Developing Language and Literacy 3–8

Books

Ann Browne

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    Acnowledgements

    The authors and publishers wish to thank the following for permission to use copyright material:

    Heinemann, London for C.J. Hawkins (1983) What's the Time, Mr Wolf?

    Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders but if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the first opportunity.

    Introduction

    When I wrote the first edition of Developing Language and Literacy 3–8 in 1995 I wanted to provide an informative, up to-date guide about good practice in teaching English for all those who work with young children. This continues to be my intention and I hope that this second edition is helpful to those who are implementing an English curriculum for 3–8-year-olds.

    The main changes in this book reflect the new curriculum documents that have affected practice in language and literacy. These include The National Literacy Strategy Framework (DfEE, 1998a), The National Curriculum (DfEE, 1999a) and the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (QCA, 2000a). Although there are a number of changes there are many similarities between this second edition and the first edition. Indeed some of the practices that might have seemed unfamiliar to some readers five years ago, such as shared reading and writing, have now become widespread. Good practice in English as reflected in official documents has grown out of decades of research into English. The first edition drew on this research and this edition continues to reflect current understanding about the teaching and learning of language and literacy.

    The approach and practices suggested in this book are in keeping with the traditions of good early-years education and draw from a number of established educational principles. Educators recognise that children learn best when they actively engage with their learning and when they are given real and relevant reasons for learning. They know that children construct and test hypotheses about new experiences and that taking risks and making mistakes are a valuable part of the learning process. Early-years educators relate what is being taught to what children already know. In order to extend each child's learning they support and guide children through each new stage of learning. They know that the abilities and attitudes that young children develop in the early years are an important part of a life-long learning journey during which children will need to acquire all the language skills necessary to interpret, manipulate, control and organize language for their own present and future purposes.

    Devising an effective English curriculum which takes account of the principles of early-years education calls for committed and knowledgeable professionals. Thoughtful and effective practitioners do not just know what to do, they also understand the reasons for their actions. In order to achieve their aim of developing children's learning in the best way possible they combine knowledge and understanding with a willingness to reflect on and improve their practice. For these reasons each chapter contains references to research and makes suggestions for further reading as well as giving examples of practice.

    The children, students, teachers, researchers and writers whom I encounter in my work have provided me with many opportunities to reflect on language learning and learners, to consider an appropriate language and literacy curriculum for young children and made it possible for me to collect the material that is included in this book. I would like to thank them.

    I hope that this book recognizes the expertise and importance of all who contribute to the education of young children, acknowledges the willingness and curiosity that children bring to learning and that it contributes to the quality of teaching and learning in the early years.

    AnnBrowneJanuary 2001
  • Appendix Sources of Information about Books and Book Resources for Young Children

    Books for Keeps, contact the School Bookshop Association, 6 Brightfield Road, Lee, London SE12 8QF tel: 020 8852 4953. Book and cassette reviews and articles about authors and books published by the School Bookshop Association.

    Letterbox Library, Unit 2D, Leroy House, 436 Essex Road, London N1 3QP tel: 020 7226 1633. A mail-order bookclub specialising in non-sexist and multicultural books for children. Publishes quarterly catalogues and newsletters. Representatives throughout England and Scotland.

    Magi Publications, 22 Manchester Street, London W1 5PG tel: 020 7486 0925. Publishes a number of dual-language texts and dictionaries for children.

    Mantra Publishing Ltd, 5 Alexandra Grove, London N12 8NU tel: 020 8445 5123 http://www.mantrapublishing.com Publishes dual-language books and tapes; largely specialises in Asian languages.

    Poetry Library, The Poetry Library, Level 5, Royal Festival Hall, South Bank Centre, London SE1 8XX tel: 020 7921 0943/0664 http://www.poetrylibrary.org.uk Houses a collection of poetry for children for reference and loan; provides information and courses for teachers.

