Developing Critical Cultural Competence: A Guide for 21st-Century Educators

Books

Jewell E. Cooper, Ye He & Barbara B. Levin

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    We would like to dedicate this book to all the students, teachers, and families we have worked with over the years from whom we have learned so much and without whom this book would not be possible. We would also like to thank our own families who continue to support us in doing this work, and acknowledge the contributions of our many colleagues who share our vision for a more equitable environment in our schools.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Resources

    The following Resources can be accessed at the companion website for Developing Critical Cultural Competence: A Guide for 21st-Century Educators, http://www.corwin.com/culturalcompetence.

    Resource 1.1 Milner's (2010) Conceptual Repertoires About Diversity Resource 1.2 Textbooks Recommended for Learning About Diversity Resource 1.3 Recommended Videos Resource 1.4 Book Club List

    Resource 1.5 Book Club Graphic for Train Go Sorry by Leah Hager Cohen

    Resource 1.6 Debriefing the Game of Monopoly

    Resource 2.1 Suggestions for Leading and Participating in Democratic Discussions

    Resource 2.2 Alternative Autobiographical Sketch

    Resource 2.3 Questions to Help You Develop Your Educational Philosophy

    Resource 2.4 Intercultural Autograph Hunt

    Resource 2.5 Format for Bio-Poem With Sample

    Resource 2.6 Statements for Privilege Walk Activity

    Resource 3.1 Visioning Questions (Hammerness, 2006)

    Resource 3.2 The Personal Theorizing Process

    Resource 3.3 Example of PPT Graphics: The Sky Is the Limit

    Resource 3.4 Example of PPT Graphics: Unearthing Planet PPT

    Resource 3.5 Format of Evaluation of Your PPTs in Action

    Resource 3.6 Sample Analysis of PPTs in Action

    Resource 3.7 Action Research Questions (Hubbard & Power, 2003)

    Resource 3.8 Guidelines for Action Research

    Resource 3.9 Additional Resources to Support Action Research

    Resource 4.1 Ideas for Fact Sheets: Collaboratively Generated by the Group With the Facilitator

    Resource 4.2 Sample Fact Sheets About Venezuela, Scientology, and GAD

    Resource 4.3 Website List of Resources for Fact Sheets

    Resource 4.4 Format for Website Review Handout

    Resource 4.5 Resources for Survey Instruments

    Resource 4.6 Instructions for Interpreting Survey Results

    Resource 5.1 Attending Behavior and Active Listening (Ivey & Ivey, 2007)

    Resource 5.2 Feedback Form for Attending Behavior (adapted From Ivey & Ivey, 2007)

    Resource 5.3 Sample Observation Form

    Resource 5.4 Planning for the ABCs Project

    Resource 7.1 Sample Scenario for Walking a Mile in Another's Shoes: Employment and Transportation

    Resource 7.2 Sample Scenario for Walking a Mile in Another's Shoes: Subsidized Child Care

    Resource 7.3 Sample Scenario for Walking a Mile in Another's Shoes: Crime and Punishment

    Resource 8.1 Activities With Objectives and CBAM Levels for Developing Critical Cultural Competence

    Resource 8.2 Sample Framework for Gap Analysis

    Resource 8.3 Sample Two-Hour Professional Development Session Plan

    Resource 8.4 Sample Plan for a Professional Learning Community (PLC)

    Resource 8.5 Sample Professional Development Series Plan

    Resource 8.6 Pre- and Postsurvey of Development of Critical Cultural Competence

    Resource 8.7 Authors' Favorite Readings and Resources

    Foreword

    ChristineSleeterCalifornia State University Monterey Bay

    Teachers were filing into the cafeteria as my colleague and I were setting up the projector. We had been invited to this racially diverse middle school to help the predominantly White teaching staff confront the “grades gap” (the gap in report card letter grades between White students and students of color, which had been the subject of a newspaper exposé) and to analyze why students of color, on average, not only received lower grades than White students but were also being overreferred for disciplinary action and special education. My colleague and I arrived armed with data for both the school and the school district levels. Our plan was to present the data, invite teachers to consider why there was a racial gap in student outcomes in their school, and then consider strategies to address the gap.

    Within 10 minutes, however, it became apparent that this workshop was not going to go well. While the few Black teachers, along with a handful of White teachers, nodded their heads affirmatively as we talked, several White male teachers sitting near the back of the room, arms folded, glared at us. After we briefly presented the data and then invited discussion, only a few teachers spoke. While some comments focused on what the school could do differently, most characterized the Black students as poorly behaved and their parents as lacking much interest in education. Although my colleague and I expected to hear some deficit thinking from teachers, given that we had been invited to do this workshop, we were unprepared for the wall of hostile silence most of the teachers maintained and the rapidity with which discussion turned into defensive complaints.

    How I wish that Developing Critical Cultural Competence by Cooper, He, and Levin had been available at that time! This story, which is true, repeats itself countless times, with minor variations. Not only have I found myself doing less-than-helpful professional development workshops, over the years, I have also read about and talked with many colleagues who have done the same. Although research on professional development for multicultural education confirms that short-term workshops, like the one discussed previously, are virtually useless and even counterproductive (McDiarmid, 1992), they continue to occur. This is probably largely because while many school leaders recognize diversity and equity problems within their schools and hear about “experts” who seem have solutions, lacking a strategy to engage teachers with core issues around difference and equity, school leaders hope that bringing in an expert will help. Too often missing, however, is a well-conceptualized approach for professional development for cross-cultural competence.

