Developing Cultural Humility: Embracing Race, Privilege and Power
Publication Year: 2014
Developing Cultural Humility offers a unique look into the journeys of psychologists striving towards an integration of multiculturalism in their personal and professional lives. Contributing authors—representing a mix of “cultural backgrounds” but stereotypically identified as “White”—engage in thoughtful dialogue with psychologists from underrepresented communities who are identified as established and respected individuals within the multicultural field. The contributing authors discuss both the challenges and rewards they experienced in their own journeys and how they continue to engage in the process of staying connected to their cultural identity and to being culturally responsive. In addition, psychologists who represent historically disenfranchised communities have similarly reflected on their own journey, while offering commentary to the personal stories of White psychologists.
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- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: An Invitation to Dialogue … and Reflection
- Chapter 2: Finding My Cultural Selves: The Journey Continues
- Chapter 3: Finding a Place in the Multicultural Revolution
- Chapter 4: Moving Between Majority and Multicultural Environments: Impact on Identity and Practice
- Chapter 5: A Big Part of My Life
- Chapter 6: Choosing to Be Involved
- Chapter 7: Still Walking
- Chapter 8: Beyond Dualities: Navigating Privilege and Marginalization as a Multicultural Psychologist
- Chapter 9: Falling in Order to Walk: Reflections on My Contextual Identity Development and Responsibility as a White Person
- Chapter 10: Stepping Over a Baby's Head: Thoughts on Privilege, Humanity, and Liberation
- Chapter 11: Relishing the Diversity within and without: A Journey with Many Influences
- Chapter 12: What I See, Could Be Me
Me gustaría dedicar este libro para Antonio “Guapo” Salgado. Espero que se de cuenta de que su viaje, mientras dolorosa, ha dejado un legado positivo duradero en nuestra familia. Hemos aprendido lo que significa ser resistente, a sobrevivir, a ser vulnerable, paciente, amoroso y lo más importante, hemos mantenido el orgullo de ser Mexicano. Tú eres mi otro yo. Te amo mucho y siempre vivirás en mi. Aunque extrañamos su presencia, tenemos paz en saber que es libre. Gracias por amarme tanto como lo hizo.
I would like to dedicate this book to Antonio “Guapo” Salgado. I hope you know that your journey, while painful at times, left a positive lasting legacy on your family. We have learned what it means to be resilient, to survive, be vulnerable, patient, loving, and most importantly, we retained pride in being Mexican. Tú eres mi otro yo. I love you very much and you will always live inside me. While we miss your presence, we have peace in knowing that you are free. Thank you for loving me as much as you did.
Copyright © 2014 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gallardo, Miguel E.
Developing cultural humility : embracing race, privilege and power / Miguel E. Gallardo, Pepperdine University.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-9897-0 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Group identity. 2. Multiculturalism. 3. Ethnicity. 4. Race awareness. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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Foreword: How Do You Heal Hurt?[Page vii]
How do you heal hurt? It was late afternoon during the American Psychological Association Consolidated Meetings of boards and committees. At the close of the usual daylong meetings there was the regular additional special meeting for people of color. The room was filled with psychologists of color and white psychologists from around the country who served on the various boards and committees. Also attending the meeting were members of the staff of the APA and members of the board of directors. Curiously, though several members of the board of directors and several members of the executive staff of APA were people of color-Black and Latina/o-they still seemed to be regarded as the “other,” the authority, “the man” I was on the board of directors and felt included and excluded at the same time as a member of the people of color. I felt stuck in my role as a member of the authority group. I was “the man,”
The hurt and the anger in the room were palpable as the group discussed the second failure of a bylaw amendment vote of the larger APA membership, to seat on the Council of Representatives individuals from the four major ethnic minority psychological associations (EMPAs): the Association of Black Psychologists, the Asian American Psychological Association, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, and the Society of Indian Psychologists. Some were convinced the APA Board of Directors had not done enough to move the bylaw forward. Some believed the people of color could do more to help with a grassroots effort to improve voter turnout and support. There was blame, futility, resignation, anger, sadness, hurt, but no way forward. Or so it seemed.
