Development Failure and Identity Politics in Uttar Pradesh


Edited by: Roger Jeffery, Craig Jeffrey & Jens Lerche

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
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    List of Tables

    • 2.1 Population and Households by Caste 23
    • 2.2 Occupations of Two Generations of Yadav Men 27
    • 2.3 Occupations of Two Generations of Nai Men 32
    • 2.4 Occupations of Two Generations of Fakir Men 35
    • 2.5 Occupations of Two Generations of Valmiki Men 37
    • 4.1 Comparative U5MR of SCs and Upper Castes, UP and India, 1978–1979 to 1982–1983 and 1984–1985 to 1988–1989 (Decline in Number/Per Cent) 82
    • 4.2 U5MR of UP SCs vis-à-vis SCs in India/Selected States over NFHS Surveys 84
    • 6.1 Attitudes towards Mathura Mosque, Mathura 1999 136
    • 6.2 Percentage Distribution of Occupations in Mathura, 1999 143
    • 6.3 Percentage Distribution of Occupations in Mathura, 2009 143
    • 6.4 Community Relations in 1999 (Per Cent Saying Relations Have Become More Harmonious) 149
    • 6.5 Community Relations in 2009 (Per Cent Saying They Trust a Lot) 150
    • 6.6 Out-group Closure in 1999 (Per Cent Saying They Are against Marriage with People from Other Communities) 151
    • 6.7 Community Relations in 2009 (Per Cent Saying They Trust a Lot) 151
    • 6.8 Feel Close to a Political Party (Per Cent Saying Yes) 153
    • 6.9 Attitudes towards Kalyan Singh and the Samajwadi Party, 2009 155
    • 6.10 Party Feel Close to 1999, Mathura 156
    • 6.11 Party Feel Close to 2009, Mathura 156
    • 6.12 Preferred Chief Minister, Mathura 2009 157
    • 6.13 Party for Muslims, 2009 158

    List of Figures

    • 3.1 Polio Cases Attributed to Wild Poliovirus, India, 2000–2011 51
    • 4.1 SC IMR, 1978 to 1998–1999 81
    • 4.2 Indirect SC U5MR Estimates for Selected States by Gender and Residence, 2001 85
    • 4.3 Percentage Distribution of de jure SC/Upper Caste Population by Wealth Index, NFHS-3 92
    • 4.4 Trends in Poverty Incidence among SC/STs and Others in UP (Per Cent), 1987–1988 to 1999–2000 93

    List of Abbreviations

    AFPAcute Flaccid Paralysis
    AIYMAll India Yadav Mahasabha
    ANMAuxiliary Nurse-Midwife
    AWWAnganwadi [crèche] Worker
    BAMCEFBackward and Minorities Communities Employees Federation
    BHUBanaras Hindu University
    BJPBharatiya Janata Party
    BSPBahujan Samaj Party
    CAGComptroller and Auditor General
    CPICommunist Party of India
    CSDSCentre for the Study of Developing Societies
    cVDPVCirculating Vaccine-derived Poliovirus
    DHSDemographic and Health Survey
    DPIDalit Panther Iyakkam
    EAGEmpowered Action Group
    EPIExpanded Programme of Immunisation
    ESRCEconomic and Social Research Council
    GADGender and Development
    GAPGanga Action Plan
    GDPGross Domestic Product
    GERGross Enrolment Ratio
    GoIGovernment of India
    GPEIGlobal Polio Eradication Initiative
    HYVsHigh-yielding Varieties
    IMRInfant Mortality Rate
    IPVInactivated Polio Vaccine
    MBCsMost Backward Castes
    MGNREGAMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
    MLAMember of Legislative Assembly
    MPMadhya Pradesh
    NESNational Election Study
    NFHSNational Family Health Survey
    NPSPNational Polio Surveillance Project
    NRHMNational Rural Health Mission
    NSDPNet State Domestic Product
    NSSNational Sample Survey
    NSSONational Sample Survey Organisation
    OBCsOther Backward Classes
    OPVOral Polio Vaccine
    PDSPublic Distribution System
    PPIPulse Polio Initiative
    RCHReproductive and Child Health
    RGIRegistrar General of India
    RLDRashtriya Lok Dal
    RSSRashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
    RTIRight to Information
    SCScheduled Caste
    SEAROSouth-East Asia Regional Office
    SIASupplementary Immunisation Activity
    SMNetSocial Mobilisation Network
    SOASSchool of Oriental and African Studies
    SPSamajwadi Party
    SRSSample Registration System
    U5MRUnder-five Mortality Rate
    UPUttar Pradesh
    UPAUnited Progressive Alliance
    VAPPVaccine-associated Paralytic Polio
    VCKViduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi
    VHPVishva Hindu Parishad
    WHOWorld Health Organization
    WPVWild Poliovirus


