Development Failure and Identity Politics in Uttar Pradesh
Publication Year: 2014
Development Failure and Identity Politics in Uttar Pradesh provides a qualitative, in-depth understanding of development failures and identity politics in Uttar Pradesh (UP). It investigates neoliberal change and political transformation in India through the lens of UP, India's largest and, by some measures, poorest state. It examines the connection between transitions in the contemporary economy of India and transformations in politics from the standpoint of UP. The book demonstrates how an understanding of dynamics in UP might provide new perspective on issues such as the state, the civil society, caste, democracy and social impact of economic reforms—issues that are the subject of vigorous debate in India as a whole.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Democratisation in Uttar Pradesh
- Chapter 2: Rural Transformation and Occupational Diversification in Western Uttar Pradesh: Economic and Demographic Changes in a Village
- Chapter 3: Underserved and Overdosed? Muslims and the Pulse Polio Initiative in Rural North India
- Chapter 4: The Elusive Pursuit of Social Justice for Dalits in Uttar Pradesh
- Chapter 5: Agency in Words, Self-representation in Action: Connecting and Disconnecting Dalit and Low-Caste Women with India's History of Gender and Politics
- Chapter 6: Political Cooperation and Distrust: Identity Politics and Yadav–Muslim Relations, 1999–2009
- Chapter 7: On Whose Behalf? Women's Activism and Identity Politics in Uttar Pradesh
- Chapter 8: The Politics of Identity and the People Left Behind: The Mallah Community of Uttar Pradesh
- Chapter 9: Working Narratives of Intercommunity Harmony in Varanasi's Silk Sari Industry
- Chapter 10: Democracy and Development in Uttar Pradesh
Thank You for Choosing a SAGE Product[Page ii]
If you have any comment, observation or feedback, I would like to personally hear from you. Please write to me email@example.com
—Vivek Mehra, Managing Director and CEO, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
SAGE India offers special discounts for purchase of books in bulk.
We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand.
For orders and enquiries, write to us at
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110044, India
E-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Get to know more about SAGE, be invited to SAGE events, get on our mailing list. Write today email@example.com
This book is also available as an e-book.
Copyright © Roger Jeffery, Craig Jeffrey and Jens Lerche, 2014
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photo copying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2014 by
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10/13 Berkeley by RECTO Graphics, Delhi, and printed at Saurabh Printers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Development failure and identity politics in Uttar Pradesh / edited by Roger Jeffery, Craig Jeffrey and Jens Lerche.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Uttar Pradesh (India)—Economic policy. 2. Infrastructure (Economics)—India—Uttar Pradesh. 3. Women—India—Uttar Pradesh—Social conditions. 4. Uttar Pradesh (India)—Politics and government. I. Jeffery, Roger, editor of compilation.
HC437.U6D4856 323.154’2—dc23 2014 2014012420
ISBN: 978-81-321-1663-9 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Rudra Narayan, Isha Sachdeva, Anju Saxena and Rajinder Kaur
List of Tables[Page vii]
- 2.1 Population and Households by Caste 23
- 2.2 Occupations of Two Generations of Yadav Men 27
- 2.3 Occupations of Two Generations of Nai Men 32
- 2.4 Occupations of Two Generations of Fakir Men 35
- 2.5 Occupations of Two Generations of Valmiki Men 37
- 4.1 Comparative U5MR of SCs and Upper Castes, UP and India, 1978–1979 to 1982–1983 and 1984–1985 to 1988–1989 (Decline in Number/Per Cent) 82
- 4.2 U5MR of UP SCs vis-à-vis SCs in India/Selected States over NFHS Surveys 84
- 6.1 Attitudes towards Mathura Mosque, Mathura 1999 136
- 6.2 Percentage Distribution of Occupations in Mathura, 1999 143
- 6.3 Percentage Distribution of Occupations in Mathura, 2009 143
- 6.4 Community Relations in 1999 (Per Cent Saying Relations Have Become More Harmonious) 149
- 6.5 Community Relations in 2009 (Per Cent Saying They Trust a Lot) 150
- 6.6 Out-group Closure in 1999 (Per Cent Saying They Are against Marriage with People from Other Communities) 151
- 6.7 Community Relations in 2009 (Per Cent Saying They Trust a Lot) 151
- 6.8 Feel Close to a Political Party (Per Cent Saying Yes) 153
- 6.9 Attitudes towards Kalyan Singh and the Samajwadi Party, 2009 155
- 6.10 Party Feel Close to 1999, Mathura 156
- 6.11 Party Feel Close to 2009, Mathura 156
- 6.12 Preferred Chief Minister, Mathura 2009 157
- 6.13 Party for Muslims, 2009 158 [Page viii]
List of Figures[Page ix]
- 3.1 Polio Cases Attributed to Wild Poliovirus, India, 2000–2011 51
- 4.1 SC IMR, 1978 to 1998–1999 81
- 4.2 Indirect SC U5MR Estimates for Selected States by Gender and Residence, 2001 85
