Developing Language and Literacy 3–8
Publication Year: 2001
The author reasserts the importance of children's relationships and communications with people who care about them, spend time with them, and share in the excitement of their developing languages and their investigations of literacy.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Speaking and Listening
- Chapter 2: Reading
- Chapter 3: Resources for Language and Literacy
- Chapter 4: Writing
- Chapter 5: Spelling, Handwriting and Punctuation
- Chapter 6: Bilingual Learners
- Chapter 7: Language and Gender
- Chapter 8: Difficulties in Language
- Chapter 9: Involving Parents
- Chapter 10: Assessment
- Chapter 11: Planning for Language and Literacy
© Ann Browne 1996, 2001
First published 1996
Second edition first published 2001
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Paul Chapman Publishing
A SAGE Publications Company
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
32, M-Block Market
Greater Kailash – I
New Delhi 110 048
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 7619 6738 9
ISBN 0 7619 6739 7 (pbk)
Library of Congress catalog record available
Typeset by Dorwyn Ltd, Rowlands Castle, Hants
Printed in Great Britain by Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
The authors and publishers wish to thank the following for permission to use copyright material:
Heinemann, London for C.J. Hawkins (1983) What's the Time, Mr Wolf?
Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders but if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the first opportunity.
When I wrote the first edition of Developing Language and Literacy 3–8 in 1995 I wanted to provide an informative, up to-date guide about good practice in teaching English for all those who work with young children. This continues to be my intention and I hope that this second edition is helpful to those who are implementing an English curriculum for 3–8-year-olds.
The main changes in this book reflect the new curriculum documents that have affected practice in language and literacy. These include The National Literacy Strategy Framework (DfEE, 1998a), The National Curriculum (DfEE, 1999a) and the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (QCA, 2000a). Although there are a number of changes there are many similarities between this second edition and the first edition. Indeed some of the practices that might have seemed unfamiliar to some readers five years ago, such as shared reading and writing, have now become widespread. Good practice in English as reflected in official documents has grown out of decades of research into English. The first edition drew on this research and this edition continues to reflect current understanding about the teaching and learning of language and literacy.
The approach and practices suggested in this book are in keeping with the traditions of good early-years education and draw from a number of established educational principles. Educators recognise that children learn best when they actively engage with their learning and when they are given real and relevant reasons for learning. They know that children construct and test hypotheses about new experiences and that taking risks and making mistakes are a valuable part of the learning process. Early-years educators relate what is being taught to what children already know. In order to extend each child's learning they support and guide children through each new stage of learning. They know that the abilities and attitudes that young children develop in the early years are an important part of a life-long learning journey during which children will need to acquire all the language skills necessary to interpret, manipulate, control and organize language for their own present and future purposes.
Devising an effective English curriculum which takes account of the principles of early-years education calls for committed and knowledgeable professionals. Thoughtful and effective practitioners do not just know what to do, [Page viii]they also understand the reasons for their actions. In order to achieve their aim of developing children's learning in the best way possible they combine knowledge and understanding with a willingness to reflect on and improve their practice. For these reasons each chapter contains references to research and makes suggestions for further reading as well as giving examples of practice.
The children, students, teachers, researchers and writers whom I encounter in my work have provided me with many opportunities to reflect on language learning and learners, to consider an appropriate language and literacy curriculum for young children and made it possible for me to collect the material that is included in this book. I would like to thank them.
I hope that this book recognizes the expertise and importance of all who contribute to the education of young children, acknowledges the willingness and curiosity that children bring to learning and that it contributes to the quality of teaching and learning in the early years.January 2001
Appendix Sources of Information about Books and Book Resources for Young Children[Page 270]
Books for Keeps, contact the School Bookshop Association, 6 Brightfield Road, Lee, London SE12 8QF tel: 020 8852 4953. Book and cassette reviews and articles about authors and books published by the School Bookshop Association.
Letterbox Library, Unit 2D, Leroy House, 436 Essex Road, London N1 3QP tel: 020 7226 1633. A mail-order bookclub specialising in non-sexist and multicultural books for children. Publishes quarterly catalogues and newsletters. Representatives throughout England and Scotland.