    Research on professional development for multicultural education gives some clues about what does and does not make a positive difference. Professional development projects that are too broad, attempting to rework teachers' worldviews about issues such as race and justice, are often met with resistance and conflict, even if they are ongoing rather than single workshops (Leistyna, 2001; Sleeter, 1992). Inquiry-based professional development that includes critical reflection is much more likely to make an impact on teachers (El-Haj, 2003; Estrada, 2005; Jennings & Smith, 2002; Moss, 2001; Nieto, 2003; Sleeter, 2009). Community-based learning, which is quite underused, can be a powerful form of professional development (Fickel, 2005; Moll & González, 1994).

    What would such professional development look like, especially if it is designed to prompt teachers to grapple with something as emotionally charged as race, racism, and gaps in student outcomes and school experiences? What might it look like if the professional development also addresses a range of forms of diversity including religion, gender equity, sexual orientation, and social class?

    Developing Critical Cultural Competence shows what this kind of professional development looks like, and it provides the tools to make it happen. In this marvelous book, Cooper, He, and Levin lay out a system that begins with teachers unpacking diversity in their lives, and then moving outward to consider their students, their school, and the communities the school serves. The activities in this book, which the authors have used often and refined, are very well conceptualized to engage teachers in learning, thinking, and reflecting about what can be highly emotional and threatening issues. By offering choices and scaffolding sense-making, the activities treat teachers as adults who are capable of learning and looking at problems from different points of view. By offering structured ways to learn from students and communities, the activities help teachers develop their learning strategies, as well as strategies that have the potential to build bridges of ongoing communication among teachers, students, and communities.

    Although this book is written for professional developers, I see it as having a wide audience. For school leaders who see problems related to equity and diversity but aren't sure what to do about them, this book will show a very helpful professional development process. Preservice teacher educators will find many useful resources between these covers; as a preservice teacher educator myself, I have used strategies similar to many of these and have identified others in this book I will relish trying. This book can also be useful to teachers who may not be part of an organized professional development program but who want to understand their students better and are looking for guidance.

    These days, especially, when much teacher professional development (at least, where I live) involves showing teachers how to use curriculum packages and testing systems, Developing Critical Cultural Competence offers a refreshing alternative and an inspiring view of teaching, teachers, students, and the process of learning.

    Preface

    Why do we need this book?

    With an increasingly diverse population of students in today's schools, and the fact that most teachers remain predominantly White, female, monolingual, and middle class, it is imperative that all educators move beyond simple, declarative knowledge about our students' family and community backgrounds toward a deeper, more critical understanding of the complexities that affect their lives. In fact, this is true no matter who the children are that you are in the business of educating. To improve academic achievement for all students, it is vital that educators develop a more nuanced understanding of themselves as cultural beings and the habit of critical reflection regarding ways of knowing about themselves, their students, their families, and the communities they serve. Looking at data is not enough. We have to know who our students are! Therefore, 21st-century educators need to develop critical cultural competence, a beyond-knowledge understanding based on critical reflection of self, students, families, and communities. With critical cultural competence as a base, educators can finally take appropriate actions to lead the change needed to provide more accessible and equitable learning environments for all students, which ultimately are what is needed to improve academic achievement. We believe this can be accomplished best through ongoing professional development for both new and experienced teachers and administrators, no matter the context in which they teach, which is why we wrote this book for professional developers.

    Furthermore, the Obama administration's proposed blueprint for reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) makes this book timely because it reenvisions education with a strong focus on (1) meeting the needs of diverse learners and (2) supporting comprehensive approaches to family engagement, and it includes (3) funding professional development relevant to these topics. In addition to promoting “specific programs designed to involve families and communities and through policies that will empower and engage families,” the Obama administration's proposal “encourages professional development programs to improve teachers' and leaders' skills in working with families” (Department of Education, 2010, p. 3). With this in mind, this book provides professional development personnel with numerous strategies that will strengthen teacher-school-family partnerships to increase student success.

    What is critical cultural competence?

    Critical cultural competence means going well beyond awareness or just knowing about the diversity of students in today's schools. It means developing a deep, nuanced, and complex understanding of diversity and becoming skilled in cross-cultural communication by (1) engaging in private and public opportunities for self-reflection to surface implicit personal biases and assumptions and understanding why they exist; (2) negotiating understanding within and across cultural groups to promote learning; and (3) transforming local educational settings through thoughtful, innovative practices that enhance equity to ensure engagement and achievement. While culturally competent educators reflect on their practices and seek knowledge about their students, families, and communities, educators with critical cultural competence are more considered in their reflections, more innovative in taking action that is meaningful and directly related to motivating and engaging their students, and more collaborative in reforming and transforming their schools' culture to meet the needs of all learners. Further, we believe the ultimate goal of developing critical cultural competence is transforming local educational settings through thoughtful, innovative, and responsive practices that enhance equity in education for all.

