Market economy and social development’, Beijing and Copenhagen: World Summit for Social Development.
    García Canclini, N. (1992) ‘Culture and power: the state of research’, in P.Scannell, P.Schlesinger and C.Sparks (eds), Culture and power. London: Sage.
    Gasper, D. (1997) ‘Sen's capability approach and Nussbaum's capabilities ethic’, Journal of International Development, 9 (2): 281–302.;2-K
    Gasper, D. (2004) The ethics of development: from economism to human development. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Gaventa, J. (1998) ‘Poverty, participation and social exclusion in North and South’, IDS Bulletin, 29 (1): 50–57.
    Gay, P. (1977) The Enlightenment: an interpretation. New York: Norton.
    Gbotokuma, Z. (1992) ‘Cultural identity and under-development in Sub-Saharan Africa’, special issue on culture and development, Voices from Africa (Geneva, UNNGLS), 4.
    George, S. (1992) The debt boomerang. London: Pluto.
    Gerschenkron, A. (1992) ‘Economic backwardness in historical perspective’ (1952), in Granovetter and Swedberg (eds), pp. 111–30.
    Ghosh, J. (2004) ‘Social policy in Indian development’, in Mkandawire (ed.), pp. 284–307.
    Gibson-Graham, J.K. (1992) ‘Waiting for the revolution or, How to smash capitalism while working at home in your spare time’, unpublished paper.
    Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity.
    Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and self-identity: self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity.
    Giddens, A. (1998) The Third Way. Cambridge: Polity.
    Gill, S. and J.H.Mittelman (eds) (1997) Innovation and transformation in international studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gilligan, C. (1982) In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gills, B. and G.Philip (1996) ‘Editorial: towards a convergence in development policy?’Third World Quarterly, 17 (4): 585–91.
    Giri, A.K. (1998) Global transformations: postmodernity and beyond. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
    Gittings, J. (2005) The changing face of China: from Mao to market. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gledhill, J. (1994) Power and its disguises: anthropological perspectives on politics. London: Pluto.
    Gleick, J. (1988) Chaos: making a new science. London: Heinemann.
    Goetz, E.G. and S.E.Clarke (1993) The new localism: comparative urban politics in a global era. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gomez, E.T. (1994) Political business: corporate involvement of Malaysian political parties. Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland.
    Goonatilake, S. (1991) The evolution of information: lineages in gene, culture and artefact. London: Pinter.
    Goonatilake, S. (1999) Toward a global science. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Gordon, D. (1991) ‘Inside and outside the long swing: the endogeneity / exogeneity debate and the social structures of accumulation approach’, Review, 12 (2): 263–312.
    Goulet, D. (1992) ‘Development: creator and destroyer of values’, World Development, 20 (3): 467–75.
    Gow, D.D. (1991) ‘Collaboration in development consulting: stooges, hired guns, or musketeers?’Human Organization, 50 (1).
    Granovetter, M. (1992) ‘Economic institutions as social constructions’, Acta Sociologica, 35: 3–11.
    Granovetter, M. and R.Swedberg (eds) (1992) The sociology of economic life. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Gray, H. P (1993) ‘Globalization versus nationhood: is economic integration a useful compromise?’Development and International Cooperation, 9 (16): 35–49.
    Green, R. (1995) ‘Reflections on attainable trajectories: reforming global economic institutions’, in Griesgraber and Gunter (1996a), pp. 38–81.
    Greider, W. (1992) Who will tell the people? The betrayal of American democracy. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Greider, W. (1997) One world, ready or not: the manic logic of global capitalism. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Greig, A., D.Hulme and M.Turner (2007) Challenging global inequality: development theory and practice in the 21st century. London: Palgrave.
    Griesgraber, M.J. and B.G.Gunter (eds) (1995) Promoting development: effective global institutions for the 21st century. London: Pluto.
    Griesgraber, M.J. and B.G.Gunter (eds) (1996a) Development: new paradigms and principles for the 21st century. London: Pluto.
    Griesgraber, M.J. and B.G.Gunter (eds) (1996b) The World Bank: lending on a global scale. London: Pluto.
    Griffin, K. (1996) ‘Culture, human development and economic growth’, University of California, Riverside: Working Paper in Economics 96–17.
    Griffin, K. (2000a) ‘Culture and economic growth: the state and globalization’, in NederveenPieterse (ed.) (2000a), pp. 189–202.
    Griffin, K. (2000b) Studies in development strategy and systemic transformation. London: Macmillan.
    Griffin, K. and A. RahmanKhan (1992) Globalization and the developing world. Geneva: UNRISD.
    Griffin, K. and T.McKinley (1994) Implementing a human development strategy. London: Macmillan.
    Grillo, R.D. and R.L.Stirrat (eds) (1997) Discourses of development. Oxford: Berg.
    Group of Lisbon (1995) Limits to competition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    GrowthReport (2008) Strategies for sustained growth and inclusive development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Gupta, A. and J.Ferguson (1992) ‘Beyond culture: space, identity, and the politics of difference’, Cultural Anthropology, 7: 6–23.
    Gupta, S. (2005) ‘ICTs for the poorest of the rural poor’,
    Gurstein, M. (2003) ‘Effective use: a community informatics strategy beyond the digital divide’, First Monday, 8 (12),
    Guthrie, D. (2006) China and globalization: the social, economic and political transformation of Chinese society. New York: Routledge.
    Haass, R. (2008) ‘U.S. foreign policy in a nonpolar world’, Foreign Affairs, 87 (3): 44–56.
    Habermas, J. (1990) Moral consciousness and communicative action. Cambridge: Polity.
    Halstead, T. and C.Cobb (1996) ‘The need for new measurements of progress’, in Mander and Goldsmith (eds), pp. 197–206.
    Hamelink, C.J. (2004) ‘Did WSIS achieve anything at all?’Gazette, 66: 281–90.
    Hamilton, G.G. and N. WoolseyBiggart (1992) ‘Market, culture and authority: a comparative analysis of management and organization in the Far East’, in Granovetter and Swedberg (eds), pp. 181–223.
    Hampdon-Turner, C and F.Trompenaars (1993) Seven cultures of capitalism. New York: Doubleday.
    Hand, M. and B.Sandywell (2002) ‘E-topia as cosmopolis or citadel: on the democratizing and de-democratizing logics of the Internet’, Theory, Culture & Society, 19 (1–2): 197–225.
    Hanloe, M., C.G.Pickvance and J.Urry (eds) (1990) Place, policy and politics: do localities matter?London: Unwin Hyman.
    Hanlon, J. (1991) Mozambique: who calls the shots?London: James Currey.
    Harris, N. (1986) The end of the Third World. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Harrison, B. (1992) ‘Industrial districts: old wine in new bottles?’Regional Studies, 26 (5): 469–83.
    Harrison, L.E. and S. PHuntington (eds) (2000) Culture matters: how values shape human progress. New York: Basic Books.
    Harriss, J., J.Hunter and CM.Lewis (eds) (1995) The new institutional economics and Third World development. London: Routledge.
    Harrod, J. (1997) ‘Social forces and international political economy: joining the two IRs’, in Gill and Mittelman (eds), pp. 105–14.
    Harvey, D. (1989) The condition of postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Harvey, D. (1993) ‘From space to place and back again: reflections on the condition of post-modernity’, in J.Bird, B.Curtis, T.Putnam, G.Robertson and L.Tickner (eds), Mapping the futures: local cultures, global change. London, Routledge, pp. 3–29.
    Häusler, S. (1994) Alternative development’, in R.Braidotti et al., Women, the environment and sustainable development. London: Zed, pp. 107–22.
    Havel, V. (1985) ‘The power of the powerless’, in J.Keane (ed.), The power of the powerless: citizens against the state in Central-Eastern Europe. London: Hutchinson.
    Hearn, J. (1998) ‘The ‘NGO-isation’ of Kenyan society: USAID and the restructuring of health care’, Review of African Political Economy, 75: 89–100.
    HedleyR.A. (1999) ‘The information age: apartheid, cultural imperialism, or global village?’Social Science Computer Review, 17 (1): 78–87.