Miguel speaks. With a voice of calm, strength, and hope, Miguel speaks to the heart so that we all begin to see clearly that we all hope for the same thing, thus pointing us to the light. He speaks to our minds to help us know that there are solutions, and while we may not see the light at the end of the tunnel, there is light. His voice speaks to the possibility of a larger vision with more possibilities to get us to the light at the end of the tunnel. Miguel speaks from his position as chair of the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs. He speaks from his position as director of Aliento, the Center for Latina/o Communities at Pepperdine University. He speaks from his position as Director of Research and Evaluation for the Orange County Multiethnic [Page viii]Collaborative of Community Agencies (OCMECCA). And he speaks from his position as a researcher, practitioner, educator, author, and decent human being.
Miguel's voice allowed me to think more carefully about the APA and the four EMPAs in the same way as one does about sovereign countries, which allowed the idea of Memorandums of Understanding between the groups to become an idea that could allow us to rethink how the groups interacted. As all of us began to think about other possibilities over the coming year, we eventually found our way back to thinking about sending out another bylaw vote on the original seating change. We were now working more like a whole team, rather than fighting with each other. Miguel has the ability to bring people together to talk about very sensitive subjects. I am impressed that he has done that in this book. Miguel has gotten White individuals to reveal in a very candid fashion how they came to be people who could fully embrace a multicultural point of view and develop deep regard for those who are perceived as different in race, ethnicity, gender, and so on. In his “Invitation to Dialogue … and Reflection” (Chapter 1), Miguel states that “the intent of this book was an invitation to many of my colleagues and students in training who represent ‘White’ culture to find their place in the multicultural movement.” His colleagues have accepted that invitation, as many of them have discussed themes that center around becoming aware of themselves as racial beings. Though speaking from different lived experiences, it does appear that the journey to multiculturalism and to being a multiculturally self-reflective individual begins with an awakening to the realization of being “White.” With the discovery of the element of race in their lives comes a recognition of power and privilege. The honest grappling with such discoveries will likely be beneficial to other White individuals as they struggle to accept privilege and the rewards that may accrue to them as a result of their racial status. Another powerful theme in the book is that of the surprise in the discovery that one's own reality is not the reality of those who are the “other”—people of color or other statuses that cause one to be defined as a cultural minority in the United States. Miguel chose individuals and set a tone that allowed his colleagues to leave their comfort zones and honestly report on the journeys that led them to the rewards that come when one accepts self and embraces diversity. The White colleagues in this book talk about the rewards of examining their privilege and working to become antiracist individuals. They also speak of the need to remain on the journey. I was impressed that these White individuals uniformly report on the need to continue to work on their “whiteness” power, and privilege for a lifetime.
Miguel was able to engage people of color in commenting on the writings of their White colleagues, while also reflecting on their own journeys as well. I believe it is the most significant conversation of this sort that I have seen since Lisa Porche-Burke, Derald Wing Sue, and I initiated the first National Multicultural Conference and Summit in 1999. At that conference, we worked to have people engage in difficult dialogues about race, gender, and ethnicity. It was challenging. Miguel gets his colleagues to engage in difficult conversations around similar topics and makes it seem easy. The commentaries by people of color highlight the need to keep the importance of race and ethnicity in the diversity conversation. Readers will find that there is a recurring theme of similarity across racial groups. There is a theme of “joining” each other as the pairs of writers discuss the lessons they have each learned as they partake in the multicultural journey. Miguel does an excellent job of creating a sense in the book that we all have work to do in making a world that is more sensitive, just, and full for each of us. We may begin in different places but we all are headed to the same destination. The readers will feel Miguel's invitation to participate in the multicultural journey.
[Page ix]Developing Cultural Humility contains stories that allow us to have a glimpse of the inner thoughts and feelings of some of our colleagues. That is a precious and rare gift. Miguel's book has created the space for us to take the time to think about our lives and how we can open our hearts and minds to have experiences and to interpret experiences in ways that allow us to embrace all of who we are and all of who our colleagues are. It is by embracing ourselves that we can embrace others and truly become a rich and healthy multicultural world. Miguel Gallardo knows how to heal hurt.