- 4.3 Percentage Distribution of de jure SC/Upper Caste Population by Wealth Index, NFHS-3 92
- 4.4 Trends in Poverty Incidence among SC/STs and Others in UP (Per Cent), 1987–1988 to 1999–2000 93
List of Abbreviations[Page xi]
AFP Acute Flaccid Paralysis AIYM All India Yadav Mahasabha ANM Auxiliary Nurse-Midwife AWW Anganwadi [crèche] Worker BAMCEF Backward and Minorities Communities Employees Federation BHU Banaras Hindu University BJP Bharatiya Janata Party BSP Bahujan Samaj Party CAG Comptroller and Auditor General CPI Communist Party of India CSDS Centre for the Study of Developing Societies cVDPV Circulating Vaccine-derived Poliovirus DHS Demographic and Health Survey DPI Dalit Panther Iyakkam EAG Empowered Action Group EPI Expanded Programme of Immunisation ESRC Economic and Social Research Council GAD Gender and Development GAP Ganga Action Plan GDP Gross Domestic Product GER Gross Enrolment Ratio GoI Government of India GPEI Global Polio Eradication Initiative HYVs High-yielding Varieties IMR Infant Mortality Rate IPV Inactivated Polio Vaccine MBCs Most Backward Castes MGNREGA Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act MLA Member of Legislative Assembly MP Madhya Pradesh NES National Election Study [Page xii] NFHS National Family Health Survey NPSP National Polio Surveillance Project NRHM National Rural Health Mission NSDP Net State Domestic Product NSS National Sample Survey NSSO National Sample Survey Organisation OBCs Other Backward Classes OPV Oral Polio Vaccine PDS Public Distribution System PPI Pulse Polio Initiative RCH Reproductive and Child Health RGI Registrar General of India RLD Rashtriya Lok Dal RSS Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh RTI Right to Information SC Scheduled Caste SEARO South-East Asia Regional Office SIA Supplementary Immunisation Activity SMNet Social Mobilisation Network SOAS School of Oriental and African Studies SP Samajwadi Party SRS Sample Registration System U5MR Under-five Mortality Rate UP Uttar Pradesh UPA United Progressive Alliance VAPP Vaccine-associated Paralytic Polio VCK Viduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi VHP Vishva Hindu Parishad WHO World Health Organization WPV Wild Poliovirus
This volume is the product of two conferences of the European Association for South Asian Studies. In 1998, in Prague, Roger Jeffery and Jens Lerche convened a panel on contemporary Uttar Pradesh, and eventually edited some of the papers given there into a volume published in 2003 by Manohar as Social and Political Change in Uttar Pradesh: European Perspectives. Although we wanted to run the panel again 10 years on, in 2008 at the Manchester Conference, our proposal was rejected and we had to wait until July 2010 in Bonn. Here we were joined by Craig Jeffrey and held a very successful panel over several days. Unfortunately, not all the papers were available for publication: in particular, a fascinating contribution by Paul Brass was in the process of being published as part of his series on the life and times of Charan Singh. But this also gave us the opportunity to solicit some further papers. Of those in this volume, earlier versions of Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9 were presented in Bonn, while the others were added later.[Page xiv]
dāī Traditional birth attendant. Ghat A series of steps leading down to a body of water, especially at Varanasi, leading down to the River Ganga. Harijan Gandhi's term for members of the so-called ‘Untouchable’ castes. Hindutva ‘Hinduness’. Hindutva is a word coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1923 pamphlet, and describes Hindu nationalist movements such as the BJP, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad and Durga Vahini. Seva Service.
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 258]Editors
Roger Jeffery is Professor of Sociology of South Asia at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His research has covered public health policy, social demography, education and pharmaceuticals regulation. He is the Principal Investigator on ‘Access to Medicines in Africa and South Asia’ (2010–2013), funded by the European Union (EU), and ‘Biomedical and Health Experimentation in South Asia’ (2010–2012) funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). He has recently edited (with Anthony Heath) Change and Diversity: Economics, Politics and Society in Contemporary India, 2010. He is the University's Dean International (India), and President of the European Association for South Asian Studies.
Craig Jeffrey is Professor of Development Geography at Oxford University and Fellow and Tutor at St. John's College, Oxford. He works on youth, education, corruption and politics, with particular reference to South Asia. His recent books include Timepass: Youth, Class and the Politics of Waiting (2010), India Today: Economy, Society, and Politics (with Stuart Corbridge and John Harriss) and Degrees without Freedom: Education, Masculinities and Unemployment in North India (with Patricia Jeffery and Roger Jeffery).