    This volume is the product of two conferences of the European Association for South Asian Studies. In 1998, in Prague, Roger Jeffery and Jens Lerche convened a panel on contemporary Uttar Pradesh, and eventually edited some of the papers given there into a volume published in 2003 by Manohar as Social and Political Change in Uttar Pradesh: European Perspectives. Although we wanted to run the panel again 10 years on, in 2008 at the Manchester Conference, our proposal was rejected and we had to wait until July 2010 in Bonn. Here we were joined by Craig Jeffrey and held a very successful panel over several days. Unfortunately, not all the papers were available for publication: in particular, a fascinating contribution by Paul Brass was in the process of being published as part of his series on the life and times of Charan Singh. But this also gave us the opportunity to solicit some further papers. Of those in this volume, earlier versions of Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9 were presented in Bonn, while the others were added later.

  • Glossary

    dāīTraditional birth attendant.
    GhatA series of steps leading down to a body of water, especially at Varanasi, leading down to the River Ganga.
    HarijanGandhi's term for members of the so-called ‘Untouchable’ castes.
    Hindutva‘Hinduness’. Hindutva is a word coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1923 pamphlet, and describes Hindu nationalist movements such as the BJP, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad and Durga Vahini.

    About the Editors and Contributors


    Roger Jeffery is Professor of Sociology of South Asia at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His research has covered public health policy, social demography, education and pharmaceuticals regulation. He is the Principal Investigator on ‘Access to Medicines in Africa and South Asia’ (2010–2013), funded by the European Union (EU), and ‘Biomedical and Health Experimentation in South Asia’ (2010–2012) funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). He has recently edited (with Anthony Heath) Change and Diversity: Economics, Politics and Society in Contemporary India, 2010. He is the University's Dean International (India), and President of the European Association for South Asian Studies.

    Craig Jeffrey is Professor of Development Geography at Oxford University and Fellow and Tutor at St. John's College, Oxford. He works on youth, education, corruption and politics, with particular reference to South Asia. His recent books include Timepass: Youth, Class and the Politics of Waiting (2010), India Today: Economy, Society, and Politics (with Stuart Corbridge and John Harriss) and Degrees without Freedom: Education, Masculinities and Unemployment in North India (with Patricia Jeffery and Roger Jeffery).

    Jens Lerche is Senior Lecturer in the Development Studies Department at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London. He works on agrarian change, labour and caste in India, particularly in UP. His recent publications include articles on agrarian transition and agrarian crisis; work hierarchies and social mobilisation; and affirmative action for low castes, all in an Indian context. He is an editor of the Journal of Agrarian Change and has edited books on UP and Agrarian Transition and Labour in India.


    Manuela Ciotti is Assistant Professor in Global Studies at Aarhus University and ‘Framing the Global’ Fellow (2011–2014) at Indiana University Bloomington. She has published several essays in leading journals exploring the themes of politics, education, gender and class. Ciotti is the author of Retro-modern India. Forging the Low-caste Self (2010), Political Agency and Gender in India (forthcoming) and Femininities and Masculinities in Indian Politics (forthcoming).