Magi Publications, 22 Manchester Street, London W1 5PG tel: 020 7486 0925. Publishes a number of dual-language texts and dictionaries for children.
Mantra Publishing Ltd, 5 Alexandra Grove, London N12 8NU tel: 020 8445 5123 http://www.mantrapublishing.com Publishes dual-language books and tapes; largely specialises in Asian languages.
Poetry Library, The Poetry Library, Level 5, Royal Festival Hall, South Bank Centre, London SE1 8XX tel: 020 7921 0943/0664 http://www.poetrylibrary.org.uk Houses a collection of poetry for children for reference and loan; provides information and courses for teachers.
Roy Yates Books, Smallfields Cottage, Cox Green, Rudgwick, Horsham, West Sussex RH12 3DE tel: 01403 822299. Lists and supplies every dual-language text in print.
School Library Association, Unit 2, Lotmead Business Village, Lotmead Farm, Wanborough, Swindon SW4 0UY tel: 01793 791787 http://www.sla.org.uk An advisory and information service; publishes a number a useful books and pamphlets about books and reading including practical guidelines on developing school libraries.
Scottish Book Trust, The Scottish Book Centre, 137 Dundee Street, Edinburgh EH11 1BG tel: 0131 229 3663. Works to promote a love of reading.
Signal, The Thimble Press, Lockwood, Station Road, Woodchester, Stroud GL5 5EQ. Journal containing reviews and articles about books and authors.
Soma Books, 38 Kennington Lane, London SE11 4LS tel: 020 7836 2101. Sells and distributes titles from Indian publishers. Free catalogue.
Tamarind, PO Box 52, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 1UN tel: 020 8866 8808. Publishes fiction and educational texts featuring positive and inclusive images for children.
[Page 271]The National Literacy Trust, http://www.literacytrust.org.uk Provides a wealth of information on literacy and related issues. Useful links to other sites.
The Poetry Society 22 Betterton Street, London WC2H 9BU tel: 020 7420 9880 http://www.poetrysoc.com Provides poetry news and education resources.
Young Book Trust, Book House, 45 East Hill, London SW18 2QZ tel: 020 8516 2977 http://www.booktrust.org.uk Houses a store of information about books for children. Produces videos featuring interviews with children's authors and sells a Bookweek Handbook.
References and Further Reading[Page 272]1981a) Miss Brick the Builder's Baby. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1981b) Mrs Lather's Laundry. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1988) Mrs Jolly's Joke Shop. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1978) Each Peach Pear Plum. London: Kestrel.and (1982) The Baby's Catalogue. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.and (1986) The Jolly Postman. London: Heinemann.and (1982) Listening to Children Reading. Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.(1980) Topic interest and children's reading comprehension, in R.Spiro, B.Bruce and W.Brewer (eds) Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(Baddeley, G. (ed.) (1992) Learning Together Through Talk: Key Stages 1 and 2. London: Hodder & Stoughton.1994) One collar, two sleeves …?Language and Learning, June/July, pp. 9–11.(Barrs, M. and Thomas, A. (eds) (1991) The Reading Book. London: CLPE.1988) The Primary Language Record: Handbook for Teachers. London: CLPE., , and (1984) The Quality of Pupil Learning Experiences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., , and (1990) Our New Home. London: Evans.(1985) Children's difficulties in learning to compose, in G.Wells and J.Nicholls (eds) Language and Learning: An International Perspective. London: Falmer Press.and (1971) Class, Codes and Control, Vol. 1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203014035(1984) The child as teacher, in H.Goelman, A.Oberg and F.Smith (eds) Awakening to Literacy (The University of Victoria Symposium on Children's Responses to a Literature Environment: Literacy before Schooling). London: Heinemann.(1968) Patrick. London: Picture Lions.(1983) Categorising sounds and learning to read: a causal connection. Nature, No 301, pp. 419–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/301419a0and (1986) Through My Window. London: Little Mammoth.(1988) Wait And See. London: Little Mammoth.(1990) In A Minute. London: Little Mammoth.(1983) Ways with Words: Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1991) A climate for frankness in classroom talk with top juniors. TALK: The Journal of the National Oracy Project, Summer, no. 4, pp. 27–31.([Page 273]1990) Children with spelling and writing difficulties: an alternative approach, in P.D.Pumphrey and C.D.Elliott (eds) Children's Difficulties in Reading, Spelling and Writing. London: Falmer Press.(1981) A Dark, Dark Tale. London: Scholastic.(1966) Three processes in the child's acquisition of syntax, in J.Emig, J.Flemming and H.Popp (eds) Language and Learning. New York: Harcourt.and (1993) Helping Children to Write. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(1998) A Practical Guide to Teaching Reading in the Early Years. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(1999) Writing at Key Stage 1 and Before. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.(1984) Willy the Wimp. London: Magnet.(1985) Willy the Champ. London: Magnet.(1986) Piggybook. London: Magnet.(1988) I Like Books. London: Julia MacRae Books.(1984) Language, mind and reading, in H.Goelman, A.Oberg and F.Smith (eds) Awakening to Literacy (The University of Victoria Symposium on Children's Responses to a Literature Environment: Literacy before Schooling). London: Heinemann.(1989) Scripts of the World. London: Mantra.(1970) Mr Gumpy's Outing. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1982) Babies Need Books. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.(Language Activities for Bilingual Learners. London: Tower Hamlets Education Authority.(no date)1982) Dear Zoo. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1990) Reading Together. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1992) Reading Real Books. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1977) The Bad-Tempered Ladybird. London: Picture Puffins.(1990) Intervention strategies for backward readers in the primary school classroom, in P.D.Pumphrey and C.D.Elliot (eds) Children's Difficulties in Reading, Spelling and Writing. London: Falmer Press.and (1985) Young children's learning of punctuation, in G.Wells and J.Nicholls (eds) Language and Learning: An Interactional Perspective. London: Falmer Press., and (1993) Tell Me – Children Reading and Talk. Stroud: Thimble Press.(1991) Making Books. London: Simon & Schuster.and (Chiltern Consortium (1984) Partners in Reading. Watford: Wall Hall.1976) Young Fluent Readers. London: Heinemann Educational.(1975) What Did I Write?London: Heinemann Educational.(1979) Concepts of Print: The Early Detection of Reading Difficulties. Auckland: Heinemann Educational.(1991) Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control. Auckland: Heinemann.(CLPE (1990) Shared Reading Shared Writing. London: CLPE.CLPE (1999) Literacy in Practice: A Parent's Guide to Teaching and Learning. London: CLPE.1986) Princess Smartypants. London: Picture Lion.(1987) Prince Cinders. Hayes: Magi.(2000) Literacy and Learning through Talk. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1987) Child Language, Learning and Linguistics ((2nd edn). London: Arnold.1979) Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 49, pp. 222–51.(1984a) Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.(1984b) Mother tongue maintenance for minority language children: some common misconceptions. Forum 2, ILEA, Languages Inspectorate, Spring.([Page 274]1987) Bet You Can't!London: Walker Books.(DES (1967) Children and their Primary Schools (The Plowden Report). London: HMSO.DES (1975) A Language for Life (The Bullock Report). London: HMSO.DES (1988a) Report of the Inquiry into the Teaching of the English Language (The Kingman Report). London: HMSO.DES (1988b) National Curriculum Proposals for English for Ages 5 to 11 (The Cox Committee Report Part 1). London: HMSO.DES (1989) English for Ages 5 to 16 (The Cox Report). London: HMSO.DES (1990) English in the National Curriculum (No. 2). London: HMSO.1988) Five Stones and Knuckle Bones. London: A. & C. Black.(Development Education Centre (1989) Working Now. Birmingham: DEC.DfE (1994) Special Educational Needs: A Guide for Parents. London: HMSO.DfE (1995) English in the National Curriculum. London: HMSO.DfEE (1998a) National Literacy Strategy Framework for Teaching. London: DfEE.DfEE (1998b) Teaching: High Status, High Standards, Circular number 4/98. London: DfEE.DfEE/QCA (1999a) English in the National Curriculum. London: DFEE.DfEE/QCA (1999b) Early Learning Goals. London: DfEE.DfEE/QCA (1999c) Information and Communication Technology in the National Curriculum. London: DfEE.DfEE/QCA (1999d) The National Curriculum Handbook for Primary Teachers in England. London: DfEEDfEE/QCA (1999e) Science in the National Curriculum. London: DfEE.DfEE (2000) Reading and Writing Together. Sudbury, Suffolk: DfEE Publications.1978) Children's Minds. Glasgow: Collins.(2000) Running a Successful Book Event. Swindon: School Library Association.and (1996) The Core Book. London: Centre for Language in Primary Educationand (1978) Is second language learning like the first? In E.M.Hatch (ed.) Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.(1990) Survey of Provision for Able and Talented Children. Northampton: NAGC.and (2001) The Writing Classroom. London: David Fulton.(1943) Remedial Techniques in Basic School Subjects. New York: McGraw Hill.(1986) Literacy development: psychogenesis. Paper presented at World Congress on Reading, London.(1983) Literacy before Schooling. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational.and (1993) China. Hemel Hempstead: Simon & Schuster Young Books.(1983) Children with sensory defects in schools. Special Education: Forward Trends, Vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 37–41.and (1991) Anancy and Mr Dry-Bone. London: Frances Lincoln.(1977) Phoebe and the Hot Water Bottles. London: Fontana.and (1977) Learning about psycholinguistic processes by analyzing oral reading. Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 317–33.and (1972) Reading Miscue Inventory. New York: Macmillan.and (1989) Language for Learning, a Summary Report on the 1988 APU Surveys of Language Performance. London: HMSO., , and (1990) Phonological Skills and Learning to Read. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.and (1983) Writing: Teachers and Children at Work. London: Heinemann Educational.(1996) Making Sense of a New World: Learning to Read in a Second Language. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.([Page 275]1998) Teaching Speaking and Listening in the Primary School, London: David Fulton Publishers., , and (Hall, N. and Robinson, A. (eds) (1996) Learning about Punctuation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.1989) Parental Views on Writing and the Teaching of Writing. Manchester: Department of Education Studies, Manchester Polytechnic., , and (1985) Language, Context and Text. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1995) Hackney PACT, home reading programes and family literacy, in BRaban-Bisby, G.Brooks and S.Wolfendale (eds) Developing Language and Literacy. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.(1989) How should parental involvement in the teaching of reading be evaluated?British Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 33–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192890150103(1995) Literacy, Home and School: Research and Practice in Teaching Literacy with Parents. London: Falmer Press.(Opposites. London: Health Education Authority.(no date)1983) What's the Time, Mr Wolf?London: Heinemann.(1983) Stories in the Multilingual Classroom. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(1980) Parental involvement and reading attainment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, no. 50, part 3, pp. 209–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1980.tb00803.xand (1980) Where's Spot?Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(HM Government (1988) Education Reform Act. London: HMSO.HMI (1990) The Teaching and Learning of Language and Literacy. London: HMSO.HMI (1991) The Teaching and Learning of Reading in Primary Schools. London: HMSO.HMI (1993) The HMI Report on the Implementation of the Curricular Requirements of the Education Reform Act English Key Stages 1, 2 and 3: Third Year, 1991–92. London: HMSO.1984) A Woman's World?Manchester: Cleveland Education Authority and the Equal Opportunities Commission.(1991) Amazing Grace. London: Frances Lincoln.(1993) Henry's Baby. London: Dorling Kindersley.(1979) The Foundations of Literacy. London: Ashton Scholastic.(1908) The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading. New York: Macmillan.(1991) Moving Molly. London: Red Fox.(1985) The Bone People. Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.(1970) Rosie's Walk. London: The Bodley Head.(1971) Titch. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1976) Don't Forget the Bacon!London: Picture Puffin.(ILEA, Research and Statistics Branch (1990a) Reading Experience of Pupils: Validation Survey of Reading. Scale 2 from the Primary Language Record (RS 1285/90). London: ILEA, March.ILEA (1990b) Language and Power. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.1981) The Belfield Reading Project. Rochdale: Belfield Community Council.and (1993) The Development of Handwriting Skills ((2nd edn). Hemel Hempstead: Simon & Schuster Education.1991) Considering gender differences. TALK: The Journal of the National Oracy Project, Summer, no. 4, pp. 23–26.(1990) A Book of One's Own: Developing Literacy through Making Books. Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.(2000) Home Pages: Literacy Links for Bilingual Children. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.([Page 276]1986) Resources for multicultural education, in R.Aora and C.Duncan (eds) Multicultural Education: Towards Good Practice. London: Routledge.