I would like to acknowledge my wife, Dra. Susana O. Salgado, a Chicana psychologist, for her tireless support through the completion of this book. Thank you for reviewing, editing, and giving me the thumbs-up as I worked through the writing and editing process. Your feedback and support are much appreciated and necessary. The book is much better because of you. Gracias—Tu Esposo.[Page xii]
Afterword: The Continuing Multicultural Journey[Page 265]
When someone pushes racism into my awareness, I feel guilty (that I could be doing so much more); angry (I don't like to feel like I'm wrong); defensive (I already have two Black friends… I worry more about racism than most whites do—isn't that enough); turned off (I have other priorities in my life—with guilt about that thought); helpless (the problem is so big—what can I do?). I HATE TO FEEL THIS WAY. That is why I minimize race issues and let them fade from my awareness whenever possible.(Winter, 1977, p. 24)
Sara Winter's comment reflects the often deep-seated and powerful emotional reactions to topics of personal racism or the many other “isms” brought to our attention. These nested or embedded emotions associated with racism, sexism, heterosexism, and other forms of prejudice and discrimination toward socially devalued groups in our society serve as a major roadblock to racial/cultural awareness for those most empowered in our society. It is simply easier to let issues of race, gender, and sexual orientation fade from our consciousness, to minimize their importance, or to remain silent in order to deceive ourselves that “things are right” with the world. Yet these strong and unpleasant emotional reactions are indicators that “things are not right;’ “that the world of fairness and equality may not exist” that we live in a world of self-deception and obliviousness to the injustice faced by others, and that we benefit from unearned privileges simply because of the color of our skin, gender, or sexual orientation.
This volume brings to the forefront not only the cognitive struggles that Whites experience in their racial/cultural/ethnic awakening, but also the deep-seated emotional reaction to becoming aware. The book is an outstanding collection of narratives by White psychologists about their personal life journeys on the road to multicultural awareness, understanding, and the meaning of their own racial/cultural identities. Each of the 10 contributors writes of their early childhood and educational experiences, the values they were raised with, [Page 266]life challenges they experienced, events or situations that shattered or significantly changed the way they viewed the world, and their coming to grips with a world that unfairly disadvan-taged marginalized groups in our society and one that advantaged Whites by virtue of the color of their skin.
Each of the authors details in courageous ways how certain events and experiences prodded them to shed the mantel of obliviousness, to see themselves in a different light, and to begin the journey of understanding the worldviews of those different from them. For Julie Ancis it was being the object of sexual harassment and anti-Semitic microaggressions; for Joe Ponterotto it was the fortunate opportunity of having a mentor of color; and for Rebecca Toporek it was lessons learned from her cultural insensitivities. But the question still remains: What made these 10 authors open to going beyond defensiveness; to letting go of the world as they had been conditioned to know it; and to entertaining the possibility of different but valid realities? Certainly, many of my White brothers and sisters have had similar experiences, but what gave these 10 people the courage, wisdom, and commitment to begin an exploration of their racial/cultural identities?
What becomes clear is that the journey to multiculturalism is often not a pleasant one. The painful feelings of “sadness,” “humiliation,” “guilt”’ “anger”’ “confusion”’ “being ignored,” and other unpleasant emotions associated with self-reflection begins a journey from oblivion and amnesia to self-awakening. What the volume does, however, goes beyond straightforward storytelling by the contributors. A commentary, or “a dialogue in print,” by an author from a historically disenfranchised group follows each of the essays. In that respect we gain even greater insight into the contrasting worldviews between the racial, gender, and ethnic realities of contributors and respondents. They remind us that power and privilege often blind people to the life circumstances of those who are not privileged. I found this pairing extremely interesting and educational, in that not only were there starkly different perspectives but many shared and similar experiences between author and respondent, convergences that were remarked upon by the commentators.
As I read these narratives, it validates what I have learned as the major challenge to the racial/cultural awakening of those most empowered in our society. First, making the “invisible” visible is not easy because most majority brothers and sisters share a common belief that they (a) are good, moral, and decent human beings who would never consciously discriminate against others, (b) live in a fair and just world, and (c) are not personally responsible for the oppression of others. The particular situation and events that were life-changing for these contributors represented sometimes minor but cumulative experiences and other times quite intense and dramatic conflicts. To have one's self-image as a good, moral, and decent human being challenged often evokes nested or embedded feelings of anger, defen-siveness, and guilt. These represent a line of defense that prevents people from exploring their own values, biases, and prejudices toward many socially devalued groups in our society.