Jens Lerche is Senior Lecturer in the Development Studies Department at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London. He works on agrarian change, labour and caste in India, particularly in UP. His recent publications include articles on agrarian transition and agrarian crisis; work hierarchies and social mobilisation; and affirmative action for low castes, all in an Indian context. He is an editor of the Journal of Agrarian Change and has edited books on UP and Agrarian Transition and Labour in India.[Page 259]Contributors
Manuela Ciotti is Assistant Professor in Global Studies at Aarhus University and ‘Framing the Global’ Fellow (2011–2014) at Indiana University Bloomington. She has published several essays in leading journals exploring the themes of politics, education, gender and class. Ciotti is the author of Retro-modern India. Forging the Low-caste Self (2010), Political Agency and Gender in India (forthcoming) and Femininities and Masculinities in Indian Politics (forthcoming).
Assa Doron is an Australian Research Council (ARC) Future Fellow in the Anthropology Department, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University. His most recent work on UP includes (with Robin Jeffrey) (2012) ‘Mobile-izing: Democracy, Organisation and India's First “Mass Mobile Phone” Elections’, and on cell phones and class, (2012), ‘Consumption, Technology and Adaptation: Care and Repair Economies of Mobile Phones in North India’. He is completing a co-authored book with Robin Jeffrey, titled The Great Indian Phonebook: How the Mass Mobile Changes Business, Politics and Daily Life and the second edition of his Life on the Ganga: Boatmen and the Ritual Economy of Banaras was published in 2012.
Radhika Govinda is a Lecturer in Sociology at University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. She has a Bachelor's degree from the University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, a Master's degree from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), France and a PhD from the University of Cambridge, UK. Her research and teaching interests lie at the intersection of political sociology, gender and development with an area specialisation in South Asia. Her research has been published in Gender and Development, Contemporary South Asia and Journal of South Asian Development.
Zoya Hasan is Professor (Emerita) of Political Science at the Jawaharlal Nehru University and was a Member of the National Commission for Minorities in India. She was the Chairperson of the Working Group on [Page 260]‘Empowering the Minorities’ (2007–2012). She is the author and editor of 11 books and has published over two dozen articles. Her recent books include Unequal Citizens: A Study of Muslim Women in India; In a Minority: Essays on Muslim Women in India (co-edited) and Politics of Inclusion: Caste, Minority and Representation (2009). Professor Hasan is the Series Editor of Critical Issues in Indian Politics.
Oliver Heath is Reader in Politics in the Department of Politics and International Relations, Royal Holloway, University of London. His research interests include public opinion, political participation and voting behaviour in comparative perspective. He is co-author of Political Research: Applied Methods and Skills (2012) and has published articles in British Journal of Political Science, European Journal of Political Research, Political Behavior and Electoral Studies.
Patricia Jeffery is Professor of Sociology at University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. She has conducted long-term research in UP, and has published widely on gender issues, especially childbearing, social demography and health care, education, women's empowerment and intra-household politics, and the links between gender politics and communal politics. In 2009–2010, she held a British Academy/Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship and Leverhulme Research Fellowship. She is co-investigator on ‘Rural Change and Anthropological Knowledge in Post-Colonial India: A Comparative “Restudy”’ of F.G. Bailey, Adrian C. Mayer and David F. Pocock’ (funded by ESRC, 2011–2014), on the Council of the British Association for South Asian Studies and a member of the British Academy South Asia Panel.
Satendra Kumar teaches at G.B. Pant Social Science Institute, University of Allahabad. He is a specialist in the anthropology of South Asia. His research examines the relationships between caste, class and democracy in India. He has conducted long-term fieldwork in Western UP, focusing on family, kinship, democracy and the local state. He has also written about youth politics in a provincial UP town. In 2012, he has started a new research project on the expansion of private education in North India. He taught in Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, and [Page 261]has been a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley, and at the London School of Economics (LSE).
Ali Mehdi is a doctoral researcher at the Institut für Soziologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany, writing for his dissertation a case-implication critique of Amartya Sen's capability approach based on child mortality indicators of certain social groups in India. He completed his MA in Social Sciences (Global Studies Programme) from the Institut in 2006; his Masters’ thesis was published in March 2012 by Springer, as Strategies of Identity Formation: Youth of Turkish Descent in Germany. His research interests lie in issues of identity, health, social epidemiology and social justice.
Lucia Michelutti is a Lecturer at the Department of Anthropology at University College London (UCL) and a Research Associate at the Centre for Contemporary South Asian Studies, University of Oxford. Her major research interest is the study of popular politics and religion in South Asia (North India) and Latin America (Venezuela). She is author of the Vernacularisation of Democracy (2008) and of articles on caste/race, charisma and leadership, the criminalisation of politics and new forms of socialisms.
Philippa Williams is a Lecturer of Human Geography in the School of Geography at Queen Mary, University of London. Her research in North India focuses on contemporary everyday life and asks questions about marginality, Muslim identity and citizenship practices, as well as Hindu–Muslim relations and the politics of peace. She is currently preparing a monograph on the ‘Politics of Peace in Urban North India’ which draws on the research she has conducted in Varanasi, UP, India.