(1983) The National Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Oxford: Pergamon.and (1994) Learning to Write ((2nd edn). London: Routledge.1975) Language and a Woman's Place. London: Harper & Row.(1976) Language Development: Kindergarten through Grade 12. Urbana, IL: NCTE.(1992) Making Facts Matter: Reading Non-Fiction 5–11. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(1999) Young Researchers. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203266106(Marsh, J. and HallettE. (eds) (1999) Desirable Literacies. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.1971) Initiating sustained silent reading. Journal of Reading, Vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 521–83.(1968) Key Words to Literacy (and (2nd edn). London: Schoolmaster Publishing.1982) Learning to Read. London: The Bodley Head.(1988) How Texts Teach What Children Learn. Stroud: The Thimble Press.(1980a) Mrs Wishy Washy, Story Chest Large Read Together Books. Walton-on-Thames: E.J. Arnold.and (1980b) The Hungry Giant, Story Chest Large Read Together Books. Walton-on-Thames: E.J. Arnold.and (1992) Supporting readers for whom English is a second language, in C.Harrison and M.Coles (eds) The Reading for Real Handbook. London: Routledge.(1998) Co-ordinating Primary Language and Literacy: The Subject Leader's Handbook. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.and (Merchant, G. and Thomas, H. (eds) (1999) Picture Books for the Literacy Hour. London: David Fulton.1993) Language activities in a multilingual school, in R.W.Mills and J.Mills (eds) Bilingualism in the Primary School. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203306697(1990) Read It To Me Now!London: Virago.(1991) Language, Literacy and Gender. Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.(1986) An Introduction to Language and Society. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203312032(1988) Reading: where are we now? In M.Meek and C.Mills (eds) Language and Literacy in the Primary School. London: Falmer Press.(1990) Suggestions for helping children with spelling problems, in P.D.Pumphrey and C.D.Elliott (eds) Children's Difficulties in Reading, Spelling and Writing. London: Falmer Press.(1980) The Paper Bag Princess. London: Scholastic.(1980) Peace At Last. London: Picturemac.(1982) On The Way Home. London: Picturemac.(National Writing Project (1989) Responding to and Assessing Writing. Walton-on-Thames: Nelson.National Writing Project (1990) Perceptions of Writing. Walton-on-Thames: Nelson.NCC (1989) English Non-Statutory Guidance. York: NCC.NCC (1993) National Curriculum Council Consultation Report: English in the National Curriculum. York: NCC.1990) Teaching Talking and Learning in Key Stage 1. York: National Curriculum Council.(1997) Recognising Early Literacy Development: Assessing Children's Achievements. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(Nutbrown, C. and Hannon, P. (eds.) (1997) Preparing for Early Literacy with Parents: Professional Development Manual. Nottingham: REAL Project/NES Arnold.1991) Spelling: A Teacher's Survival Kit. Harlow: Oliver & Boyd.([Page 277]1987) Understanding Language, National Association of Advisers in English. Manchester: University of Manchester.(1985) Spelling: Caught or Taught? A New Look. London: Routledge.(1980) Catchwords: Ideas for Teaching Spelling. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.and (1988) Writing and the new technologies in developing children's writing, in D.Wray et al. (eds) Bright Ideas Teacher Handbook. Leamington Spa: Scholastic.and (QCA (1998a) Standards at Key Stage 1 English and Mathematics: Report on the 1998 national curriculum assessments for 7-year-olds. London: QCA.QCA (1998b) Can do better. London: QCA.QCA (1999a) Teaching Speaking and Listening in Key Stages 1 and 2. London: QCA.QCA (1999b) Target Setting and Assessment in the National Literacy Strategy. London: QCA.QCA (2000a) Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage. London: QCA.QCA (2000b) Standards at Key Stage 1 English and Mathematics: Report on the 1999 national curriculum assessments for 7-year-olds. London: QCA.1997) Helping Children Cope with Dyslexia. London: Sheldon Press.(1989) The Psychology of Reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.and (1986) Children's Creative Spelling. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1993) Practical Ways to Teach Spelling. University of Reading: Reading and Language Information Centre.(1988) Mum's Strike. Hayes: Magi.(1977) ‘Aah,’ said Stork. London: Picturemac.(1996) Tracking Significant Achievement in Primary English. Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.(1990) Handwriting: The Way To Teach It. Chetenham: Stanley Thornes.