What comes across very clearly for contributors and is reinforced by respondents is that the challenge confronting those most empowered in our society is the difficulty acknowledging race-related, gender-related, or ethnic-related issues. To do so often elicits guilt about their privileged status, threatens their self-image as fair, moral, and decent human beings, and more importantly, suggests that their “unawareness” and “silence” allow for the perpetuation of inequities and harm to marginalized groups in our society. Acknowledging the existence of bigotry, bias, prejudice, and discrimination, as well as being able to hear the [Page 267]voices of socially devalued groups in our society are the first steps in a long journey to mul-ticulturalism and cultural competence.
It is refreshing to hear the courageous stories of these ten authors who take responsibility for their own unawareness, and the many hurts, humiliations, pain, and suffering they have unwittingly inflicted on others. How they have struggled to free themselves from the chains of bigotry, their past social conditioning, and to build bridges with disenfranchised groups contain lessons for all. More importantly, each of the contributors in their own special way has become a powerful ally to those who have been oppressed. These authors tell their stories with courage, conviction, strength, and compassion. In many ways, these stories, and the observations of allies, strongly suggest that obstacles to valuing diversity are deeply rooted in individual, institutional, and cultural assumptions and biases. Honest self-reflection and self-reckoning by individuals and institutions are painful and unpleasant processes. It is not pleasant to engage in honest self-appraisal when the outcome may reveal hidden prejudices and that an individual may have acted in ways that have oppressed others. As Sara Winter suggests, it is simply easier to let such topics fade from consciousness, to not listen or hear the voices of the oppressed, to enter into a “conspiracy of silence,” and to dismiss, negate, and minimize the experiential reality of those most disempowered.
The voices contained in Developing Cultural Humility: Embracing Race, Privilege, and Power are snippets of the life experiences and worldviews of 20 White allies and their respondents. They tell true stories that—while a small part of their lived experiences—represent powerful lessons of life. I have often written that eradicating the “isms” is not solely an intellectual exercise but an emotive one as well. Contained between the covers of this book are the lived realities of 20 individuals who will touch your heart and soul. Reading this book will change your life; innocence, ignorance, and naivete will no longer be an excuse to avoid and ignore your responsibility to honestly examine yourselves, your institutions, and your society in the journey toward diversity. Making the “invisible” visible is what these stories of racial/cultural awakening will hopefully do for you as well.References[Page 268]1977). Rooting out racism. Issues in Radical Therapy, 17, 24–30.(
Editor's Biography[Page 277]
Dr. Miguel E. Gallardo is an associate professor of psychology and director of Aliento, the Center for Latina/o Communities at Pepperdine University. He is a licensed psychologist, maintaining an independent consultation practice where he conducts therapy with adolescents and adults and consults with organizations and universities on developing culturally responsive systems. He teaches courses on multiculturalism and social justice, intimate partner violence, and professional practice issues. Gallardo's areas of scholarship and research interests include understanding the psychotherapy process when working with ethnocultural communities, particularly the Latina/o community, and in understanding the processes by which individuals develop cultural awareness and responsiveness. Gallardo is currently Director of Research and Evaluation for the Multiethnic Collaborative of Community Agencies (MECCA), a non-profit organization dedicated to serving monolingual Arab, Farsi, Korean, Vietnamese, and Spanish-speaking communities. Gallardo has published peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters in the areas of multicultural psychology, Latina/o psychology, and ethics and evidence-based practices. He co-edited the book Intersections of Multiple Identities: A Casebook of Evidence-Based Practices with Diverse Populations and is co-author of the book Culturally Adaptive Counseling Skills: Demonstrations of Evidence-Based Practices.
Dr. Gallardo is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and is involved with the field's many associations, including the California Latino Psychological Association, the California Psychological Association, and the National Latina/o Psychological Association. Gallardo is past chair of the Committee of Ethnic Minority Affairs of the APA and past president of the California Psychological Association. Gallardo is one of the founding members and served as the first president of the California Latino Psychological Association. Gallardo was appointed by the governor to serve on the California Board of Psychology.[Page 278]
Contributing Authors' Biographies[Page 279]
Dr. Julie Ancis is an APA fellow and Associate Vice President for Institute Diversity at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She has published and presented extensively in the area of racial and gender attitudes, multicultural competence, university climate, and women's legal experiences. She is the author of several books including The Complete Women's Psychotherapy Treatment Planner, published by Wiley, and Culturally Responsive Interventions: Innovative Approaches to Working with Diverse Populations, published by Taylor and Francis. Ancis received the 2012 Woman of the Year Award from the Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17), Section for the Advancement of Women and is currently Chair of the Section.