    Helleiner, GK. (1992) ‘Conventional foolishness and overall ignorance: current approaches to global transformation and development’, in C.K.Wilber and K.P.Jameson (eds), The political economy of development and underdevelopment,
    5th edn.
    New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 36–54.
    Henderson, H. (1991) Paradigms in progress. Indianopolis, IN: Knowledge Systems.
    Henderson, H. (1993) ‘Social innovation and citizen movements’, Futures, 25 (4): 322–38.
    Henderson, H. (1996a) Building a win-win world. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Henderson, H. (1996b) ‘Changing paradigms and indicators: implementing equitable, sustainable and participatory development’, in Griesgraber and Gunter (eds) (1996a), pp. 103–36.
    Henwood, D. (1993) ‘Global economic integration: the missing Middle East’, Middle East Report, 184.
    Hettne, B. (1990) Development theory and the three worlds. London: Longman (
    2nd edn 1995
    Hettne, B. (1992) ‘New trends in development theory’, The Hague, Institute of Social Studies, unpublished paper.
    Hettne, B. (2008a) ‘Development discourses in history’, in Hettne (ed.), pp. 6–30.
    Hettne, B. (ed.) (2008b) Sustainable development in a globalized world: studies in development, security and culture. Vol. 1. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Hewitt de Alcántara, C., (ed.) (1996) Social futures, global visions, special issue of Development and Change, 27 (2).
    Hill, M. and L. KwenFee (1995) The politics of nation building and citizenship in Singapore. London: Routledge.
    Hirschman, A.O. (1981) Essays in trespassing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hirst, P.Q. (1993) Associative democracy. Cambridge: Polity.
    Hirst, P.Q. and G.Thompson (1996) Globalization in question. Cambridge: Polity.
    Hirst, P.Q. and J.Zeitlin (1991) ‘Flexible specialisation versus post-Fordism: theory, evidence and policy implications’, Economy and Society, 20 (1): 1–56.
    Hirtz, F (1995) Managing insecurity: state socialpolicy and family networks in the rural Philippines. Saarbrücken: Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik.
    Hobart, M. (ed.) (1993) An anthropological critique of development: the growth of ignorance?London: Routledge.
    Hobsbawm, E.J. and T.Ranger (eds) (1983) The invention of tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hobson, J.M. (2004) The eastern origins of western civilisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hodgen, M.T. (1964) Early anthropology in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Holcombe, S. (1995) Managing to empower: the Grameen Bank's experience of poverty alleviation. London: Zed.
    Hollingsworth, JR. and R.Boyer (eds) (1997) Contemporary capitalism: the embeddedness of institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Holton, R.J. and B.S.Turner (1986) Talcott Parsons on economy and society. London: Routledge.
    Hoogvelt, A. (1997) Globalisation and the postcolonial world: the new political economy of development. London: Macmillan.
    Hountondji, P.J. (1991) African philosophy: myth and reality’, in T.Serequeberhan (ed.), African philosophy. New York: Paragon, pp. 111–31.
    Hoy, D.C. (1986) ‘Power, repression, progress: Foucault, Lukes, and the Frankfurt School’, in Hoy (ed.), Foucault: a critical reader. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 123–47.
    Hui, W. (2003) ‘The 1989 movement and the historical origins of neo-liberalism in China’, Asian Exchange: China Reflected, 18 (2) and 19 (1): 211–23.
    Huizer, G. (1993) ‘Development anthropology in global perspective’, Entwicklungsethnologie, 2 (1): 66–82.
    Huizer, G. and J.Lava (1989) Explorations in folk religion and healing. Manila: Asian Social Institute.
    Huntington, S. P (1976) ‘The change to change: modernization, development, and politics’, in C.E.Black (ed.), Comparative modernization. New York: Free Press.
    Huntington, S.P. (1996) The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Hurrell, A. and N.Woods (eds) (1999) Inequality, globalization, and world politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hutton, W. (1995) The state we're in. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Hutton, W. (2008) ‘Don't expect China to get the west out of this mess’, Observer, 26 October.
    Huxley, A. (1946) The perennial philosophy. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Hyder, S. (2005) ‘The information society: measurements biased by capitalism and its intent to control-dependent societies—a critical perspective’, International Information & Library Review, 37 (1): 25–7.
    Ibrahim, A. (1996) The Asian Renaissance. Singapore: Times Books.
    Ibrahim, S.E. (2008) ‘Civil society, faith-based organizations and development in the Arab world’, in Hettne (ed.), pp. 200–21.
    Inagaki, N. (2007) ‘Communicating the impact of communication for development: recent trends in empirical research’, World Bank Working Paper No. 120.
    Inter-American Development Bank (1995) Social dimensions in the agenda of the IDB. Copenhagen.
    International Institute for Communication and Development (2004) The ICT roundtable process. The Hague: IICD.
    Irwan, A. (1996) ‘Rent and ethnic Chinese regional business networks: Indonesia's puzzling high economic growth’, Kuala Lumpur, unpublished paper.
    Isaac, T.M., Th. M., TharakanP.K. (1995) ‘Kerala: towards a new agenda’, Economic and Political Weekly, 5–12 August: 1993–2004.
    Iwasaki, T., T.Mori and H.Yamaguchi (eds) (1992) Development strategies for the 21st century. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies.
    Jalibi, J. (1984) Pakistan: the identity of culture. Karachi: Royal Book Company.
    Jessop, B. (1994) ‘Post-Fordism and the state’, in A.Amin (1994a), pp. 251–79.
    Johnson, C. (1982) MITI and the Japanese miracle. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Johnston, D. (1991) ‘The deconstruction of development’, in C.Murphy (ed.), The new international political economy. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Jolly, R. (1986) Adjustment with a human face’, in K.Haq and U.Kidar (eds), Human development: the neglected dimension. Islamabad: North-South Roundtable, pp. 386–400.
    Jolly, R. (ed.) (1996) Revitalizing African development: an agenda for 21st century reform, special issue, Development, 2.
    Jomo, K.S. (ed.) (1995) Privatizing Malaysia: rents, rhetoric, realities. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Jones, R.F. (1961) Ancients and moderns. New York: Dover.
    Jonsson, I. (1999) ‘Development, learning processes and institutionalized racism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22 (1): 113–35.
    Judt, T. (1997) ‘The social question redivivus’, Foreign Affairs, 76 (5): 95–117.
    Junejo, A.J. and M.Q.Bughio (eds) (1988) Cultural heritage of Sind. Jamshoro and Hyderabad, Sindh: Sindhi Adabi Board.
    Just World Trust (1995) Dominance of the West over the rest. Penang: JUST.
    Kaarsholm, P. (ed.) (1991) Cultural struggle and development in Southern Africa. Harare, London and Portsmouth: Baobab, James Currey and Heinemann.
    Kabeer, N. (1994) Reversed realities: gender hierarchies in development thought. London: Verso.
    Kandiyoti, D. (1991) ‘Identity and its discontents: women and the nation’, Millennium, 20 (3): 429–44.
    Kang, YA. (1985) ‘Rationality and development in Korea’, in CA.van Peursen and M.C.Doeser (eds), Development and its rationalities. Amsterdam: Free University Press, pp. 75–90.
    KaplinskyR. (1994) Easternisation: the spread of Japanese management techniques to developing countries. London: Frank Cass.
    Kaplinsky, R. and D.Messner (2008) ‘Introduction: the impact of Asian drivers on the developing world’, World Development, 36 (2): 197–209.
    Kaviraj, S. (1992) ‘Marxism and the darkness of history’, in J. NederveenPieterse (ed.), Emancipations, modern and postmodern. London: Sage, pp. 79–102.
    Kay, C. (1993) ‘For a renewal of development studies: Latin American theories and neoliberalism in the era of structural adjustment’, Third World Quarterly, 14 (4): 691–702.
    Kay, C. (1998) Relevance of structuralist and dependency theories in the neoliberal period: a Latin American perspective. The Hague: Institute of Social Studies, Working Paper 281.
    Keesing, R.M. (1987) Anthropology as interpretive quest’, Current Anthropology, 28 (2): 161–76.
    Keohane, R.O. (1984) After hegemony. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    ‘The Kerala Model of Development: A Debate’, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 30 (3): 25–36.