    Assa Doron is an Australian Research Council (ARC) Future Fellow in the Anthropology Department, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University. His most recent work on UP includes (with Robin Jeffrey) (2012) ‘Mobile-izing: Democracy, Organisation and India's First “Mass Mobile Phone” Elections’, and on cell phones and class, (2012), ‘Consumption, Technology and Adaptation: Care and Repair Economies of Mobile Phones in North India’. He is completing a co-authored book with Robin Jeffrey, titled The Great Indian Phonebook: How the Mass Mobile Changes Business, Politics and Daily Life and the second edition of his Life on the Ganga: Boatmen and the Ritual Economy of Banaras was published in 2012.

    Radhika Govinda is a Lecturer in Sociology at University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. She has a Bachelor's degree from the University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, a Master's degree from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), France and a PhD from the University of Cambridge, UK. Her research and teaching interests lie at the intersection of political sociology, gender and development with an area specialisation in South Asia. Her research has been published in Gender and Development, Contemporary South Asia and Journal of South Asian Development.

    Zoya Hasan is Professor (Emerita) of Political Science at the Jawaharlal Nehru University and was a Member of the National Commission for Minorities in India. She was the Chairperson of the Working Group on ‘Empowering the Minorities’ (2007–2012). She is the author and editor of 11 books and has published over two dozen articles. Her recent books include Unequal Citizens: A Study of Muslim Women in India; In a Minority: Essays on Muslim Women in India (co-edited) and Politics of Inclusion: Caste, Minority and Representation (2009). Professor Hasan is the Series Editor of Critical Issues in Indian Politics.

    Oliver Heath is Reader in Politics in the Department of Politics and International Relations, Royal Holloway, University of London. His research interests include public opinion, political participation and voting behaviour in comparative perspective. He is co-author of Political Research: Applied Methods and Skills (2012) and has published articles in British Journal of Political Science, European Journal of Political Research, Political Behavior and Electoral Studies.

    Patricia Jeffery is Professor of Sociology at University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. She has conducted long-term research in UP, and has published widely on gender issues, especially childbearing, social demography and health care, education, women's empowerment and intra-household politics, and the links between gender politics and communal politics. In 2009–2010, she held a British Academy/Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship and Leverhulme Research Fellowship. She is co-investigator on ‘Rural Change and Anthropological Knowledge in Post-Colonial India: A Comparative “Restudy”’ of F.G. Bailey, Adrian C. Mayer and David F. Pocock’ (funded by ESRC, 2011–2014), on the Council of the British Association for South Asian Studies and a member of the British Academy South Asia Panel.

    Satendra Kumar teaches at G.B. Pant Social Science Institute, University of Allahabad. He is a specialist in the anthropology of South Asia. His research examines the relationships between caste, class and democracy in India. He has conducted long-term fieldwork in Western UP, focusing on family, kinship, democracy and the local state. He has also written about youth politics in a provincial UP town. In 2012, he has started a new research project on the expansion of private education in North India. He taught in Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, and has been a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley, and at the London School of Economics (LSE).

    Ali Mehdi is a doctoral researcher at the Institut für Soziologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany, writing for his dissertation a case-implication critique of Amartya Sen's capability approach based on child mortality indicators of certain social groups in India. He completed his MA in Social Sciences (Global Studies Programme) from the Institut in 2006; his Masters’ thesis was published in March 2012 by Springer, as Strategies of Identity Formation: Youth of Turkish Descent in Germany. His research interests lie in issues of identity, health, social epidemiology and social justice.

    Lucia Michelutti is a Lecturer at the Department of Anthropology at University College London (UCL) and a Research Associate at the Centre for Contemporary South Asian Studies, University of Oxford. Her major research interest is the study of popular politics and religion in South Asia (North India) and Latin America (Venezuela). She is author of the Vernacularisation of Democracy (2008) and of articles on caste/race, charisma and leadership, the criminalisation of politics and new forms of socialisms.

    Philippa Williams is a Lecturer of Human Geography in the School of Geography at Queen Mary, University of London. Her research in North India focuses on contemporary everyday life and asks questions about marginality, Muslim identity and citizenship practices, as well as Hindu–Muslim relations and the politics of peace. She is currently preparing a monograph on the ‘Politics of Peace in Urban North India’ which draws on the research she has conducted in Varanasi, UP, India.

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