    We realize that only by taking a lead role in school and district reform initiatives will educators really achieve critical cultural competence. We also know that many educators are not yet ready to make the kinds of changes needed to educate today's diverse population of students. However, we believe that by wholeheartedly engaging in sustained professional development, as described in this book, they can become educators who are able to meet the needs of today's and tomorrow's diverse learners. Therefore, we offer activities to build a bridge from typical multicultural education provided in the past to more critical cultural competence needed today. Instead of only offering educators what they need to know about cultural diversity, we go beyond knowledge to highlight how educators can identify their beliefs, goals, and visions to acquire usable knowledge about their students' backgrounds and to see their students' families and communities as valuable resources for helping educate them. We hope this book will be the first step in actually facilitating educators to develop critical cultural competence, and we offer many tried-and-tested, in-depth activities toward this end that other books do not. Several of these activities require educators to move physically from their classrooms and schools into their students' home communities so they can learn firsthand about the strengths of the environment in which their students' reside and in which their first education about the world occurs. For some, this will feel daunting, but we have learned that it is a necessary part of building critical cultural competence.

    Who is this book for?

    The audience for this book is primarily professional development staff, including lead teachers, district- and building-level administrators, and emerging teacher leaders who believe more thought and action is needed and who want to engage teachers and administrators in developing their critical cultural competence. Teacher educators looking for activities to push both preservice and inservice teachers' critical reflections about themselves, their students, and the families and communities of their students are another audience for this book.

    How is this book different from other books about diversity and multicultural education?

    Most books about multicultural education and cross-cultural competence describe what educators need to know about a multitude of cultural groups. This book goes beyond knowledge and well beyond addressing multiculturalism in our schools using a limited “heroes and holidays” curriculum to present ways to develop critical cultural competence. We have compiled a multitude of activities that go beyond what is typically offered in most books about multicultural education, making it a useful guide for planning and leading professional development around issues of diversity and critical cultural competence to help today's students achieve their potential.

    Organization and Special Features of this Book

    The approach we take is to provide detailed examples of numerous activities we have used over the years in the three areas we focus on in our work: (1) understanding the self (Chapters 2 and 3), (2) understanding our students (Chapters 4 and 5), and (3) learning from families and the community (Chapters 6 and 7). Chapters 2, 4, and 6 include activities that enhance educators' awareness and understanding about themselves, their students, and the families and communities of their students. In Chapters 3, 5, and 7, we offer additional activities that will extend educators' experiences and critical thinking with the goal of moving them beyond their comfort level by engaging in more critical and transformative thoughts and actions regarding diversity issues. Chapter 1 describes five key concepts recently proposed by Milner (2010) as foundational to the curriculum for all diversity courses or workshops, and revisits many typical approaches for professional development about multicultural education and diversity issues. Chapter 8 includes a discussion of critical cultural competence and its relationship to culturally responsive teaching, and it provides several sample professional development plans to demonstrate how the activities in this book can be used in systematic efforts toward the transformation of school cultures. Measures and indicators for success are also shared for ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of sustained professional development efforts.

    In Chapters 1 through 7, we include the objective(s) for each activity, instructions for participants, recommended discussion questions for both individual reflection and group discussion, approximate time allotments for completing each activity, and tips for those facilitating the activity based on our personal experiences. In the companion website for this book, http://www.corwin.com/culturalcompetence, we also provide reproducible resource lists and handouts to support many activities, as well as examples that can serve as models for some of the activities. Throughout the book, you will find web resource icons indicating that a related resource can be found on the website. Additionally, at the end of each chapter, you will find a list of web resources corresponding to that chapter.

    An extensive reference list and an additional list of the authors' favorite resources are also included for professional development leaders who want to go more in-depth. Based on our experiences with the challenges and the impact of preparing teachers to be more critically culturally competent, we also include the voices of teachers who have experienced many of these activities and/or our experience with handling potential issues that facilitators may encounter when using some of the more challenging activities.

    Other special features in this book include questions for reflection and extension by those facilitating professional development geared toward building critical cultural competence in themselves and others, suggestions for how activities can be used most effectively in Professional Learning Communities (PLCs), and ideas for modifying some of the activities for use in online professional development.

    Conclusion

    The main reasons why this book will help those engaged in professional development around building critical cultural competence include the following:

    • Professional development is one of the major strategies needed to enhance teachers and administrators' cultural competence if we want them to make the personal connections needed to make their data-driven instructional efforts meaningful and worthwhile.
    • Different from isolated or short-term sessions about diversity issues, in-depth and long-term district or school-based professional development provides the best opportunity for teachers and administrators to “to continually reassess what schooling means in the context of a pluralist society; the relationships between teachers and learners; and attitudes and beliefs about language, culture, and race” (Clair & Adger, 1999, p. 2) within authentic teaching contexts.
    • Most important, what is learned, shared, and discussed in professional development sessions can have immediate application to curriculum design; material selection; instructional planning; and both teachers' and administrators' daily interactions with peers, diverse students, and their families and communities.
    • Finally, professional development efforts to enhance educators' critical cultural competence have the potential to lead to the transformation of school culture and instructional practices that impact both family and community engagement and, ultimately, student achievement.