    Khor, M. (1997) ‘Effects of globalisation on sustainable development after UNCED’, Third World Resurgence, 81–2: 5–11.
    KielyR. (1998) ‘Neo liberalism revised? A critical account of World Bank concepts of good governance and market friendly intervention’, Capital & Class, 64: 63–88.
    Kiely, R. (1999) ‘The last refuge of the noble savage? A critical account of post-development’, European Journal of Development Research, 11 (1): 30–55.
    Kishimoto, H. (1963) ‘Modernization versus westernization in the East’, Cahiers d'histoire mondiale, 7.
    Kissinger, H. (1970) ‘The white revolutionary: reflections on Bismarck’, in D.A.Rustow (ed.), Philosophers and kings: studies in leadership. New York: Braziller, pp. 317–53.
    Klauss, R. and D.C.Korten (1984) People-centered development: contributions toward theory and planning frameworks. West Hartford, CTKumarian Press.
    Konrád, G. (1984) Antipolitics. London: Quartet Books.
    Korten, D.C. (1990) Getting to the 21st century: voluntary action and the global agenda. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
    Korten, D.C. (1995) When corporations rule the world. London: Earthscan.
    Kothari, M.L. and L.A.Mehta (1988) ‘Violence in modern medicine’, in Nandy (ed.), pp. 167–210.
    Kothari, R. (1988) Rethinking development: in search of humane alternatives. Delhi: Ajanta.
    Kothari, R. (1993a) Poverty: human consciousness and the amnesia of development. London: Zed.
    Kothari, R. (1993b) ‘The yawning vacuum: a world without alternatives’, Alternatives, 18: 119–39.
    Kothari, S. (1994) ‘Global economic institutions and democracy: a view from India’, in Cavanagh et al. (eds), pp. 39–55.
    Kottak, C. P (1985) ‘Dimensions of culture in development’, in GC.Uhlenbeck (ed.), The cultural dimension of development. The Hague: Netherlands National Commission for UNESCO, pp. 38–48.
    Krishna, A. and J. NederveenPieterse (2008) ‘Hierarchical integration: the dollar economy and the rupee economy’, Development and Change, 39 (2): 219–37.
    Kuhn, T.S. (1962) The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kumar, A. (2009) ‘2008: a difficult year, relief not in sight soon’, The Tribune (New Delhi), 1 January.
    Kuttner, R. (1991) The end of laissez-faire: national purpose and the global economy after the cold war. New York: Alfred Knopf.
    Laclau, E. (1990) New reflections on the revolution of our time. London: Verso.
    Laclau, E. and C.Mouffe (1985) Hegemony and socialist strategy. London: Verso.
    Lal, D. (1983) The poverty of ‘development economics’. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
    Lal, D. (1995) ‘The misconceptions of “development economics”’, in Corbridge (ed.), pp. 56–63.
    Lal, D. (2004) In praise of empires: globalization and order. London: Palgrave.
    LaoTsu (1973) Tao te Ching, Trans. by Gia-fuFeng and J.English. London: Wildwood House.
    Lash, S. and J.Urry (1994) Economies of signs and space. London: Sage.
    Latouche, S. (1993) In the wake of the affluent society: an exploration of post-development. London: Zed (orig. French edn. 1991).
    Latour, B. (1993) We have never been modern. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Lawson, C. and E.Lorenz (1999) ‘Collective learning, tacit knowledge and regional innovative capacity’, Regional Studies, 33 (4): 305–17.
    Lee, M.E. (1997) ‘From Enlightenment to chaos: toward nonmodern social theory’, in Eve et al. (eds), pp. 15–29.
    Lee, R.L.M. (1994) ‘Modernization, postmodernism and the Third World’, Current Sociology, 42 (2).
    Leftwich, A. (ed.) (1996) Democracy and development. Cambridge: Polity.
    Leiken, R. (1996) ‘Controlling the global corruption epidemic’, Foreign Policy, 105: 55–73.
    Leipziger, D.M. and V.Thomas (1995) The lessons of East Asia: an overview of country experience. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Léon, O., S.Burch and E.Tamayo (2005) Communication in movement. Quito: Agencia Latino Americana de Información.
    Levi, M. (1996) ‘Social and unsocial capital: a review essay of Robert Putnam's Making Democracy Work’, Politics and Society, 24 (1): 45–54.
    Leys, C (1996) The rise and fall of development theory. London and Nairobi: James Currey and EAEP.
    LiLulu (1989) ‘Theoretical theses on “social modernization”’, International Sociology, 4 (4): 365–77.
    Lian, B. and JR.Oneal (1997) ‘Cultural diversity and economic development: a cross-national study of 98 countries, 1960–1985’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 46 (1): 61–77.
    Light, I. and S.Karageorgis (1994) ‘The ethnic economy’, in Smelser and Swedberg (eds), pp. 647–71.
    Lim, Y. (1995) ‘Industrial policy, technological learning and productivity gains theory and evidence from South Korea’, The Hague: Institute of Social Studies Industrialization Seminar.
    Lindblom, C. (1959) ‘The science of “muddling through”,’Public Administration Review, 19 (2).
    Lipietz, A. (1992) Towards a new economic order: postfordism, ecology and democracy. Cambridge: Polity.
    Lipietz, A. (1995) Green hopes: the future of political ecology. Cambridge: Polity.
    Lipton, M. (1977) Why poor people stay poor: a study of urban bias in world development. London: Maurice Temple Smith.
    Litonjua, M.D. (1994) ‘Outside the den of dragons: the Philippines and the NICs of Asia’, Studies in Comparative International Development, 28 (4): 3–30.
    Lively, J. (1981) ‘The Europe of the Enlightenment’, History of European Ideas, 1 (2).
    Long, N. (1994) ‘From paradigm lost to paradigm regained? The case for an actor-oriented sociology of development’, in Long and Long (eds), pp. 16–46.
    Long, N. and A.Long (eds) (1994) Battlefields of knowledge. London: Routledge.
    Long, N. and M.Villarreal (1993) ‘Exploring development interfaces: from the transfer of knowledge to the transformation of meaning’, in Schuurman (ed.), pp. 140–68.
    Lovink, G. (2005) The principle of notworking: concepts in critical Internet cultureAmsterdam: HvA.
    Lummis, D. (1991) ‘Development against democracy’, Alternatives, 16: 31–66.
    Lummis, D. (1994) ‘The end of development’, AMPO, 25 (3): 36–40.
    Luyt, B. (2004) ‘Who benefits from the digital divide?’First Monday, 9 (8),
    Lynch, M. (2000) Against reflexivity as an academic virtue and source of privileged knowledge’, Theory, Culture & Society, 17 (3): 26–54.
    MahathirMohamad and S.Ishihara (1995) The voice of Asia. Tokyo: Kodansha International.
    Mair, L. (1965) An introduction to social anthropology. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Mander, J. and E.Goldsmith (eds) (1996) The case against the global economy and for a turn toward the local. San Francisco: Sierra Club.
    Mann, M. (1986) The sources of social power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Maquet, J. (1972) Africanity: the cultural unity of Black Africa. London: Oxford University Press.
    Marcus, GE. and M.J.Fischer (1986) Anthropology as cultural critique. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Marglin, FA. and S.Marglin (eds) (1990) Dominating knowledge: development, culture and resistance. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Martin, K. (1991) ‘Modern development theory’, in idem (ed.), Strategies of economic development. London: Macmillan, pp. 27–74.
    Martinez-Alier, J. (2000) ‘Environmental justice as a force for sustainability’, in NederveenPieterse (ed.) (2000a), pp. 148–74.
    Martinussen, J. (1997) Society, state and market: a guide to competing theories of development. London: Zed.
    MasseyD. (1993) ‘Power-geometry and a progressive sense of place’, in J.Bird, B.Curtis, T.Putnam, G.Robertson and L.Tickner (eds), Mapping the futures: local cultures, global change. London: Routledge, pp. 59–69.
    Max-Neef, M.A. (1982) Experiences in barefoot economics. Stockholm: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation.
    Max-Neef, M.A. (1991) Human scale development. New York: Apex Press.