    Roy Yates Books, Smallfields Cottage, Cox Green, Rudgwick, Horsham, West Sussex RH12 3DE tel: 01403 822299. Lists and supplies every dual-language text in print.

    School Library Association, Unit 2, Lotmead Business Village, Lotmead Farm, Wanborough, Swindon SW4 0UY tel: 01793 791787 http://www.sla.org.uk An advisory and information service; publishes a number a useful books and pamphlets about books and reading including practical guidelines on developing school libraries.

    Scottish Book Trust, The Scottish Book Centre, 137 Dundee Street, Edinburgh EH11 1BG tel: 0131 229 3663. Works to promote a love of reading.

    Signal, The Thimble Press, Lockwood, Station Road, Woodchester, Stroud GL5 5EQ. Journal containing reviews and articles about books and authors.

    Soma Books, 38 Kennington Lane, London SE11 4LS tel: 020 7836 2101. Sells and distributes titles from Indian publishers. Free catalogue.

    Tamarind, PO Box 52, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 1UN tel: 020 8866 8808. Publishes fiction and educational texts featuring positive and inclusive images for children.

    The National Literacy Trust, http://www.literacytrust.org.uk Provides a wealth of information on literacy and related issues. Useful links to other sites.

    The Poetry Society 22 Betterton Street, London WC2H 9BU tel: 020 7420 9880 http://www.poetrysoc.com Provides poetry news and education resources.

    Young Book Trust, Book House, 45 East Hill, London SW18 2QZ tel: 020 8516 2977 http://www.booktrust.org.uk Houses a store of information about books for children. Produces videos featuring interviews with children's authors and sells a Bookweek Handbook.