    Acknowledgments

    Corwin would like to thank the following individuals for taking the time to provide their editorial insight:

    Denise Carlson, Curriculum Consultant

    Heartland Area Education Agency

    Johnston, IA

    Carol Gallegos, Literacy Coach

    Hanford Elementary School District

    Hanford, CA

    Lori Grossman, Academic Trainer/Mentor Program Coordinator

    Houston Independent School District

    HR/Professional Development Services

    Judson Laughter, Assistant Professor of English Education

    Department of Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    University of Tennessee

    Knoxville, TN

    Bess Scott, Director of Elementary Education

    Lincoln Public Schools

    Lincoln, NE

    About the Authors

    Dr. Jewell E. Cooper is an Associate Professor in the Teacher Education and Higher Education Department at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG) where she also serves as the Coordinator of Secondary Teacher Education. She holds a master's degree in curriculum and instruction from the University of Memphis and a Ph.D. in curriculum and teaching from UNCG. Prior to becoming a faculty member at UNCG, she was an Assistant Professor at Bennett College for Women. A middle school language arts teacher, Dr. Cooper also has public school teaching experience in North Carolina, Michigan, and Tennessee.

    Dr. Cooper's research areas include multicultural education, particularly community-based learning and culturally responsive teaching, secondary school reform, and teacher development. She has published several journal articles in national and international journals as well as book chapters in such publications as Leadership and Building Professional Communities; Home, School, and Community Collaboration: Culturally Responsible Family Involvement; and Race, Ethnicity, and Education (vol. 3).

    Dr. Cooper has taught college and university courses in multicultural education, models of teaching and educational psychology. For the past decade, her students have participated in community-based learning. She has conducted professional development related to diverse learners, culturally responsive teaching, inclusive practices, and self-regulated learning for both public and private schools. In 2003, she was awarded the Teaching Excellence Award by the UNCG School of Education, and in 2004, she was awarded the Alumni Teaching Excellence Award by the university.

    Dr. Ye He is an Assistant Professor in the Teacher Education and Higher Education Department at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG). She holds a PhD in curriculum and instruction with a concentration in teacher education. Before coming to UNCG, she taught English language courses and translation courses in public schools, colleges, and universities in China.

    Dr. He currently serves as the English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher education program coordinator at UNCG and teaches linguistics, ESL methods, and cross-cultural communication courses at the graduate level. As one of the co-PIs on a 5-year, $1.4 million National Professional Development grant, she has been engaged in professional development activities with both faculty at the university level and teachers in K-12 settings. In the last three years, she has delivered over 150 hours of professional development sessions on topics including second language development theories and teaching methods, building cultural backgrounds in lesson preparation and delivery, and other linguistic and cultural diversity issues in teaching and learning.

    Dr. He's research areas include ESL teacher education, diversity and equity in education, teacher beliefs and development, and the application of strength-based theories in teacher preparation. She has published one book and a number of peer-refereed articles on these topics. Her most recent publications include “Collaboration in Professional Development for ELL Content Achievement” in AccELLerate and “Moving Beyond ‘Just Good Teaching': ESL Professional Development for All Teachers” published in Professional Development in Education.

    Dr. Barbara B. Levin began her career in higher education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction (CUI) at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG) in 1993. Prior to attending UC-Berkeley and earning a PhD in Educational Psychology she was an elementary school teacher for 17 years. Her master's degree in curriculum and instruction is from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    Dr. Levin's research focuses on teacher education, especially understanding how teacher beliefs and teachers' pedagogical understandings develop across their careers. Other research interests include case-based pedagogy, problem-based learning, and teaching and learning with technology. Dr. Levin has published numerous articles in well-respected journals and has also published four books, including a best-selling book with Corwin titled Leading 21st Century Schools: Harnessing Technology for Engagement and Achievement.

    In addition to her teaching and research, Dr. Levin developed and led online professional development with National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) around completing teacher action research projects, and has worked with inservice teachers to focus on unit planning using Backward Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 2005) as part of a 5-year, $1.4 million National Professional Development grant called TESOL for ALL, awarded in 2007 by the U.S. Department of Education.

    Dr. Levin was her department's Director of Graduate Studies for eight years, and continues to serve as assistant chair for the Department of Teacher Education and Higher Education (formerly CUI). She is completing her eighth year as associate editor for Teacher Education Quarterly, and was awarded the first Mentoring-Advising-Supervising (MAS) Award by the School of Education at UNCG in 2008 for her mentoring of students and faculty members.