    Mazlish, B. and R.Buultjens (eds) (1993) Conceptualizing global history. Boulder, CO: Westview
    McCraw, Th. K. (2007) Prophet of innovation: Joseph Schumpeter and creative destruction. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
    McEvilleyT. (1995) ‘Here comes everybody’, Africus: Johannesburg BiennaleJohannesburg: Exhibition Catalogue, pp. 53–7.
    McHale, B. (1992) Constructing postmodernism. London: Routledge.
    McLaren, P. (1995) Critical pedagogy and predatory culture. New York: Routledge.
    McLaughlin, L. (2005) ‘Cisco Systems, the United Nations, and the corporatization of development’ (
    McMichael, P. (1996) Development and social change: a global perspectiveThousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Meadows, D.L. and D.H.Meadows et al. (1972) The limits to growth (report to the Club of Rome). New York: Universe Books
    Mehmet, O. (1995) Westernizing the Third World: the Eurocentricity of economic development theories. London: Routledge.
    Mehta, PD. (1989) Holistic consciousness. Longmead, Shaftesbury: Element Books.
    Mehta, U. (1997) ‘Liberal strategies of exclusion’, in F.Cooper and Ann L.Stoler (eds), Tensions of empire: colonial cultures in a bourgeois world. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 59–86.
    Melucci, A. (1988) ‘Social movements and the democratization of everyday life’, in J.Keane (ed.) Civil society and the state: new European perspectives. London: Verso.
    Melucci, A. (1989) Nomads of the present. Ed by J.Keane and P.Mier. London: Hutchinson Radius.
    Menou, M.J. (2001) ‘The global digital divide: beyond hICTeria’, Aslib Proceedings, 53 (4): 112–14.
    Meppem, T. and R.Gill (1998) ‘Planning for sustainability as a learning concept’, Ecological Economics, 26 (2): 121–38.
    Metcalf, T. (1998) Ideologies of the Raj. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Meurs, M. van (1997) J.C. Smuts: staatsman, holist, generaal. Amsterdam: Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut.
    Mhlaba, L. (1991) ‘Local cultures and development in Zimbabwe: the case of Matabeleland’, in Kaarsholm (ed.), pp. 209–26.
    Midgley, J. (1995) Social development: the developmental perspective in social welfare. London: Sage.
    Mies, M. (1986) Patriarchy and accumulation on a world scale: women in the international division of labour. London: Zed.
    Migdal, J.S. (1988) Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Miller, C.L. (1990) Theories of Africans: francophone literature and anthropology in Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Miller, D. (1997) Capitalism: an ethnographic approach. Oxford: Berg.
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1991) A world of differenceThe Hague: SDU.
    Minter, W. (1986) King Solomon's mines revisited. New York: Basic Books.
    Mishra, R. (1996) ‘The welfare of nations’, in Boyer and Drache (eds), pp. 316–33.
    Mitchell, T. (1988) Colonising Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mitchell, T. (2002) Rule of experts: Egypt, techno-politics, modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Mittelman, J.H. (ed.) (1996) Globalization: critical reflections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Riener.
    Mittelman, J.H. (2006) ‘Globalization and development: learning from debates in China’, Globalizations, 3 (3): 377–92.
    Mkandawire, T. (2004) ‘Introduction’, in Mkandawire (ed.), pp. 1–33.
    Mkandawire, T. (ed.) (2004) Social policy in a development context. London: Palgrave.
    Mohanty, M. (1989) ‘Changing terms of discourse. A poser’, Economic and Political Weekly, 16 September.
    Moll, P., N.Nattrass and L.Loots (eds) (1991) Redistribution: how can it work in South Africa?Cape Town: David Philip.
    Møller, K. and E.Rasmussen (eds) (1995) Partnership for new social development: UN World Summit for Social Development. Copenhagen: Mandag Morgen Strategisk Forum.
    Moore Jr, B. (1969) Social origins of dictatorship and democracy. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Moore, T. (1992) Care of the soul. London: Judy Piatkus.
    Moser, C. O.N. (1991) ‘Gender planning in the Third World: meeting practical and strategic needs’, in R.Grant and K.Newland (eds), Gender and international relations. Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 83–121.
    Mosley, P., J.Harrington and J.Toye (1991) Aid and power: the World Bank and policy-based lending. London: Routledge.
    Mouzelis, N. (1988) ‘Sociology of development: reflections on the present crisis’, Sociology, 22 (1): 23–44.
    Mulgan, G. (1994) Politics in an antipolitical age. Cambridge: Polity.
    Munck, R. and D.O'Hearn (eds) (1999) Critical development theory: contributions to a new paradigm. London: Zed.
    Murphy, C.N. (2006) The United Nations Development Programme: A better way?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Myrdal, G. (1968) Asian drama: an inquiry into the poverty of nations. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.
    Mytelka, L.K. (1993) ‘Rethinking development: a role for innovation networking in the “other two-thirds”’, Futures, 25 (6): 694–712.
    Naess, A. (1976) Ecology, community and lifestyle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1989).
    NandyA. (ed.) (1988) Science, hegemony and violence: a requiem for modernityNew Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Nandy, A. (1989) ‘Shamans, savages and the wilderness: on the audibility of dissent and the future of civilizations’, Alternatives, 14: 263–77.
    Nandy, A. (1995) The savage Freud. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Naqvi, N. (ed.) (1996) Rethinking security, rethinking development. Islamabad: Sustainable Development Policy Institute.
    Nayyar, D. (2006) ‘India's unfinished journey: transforming growth into development’, Modern Asian Studies, 40 (3): 797–832.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1989) Empire and emancipation: power and liberation on a world scale. New York: Praeger.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1992a) White on black: images of Africa and blacks in western popular culture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1992b) ‘Emancipations, modern and postmodern’, in idem (ed.), Emancipations, modern and postmodern. London: Sage, pp. 5–43.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1994) ‘Unpacking the west: how European is Europe?’ in A.Rattansi and S.Westwood (eds), Racism, modernity, identity. Cambridge: Polity, pp. 129–49.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1998a) ‘Humanitarian intervention and beyond’, in idem (ed.), World orders in the making: humanitarian intervention and beyond. London and New York: Macmillan and St Martin's Press, pp. 1–22.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1998b) ‘Hybrid modernities: mélange modernities in Asia’, Sociological Analysis, 1 (3): 75–86.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (ed.) (2000a) Global futures: shaping globalization. London: Zed.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2000b) ‘Collective action and globalization’, in H.Lustiger-Thaler, P.Hamel, J. NederveenPieterse and S.Roseneil (eds), Globalization and collective action. London and New York: Macmillan and St Martin's Press, pp. 21–40.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2003) Globalization and culture: global mélange. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield (
    2nd edn 2009
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2004) Globalization or empire?New York: Routledge.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2005a) ‘Digital capitalism and development: the unbearable lightness of ICT4D’, in G.Lovink and S.Zehle (eds), Incommunicado Reader. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Culture, pp. 11–29 (
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2005b) ‘Tough liberalism: the Human Development Report and cultural liberty’, Development and Change, 36 (6): 1267–73.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2006) ‘Oriental globalization: past and present’, in GDelanty (ed.), Europe and Asia beyond east and west: towards a new cosmopolitanism. London: Routledge, pp. 61–73.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2007) Ethnicities and global multiculture: pants for an octopus. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2008a) ‘Globalization the next round: sociological perspectives’, Futures, 40 (8): 707–20.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2008b) Is there hope for Uncle Sam? Beyond the American bubble. London: Zed.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2009a) ‘Introduction: New balance’, in Dasgupta and Nederveen Pieterse (eds).
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2009b) ‘Paradigm shifts in development’, in P.van Lieshout, M.Kremer and R.Went (eds), Doing good or doing better: development policies in a globalising world. Scientific Council for Government Policy, Amsterdam University Press.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2009c) ‘Media and global divides: representing the rise of the rest as threat’, Global Media and Communication (forthcoming).
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. and B.Parekh (eds) (1995) The decolonization of imagination. London: Zed.
    Nederveen Pieterse, J. and B.Rehbein (eds) (2009) Globalization and emerging societies: development and inequality. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Needham, J. (1981) ‘Attitudes toward time and change as compared with Europe’, in Science in traditional China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 107–32.
    Nerfin, M. (ed.) (1977) Another development: approaches and strategies. Uppsala: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation.
    Ngenda, A. (2005) ‘The nature of the international intellectual property system: universal norms and values or western chauvinism?’Information & Communications Technology Law, 14 (1): 59–79.
    Nietzsche, F.W. (1976) Twilight of the idols, in The portable Nietzsche, Trans. W.Kaufman. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Nieuwenhuijze, C. A.O. van (1983) Culture and development: the prospects of an afterthought. The Hague: Institute of Social Studies.
    Nisbet, R.A. (1969) Social change and history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Nisbet, R.A. (1980) History of the idea of progress. New York: Basic Books.
    Niva, S. (1999) Alternatives to neoliberalism’, Middle East Report, 29 (1): 16.
    Norberg-Hodge, H. (1995) ‘The development hoax’, in Just World Trust, pp. 110–23.
    Obaid, T. (2008) ‘Culture and human rights’, in B.Hettne (ed.), pp. 149–71.
    O'Connor, S. (1994) Universal mother. London: Ensign Records.
    Ohmae, K. (1992) The borderless world: power and strategy in the global marketplace. London: Collins.
    Ohmae, K. (1995) The end of the nation state: the rise of regional economies. New York: Free Press.
    Ohno, I. (1996) Beyond the ‘East Asian miracle’: an Asian view. New York: UNDP, Office of Development Studies.
    Okita, S. (1993) ‘Many paths to development’, in SouthCentre (ed.), pp. 272–81.
    Okun, A. (1975) Equality and efficiency: the big trade-off. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Olowu, B. (1988) African local governments as instruments of social development. The Hague, International Union of Local Authorities.
    Oman, C. (1993) ‘Globalization and regionalization in the 1980s and 1990s’, Development and International Cooperation, 9 (16): 51–69.
    Oman, C. (1994) Globalisation and regionalisation: the challenge for developing countries. Paris: OECD.
    Oman, P. and G.Wignaraja (1991) The postwar evolution of development thinking. London: Macmillan.
    Ong, A. (2006) Neoliberalism as exception: mutations in sovereignty and citizenship. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Oommen, T.K. (1998) ‘Changing paradigms of development: the evolving participatory society’, Journal of Social and Economic Development, 1: 35–45.
    Orr, D. (1996) ‘Slow knowledge’, Resurgence, 179: 30–2.
    Ottati, G. dei (1994) ‘Trust, interlinking transactions and credit in the industrial district’,
    Cambridge Journal of Economics, 18 (6): 529–46.
    Oxfam (1996) Development and social diversity. Oxford: Oxfam.
    PalleyT.I. (1999) ‘Toward a new international economic order’, Dissent, 46 (2): 48–53.
    Parayil, G. (2005) ‘The digital divide and increasing returns: contradictions of informational capitalism’, Information Society, 21: 41–51.
    Parekh, B. (1997) Gandhi. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Parekh, B. (2000) Rethinking multiculturalism. London: Macmillan.
    Park, D.H. (1985) ‘Paradigms of rationality’, in C.A.van Peursen and M.C.Doeser (eds), Development and its rationalities. Amsterdam: Free University Press, pp. 35–50.
    Parker, I. (ed.) (1998) Social constructionism, discourse and realism. London: Sage.
    Passmore, J. (1978) Science and its critics. London: Duckworth.
    Patomäki, H. and T.Teivanen (2004) A possible world: democratic transformation of global institutions. London: Zed.
    Patterson, R. (ed.) (2007) African brain circulation: beyond the drain-gain debate. Leiden: Brill.
    Peet, R. (1999) Theories of development. New York: Guilford.
    Peet, R. (with E.Hartwick) (1999) Theories of development. New York: Guilford Press.
    Peet, R. and M.J.Watts (eds) (1996) Liberation ecologies: environment, development, social movements. London: Routledge.
    Perkins, P.E. (1998) ‘The potential of community-based alternatives to globalization’, Development, 41 (3): 61–7.
    Perri, D., Leat, K. Seltzer and G.Stoker (2001) Holistic governanceLondon: Palgrave.
    Petras, J. (1990) ‘Retreat of the intellectuals’, Economic and Political Weekly, 25 (38): 2143–56.
    Petras, J. (2007) Rulers and ruled in the US empireAtlanta, GA: Clarity Press.
    Petras, J. and H.Brill (1985) ‘The tyranny of globalism’, Journal of Contemporary Asia, 15 (4): 403–20.
    Petras, J. and H.Veltmeyer (2002) Age of reverse aid: neo-liberalism as a catalyst of regression’, Development and Change, 33 (2): 281–94.
    Petrella, R. (1995) ‘Europe between competitive innovation and a new social contract’, International Social Science Journal, 47 (1 / 143): 11–23.
    Pitt, D.C. (ed.) (1976) Development from below: anthropologists and development situations. The Hague: Mouton.
    Pletsch, C.E. (1981) ‘The three worlds, or the division of social scientific labor, circa 1950–1975’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 23: 565–90.
    Polanyi, K. (1957/1944) The great transformation. Boston, MA: Beacon.
    Pompa, L. (1990) Vico: a study of the ‘New Science’,
    2nd edn.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Porter, D. (1996) ‘Scenes from childhood: the homesickness of development discourses’, in Crush (ed.), pp. 63–86.
    Portes, A. (1994) ‘The informal economy and its paradoxes’, in Smelser and Swedberg (eds), pp. 426–50.
    Portes, A. (1996) ‘Transnational communities: their emergence and significance in the contemporary world-system’, in R. PKorzeniewicz and W.C.Smith (eds), Latin America in the world economy. Westport, CTGreenwood Press, pp. 151–68.
    Portes, A. (2009) ‘Migration and development: reconciling opposite views’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32 (1): 5–22.
    Posey, D.A. (1994) ‘Traditional resource rights: de facto self determination for indigenous peoples’, in L.van der Vlist (ed.), Voices of the earth: indigenous peoples, new partners and the right to self-determination in practice. Amsterdam: Netherlands Centre for Indigenous Peoples, pp. 217–35.
    Pradervand, P. (1989) Listening to Africa: developing Africa from the grassroots. New York: Praeger.
    Pred, A. and M.J.Watts (1992) Reworking modernity: capitalisms and symbolic discontent. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Preston, PW. (1996) Development theory: an introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Prestowitz, C. (2005) Three billion new capitalists: the great shift of wealth and power to the east. New York: Basic Books.
    Priesner, S. (1999) ‘Gross National Happiness: Bhutan's vision of development and its challenges’. Thimphu, Bhutan,
    Prigogine, I. and I.Stengers (1984) Order out of chaos. New York: Bantam Books.
    Pronk, J. (1990) ‘Two worlds in one’, in Solidarity against poverty. Amsterdam: Evert Vermeer Foundation, pp. 29–42.
    Pronk, J. (2000) ‘Globalization: a developmental approach’, in NederveenPieterse (ed.) (2000a), pp. 40–52.
    Putnam, R.D. (1993) Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern ItalyPrinceton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    QuigleyC. (1966) Tragedy and hope: a history of the world in our time. New York: Macmillan.
    Rahman, M.A. (1993) People's self-development: perspectives on Participatory Action Research. London and Dhaka: Zed and Dhaka University Press.
    Rahnema, M. (1992) ‘Poverty’, in Sachs (ed.) (1992a), pp. 158–76.
    Rahnema, M. (1997) ‘Towards post-development: searching for signposts, a new language and new paradigm’, in Rahnema and Bawtree (eds), pp. 377–404.
    Rahnema, M. and V.Bawtree (eds) (1997) The post-development reader. London: Zed.
    Ramo, J.C. (2004) The Beijing consensus. London: Foreign Policy Centre.
    RapleyJ. (2004) Globalization and inequality: neoliberalism's downward spiral. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    Reich, R.B. (1983) The next American frontier. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Reifer, T.E. (ed.) (2004) Globalization, hegemony and powerBoulder, CO: Paradigm.
    Rew, A. (1997) ‘The donors’ discourse: official social development knowledge in the 1980s’, in Grillo and Stirrat (eds), pp. 81–106.
    Rist, G. (1990a) ‘Development as the new religion of the West’, Quid Pro Quo, 1 (2): 5–8.
    Rist, G. (1990b) ‘“Development” as part of the modern myth: the western socio-economic dimension of “development”’, European Journal of Development Alternatives, 2 (1): 10.
    Rist, G. (1997) The history of development: from western origins to global faith. London: Zed.
    Rist, G., M.Rahnema and G.Esteva (1992) Le Nord perdu: repères pour l'après-développement. Lausanne: Éditions d'en bas.
    Robertson, R. (1992) Globalization. London: Sage.
    Robertson, R. and F.Lechner (1985) ‘Modernization, globalization and the problem of culture in world-systems theory’, Theory, Culture & Society, 2(3): 103–17.
    Robin, J. (1992) Women and wellbeing: how Kerala became a model. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Robins, S. (2003) ‘Whose modernity? indigenous modernities and land claims after apartheid’, Development and Change, 34 (2): 265–86.
    Rodan, G (1989) The political economy of Singapore's industrialization. Kuala Lumpur: Forum.
    Rodrik, D. (2000) ‘How far will international economic integration go?’Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (1): 177–86.
    Rodrik, D. (2005) ‘Feasible globalizations’, in M.M.Weinstein (ed.), Globalization, what's new?New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 196–203.
    Rodrik, D. (2008) ‘Is there a new Washington consensus?’Business Standard, Mumbai, 12 June.
    Rodrik, D. and R.Hausman (2003) ‘Economic development as self discovery’, Journal of
    Development Economics, 72: 603–33.
    Roe, E. (1995) ‘Critical theory, sustainable development and populism’, Telos, 103: 149–62.
    Roe, E. (1998) Taking complexity seriously: policy analysis, triangulation and sustainable development. Boston: Kluwer.
    RogalyB. and C.Roche (1998) Learning from south-north links in microfinance. Oxford: Oxfam working paper.
    RortyR. (1991) Objectivity, relativism, and truth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    RortyR. (1997) Achieving our country: leftist thought in 20th century America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rosenau, P. (1992) Postmodernism and the social sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Rostow, WW (1960) The stages of economic growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rostow, WW (1971) Politics and the stages of growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Roszak, T. (1973) Where the wasteland ends. New York: Doubleday.
    Roszak, T. (1976) Unfinished animal. London: Faber and Faber.
    Rowe, W and V.Schelling (1991) Memory and modernity: popular culture in Latin America. London: Verso.
    Ryan, A. (1999) ‘Britain: recycling the Third Way’, Dissent, 46 (2): 77–80.
    Sabetti, F (1996) ‘Path dependency and civic culture: some lessons from Italy about interpreting social experiments’, Politics and Society, 24 (1).
    Sachs, I. (1972) ‘The logic of development’, International Social Science Journal, 24 (1) (reprinted 1998, 157: 361–5).
    Sachs, J. (2008) Common wealth: economics for a crowded planet. New York: Penguin.
    Sachs, W (ed.) (1992a) The development dictionary: a guide to knowledge as power. London: Zed.
    Sachs, W (1992b) ‘Introduction’, The development dictionary. London: Zed, pp. 1–5.
    Sachs, W (1999) Planet dialectics: explorations in environment and development. London: Zed.
    Sahlins, M.D. and E.R.Service (eds) (1960) Evolution and culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Said, E.W. (1981) Covering Islam. New York: Pantheon.
    Said, E.W. (1985) Orientalism. Harmondsworth: Penguin (orig. edn 1978).
    Said, E.W. (1986) ‘Foucault and the imagination of power’, in DC.Hoy (ed.), Foucault: a critical reader. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 149–56.
    Said, E.W. (1993) Culture and imperialism. New York: Alfred Knopf
    Salmen, L. (1987) Listen to the people: participant observation evaluation of development projects. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Salmond, A. (1982) ‘Theoretical landscapes: on cross-cultural conceptions of knowledge’, in D.Parkin (ed.), Semantic anthropology. London and New York: Academic Press.
    Sampson, A. (1987) Black and gold: tycoons, revolutionaries and Apartheid. New York: Pantheon.
    Santos, B. de Sousa (1995) Toward, a new common sense. London: Routledge.
    Sanyal, B. (1994) ‘Ideas and institutions: why the alternative development paradigm withered away’, Regional Development Dialogue, 15 (1): 23–35.
    Sato, T. and W.E.Smith (1996) ‘The new development paradigm: organizing for implementation’, in Griesgraber and Gunter (eds) (1996a), pp. 89–102.
    Schech, S. and J.Haggis (2000) Culture and development: a critical introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Schiller, D. (1999) Digital capitalism: networking the global market system. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Schiller, D. and V.Mosco (eds) (2001) Continental order? Integrating North America for cyber-capitalism. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Scholte, J.A. (1993) International relations of social change. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Scholte, J.A. (1998) The International Monetary Fund and civil society: an underdeveloped dialogue. The Hague, Institute of Social Studies, Working Paper 272.
    Schudson, M. (1994) ‘Culture and the integration of national societies’, Social Science Journal, 139: 63–82.
    SchumacherCollege (1997) Course programme 1997–1998, Dartington, Devon.
    Schuurman, F. (ed.) (1993) Beyond the impasse: new directions in development theory. London: Zed.
    Schuurman, F.J. (2000) ‘Paradigms lost, paradigms regained? Development studies in the twenty-first century’, Third World Quarterly, 21 (1): 7–20.
    Schutz, A. (1972) The phenomenology of the social world. London: Heinemann (orig. edn 1932).
    Schwartzman, K.C. (2004) ‘Globalization: the new mechanism of dependency’, in Reifer (ed.), pp 110–30.
    Schwenninger, S.R. (2009) ‘Redoing globalization’, The Nation, 12–19 January: 30–32.
    Scott, J.C. (1985) The weapons of the weak. New Haven, CTYale University Press.
    Scott, J.C. (1991) Domination and the arts of resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Scott, J.C. (1998) Seeing like a state: how certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Seabrook, J. (1994) Victims of development: resistance and alternatives. London: Verso.
    Seagrave, S. (1996) Lords of the Rim. London: Corgi Books.
    Seers, D. (1979) ‘The birth, life and death of development economics’, Development and Change, 10 (4): 707–19.
    Sen, A. (1985) Commodities and capabilities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sen, A. (1999) Development as freedom. New York: Anchor.
    Sen, A. and J.D.Wolfensohn (1999) ‘Let's respect both sides of the development coin’, International Herald Tribune, 5 May.
    Sen, G. (1997) ‘Globalization in the 21st century: challenges for civil society’, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.
    Senge, P.M. (1990) The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.
    Shack, W.A. and E.P.Skinner (eds) (1979) Strangers in African societies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Shade, L.R. (2003) ‘Here comes the Dot Force? The new cavalry for equity’Gazette, 65 (2): 107–20.
    SheffieldGroup (eds) (1989) The social economy and the democratic state. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Sheth, D.L. (1987) Alternative development as political practice’, Alternatives, 12 (2): 155–71.
    Shils, E. (1966) Political development in the new states. The Hague: Mouton.
    Shiva, V. (1988a) ‘Reductionist science as epistemological violence’, in Nandy (ed.), pp. 232–56.
    Shiva, V. (1988b) Staying alive: women, ecology and development. London: Zed.
    Shiva, V. (1991) ‘Problems with the Enlightenment’, in A.Dobson (ed.) The Green reader. London: Zed.
    Shweder, R.A. (1993) ‘“Why do men barbecue?” and other postmodern ironies of growing up in the decade of ethnicity’, Daedalus, Winter: 279–308.
    Siaroff, A. (1999) ‘Premature democracies, the promotion of development and political-cultural factors’, Third World Quarterly, 20 (2): 405–19.
    Sims, M. (2002) ‘A digital dividend?’Intermedia, 30 (1): 28–30.
    Singer, H.W. (1989) ‘When pursuit of surplus ends’, India International Centre Quarterly, Spring.
    Singer, H.W. (1996) ‘How relevant is Keynesianism today for understanding problems of development?’ Paper presented at EADI conference, Vienna.
    Singer, H.W. and R.Jolly (eds) (1995) ‘Fifty years on: the UN and economic and social development’, IDS Bulletin, 26 (4).
    Singh, J. (2002) ‘From atoms to bits: consequences of the emerging digital divide in India’, International Information & Library Review, 34 (2): 187–200.
    Singh, Y. (1989) Essays on modernization in India. New Delhi: Manohar.
    Sirkin, H.L., J.W.Hemerling, A.K.Bhattacharya (2008) Globality: competing with everyone from everywhere for everything. New York: Business Plus.
    Siu, R. G.H. (1957) The Tao of science: an essay on Western knowledge and Eastern wisdom. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Skocpol, T. (1979) States and social revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Skocpol, T. (ed.) (1984) Vision and method in historical sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Skolimowski, H. (1994) The participatory mind. London: Penguin/Arkana.
    Slater, D. (1992) ‘Theories of development and politics of the post-modern — exploring a border zone’, in J. NederveenPieterse (ed.), Emancipations, modern and postmodern. London: Sage, pp. 283–319.
    Slater, D. (1995) ‘Challenging western visions of the global’, European Journal of Development Research, 7 (2): 366–88.
    Slater, D. (2004) Geopolitics and the post-colonial: rethinking north-south relations. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Slater, D. and M.Bell (2002) Aid and the geopolitics of the post-colonial: critical reflections on New Labour's overseas development strategy’, Development and Change, 33 (2): 335–60.
    Smelser, N.J. and R.Swedberg (eds) (1994) The handbook of economic sociology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Smiers, J. (2000) ‘The abolition of copyright: better for artists, Third World countries and the public domain’, Gazette, 62 (5): 379–406.
    Smillie, I. (1997) ‘Let them eat paradigms: public attitudes and the long, slow decline of development cooperation’, Development, 40 (4): 59–65.
    Smith, R. (1993) ‘The Chinese road to capitalism’, New Left Review, 199: 55–99.
    So, A.Y. (1990) Social change and development. London: Sage.
    Sobhan, R. (1989) ‘The state and development of capitalism: the Third World perspective’, in K.Bharadwaj and S.Kaviraj (eds), Perspectives on capitalism. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 247–58.
    Sogge, D (ed.) (1996) Compassion and calculation: the business of private foreign aid. London: Pluto.
    Somjee, A.H. (1991) Development theory. London: Macmillan.
    Sorj, B. (2003) Confronting inequality in the information society. Sao Paolo: UNESCO Brazil (
    Soros, G. (1997) ‘The capitalist threat’, Atlantic Monthly, February.
    Soros, G. (1998) The crisis of global capitalism. New York: Public Affairs.
    Soros, G (2008) The new paradigm for financial markets: the credit crisis of 2008 and what it means. New York: Public Affairs.
    Soto, H. de (1989) The other path: the invisible revolution in the Third World. New York: Harper and Row.
    SouthCentre (ed.) (1993) Facing the challenge: responses to the Report of the South Commission. London: Zed.
    Stallings, B. (ed.) (1995) Global change, regional response: the new international context of development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Stansbury, M. (2003) Access, skills, economic opportunities, and democratic participation: connecting four facets of the digital divide through research’, Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 27 (3): 142–3.
    Stavenhagen, R. (1986) ‘Ethnodevelopment: a neglected dimension in development thinking’, in R.Apthorpe and A.Kráhl (eds), Development studies: critique and renewal. Leiden: Brill.
    Stavrianos, L.S. (1981) Global rift: the Third World comes of age. New York: Morrow.
    Stent, G.S. (1978) Paradoxes of progress. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
    Sternberg, E. (1993) ‘Transformations: the eight new ages of capitalism’, Futures, 25 (10): 1019–40.
    Stewart, F (1996) ‘Groups for good or ill’, Oxford Development Studies, 24 (1): 9–25.
    Stewart, F., S.Lall and S.Wangwe (1993) Alternative development strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Stiefel, M. and M.Wolfe (1994) A voice for the excluded: popular participation in development. London and Geneva: Zed and UNRISD.
    Stiglitz, J. (1998) ‘More instruments and broader goals: moving toward the post-Washington Consensus’, Helsinki, WIDER annual lecture 2.
    Stiglitz, J.E. (2002) Globalization and its discontents. New York: Norton.
    Stiglitz, J.E. (2006) Making globalization work. New York: Norton.
    Stocking, G.W. (1987) Victorian anthropology. New York: Free Press.
    Strange, S. (1996) The retreat of the state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Strange, S. (1996) The Retreat of the State: the diffusion of power in the world economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Subrahmanyam, K. (1998) ‘Nuclear India in global politics’, World Affairs, 2 (3): 12–40.
    Sundaram, K.V. (1994) ‘Development from within: a rethinking on an alternative development path’, Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development, 4 (1 & 2): 52–67.
    Sugar, D. (2005) ‘The free software challenge in Latin America’, http://Countercurrents.org
    Sunkel, O. (2008) ‘The precarious sustainability of democracy in Latin America’, in Hettne (ed.), pp. 43–69.
    Swaan, A. de (ed.) (1994) Social policy beyond borders. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    Taussig, M. (1980) The devil and commodity fetishism in South America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Taylor, C. (1989) Sources of the self. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Taylor, L. and U.Pieper (1996) ‘Reconciling economic reform and sustainable human development: social consequences of neo-liberalism’, New York: UNDP, Office of Development Studies (discussion paper).
    Teilhard de Chardin, P. (1955) Le phénomène humain. Paris: du Seuil.
    Temple, J. and P.Johnson (1996) ‘Social capability and economic development’, unpublished paper.
    Tenkasi, R.V. and SA.Mohrman (1999) ‘Global change as contextual collaborative knowledge creation’, in Cooperrider and Dutton (eds), pp. 114–36.
    Terhal, P. (1987) World inequality and evolutionary convergence. Delft: Eburon.
    Tharamangalam, J. (1998) ‘The perils of social development without economic growth: the development debacle of Kerala, India’, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 30 (1): 23–34.
    Therborn, G. (1995) European modernity and beyond: the trajectory of European societies 1945–2000. London: Sage.
    Thérien, J. -P. (1999) ‘Beyond the north-south divide: two tales of world poverty’, Third World Quarterly, 20 (4): 723–42.
    Thomas, C. and P.Wilkin (eds) (1997) Globalization and the South. London: Macmillan.
    Thompson, M. (2004) ‘Discourse, “development” and the “digital divide”: ICT and the World Bank’, Review of African Political Economy, 31 (99): 103–23.
    Thornton, R.J. (1988) ‘The rhetoric of ethnographic holism’, Cultural Anthropology, 3 (3): 285–303.
    Thornton, W.H. and S.H.Thornton (2006) ‘The price of alignment: India in the new Asian drama’, Journal of Developing Societies, 22 (4): 401–20.
    Thrift, N. and A.Amin (1995) Holding down the global. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Tilly, C. (1984) Big structures, large processes, huge comparisons. New York: Russell Sage.
    Tipps, D.C. (1973) ‘Modernization theory and the comparative study of societies: a critical perspective’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 15: 199–226.
    Tiryakian, E.A. (1991) ‘Modernization: exhumetur in pace (Rethinking macrosociology in the 1990s)’, International Sociology, 6 (2): 165–80.
    Tiryakian, E.A. (1992) ‘Pathways to metatheory: rethinking the presuppositions of macrosociology’, in G.Ritzer (ed.), Metatheorizing. London: Sage, pp. 69–87.
    Tiryakian, E.A. (1996) ‘Three cultures of modernity: Christian, Gnostic, Chthonic’, Theory, Culture & Society, 13 (1): 99–118.
    Todd, S. (1997) Actualizing personal and collective health: questioning how development policy meets innate human needs’, MA research paper, The Hague: Institute of Social Studies.
    Tomlinson, J. (1991) Cultural imperialism. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Toulmin, S. (1990) Cosmopolis: the hidden agenda of modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Townsend, P. (2004) ‘From universalism to safety nets: the rise and fall of Keynesian influence on social development’, in Mkandawire (ed.), pp. 37–62.
    Toye, J. (1987) Dilemmas of development: reflections on the counterrevolution in development theory and policy. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Trainer, T. (1989) Developed to death: rethinking third world, development. London: Green Print.