Dr. Patricia Arredondo is the president of the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. She draws upon many years of leadership in higher education and the private sector with an ongoing interest in multicultural competency development and social justice advocacy. She is the author or co-author of more than 100 scholarly publications and technical reports. A recent book chapter is “The ‘BorderlandS' Experience for Women of Color as Higher Education Leaders” and her co-authored text Culturally Responsive Counseling for Latinas/os was published in spring 2013. She was named a Living Legend by American Counseling Association and she holds fellow status with the APA.
Guillermo Bernal is professor of psychology and director of the Institute for Psychological Research at the University of Puerto Rico. His work has focused on training, research, and the development of mental health services responsive to ethno-cultural groups. Dr. Bernal has published over 145 journal articles and chapters as well as seven books. His most recent book is Cultural Adaptations: Tools for Evidence-Based Practice with Diverse Populations (edited with Domenech Rodriguez). He has received the American Family Therapy Academy Distinguished Contribution to Family Systems Research award (2009) and has been honored as an elder of the National Multicultural Conference and Summit (2013). He obtained his doctorate from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (1978), and is a fellow of the APA (Divisions 45, 12, 27).
Rosie Phillips Bingham, ABPP, is vice president for Student Affairs and a tenured professor at the University of Memphis. Her primary practical and scholarly passions are the power of inclusion; multicultural vocational psychology; ethics; and living well in a diverse society.
[Page 280]She is past president of the Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17 of the APA) and previously served on the American Psychological Association Board of Directors and on the Council of Student Affairs Board for the Association of Public and Land Grant Universities. She is on the editorial boards of several journals, including the Journal of CareerAssessment, and is the author of numerous articles and book chapters on career counseling. She is a founding board member of the Women's Foundation for a Greater Memphis. She earned her doctorate at Ohio State University and was employed at the University of Florida before returning to her hometown of Memphis to be the Counseling Center director at Memphis State University (now University of Memphis).
Dr. Thema Bryant-Davis is an associate professor of Psychology at Pepperdine University and director of the Culture and Trauma Research Lab. She is a past president of the Society for the Psychology of Women. Bryant-Davis served on the American Psychological Association Committee on Women in Psychology and Committee on International Relations in Psychology. She is also a former American Psychological Association representative to the United Nations, where she represented the American Psychological Association at the UN World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerances and co-authored APA's Resolution Against Racism. Bryant-Davis earned her doctorate at Duke University in clinical psychology and completed her post-doctoral training at Harvard Medical Center. She is an associate editor of the journal Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. Along with authoring peer-reviewed articles and chapters, she is the author of the book Thriving in the Wake of Trauma: A Multicultural Guide and editor of the book Surviving Sexual Violence: A Guide to Recovery and Empowerment. Bryant-Davis recently served as the principal investigator for the Gilead Sciences/NAACP project on HIV prevention within the Black church. She has taught Cross-Cultural Psychology and Social Psychology and has provided trainings on cultural awareness in schools, medical centers, and community agencies.
Alan W. Burkard is an associate professor in the Department of Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology at Marquette University, where he also serves as the department chair and director of the School Counseling Program. He is a past president of the American School Counselor Association and serves on the governing council of the American Counseling Association. His research interests include multicultural influences and processes in counseling/therapy and clinical supervision and evaluation of school counseling interventions and programs. He is also the father of three wonderful children: Jessica, Cody, and Samantha.
Kevin Cokley, Ph.D. is an associate professor of Counseling Psychology and faculty affiliate of the Center for African and African American Studies at the University of Texas-Austin. Dr. Cokley's research and teaching can be broadly categorized in the area of African American psychology. His research interests include the construction of racial and ethnic identities, Afrocentric psychology, academic motivation, academic self-concept, and understanding the psychological and environmental factors that impact African American student achievement. Cokley has published over 35 articles and book chapters. His 2004 article published in the Harvard Educational Review challenges the notion that African American students are anti-intellectual. He is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Black Psychology and has served on the editorial boards of several journals including the Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology journal and the Journal of Counseling Psychology. He is the recipient of the 2008 “10 Rising Stars of the Academy” award by Diverse Issues in Higher Education, the 2007 Association of Black PsychologistS' [Page 281]Scholarship Award, and was the 2004 co-recipient of the Emerging Professional Award given by the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues of the American Psychological Association.