  • References

    Applebaum, B. (2003). White privilege, complicity, and the social construction of race. Educational Foundations, 17(4), 5–20
    Arias, M.B., & Morillo-Campbell, M. (2008). Promoting ELL parental involvement: Challenges in contested times. The Great Lakes Center for Education Research & Practice. Retrieved from http://www.greatlakescenter.org/docs/Policy_Briefs?Arias_ELL.pdf
    Banks, C. A.M., & Banks, J.A. (1995). Equity pedagogy: An essential component of multicultural education. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 152–158.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405849509543674
    Banks, J.A. (2001). Citizenship education and diversity: Implications for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(1), 5–16.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487101052001002
    Banks, J.A. (2006). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum and teaching (
    5th ed.
    ). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
    Boyle-Baise, M. (2005). Preparing community-oriented teachers: Reflections from a multicultural service-learning project. Journal of Teacher Education, 56, 446–458.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487105282113
    Boyle-Baise, M., & Sleeter, C.E. (1998). Community service learning for multicultural teacher education. Washington, DC: Education Resources Information Center. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED429925)
    Brown-Jeffy, S., & Cooper, J.E. (2011). Toward a conceptual framework of culturally relevant pedagogy: An overview of the conceptual and theoretical literature. Teacher Education Quarterly, 38 (1), 65–84.
    Buehl, M.M., & Fives, H. (2009). Exploring teachers’ beliefs about teaching knowledge: Where does it come from? Does it change?The Journal of Experimental Education, 77(4), 367–407.http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JEXE.77.4.367-408
    Burant, T.J., & Kirby, D. (2002). Beyond classroom-based early field experiences: Understanding an “educative practicum” in an urban school and community. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 561–575.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X%2802%2900016-1
    Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J., & Herwantoro-Hernandez, S. (2005). The new demography of America's schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    Carter, M., Cadge, W., Rivero, E., & Curran, S. (2002). Designing your community-based learning project: Five questions to ask about your pedagogical and participatory goals. Teaching Sociology, 30(2), 158–173.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3211380
    Chant, R.H. (2009). Developing involved and active citizens: The role of personal practical theories and action research in a standards-based social studies classroom. Teacher Education Quarterly, 36(4), 181–90.
    Chant, R.H., Heafner, T.L., & Bennett, K.R. (2004). Connecting personal theorizing and action research to preservice teacher development. Teacher Education Quarterly, 31(3), 25–42.
    Clair, N., & Adger, C.T. (1999). Professional development for teachers in culturally diverse schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/digest_pdfs/9908-clair-profdvpt.pdf
    Cochran-Smith, M., & Fries, M.K. (2001). Sticks, stones, and ideology: The discourse of reform in teacher education. Educational Researcher, 30(3), 3–14.http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X030008003
    Cooper, J.E. (2007). Strengthening the case for community-based learning in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 58 (3), 245–255.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487107299979
    Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). CEC performance-based standards. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org/ps/perf_based_stds/standards.html
    Cramer, K.D., & Wasiak, H. (2006). Change the way you see everything: Through asset-based thinking. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press.
    CrossT., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care, (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.
    Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs and reading groups. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (eds.). (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Dee, J.R., & Henkin, A.B. (2002). Assessing dispositions toward cultural diversity among preservice teachers. Urban Education, 37(1), 22–40.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042085902371003
    Delandshere, G., & Petrosky, A. (2004). Political rationales and ideological stances of the standards-based reform of teacher education in the US. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(1), 1–15.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2003.09.002
    Delpit, L. (1995). Other people's children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York, NY: The New Press.
    Delpit, L. (2010). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. In E.F.Provenzo, Jr. (ed.), The teacher in American society (pp. 97–120). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Department of Education. (2010). Supporting families and communities: Reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/blueprint/faq/supporting-family.pdf
    Duffy, G.G. (2002). Visioning and the development of outstanding teachers. Reading Research and Instruction, 41, 331–344.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19388070209558375
    Duffy, G.G., & Hoffman, J.V. (1999). In pursuit of an illusion: The flawed search for a perfect method. Reading Teacher, 53(1), 10–17.
    El-Haj, T.R. (2003). Practicing for equity from the standpoint of the particular: Exploring the work of one urban teacher network. Teachers College Record, 105, 817–845.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9620.00269
    Epstein, J.L. (1995). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 701–712.
    Epstein, J. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Epstein, J.L., & Sanders, M.G. (2006). Prospects for change: Preparing educators for school, family, and community partnerships. Peabody Journal of Education, 81(2), 81–120.http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327930pje8102_5
    Estrada, P. (2005). The courage to grow: A researcher and teacher linking professional development with small-group reading instruction and student achievement. Research in the Teaching of English, 39(4), 320–364.
    Fairbanks, C.M., Duffy, G.G., Faircloth, B.S., He, Y., Levin, B.B., Rohr, J., & Stein, C. (2010). Beyond knowledge: Exploring why some teachers are more thoughtfully adaptive than others. Journal of Teacher Education, 61 (1/2), 161–171.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487109347874
    Fenton, M. (ed.). (2006, November). The PTA News: The Official Letter of the Parent-Teacher Association of PS261. Retrieved from http://www.ps261.org/news/archive/200611.pdf
    Fickel, E.H. (2005). Teachers, tundra, and talking circles: Learning history and culture in an Alaskan native village. Theory and Research in Social Education, 33(4), 476–507.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00933104.2005.10473292