(1995) The Practical Guide to Children's Handwriting ((2nd edition). Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.SCAA (1995) Planning the Curriculum at Key Stages 1 and 2. London: SCAA Publications.1992) Charlie's House. London: Walker Books.(1963) Dr Seuss's ABC. Glasgow: Collins.(1989) Primary children's concepts about writing. Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 133–38., and (1994) Through Writing to Reading: Classroom Strategies for Supporting Literacy. London: Routledge.(1971) Understanding Reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(1982) Writing and the Writer. London: Heinemann Educational.(1990) Revisiting Literacy: Helping Readers and Writers. Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1983) A Framework for Reading: Creating a Policy in the Primary School. London: Heinemann., and (1981) Extending Beginning Reading. London: Heinemann Educational., and (1980) Towards an interactive-compensatory model of individual reading differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol 16, no. 1, pp. 32–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/747348(1982) Reading for meaning: an investigation of the effect of narrative in two reading books for seven year olds. Reading, Vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 153–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9345.1982.tb00711.xand (1962) The Language of Elementary School Children: Its Relationship to the Language of Reading, Bulletin. Bloomington: Indiana University.(1973) My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1992) Girls, Boys and Language. Oxford: Blackwell.([Page 278]1988) Gender inequalities in classroom talk. English in Education, Vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 48–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-8845.1988.tb00260.xand (1991) Start with a Story. Birmingham: Development Education Centre.(1988) The Beginnings of Writing, (, , and (2nd edn). London: Allyn & Bacon.1990) What are writers made of? In National Writing Project, What Are Writers Made Of? Issues of Gender. Walton-on-Thames: Nelson.and (1984) Young Children Learning: Talking and Thinking at Home and at School. London: Fontana.and (1985) Parental involvement in reading: theoretical and empirical background, in K.Topping and S.Wolfendale (eds) Parental Involvement in Children's Reading. London: Croom Helm.(1984) The New Read-Aloud Handbook ((2nd edn). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.1996) Children's sensitivity to syllables, onsets, rimes and phonemes. Journal of Experimental Psychology. No 61 pp. 193–215.and (1974) Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.(TTA (2000) Raising the Attainment of Minority Ethnic Pupils. London: Teacher Training Agency.1984) Papers on Biliteracy and Bilingualism. London: National Council for Mother Tongue Teaching.(1998) Ginger. London: Walker Books.(1962) Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11193-000(1984) Story at Home and School, Educational Review Occasional Publication, 10. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.(1987) Special Children … Special Needs: Provision in the Ordinary Classroom. London: Robert Royce.and (1977) How Do I Put It On?Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.(1988) Read With Me: An Apprenticeship Approach to Reading ((2nd edn). Stroud: The Thimble Press.1996) Literacy Goes to School. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(1982) Language, Learning and Education. Bristol: Bristol Centre for the Study of Language and Communication, University of Bristol.(1984) Language Development in the Pre-School Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1986) The Meaning Makers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational.(1997) Commonsense Methods for Children with Special Needs ((3rd edn). London: Routledge.1990) On literacy and gender, in R.Carter (ed.) Knowledge about Language and the Curriculum: The LINC Reader. London: Hodder & Stoughton.(1990) Language and Literacy in the Early Years. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(1999) Supporting Language and Literacy Development in the Early Years. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1993) A, B, C, I Can Be. Camberley: Tamarind.(1990) Children's Concepts and the Primary Curriculum. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(1976) The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 17, pp. 89–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x, and (1994) Literacy and Awareness. Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.(1989) Literacy in Action. London: Falmer Press., and (1972) William's Doll. London: Harper & Row.(