    Truong, T. -D. (1999) ‘The underbelly of the tiger: gender and the demystification of the Asian miracle’, Review of International Political Economy, 6 (2): 133–65.
    Tsing, A. (2004) ‘Inside the economy of appearances’, in Amin and Thrift (eds), pp. 83–100.
    Tucker, V. (1996a) ‘Critical holism: towards a new health model’, Cork: University College.
    Tucker, V. (ed.) (1996b) Cultural perspectives on development. London: Frank Cass.
    Tucker, V. (1996c) ‘Health, medicine and development: a field of cultural struggle’, in Tucker (ed.), pp. 110–28.
    Tucker, V. (1997) ‘From biomedicine to holistic health: towards a new health model’, in A.Cleary and M. PTreacy (eds), The sociology of health and illness in Ireland. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, pp. 30–50.
    Tucker, V. (1999) ‘The myth of development: a critique of Eurocentric discourse’, in Munck and O'Hearn (eds), pp. 1–26.
    Tvedt, T. (1998) Angels of mercy or development diplomats? NGOs and foreign aid. Oxford and Trenton, NJ: James Currey and Africa World Press.
    ul Haq, M. (1995) Reflections on human development. New York: Oxford University Press.
    ul Haq, M. and K.Haq (1998) Human development in South Asia: the education challenge. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
    ul Haq, M., I.Kaul and I.Grunberg (1996) The Tobin tax: coping with financial volatility. New York: Oxford University Press.
    UNDP (1996) (1997) (1998) Human development report. New York: Oxford University Press.
    UNDP (2004) Human Development Report 2004: Cultural liberty in today's diverse world., New York.
    UNRISD (1995) After the Social Summit: implementing the programme of action. Geneva: UN Research Institute for Social Development.
    Vail, L. (ed.) (1989) The creation of tribalism in Southern Africa. London: James Currey.
    Vattimo, G (1988) The end of modernity. Cambridge: Polity.
    Verhelst, T.G. (1990) No life without roots: culture and development. London: Zed.
    Verzola, R. (2004) Towards a political economy of information: studies on the information economy,
    2nd edn.
    Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies.
    Visvanathan, S. (1988) ‘On the annals of the laboratory state’, in Nandy (ed.).
    Vries, J. de (1963) Etymologisch woordenboek. Utrecht: Spectrum.
    Wade, R. (1990) Governing the market: economic theory and the role of government intervention in East Asian industrialization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Wade, R. (1996) ‘Japan, the World Bank and the art of paradigm maintenance: the East Asian Miracle in political perspective’, New Left Review, 217: 3–36.
    Wade, R.H. (2002) ‘Bridging the digital divide: new route to development or new form of dependency?’Global Governance, 8: 443–66.
    Wade, R. and F.Veneroso (1998) ‘The Asian crisis: the high debt model versus the Wall Street-Treasury-IMF Complex’, New Left Review, 228: 3–24.
    Waldinger, R. et al. (1990) Ethnic entrepreneurs: immigrant business in industrial societies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Wallace, M. (1992) ‘Negative images: towards a black feminist cultural criticism’, in L.Grossberg, C.Nelson and P.Treichler (eds), Cultural studies. London: Routledge, pp. 654–71.
    Wallerstein, I. (1979) The politics of the world economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Wallman, S. (ed.) (1977) Perceptions of development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Warde, I. (1998) ‘Crony capitalism in the West: the banking system in turmoil’, Le Monde diplomatique, November.
    Warschauer, M. (2003) ‘Dissecting the “digital divide”: a case study in Egypt’, The Information Society, 19 (4): 297–304.
    Waters, M. (1995) Globalization. London: Routledge.
    Watts, M. (2006) ‘Culture, development and global neo-liberalism’, in S.Radcliffe (ed.), Culture and development in a globalising world. London: Routledge, pp. 30–57.
    Weber, R. (1982) ‘The Tao of Physics revisited: a conversation with Fritjof Capra’, in Wilber (ed.), pp. 215–48.
    Weber, S. (2004) The success of open source. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Webster, A. (1984) Introduction to the sociology of development. London: Macmillan.
    Weerasinghe, S. (2004) ‘Revolution within the revolution: the Sri Lankan attempt to bridge the digital divide through e-governance’, International Information & Library Review, 36 (4): 319–32.
    Wei-Ming, T. (1979) Humanity and self-cultivation: essays in Confucian thought. Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press.
    Weiss, L. (1996) ‘Sources of the East Asian advantage: an institutional analysis’, in R.Robinson (ed.), Pathways to Asia: the politics of engagement. St Leonard's: Allen and Unwin, pp. 171–201.
    Wertheim, W.F. (1974) Evolution and revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    White, G. (ed.) (1988) Developmental states in East Asia. London: Macmillan.
    Whitmyer, C. (ed.) (1995) Mindfulness and meaningful work: explorations in right livelihood. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press.
    Wicks, D.A. (2003) ‘Building bridges for seniors: older adults and the digital divide’, Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science;27 (3): 146–57.
    Wignaraja, P. (1992) ‘People's participation: reconciling growth with equity’, in P.Ekins and M.Max-Neef (eds), Real-life economics: understanding wealth creation. London: Routledge, pp. 392–401.
    Wignaraja, P. (ed.) (1993) New social movements in the south: empowering the people. London: Zed.
    Wignaraja, P. (2008) ‘Towards a new school of thought on development in South Asia’, in Hettne (ed.), pp. 70–93.
    Wilber, K. (ed.) (1982) The holographic paradigm and other paradoxes. Boulder, CO: Shambala.
    Wilber, K. (1982) ‘Physics, mysticism and the new holographic paradigm: a critical appraisal’, in idem (ed.), pp. 157–86.
    Willenswaard, H. van (2008) A new development paradigm inspired by Gross National Happiness? A contribution to the Global GDP Debate’. Paper for GNH Movement workshop, August, Bangkok, Chulalongkorn University.
    Willett, C. (1998) ‘Introduction’, in idem (ed.), Theorizing multiculturalism. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Williams, R. (1976) Keywords. Glasgow: Fontana/Croom Helm.
    Wolfe, M. (1981) Elusive development. Geneva: UNRISD/UNECLA.
    Wolferen, K. van (1990) The enigma of Japanese power,
    2nd edn.
    London: Macmillan.
    Wong, P. -K. (2002) ‘ICT production and diffusion in Asia: digital dividends or digital divide?’Information Economics and Policy, 14 (2): 167–87.
    Wood, B. (1984) E.F. Schumacher: his life and thought. New York: Harper and Row.
    Woost, M. (1997) Alternative vocabularies of development? “Community” and “participation” in development discourse in Sri Lanka’, in Grillo and Stirrat (eds), pp. 229–54.
    World Bank (1995) Advancing social development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    WorldBank (1996) The World Bank participation sourcebook. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    WorldBank (1997) The state in a changing world: World Development Report 1997. New York: Oxford University Press.
    WorldBank (1998) Knowledge for development: World Development Report 1998/99. New York: Oxford University Press.
    World Bank Report, Africa development indicators 2007. Washington DC: World Bank.
    World Commission on Culture and Development (1996) Our creative diversity (report). Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our common future (report). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    WorsleyP. (1984) The three worlds. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    Wuyts, M., M.Mackintosh and T.Hewitt (eds) (1992) Development policy and public action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Xin, C. (2003) ‘New development of consumerism in Chinese society in the late 1990s’, Asian Exchange: China Reflected, 18 (2) and 19 (1): 162–75.
    Ya'u, Y.Z. (2004) ‘The new imperialism and Africa in the global electronic village’, Review of African Political Economy, 31 (99): 11–29.
    Yoshihara, K. (1988) The rise of ersatz capitalism in South-East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
    Young, I.M. (1991) Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Young, J. (1999) The exclusive society: social exclusion, crime and difference in late modernity. London: Sage.
    Yurick, S. (1985) Behold Metatron the recording angel. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Zachariah, M. and R.Sooryamoorthy (1994) Science for social revolution? Achievements and dilemmas of a development movement: the case of Kerala. London: Zed.
    Zysman, J. and S.Cohen (1987) Manufacturing matters: the myth of the post-industrial economy. New York: Basic Books.

    • Loading...
Back to Top