    References and Further Reading

    Ahlberg, A. (1981a) Miss Brick the Builder's Baby. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.
    Ahlberg, A. (1981b) Mrs Lather's Laundry. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.
    Ahlberg, A. (1988) Mrs Jolly's Joke Shop. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.
    Ahlberg, J. and Ahlberg, A. (1978) Each Peach Pear Plum. London: Kestrel.
    Ahlberg, J. and Ahlberg, A. (1982) The Baby's Catalogue. Harmondsworth: Puffin Books.
    Ahlberg, J. and Ahlberg, A. (1986) The Jolly Postman. London: Heinemann.
    Arnold, H. (1982) Listening to Children Reading. Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Asher, S. (1980) Topic interest and children's reading comprehension, in R.Spiro, B.Bruce and W.Brewer (eds) Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Baddeley, G. (ed.) (1992) Learning Together Through Talk: Key Stages 1 and 2. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Barnes, E. (1994) One collar, two sleeves …?Language and Learning, June/July, pp. 9–11.
    Barrs, M. and Thomas, A. (eds) (1991) The Reading Book. London: CLPE.
    Barrs, M., Ellis, S., Hester, H. and Thomas, A. (1988) The Primary Language Record: Handbook for Teachers. London: CLPE.
    Bennett, N., Desforges, C., Cockburn, A. and Wilkinson, A. (1984) The Quality of Pupil Learning Experiences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Bennett, O. (1990) Our New Home. London: Evans.
    Bereiter, C. and Scardamalia, M. (1985) Children's difficulties in learning to compose, in G.Wells and J.Nicholls (eds) Language and Learning: An International Perspective. London: Falmer Press.
    Bernstein, B. (1971) Class, Codes and Control, Vol. 1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203014035
    Bissex, G. (1984) The child as teacher, in H.Goelman, A.Oberg and F.Smith (eds) Awakening to Literacy (The University of Victoria Symposium on Children's Responses to a Literature Environment: Literacy before Schooling). London: Heinemann.
    Blake, Q. (1968) Patrick. London: Picture Lions.
    Bradley, L. and Bryant, P. (1983) Categorising sounds and learning to read: a causal connection. Nature, No 301, pp. 419–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/301419a0
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    Brice-Heath, S. (1983) Ways with Words: Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brierley, L. (1991) A climate for frankness in classroom talk with top juniors. TALK: The Journal of the National Oracy Project, Summer, no. 4, pp. 27–31.
    Brown, E.N. (1990) Children with spelling and writing difficulties: an alternative approach, in P.D.Pumphrey and C.D.Elliott (eds) Children's Difficulties in Reading, Spelling and Writing. London: Falmer Press.
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    Browne, A. (1993) Helping Children to Write. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Browne, A. (1998) A Practical Guide to Teaching Reading in the Early Years. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
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    Browne, A. (1984) Willy the Wimp. London: Magnet.
    Browne, A. (1985) Willy the Champ. London: Magnet.
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    CarleE. (1977) The Bad-Tempered Ladybird. London: Picture Puffins.
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    Cazden, C.B., Cordeiro, P. and Giacobbe, M.E. (1985) Young children's learning of punctuation, in G.Wells and J.Nicholls (eds) Language and Learning: An Interactional Perspective. London: Falmer Press.
    Chambers, A. (1993) Tell Me – Children Reading and Talk. Stroud: Thimble Press.
    Chapman, G. and Robson, P. (1991) Making Books. London: Simon & Schuster.
    Chiltern Consortium (1984) Partners in Reading. Watford: Wall Hall.
    Clark, M.M. (1976) Young Fluent Readers. London: Heinemann Educational.
    Clay, M. (1975) What Did I Write?London: Heinemann Educational.
    Clay, M. (1979) Concepts of Print: The Early Detection of Reading Difficulties. Auckland: Heinemann Educational.
    Clay, M. (1991) Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control. Auckland: Heinemann.
    CLPE (1990) Shared Reading Shared Writing. London: CLPE.
    CLPE (1999) Literacy in Practice: A Parent's Guide to Teaching and Learning. London: CLPE.
    Cole, B. (1986) Princess Smartypants. London: Picture Lion.
    Cole, B. (1987) Prince Cinders. Hayes: Magi.
    Corden, R. (2000) Literacy and Learning through Talk. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Crystal, D. (1987) Child Language, Learning and Linguistics (
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    ). London: Arnold.
    Cummins, J. (1979) Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 49, pp. 222–51.
    Cummins, J. (1984a) Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    Cummins, J. (1984b) Mother tongue maintenance for minority language children: some common misconceptions. Forum 2, ILEA, Languages Inspectorate, Spring.
    Dale, P. (1987) Bet You Can't!London: Walker Books.
    DES (1967) Children and their Primary Schools (The Plowden Report). London: HMSO.
    DES (1975) A Language for Life (The Bullock Report). London: HMSO.
    DES (1988a) Report of the Inquiry into the Teaching of the English Language (The Kingman Report). London: HMSO.