    Finkbeiner, C., & Koplin, C. (2002). A cooperative approach for facilitating intercultural education. Reading Online. Retrieved from http://www.readingonline.org/newliteracies/lit_index.asp?HREF=finkbeiner/index.html
    Fives, H., & Buehl, M.M. (2008). What do teachers believe? Developing a framework for examining beliefs about teachers’ knowledge and ability. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(2), 134–176.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.01.001
    Fuller-Thomson, E., & Minkler, M. (2001). American grandparents providing extensive childcare to their grandchildren: Prevalence and profile. The Gerontologist, 41, 201–209.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/41.2.201
    Gajda, R. (2004). Responding to the needs of the adopted child. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 40(4), 160–164.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00228958.2004.10516428
    Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), 106–116.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487102053002003
    Gay, G. (2010). Acting on beliefs in teacher education for cultural diversity. Journal of Teacher Education, 61 (1/2), 143–152.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487109347320
    Gelnaw, A., Brickley, M., Marsh, H., & Ryan, D. (2004). Opening doors: Lesbian and gay parents and schools. Washington, DC: Family Pride Coalition.
    Genzuk, M. (1999). Tapping into community funds of knowledge. In Effective strategies for English language acquisition: Curriculum guide for professional development of teachers grades kindergarten through eight (pp. 9–21). Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Annenberg Metropolitan Project.
    Gilmore, D.P., & Bell, K. (2006). We are family: Using diverse family structure literature with children. Reading Horizons, 46, 279–299.
    Gollnick, D.M., & Chinn, P.C. (2004). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society (
    6th ed.
    ). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
    Gonzalez, N., Moll, L., & Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households, communities, and classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Goodenough, W. (1963). Cooperation in change: An anthropological approach to community development. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Gordon, M.F., & Louis, K.S. (2009). Linking parent and community involvement with student achievement: Comparing principal and teacher perceptions of stakeholder influence. American Journal of Education, 116 (1), 1–31.http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/605098
    Grant, C., Elsbree, A.R., & Fondrie, S. (2004). A decade of research on the changing terrain of multicultural education research. In J.A.Banks & C.A. M.Banks (eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 184–207). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Grant, C., & Sleeter, C. (2006). Turning on learning: Five approaches to multicultural teaching plans for race, class, gender, and disability (
    4th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Grant, K.B., & Ray, J.A. (2010). Home, school, and community collaboration: Culturally responsive family involvement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hall, G.E., & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the process. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Hammerness, K. (2003). Learning to hope, or hoping to learn? The role of vision in the early professional lives of teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 54 (1), 43–56.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487102238657
    Hammerness, K. (2006). Seeing through teachers’ eyes: Professional ideals and classroom practices. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Hammerness, K., Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (with Berliner, D., Cochran-Smith, M., McDonald, M., & Zeichner, K.). (2005). How teachers learn and develop. In L.Darling-Hammond & J.Bransford (eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world (pp 358–389). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension for understanding and engagement (
    2nd ed.
    ). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(1), 33–49.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0742-051X%2894%2900012-U
    Hawes, C.A., & Plourde, L.A. (2005). Parental involvement and its influence on the reading achievement of 6th grade students. Reading Improvement, 42(1), 47–57.
    He, Y., & Cooper, J.E. (2009). The ABCs for preservice teacher cultural competency development. Teaching Education, 20(3), 305–322.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10476210902943256
    He, Y., & Levin, B. (2008). Match or mismatch? How congruent are the beliefs of teacher candidates, teacher educators, and field mentors?Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(4), 37–55.
    Henderson, A., & Mapp, K. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools.
    Herrera, S. (2010). Biography-driven culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Hill, N.E., & Craft, S.A. (2003). Parent-school involvement and school performance: Mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African American and Euro-American families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95 (1), 74–83.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.74
    Hobbs, N. (1978). Classification options: A conversation with Nicholas Hobbs on exceptional child education. Exceptional Children, 44, 494–497.
    Hong, S., & Ho, H. (2005). Direct and indirect longitudinal effects of parental involvement on student achievement: Second-order latent growth modeling across ethnic groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(1), 32–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.97.1.32
    Hord, S.M. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
    Hord, S.M., Rutherford, W.L., Huling-Austin, L., & Hall, G.E. (1987). Taking charge of change. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Howard, G.R. (2006). We can't teach what we don't know: White teachers, multiracial schools. (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York, NY: Teacher College Press.
    Hubbard, R.S., & Power, B.M. (2003). The art of classroom inquiry: A handbook for teacher researchers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium. (1992). Model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue. Retrieved from http://cehhs.utk.edu/ncate/utir/cf/cf.6.pdf
    Ivey, A.E., & Ivey, M.B. (2007). Intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thompson Learning.
    James, E. (2009). Children of divorce: The shocking statistics. Retrieved from http://www.articlesbase.com/divorce-articles/children-of-divorce-the-shocking-statistics-833765.html
    Jenks, C., Lee, J.O., & Kanpol, B. (2001). Approaches to multicultural education in preservice teacher education: Philosophical frameworks and models for teaching. Urban Review, 33(2), 87–105.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010389023211
    Jennings, L.B., & Smith, C.P. (2002). Examining the role of critical inquiry for transformative practices. Teachers College Record, 104 (3), 456–481.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9620.00169
    Jewett, S. (2006). If you don't identify with your ancestry, you're like a race without a land: Constructing race at a small urban middle school. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 37(1), 144–161.http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aeq.2006.37.2.144
    Jeynes, W.H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82–110.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042085906293818
    Jezewski, M.A., & Sotnik, P. (2001). The rehabilitation service provider as culture broker: Providing culturally competent services to foreign born persons. Buffalo, NY: Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information and Exchange.
    Johns, B.H., Crowley, E.P., & Guetzloe, E. (2001). Effective curriculum for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Reaching them through teaching them. Denver, CO: Love.
    Jost, A., Whitfield, E.L., & Jost, M. (2005). When the rules are fair but the game isn't. Multicultural Education, 13(1), 14–21.
    Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (eds.). (1988). The action research planner (
    3rd. ed.
    ). Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press.
    Kennedy, M. (2006). Knowledge and vision in teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 205–211.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487105285639
    Khanna, N., & Harris, C.A. (2009). Teaching race as a social construction: Two interactive class exercises. Teaching Sociology, 37, 369–378.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0092055X0903700405
    Kozleski, B., Pugach, M., & Yinger, R. (2002, February). Preparing teachers to work with students with disabilities: Possibilities and challenges for special and
    Kuh, G.D. (2007). Success in college. In P.Lingenfelter (ed.), More student success: A systemic solution, pp. 95–107. Boulder, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers.
    Kurtts, S.A., Ponder, G., & Cooper, J.E. (2006). Integrating systems of care philosophy and practices into schools: The perspectives of special education and general education. In C.Herrick & M.Arbuckle (eds.), Interdisciplinary Practice: Systems of Care. (pp. 267–289). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
    Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 159–165.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405849509543675
    Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). Crossing over to Canaan: The journey of new teachers in diverse classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Lee, J. (2002). Racial and ethnic achievement gap trends: Reversing the progress toward equity?Educational Researcher, 31(3), 3–12.http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X031001003
    Leistyna, P. (2001). Extending the possibilities of multicultural professional development in public schools. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 16(4), 282–304.
    Levin, B.B., & He, Y. (2008). Investigating the content and sources of preservice teachers’ personal practical theories (PPTs). Journal of Teacher Education, 59(1), 55–68.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487107310749
    Levin, B.B., & He, Y., & Allen, M.A. (2010, April). What do they believe now? A cross-sectional longitudinal follow-up study of teachers’ beliefs in action. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.
    Lott, B. (2001). Low-income parents and the public schools. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 247–259.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00211
    Lustig, M.W., & Koester, J. (2003). Intercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Lytle, S., & Cochran-Smith, M. (1990). Learning from teacher research: A working typology. Teachers College Record, 92(1), 83–103.
    McDiarmid, G.W. (1992). What to do about differences? A study of multicultural education for teacher trainees in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Journal of Teacher Education, 43(2), 83–93.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487192043002002
    McIntosh, P. (1990). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Independent School, 49(2), 31–36.
    McLaren, P. (2006). Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education (
    5th ed.
    ). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    McNaughton, D., & Vostal, B. (2010). Using active listening to improve collaboration with parents: The LAFF don't CRY strategy. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45, 251–256.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1053451209353443
    Milner, H.R.IV. (2010). What does teacher education have to do with teaching? Implications for diversity studies. Journal of Teacher Education, 61, 118–131.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487109347670
    Moll, L.C., & González, N. (1994). Lessons from research with language-minority children. Journal of Reading Behavior, 26(4), 439–456.
    Moll, L.C., & Greenberg, J.M. (1990). Creating zones of possibilities: Combining social constructs for instruction. In L.C.Moll (ed.), Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and applications of sociohistorical psychology. (pp. 319–348). New York, NY: Cambridge Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173674.016
    Mooney, L.A., & Edwards, B. (2001). Experiential learning in sociology: Service learning and other community-based learning initiatives. Teaching Sociology, 29(2), 181–194.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1318716
    Moss, G. (2001). Critical pedagogy: Translation for education that is multicultural. Multicultural Education, 9(2), 2–11.
    Murrell, P.C. (2001). The community teacher: A new framework for effective urban teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    National Board of Professional Teaching Standards. (n.d.). What teachers should know and be able to do. Retrieved from http://www.nbpts.org/pdf/coreprops.pdf
    National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. (n.d.). NCATE unit standards. Retrieved from http://www.ncate.org/public/standards.asp
    Nieto, S. (2000). Placing equity front and center: Some thoughts on transforming teacher education in a new century. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3), 180–187.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487100051003004
    Nieto, S. (2003). Challenging current notions of “highly qualified teachers” through work in a teachers’ inquiry group. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(5), 386–398.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487103257394
    Nieto, S., & Bode, P. (2008). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (
    5th ed.
    ). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Oberg, A., & McCutcheon, G. (1987). Teachers’ experience doing action research. Peabody Journal of Education, 64(2), 116–128.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01619568709538554
    http://Officialmoviepage.com. (2010). The official movie site of Mad Hot Ballroom (2005). Retrieved from http://officialmoviepage.com/mad-hot-ballroom.
    Owens, T.R., & Wang, C. (1996). Community-based learning: A foundation for meaningful educational reform (Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, School Improvement Research Series). Retrieved from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/t008.html
    Paek, P.L. (2008). Practices worthy of attention: Local innovations in strengthening secondary mathematics. Austin, TX: The Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin.
    Pajares, M.F. (1992). Teacher's beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–322.
    Parent/Teacher Home Visit Project, The. (2011). The parent/teacher home visit project. Retrieved from http://www.pthvp.org/
    Parents as Teachers. (n.d.). Vision. Retrieved from http://www.parentsasteachers.org/about/what-we-do/visionmission-history
    Raphael, T. (1994). Collaboration on the book club project: The multiple roles of researchers, teachers, and students. Reading Horizons, 34, 381–405.
    Rattigan-Rohr, J.P. (2005). The examination of prospective teachers’ initial and developing vision (Doctoral dissertation). Available from Dissertations & Theses at University of North Carolina at Greensboro. (Publication No. AAT 3182835).
    Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In J.Sikula (ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 102–119). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
    Richardson, V. (2003). Preservice teachers’ beliefs. In J.Raths & A.McAninch (eds.). Teacher beliefs and teacher education. Advances in teacher education (pp. 1–22). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
    Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (
    5th ed.
    ). New York, NY: Free Press.
    Rong, X.L., & Preissle, J. (2009). Educating immigrant students in the 21st century: What educators need to know. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Rothstein, R. (2004). A wider lens on the achievement gap. Phi Delta Kappan, 86 (2), 104–110.
    Saleebey, D. (1992). The strengths perspective in social work practice. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Schmidt, P.R. (1999). Know thyself and understand others. Language Arts, 76, 332–340.
    Schmidt, P.R. (2001). The power to empower. In P.R.Schmidt & P.B.Mosenthal (eds.). Reconceptualizing literacy in the new age of multiculturalism and pluralism (pp. 389–443). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
    Schmidt, P.R., & Finkbeiner, C. (2006). What is the ABCs of cultural understanding and communication? In P.R.Schmidt & C.Finkbeiner (eds.), The ABCs of cultural understanding and communication: National and international adaptations (pp. 1–18). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
    Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Schön, D. A. (1996). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Shim, S., & Serido, J. (2010). Wave 1.5 economic impact study: Financial well-being, coping behaviors and trust among young adults. National Endowment for Financial Education (NEFE). Retrieved from http://aplus.arizona.edu/wave1_5_report.pdf
    Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.
    Shulman, L. (2004). Professional development: Leaning from experience. In S.Wilson (ed.), The wisdom of practice: Essays on teaching, learning, and learning to teach (pp. 503–522). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Shulman, L., & Shulman, J. (2004). How and what teachers learn: A shifting perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36, 257–271.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0022027032000148298
    Simon, B.S. (2001). Family involvement in high school: Predictors and effects. NASSP Bulletin, 85(2), 8–19.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019263650108562702
    Sleeter, C.E. (1992). Keepers of the American dream. London, UK: Falmer Press.
    Sleeter, C.E. (2000). Strengthening multicultural education with community-based service learning. In C.R.O'Grady (ed.), Integrating service learning and multicultural education in colleges and universities (pp. 263–276). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Sleeter, C.E. (2001). Preparing teachers for culturally diverse schools: Research and the overwhelming presence of whiteness. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 94–106.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487101052002002
    Sleeter, C.E. (2009). Developing teacher epistemological sophistication about multicultural curriculum: A case study. Action in Teacher Education, 31(1), 3–13.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01626620.2009.10463506
    Smith, J., & Wohlstetter, P. (2009). Parent involvement in urban charter schools: A new paradigm or the status quo? (Report prepared for School Choice and Improvement: Research in State, District and Community Contexts, Vanderbilt University). Retrieved from http://www.vanderbilt.edu/schoolchoice/conference/papers/Smith-Wohlstetter_COMPLETE.pdf
    Smith, R.W. (2000). The influence of teacher background on the inclusion of multicultural education: A case study of two contrasts. Urban Review, 32(2), 155–176.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005133815768
    Snyder, C.R. (1995). Conceptualizing, measuring, and nurturing hope. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 355–360.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1995.tb01764.x
    Supporting Families and Communities: Reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. (2010). Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/blueprint/faq/supporting-family.pdf
    Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). (2007). TESOL standards for P-12 teacher education programs. Retrieved from http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/seccss.asp?CID=219&DID=1689
    Thiagarajan, S. (2006). Barnga: A simulation game on cultural clashes. (
    3rd ed.
    ). Boston, MA: Intercultural Press.
    U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). Population profile of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/files/dynamic/poverty.pdf
    Vanneman, A., Hamilton, L., Anderson, J.B., & Rahman, T. (2009). Achievement gaps: How Black and White students in public schools perform in mathematics and reading on the national assessment of educational progress. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2009455.pdf
    Villegas, A.M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Wideen, M., Mayer-Smith, J., & Moon, B. (1998). A critical analysis of the research on learning to teach: Making the case for an ecological perspective on inquiry. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 130–178.
    Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Zeichner, K. (1993). Educating teachers for cultural diversity. East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning, Michigan State University.
    Zeichner, K. (2010). Rethinking the connections between campus courses and field experiences in college- and university-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1), 89–99.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487109347671
    Zumwalt, K., & Craig, E. (2005). Teacher's characteristics: Research on the demographic profile. In Cochran-Smith, M., & Zeichner, K. (eds.), Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education (pp. 111–156). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website