Lillian Comas-Diaz, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist in full-time private practice and a clinical professor in the George Washington University Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Previously, she was a faculty member of the Yale University Department of Psychiatry, where she also directed its Hispanic Clinic. The author of over a hundred publications, Comas-Diaz is the author of Multicultural Care: A Clinician's Guide to Cultural Competence (2012), and the co-editor of Clinical Guidelines in Cross-Cultural Mental Health (with Ezra Griffith, 1988); Women of Color: Integrating Ethnic and Gender Identities in Psychotherapy (with Beverly Greene, 1994); WomanSoul: The Inner Life of Women's Spirituality (with Carole A. Rayburn, 2008); and Women Psychotherapists: Journeys in Healing (with Marcella Bakur Weiner, 2011). Comas-Diaz is the founding editor of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, the official journal of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 45 of the American Psychological Association. In addition, she serves on several editorial boards and is an associate editor of the American Psychologist. Comas-Diaz is a past president of the Community of Psychologists in Independent Practice (Division 42 of APA) and former director of the APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs.
Edward Delgado-Romero is a professor and director of training for the doctoral program in Counseling Psychology at the University of Georgia. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 45 and 17) and one of the re-founding members of the National Latina/o Psychological Association. He has previously served NLPA as president, secretary/membership chair, conference program co-chair (2006 and 2008), and awards chair. He has three children, Javier, Isabel, and Guillermo.
Dr. Jessica Drew de Paz is a clinical psychologist with a specialty in multicultural issues and a varied career path. She has provided individual and group psychotherapy to culturally diverse students at several university counseling centers. In addition, she worked as a diversity trainer in the Office of Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity and Diversity at University of California, San Francisco. In 2003, she joined University of California, Irvine's Environmental Health & Safety (EH&S) department, where she oversaw campus-wide health and safety training for nearly a decade. During that time, she maintained a clinical private practice and developed an interest in mindfulness meditation (an ancient concept focused on bringing oneself into the present moment). These two seemingly disparate positions provided an opportunity for the emergence of a research idea, which led to her current role as Mindfulness & Safety Research Coordinator at EH&S. In collaboration with UC Irvine's Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine, she is studying whether the practice of mind-fulness improves health and safety in the workplace.
Dr. Eduardo Duran has been working in Indian Country for 30 years. He has been instrumental in developing clinical theory and methods that integrate ancient and traditional approaches with modern Western strategies in an effort to make healing relevant to Native peoples. Duran has published several books and articles, his latest being Healing the Soul Wound. Duran takes traditional thought and metaphor and applies these toward the development of a hybrid episte-mological approach that inspires a new vision for healing of our collective soul wounds.
Dr. Jeff Harris is an associate professor at Texas Woman's University where he teaches graduate and undergraduate classes in counseling and psychotherapy. He is the originator of [Page 282]Multitheoretical Psychotherapy (MTP), an integrative framework encouraging counselors to combine strategies from effective approaches based on the individual needs of each client. Harris's current research focuses on testing the effectiveness of MTP as both a training and treatment method. He received his Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from Ohio State University in 1990. Harris worked as a psychologist at the counseling centers at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale and the University of Hawaii at Manoa prior to his current appointment. In 2004, he was awarded board certification as a Specialist in Counseling Psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology. Harris is a single father and enjoys camping, cycling, and skiing with his teen-aged daughter.
Pamela Hays holds a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Hawaii, a B.A. in psychology from New Mexico State University, and a certificate in French from La Sorbonne in Paris, France. From 1987 through 1988, she served as an NIMH postdoctoral fellow at the University of Rochester School of Medicine. From 1989 through 2000, she worked as a core faculty member of the graduate psychology program at Antioch University in Seattle. In 2000, she returned to her hometown on the Kenai Peninsula (Alaska) where she has since worked in community mental health, private practice, and with the Kenaitze Tribe's Nakenu Family Center. Her research has included work with Tunisian women in North Africa, and Vietnamese, Lao, and Cambodian people in the U.S. She is author of Addressing Cultural Complexities in Practice: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Therapy (APA Books); Connecting across Cultures: The Helper's Toolkit (Sage), and co-editor of Culturally Responsive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Assessment, Practice, and Supervision (APA Books). APA has produced a video of her work as part of their expert therapist series entitled Culturally Responsive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Practice. Pam lives in Kasilof, Alaska, which has a population of 500 people and several thousand moose. She provides consultation and teaches workshops internationally. For more information on her clinical practice, publications, video, and workshops, see http://www.drpamelahays.com.