    DES (1988b) National Curriculum Proposals for English for Ages 5 to 11 (The Cox Committee Report Part 1). London: HMSO.
    DES (1989) English for Ages 5 to 16 (The Cox Report). London: HMSO.
    DES (1990) English in the National Curriculum (No. 2). London: HMSO.
    Deshpande, C. (1988) Five Stones and Knuckle Bones. London: A. & C. Black.
    Development Education Centre (1989) Working Now. Birmingham: DEC.
    DfE (1994) Special Educational Needs: A Guide for Parents. London: HMSO.
    DfE (1995) English in the National Curriculum. London: HMSO.
    DfEE (1998a) National Literacy Strategy Framework for Teaching. London: DfEE.
    DfEE (1998b) Teaching: High Status, High Standards, Circular number 4/98. London: DfEE.
    DfEE/QCA (1999a) English in the National Curriculum. London: DFEE.
    DfEE/QCA (1999b) Early Learning Goals. London: DfEE.
    DfEE/QCA (1999c) Information and Communication Technology in the National Curriculum. London: DfEE.
    DfEE/QCA (1999d) The National Curriculum Handbook for Primary Teachers in England. London: DfEE
    DfEE/QCA (1999e) Science in the National Curriculum. London: DfEE.
    DfEE (2000) Reading and Writing Together. Sudbury, Suffolk: DfEE Publications.
    Donaldson, M. (1978) Children's Minds. Glasgow: Collins.
    Dubbar, G. and Scott, E. (2000) Running a Successful Book Event. Swindon: School Library Association.
    Ellis, S. and Barrs, M. (1996) The Core Book. London: Centre for Language in Primary Education
    Ervin-Tripp, S.M. (1978) Is second language learning like the first? In E.M.Hatch (ed.) Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    Essen, J. and Welch, J. (1990) Survey of Provision for Able and Talented Children. Northampton: NAGC.
    Evans, J. (2001) The Writing Classroom. London: David Fulton.
    Fernald, G.M. (1943) Remedial Techniques in Basic School Subjects. New York: McGraw Hill.
    Ferreiro, E. (1986) Literacy development: psychogenesis. Paper presented at World Congress on Reading, London.
    Ferreiro, E. and Teberosky, A. (1983) Literacy before Schooling. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational.
    Flint, D. (1993) China. Hemel Hempstead: Simon & Schuster Young Books.
    Fraser, B. and Chapman, E. (1983) Children with sensory defects in schools. Special Education: Forward Trends, Vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 37–41.
    French, F. (1991) Anancy and Mr Dry-Bone. London: Frances Lincoln.
    Furchgott, T. and Dawson, L. (1977) Phoebe and the Hot Water Bottles. London: Fontana.
    Goodman, K. and Goodman, Y.M. (1977) Learning about psycholinguistic processes by analyzing oral reading. Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 317–33.
    Goodman, Y. and Burke, C. (1972) Reading Miscue Inventory. New York: Macmillan.
    Gorman, T., White, J., Brooks, G. and English, F. (1989) Language for Learning, a Summary Report on the 1988 APU Surveys of Language Performance. London: HMSO.
    Goswami, U. and Bryant, P. (1990) Phonological Skills and Learning to Read. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Graves, D. (1983) Writing: Teachers and Children at Work. London: Heinemann Educational.
    Gregory, E. (1996) Making Sense of a New World: Learning to Read in a Second Language. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Grugeon, E., Hubbard, L., Smith, C. and Dawes, L. (1998) Teaching Speaking and Listening in the Primary School, London: David Fulton Publishers.
    Hall, N. and Robinson, A. (eds) (1996) Learning about Punctuation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    Hall, N., Hemming, G., Hann, H. and Crawford, L. (1989) Parental Views on Writing and the Teaching of Writing. Manchester: Department of Education Studies, Manchester Polytechnic.
    Halliday, M.A.K. and Hassan, R. (1985) Language, Context and Text. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hancock, R. (1995) Hackney PACT, home reading programes and family literacy, in BRaban-Bisby, G.Brooks and S.Wolfendale (eds) Developing Language and Literacy. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Hannon, P. (1989) How should parental involvement in the teaching of reading be evaluated?British Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 33–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192890150103
    Hannon, P. (1995) Literacy, Home and School: Research and Practice in Teaching Literacy with Parents. London: Falmer Press.
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    Hawkins, C.J. (1983) What's the Time, Mr Wolf?London: Heinemann.
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    QCA (1999a) Teaching Speaking and Listening in Key Stages 1 and 2. London: QCA.
    QCA (1999b) Target Setting and Assessment in the National Literacy Strategy. London: QCA.
    QCA (2000a) Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage. London: QCA.
    QCA (2000b) Standards at Key Stage 1 English and Mathematics: Report on the 1999 national curriculum assessments for 7-year-olds. London: QCA.
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    Sassoon, R. (1990) Handwriting: The Way To Teach It. Chetenham: Stanley Thornes.
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    Smith, F. (1982) Writing and the Writer. London: Heinemann Educational.
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