Development Field Work: A Practical Guide

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Edited by: Regina Scheyvens

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    Acknowledgements

    This book is dedicated to the diverse group of people who seek to conduct development research in order to address inequalities or contribute to ‘good change’ around the world.

    List of Boxes

    Notes on Contributors

    Glenn Banks is a development geographer who has worked on issues connected to the Papua New Guinea mining industry since the late 1980s. He is a graduate of the University of Canterbury (BScHons, MSc) and Australian National University (PhD), and is currently Associate Professor in Development Studies at Massey University. His work is concerned with issues of sustainable development, resource conflicts, impact assessment and the global wine industry. Theoretically he seeks to foreground community perspectives, agency, politics and practices in development. In his occasional spare time he rides a bike, travels a bit, shares a wine with his wife, and reads a book, until his two daughters want to play or need a lift somewhere.

    Maria Borovnik is a lecturer in the School of People, Environment and Planning at Massey University, New Zealand. Her research is at the intersection of development, social geography and mobilities. She has mainly focused on social strategies and experiences of seafarers and their families from Kiribati and Tuvalu. More recent research engages with development of Pacific youth. Fieldwork practices include participatory and mobile methods, such as conducting interactive focus groups with Kiribati youth, or spending a month with a group of multinational seafarers on a containership. She has published in Asia Pacific Viewpoint, the Asian Pacific Migration Journal and Sites.

    Julie Cupples lectures in Human Geography at the University of Edinburgh. She has been engaged in development fieldwork, primarily in Nicaragua, since the 1990s and has published on gender and development, disasters, municipal governance, environmental risk, elections and indigenous media. Her work has appeared in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Antipode, Latin American Perspectives and Television and New Media. She is the author of Latin American Development, published by Routledge in 2013.

    Sara Kindon is a social geographer at Victoria University of Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand. Since 2005, she has been working with postgraduate students and refugee-background young people to carry out participatory and visual research into resettlement experiences to inform better service provision and youth wellbeing. She also publishes on participatory video for research from her work with members of Te Iwi o Ngaati Hauiti in the central north island. Sara teaches in Geography and Development Studies and supervises postgraduate students researching in Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

    Helen Leslie is a diplomat at the New Zealand High Commission in Suva. She manages NZ's Regional Development Programmes including engagement with Pacific Regional Agencies and United Nations Organisations working in the Pacific. Since her first contribution to the development fieldwork book, Helen has lived and worked in various parts of the Pacific and has been able to continue her interest in research/fieldwork that makes a positive contribution to the lives of people.

    Andrew McGregor graduated from the University of Sydney in 2000 before taking up a Project Officer role with UNICEF Australia where he was responsible for projects in Myanmar, South Sudan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Indonesia. Since 2002 he has been teaching and researching human geography and development studies at the University of Otago, Victoria University of Wellington and in his current role at Macquarie University. He is author of Southeast Asian Development (2008: Routledge) and is Editor-in-Chief of Asia Pacific Viewpoint. Andrew's research interests focus on foreign aid, political ecology and post-development theory in Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Myanmar. He's also the proud father of a brand new little fella called Finley.

    Sharon McLennan is a post-doctoral fellow and lecturer in Development Studies at Massey University. Working with a team of researchers, her post-doctoral research investigates corporate community development initiatives in the Pacific. This is somewhat of a change from her PhD research, completed in 2012, which looked at the networking of small, volunteer organisations in Honduras. Fieldwork for this research involved online methods as well as more traditional qualitative fieldwork in the often chaotic environment of post-coup Honduras. Linking her PhD and post-PhD research together is an interest in new actors in development, and in contemporary development processes and globalisation.

    Litea Meo-Sewabu is lectures in the College of Health at Massey University, and was recently appointed as the Coordinator of the university's new Pacific Research and Policy Centre. Litea is towards the end of her PhD. Her research looks at the lay understanding of health and wellbeing amongst indigenous Fijian women in Fiji and New Zealand. Her research interests include the praxis of ethics processes within indigenous populations, community development in Pacific communities and notions of empowerment within Indigenous population groups.

    Warwick Murray is Professor of Human Geography and Development Studies at Victoria University of Wellington. Warwick's research delves into the fields of development and economic geography, focusing especially on Chile and Latin America, as well as the Pacific Islands. His guitar, banjo or ukulele tend to accompany him on field research trips. He is the author of the textbook Geographies of Globalization, and from 2002 to 2010, he was the main editor of Asia Pacific Viewpoint. In addition to his penchant for keeping a tidy office, he is also known for singing and playing original songs in class about academic material, allegedly including, “I can't believe it's not on Wikipedia”.

    Barbara Nowak is an anthropologist who has done extensive research among Hma' Btsisi' in Malaysia since 1980. She was trained at the State University of New York at Buffalo, and later became a lecturer at Grinnell College, USA and at Massey University, New Zealand. She was also based at National University of Singapore for two years, working as a Senior Research Fellow in the Asia Research Institute. As a consequence of her research with Btsisi', she has became involved in a cross-national study examining the local socioeconomic and environmental impact of the oil palm industry, at both the small holder as well as multi-national producer level. Research on this topic has taken her to Southeast Asia and Central America.

    John Overton is a geographer who teaches Development Studies at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand. Over the years he has conducted research in Kenya, the Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia and Latin America. His main research interests have been in the area of rural change, specifically aspects such as land tenure, agricultural change and rural development projects. More recently, he has engaged in a major project of aid and sovereignty in the Pacific Islands and he has also maintained an interest in the global wine industry and the issue of geographical indications in commodity chains.

    Gerard Prinsen currently works as a lecturer at Massey University, New Zealand, after an earlier career in development work in several African countries; often as a manager, sometimes as a trainer or evaluator, and mostly around education and health services. His on-going research and consultancy work concentrates on the sovereignty of sub-national or small polities in Africa and the Pacific, and he explores the upscaling and quantification of participatory methods for policy-making and research.

    Henry Scheyvens currently serves as the Area Leader of the Natural Resources and Ecosystems Services Area at the Japan-based Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. His research covers a broad range of sustainable development issues, from the role of micro-finance in building climate change resilience to incentive mechanisms for combating illegal logging. Poverty and rights are key themes that run through all his work. These days, on the weekends you will find him living on the edge, either searching for big sea waves in his kayak or cycling the fast and furious roads of Japan, though sometimes he has a still moment meditating at a temple near Tokyo.

    Regina Scheyvens heads Development Studies at Massey University. Here she combines a passion for teaching about international development with research on tourism and development. Two books have emerged from this research, Tourism for Development: Empowering Communities (Pearson, 2002), and Tourism and Poverty (Routledge, 2011), along with articles on themes such as backpacker tourism, ecotourism, and sustainable tourism. She has conducted qualitative field research in a number of countries in southern Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. While family life now keeps her feet firmly planted in New Zealand soil most of the time, she takes great pleasure in sending her Master's and PhD students off to embark on their own research journeys.

    Rochelle Stewart-Withers is an academic with the Institute of Development Studies at Massey University, New Zealand. She originally comes from a healthcare background. Rochelle maintains a passion for research and fieldwork by teaching a postgraduate methodology course, supervising Masters and Doctoral students, and by getting out into the field. Most of Rochelle's research is Pacific-based and her current focus is to investigate the ways that sport can be utilised to address social and economic development goals, and related complexities. On a personal note, she enjoys the distractions of her five favourite children: Indiya, Finn, Samara, Cassius and India.

    Donovan Storey is currently Chief of the Sustainable Urban Development Section, Environment and Development Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). Prior to joining the United Nations he was a researcher and academic at several universities specializing in development studies, social development, environmental management and urban planning/governance. His career has been inspired by PhD research in Development Studies which involved living with Filipino families in urban poor communities in Metro Manila, with whom he still keeps contact. He has authored or co-authored over 30 journal articles, book chapters and books on his areas of specialization.

    Peter van Diermen is currently Chief Technical Adviser for Indonesia's National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Reduction which is attached to the Office of the Vice President of Indonesia. Previously he worked as an academic in several New Zealand and Australian Universities and has worked in the Asia and the Pacific region for ADB, the World Bank Group and others. His publications have focused on economic development in South East Asia. He also served as AusAID's Senior Economic Adviser and was managing director for a small international development consulting company specialising in economic research, program and project design and M&E.

    Preface and Acknowledgements

    In 2002 I had the pleasure of working on the first edition of Development Fieldwork with Donovan Storey, who was at that time my colleague at Massey University. Many of our friends and acquaintances contributed to chapters in that book. Fast forward 10 years and Donovan had moved on from academia and was residing in Bangkok thanks to a position with UN-ESCAP. While we were both delighted when Sage approached us to edit a second edition of Development Fieldwork, Donovan acknowledged that he didn't have the time to do this justice so he reluctantly withdrew from the project. His name, however, remains on two chapters to which he made significant contributions in the first edition.

    In essence, the book is structured in the same manner as the first edition – the sections are Methodology, Preparation for the Field, In the Field, and Leaving the Field – with the addition of one new chapter on ‘Something old, something new: research using archives, texts and virtual data’ (Chapter 5). Those familiar with the first edition will recognise many of the contributing authors as almost all of them were keen to update their work for this edition. You might also notice a few new authors, including those who have completely rewritten Chapter 4 on ‘Qualitative research’, and others who have contributed to changes in Chapters 1, 6, 7 and 9.

    Updating of this book was a really enjoyable experience due to two main factors: first, the fantastic job that Sharon McLennan did in providing chapter authors with up-to-date references which were relevant to specific sections of the book; and second, the great material we were working with on intrinsically fascinating topics such as ethics, avoiding danger, reciprocity, negotiating with gatekeepers, and developing mutually beneficial research relationships. Thank you to all the authors, including postgraduate students, whose work is cited in this book or which is the focus of one of the text-box examples.

    I would like to take this opportunity to thank a range of other people without whom this book would not have come to fruition. Before Sage's approach, John Overton and Warwick Murray from Victoria University urged me to consider updating the first edition as they were still finding Development Fieldwork to be of immense value for their postgraduate Development Studies students. They then joined me and Glenn Banks for a workshop at the Paekakariki Institute of Social Sciences where we spent an enjoyable day brainstorming what changes and additions were needed in the second edition. We finished the day by sharing pizza and wine: all good development research is, after all, based on cultivating good relationships! Thanks guys for your good company and humour as well as your insights. Our discussions that day were guided by reviews of the first edition and recent field research experiences of our students. We also reflected on the ways in which new development challenges had emerged in the past decade, and how technologies were changing the ways in which people were doing development research as well as analysing and communicating their results. Readers will thus see much more on issues such as social media, digital data and the ethics of online research in this edition. The usual caveat applies: technologies are constantly evolving and thus some of our discussions of these technologies may soon be out of date.

    I would also like to thank all of the chapter authors for the care and time they put into their writing: the second edition has really been enriched by your efforts, and it has been a pleasure working with you. Massey University supported this book directly by providing a MURF award which funded Sharon to assist me with searching out new material, as noted above, as well as proofreading and formatting: thanks so much Sharon for your professionalism and willingness to work some long hours in the final stages! On the same note, Natalie Aguilera from Sage was very supportive during those rather stressful last weeks in which the book was brought together.

    Finally, thanks so much to my lovely family – you are at the heart of everything I do. Craig, your faith in my work is much appreciated. Harry, Jessie and Sophie – as you get a little older I hope you might be inspired to learn more about our diverse world and its peoples from reading some of the works herein.

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