Allen E. Ivey received his doctorate from Harvard and his undergraduate degree (Phi Beta Kappa) from Stanford. He has been a Fulbright scholar in Denmark and Australia. He is Distinguished University Professor (Emeritus) at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is also a Courtesy Professor at the University of South Florida. A diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology, Dr. Ivey is a past president and fellow of the Society of Counseling Psychology of the American Psychological Association and is a life member of the American Counseling Association (ACA). He is also an elected fellow of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues of APA and the first named fellow of the Asian American Psychological Association. He considers that his greatest honor was being named Elder of the Multicultural Movement at the Multicultural Conference and Summit in 2005.
The originator of microcounseling and Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT), Dr. Ivey has won wide recognition and national and international honors, including ACA's Professional Development Award. Author or co-author of over 40 books and 200 articles and chapters, his works have been translated into 22 languages. He has keynoted or lectured throughout the world, most recently in Japan, Turkey, Australia, and Malaysian Borneo. He did original work on the multicultural implications of the microskills in 1968–1974 and has been increasing his work in multicultural studies ever since. His recent books include the 8th edition of Intentional Interviewing and Counseling: A Theory of Multicultural Counseling and [Page 283]Therapy (Cengage/Brooks/Cole) and the 6th edition of Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Multicultural Approach. Ivey's writings continue to focus on “Psychotherapy as Liberation” and on generating a theoretical/practical approach for working in a positive wellness and developmental frame with so-called pathology and the problematic DSM–5.
Bryan S. K. Kim received the Ph.D. in Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology with an emphasis in Counseling Psychology from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 2000. He currently is professor and director of the MA Program in Counseling Psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii at Hilo. Kim has over 75 publications and 90 presentations in the areas of multicultural counseling process and outcome, measurement of cultural constructs, counselor education and supervision, and immigrant experiences. His current research examines the effects of culture-specific counseling interventions and client enculturation/acculturation (e.g., cultural values) on counseling process and outcome. Kim is currently associate editor of The Counseling Psychologist and Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. In addition, he serves on the editorial boards of Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Counseling and Development, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, and Asian American Journal of Psychology. Kim has received research awards from the American Counseling Association and the Association for Assessment in Counseling and Development, as well as early career awards from the Society of Counseling Psychology, Society of the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, and Asian American Psychological Association. Dr. Kim is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 17, 29, and 45), Asian American Psychological Association, and International Academy for Intercultural Research.
Jean Lau Chin, Ed.D., ABPP, is professor at Adelphi University in New York. She has served as dean at two universities and executive director of a community health center and mental health clinic. Currently, her work on leadership, diversity, and women's issues has included being an Oxford Roundtable speaker, designation as a Fulbright specialist, and researcher and author of numerous publications in these areas. As past president of the American Psychological Association's Divisions 45 and 35, she has served in many leadership positions on national, state, and local boards in which she has promoted coalition building and grassroots advocacy to impact national policy on mental health and substance abuse issues related to access, cultural competence, women's issues, and disparities for underserved, low-income Asian American communities. She was the first Asian American to be licensed as a psychologist in Massachusetts and has been the first female in a number of her leadership roles. She has received many awards for her leadership and her work, including the Nassau County Executive's 2009 Women of Distinction Award.
Ellen Hawley McWhirter is a professor in the Counseling Psychology program at the University of Oregon. She has a bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of Notre Dame, and a master's in counseling and Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Arizona State University. Her research, scholarship, and interest areas include adolescent and emerging adult career development, adolescent risk and resilience, Latina and Latino youth, and development of multicultural competencies. She is married to Benedict and they have two daughters, Anna Cecilia and Marielena. As a family they have lived in Chile and traveled throughout Latin America.
Dr. Jason J. Platt is an associate professor and the director of the master's program in International Counseling Psychology at Alliant International University's Mexico City [Page 284]campus. He is the founder of the California School of Professional Psychology Spanish Language and Cultural Immersion program, and he established the certificate in Latin American Family Therapy. In addition to the Mexico programs, Platt has co-facilitated immersion education programs in India, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Platt also founded the California Clinic, a counseling and family therapy mental health clinic that was designed to meet the needs of underserved communities in Mexico City. Platt has published peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on the nature of competent clinical practice with an emphasis on international clinical competencies, critical patriotism, Latino communities, impoverished populations, and the need to adapt clinical practice to meet the mental health needs of international communities. As an educator he is passionate about exploring the effectiveness of alternative educational and training modalities, particularly the use of Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy.
Joseph G. Ponterotto is a professor of Education and coordinator of the Mental Health Counseling Program at Fordham University, New York City. He joined Fordham in 1987 after two years as a faculty member in Counseling Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. His Ph.D. (1985) is from the University of California at Santa Barbara, where he studied under Dr. Jesus Manuel Casas, a pioneer in the field of multicultural psychology and education. Ponterotto has strong interests in multicultural counseling practice, research and assessment methods, and career development. He maintains a small multicultural-focused private practice in New York City. His most recent quantitative research has focused on the development of both an original and short-form of the Multicultural Personality Inventory (MPI). His recent qualitative/case project has been a four-year psychobiographical study of World Chess champion Bobby Fischer, published in 2012.
Daniel C. Rosen is an assistant professor at Bastyr University in the Department of Counseling and Health Psychology. He earned a Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from Arizona State University after completing his predoctoral internship at the Center for Multicultural Training in Psychology at Boston Medical Center/Boston University School of Medicine. He completed his postdoctoral fellowship at Cambridge Health Alliance/Harvard Medical School. Rosen's scholarship is focused in multicultural psychology, and he has explored issues of ethnic identity, social justice in mental health, addressing disparities in access to and quality of mental health services, and the experiences of persons with disabilities. He has a private practice in Seattle, WA, where he lives with his wife and two children.
Derald Wing Sue is professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. He was the co-founder and first president of the Asian American Psychological Association, past president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues and past president of the Society of Counseling Psychology. Dr. Sue is the recipient of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology (2004), and Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest (2013). He is the author of Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, Overcoming Our Racism: The Journey to Liberation, and Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender and Sexual Orientation. The latter received the 2010 Book of the Year Award by UnityFirst. Com and Forbes/Diversity.
[Page 285]Dr. Rebecca Toporek is an associate professor and coordinator of the Career and College Counseling Specializations in the Department of Counseling at San Francisco State University. She has written or co-written 25 articles and 29 book chapters on the topics of multicultural competence, ethics, advocacy and social justice, privilege, and career counseling. In addition, she has co-edited three books and serves as a co-editor and co-founder of the Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, the official journal of Counselors for Social Justice, a division of the American Counseling Association and Psychologists for Social Responsibility. She is a fellow of the American Counseling Association (ACA) and of the American Psychological Association. She is a founding member of Counselors for Social Justice and has been active in ACA since 1993.
Pratyusha Tummala-Narra is assistant professor in the Department of Counseling, Developmental and Educational Psychology at Boston College. She is a teaching associate at the Cambridge Health Alliance/Harvard Medical School. Tummala-Narra received her doctoral degree from Michigan State University and completed her post-doctoral training in the Victims of Violence Program at the Cambridge Hospital in Cambridge, MA. She founded and directed (1997–2003) the Asian Mental Health Clinic at the Cambridge Health Alliance and was an assistant professor in Psychiatry at Georgetown University School of Medicine (2003–2005). She was also on faculty at the Michigan School of Professional Psychology (2006–2009), and in clinical practice for over 12 years. She is the recipient of the Scholars in Medicine Fellowship from the Harvard Medical School. She has presented nationally and published peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on the topics of immigration, ethnic minority issues, trauma, and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Her research concerns the areas of racial and ethnic discrimination and mental health issues among ethnic minority communities. Tummala-Narra has served as the chair of the Multicultural Concerns Committee and Member-at-Large for Division 39 (Psychoanalysis), as a member of the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) of the American Psychological Association, and as a member of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration.