Designing Schools for Meaningful Professional Learning: A Guidebook for Educators

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Janice Bradley

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    Foreword

    To improve anything—whether it is a garden for producing nutritious vegetables, or a means by which to develop students’ understanding of latitude and longitude—non-effective factors or features must be deleted and changed to some having more potential for success; this change to the “new” requires learning what the change is and how to use it.

    This means that adults in our schools, our educators, consistently undertake the improvement process of

    • Reviewing a broad array of student performance data
    • Identifying areas of students’ low performance
    • Specifying what is not working productively and adopting new practice that has the potential to generate more positive outcomes
    • Learning what the adopted change is and how to effectively put it into classroom practice.

    Adult learning in our schools is, thus, an imperative, and this professional learning must be continuous, of high quality, and designed with the most effective features possible so as to influence educators’ new knowledge and skills that impact students’ learning.

    This is no small feat. But when new research and practice inform us of ways to conduct professional learning more effectively, it is essential to carefully consider how to insure that all adults’ experience successful learning processes that will reach all classrooms, all schools, and all districts. The question demanding attention then is, How to move the successful model of the Five Part Plan (FPP), the focus of attention of the study reported in this book, across the landscape to all schools.

    In summary, this Foreword provides a few words before the book begins and is cast in the understanding that

    • any change (of knowledge, behaviors, skills, attitudes, etc.) requires relevant learning; and
    • explicit learning can produce related changes in knowledge, behaviors, skills, attitudes, etc.

    Professional learning and change process are therefore inextricably linked. This Foreword uses change process research to respond to the question above:

    How to scale up the successful model of professional learning reported in this manuscript.

    Because a foreword implies a short text, the suggestions and commentary provided here are done in a condensed and streamlined manner. Certainly, additional expository text and material are available through the references cited.

    Research on Implementation

    After years of frustrations derived from the introduction of new practices, programs, and processes in schools failed to result in their quality use in classrooms across the US, the federal Department of Education requested a research team to identify the requirements that would move new practices into new classrooms. This team worked in multiple schools for multiple years to answer this question. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) (Hall & Hord, 2015; Hord & Roussin, 2013) was the result.

    Tools for the Change Leaders/Facilitators

    The findings from the research included the attention to creating tools whereby change leaders could gain awareness of potential and involved implementers’ attitudes and reactions to new curriculum or new instructional protocols, for example (tool: Stages of Concern); implementers’ behavioral approaches or how they were making the transition to using new programs (tool: Levels of Use); and, the progress made by implementers as they moved from novices who were initiating changes to experts in their use of innovations (tool: Innovation Configurations).

    Strategies for Implementation

    Importantly, this team also tracked the larger actions or long-term strategies that change leaders used to develop a game plan and its related actions for the introduction and complete transition of the change into appropriate classrooms, or other desired sites (Six Strategies: Moving from Adoption to Full Implementation). It is this larger framework to which attention is given in this short text (see Hord & Roussin, 2013; Hord, Rutherford, Huling, & Hall, 2014).

    A Framework or Game Plan for Implementation

    Any professional or arm-chair sports “expert,” without question, will attest to the importance of the coaching team's plan for winning sports contests. Considering school improvement plans, there is no absolute certainty about the outcomes to be gained from any implementation plans. But, there is a large degree of confidence and success that can be derived from engaging the six strategies revealed in the research on implementation. For, it is implementation, or transfer of new practices to the sites where students may benefit from teachers’ more effective teaching, that is the target of professional learning (Fullan, Hord, Von Frank, Chapter 2, 2014).

    The initial step is to clarify the new practice, for all who will be involved—principals, teachers, teacher leaders, central office staff—whether they serve as implementers or facilitators of the change.

    Articulate a Vision of the Change

    One can easily think of implementation or the transfer of new practice into its desired sites as a journey. And, like any journey, the ultimate destination is required before one sets sail to initiate the journey to the end point. Thus, creating written text that defines and reflects the new practice in operation when it is fully implemented in a high quality way is the significant starting point of the change journey—we “begin with the end” (Lindsey, Lindsey, Hord, & Von Frank, Chapter 2, 2015).

    Key words noted above are “in operation” for this text dictates what the desired results are in terms of action words, and active voice, that describe what each of the role groups involved (administrators, teachers, etc.) are doing, related to the new practices. This vision creation and articulation is the first strategy or step in the process of broadcasting any innovation (or new practice, program, process) to a larger setting.

    A starting point is to analyze and specify the major components or parts of an innovation. In terms of the Five Part Plan (FPP), it appears that there are seven unique features that define the FPP. The first of these is the creation, by the school faculty, of an effective classroom-learning environment. Sharing the process and outcomes of the identification of five instructional practices that the entire school will pursue is a first part of the vision building. Who plays roles in this vision building? Most likely it is the principal, or possibly assistant principal. Or, it could be a strong teacher leader, or a district office person. Whoever the guide is, this person is joined by the teaching faculty, for this focus of the school's professional learning is made by the whole school. Other components of the FPP will need to be identified and clearly defined through action-oriented statements (see Innovation Configurations).

    Invest in Professional Learning

    Since the Bradley book is focused on the what, and the how that teaching staff are engaging in their learning, this strategy refers the reader to the book, for no foreword can do it justice. But, be sure to remember that successful adult learning that is transferred to classroom practice involves four steps (Joyce & Showers, 2002): (1) telling the educator learners about the new practice, (2) demonstrating or modeling it for the adult learners, (3) providing the learners with time for practice and giving feedback on the practices, (4) providing follow-up that includes facilitators who interact with the adult learners one-on-one to answer questions, clarify puzzlements, observe and elicit collaborative feedback based on the observations. Joyce and Showers research indicate that the first three steps are cumulative and that it is at the addition of the fourth step, follow up, that transfer is accomplished.

    Construct an Implementation Plan and Identify Required Resources

    The FPP model of professional learning is a complex one involving not only knowledge and skills, but feelings of trust in oneself and in others, agreeable and positive relationship factors so that interaction within the teams is constructive, and learners’ change, growth, and improvement occurs.

    Time is a resource of enormous significance if this professional learning model is successful. In the book, the reader learns of the actions that principals took and the resources they accessed that supported the acquisition of necessary resources and the happy ending to this story of adult learning.

    Needless to say, the FPP allows—demands—that teachers take on roles of deep study and exploration of instructional approaches and strategies, and further, that they make decisions unlike what they have been permitted to make in the past. There will, thus, be role changes, changes in allocations of budget items, possible changes in the school's schedules and other structural and relational conditions. This means that school personnel will take on new models of learning such as the FPP and they should be provided with explanations about the adjustments and re-alignment of schedules required for the changes inherent in the new professional learning model.

    Assess Implementers’ Growth and Progress

    Despite implementers’ provision of excellent professional learning processes and resources, time and much support are typically necessary for successfully transferring new programs and processes into new settings. To ensure that the support is truly helpful, assessing the degree to which implementers (in this case, the adults) are taking on new practices appropriately is critically important. The tools mentioned earlier in this manuscript can be used to do this assessing. The Innovation Configuration map is a tool created from the concept of multiple configurations of innovations and is a prime tool for assessing progress. For this clearly articulated text that describes the new practices in operation can be used as a measure to judge how close to “ideal” implementation is occurring.

    Without this assessing, providing supportive assistance is impossible—to which we turn.

    Provide Ongoing Assistance

    As noted above, the idea is that Assessing and Assisting are like the proverbial hand in glove. This follow-up is what the research of Joyce and Showers cited; it is what the “one-legged conferences” of the CBAM are. This follow-up is the work that coaches typically do, to facilitate the implementation of new processes such as new professional learning models for the educators in schools.

    In addition to using the data collected by observing implementers and their work, or by conducting short conversations to elicit “where she or he is” in gaining expertise with the new way,” the facilitator who intends to support the implementer through helpful conversations and feedback, must develop a friendly, appreciative attitude, and respectful relationship with the implementer. Building trust is foundational.

    Create a Context Supportive of Change

    Working with an improvement-seeking faculty in a school or district makes change introduction relatively easy. When staff know that making a mistake when learning to use new schemes or processes will not result in flogging at high noon, this takes non-productive pressure off the implementing staff. Of course, mistakes are not invited, but in fact, they are used as opportunities for clarification and growth. Further, leaders of change who pay attention to the feelings and reactions of implementers (via Stages of Concern) by making adjustments based on SoC data go a long way toward creating a positive context that invites change … that will lead to improvement, that ultimately impacts students’ successful learning.

    Adoption

    The six strategies that have been introduced briefly are used to construct plans for the implementation of new processes, such as the Five Part Plan, a new schema for providing professional learning in a school. There is, of course, a means by which to entice the innovative process to the school and/or district where it can be implemented. Broadcasting, communicating, or marketing the new process through articles in the educational journals and through presentation at educational conferences makes initial information available. This sequence of events precedes adoption and implementation and has its own challenges.

    A major platform for introducing or adopting a new professional learning program or process rests on 1) enhancing the current process so that it is increasingly more effective, or 2) there is a critical need that is addressed by the new process. If there is not a need for a different way of providing and conducting professional learning, educators will likely be very reluctant to accept new professional learning practices. While current professional learning practices in many schools and in many districts are vital and enthusiastically engaged, there is the reality of dull and boring, off-target and totally ineffective professional learning that is being employed in many of our schools and districts. Consider this picture:

    A presenter stands at a computer or other electronic device that advances slides. We hear click, click—lecture, lecture—click—lecture–click—lecture—- ad nauseum. The learner is not engaged, except to take notes perhaps, for what purpose? Is there a need for a new approach to professional learning here? You bet !

    We know that effective learning that requires more than “cough back what you heard” must engage the learner, whether the learner is a young student or an adult educator. A significant way to engage adult learners is to provide them voice and choice in what they will learn and how to learn it—this theory has been richly manifested in the experiences reported in Bradley's book.

    In addition to need, the wise school improver takes note of the environmental factors required for the success of a new process or program. Bringing FPP to a school that is clearly unable to access the time and other resources necessary is a foolish enterprise.

    Engaging an array of representatives of role groups to be involved in the study and exploration of a new professional learning process makes it possible to communicate effectively with all stakeholders. Informing stakeholders of the need, and the solution to address the need can be used to solicit their interest, approval and support in making the decision for adopting—bringing the new process to the school or district. Stakeholder reps can also aid in introducing the innovation, and doing so in the company of a make-it-yourself hot fudge sundae meeting might not be a bad idea.

    The ideas shared in this Foreword come from research on school change, and from the experiences of practitioners in the field who employ the research and add to it. In this Foreword, the ideas are at the introduction level, and interested readers are invited to refer to the cited references for more information.

    For certain, professional learning for our educators must be effective, and continuous. This thesis recently emerged in the comic pages of the daily news, where we see Dolly (of Family Circus, a pre-school or first grade pupil) being welcomed home after the first day of school by her mother who inquires, “Did you learn a lot on your first day?”

    As she strolls away from her mother, Dolly replies, “Yes, but they want me to go back tomorrow anyway.”

    Indeed, we want our educators to go back tomorrow and the tomorrow after that, engaged in continuous professional learning such as the FPP model that invites them to participate in decision making, and results in becoming ever increasingly expert for teaching our students.

    References
    Fullan, M., Hord, S. M. & Von Frank, 2014). Reach the highest standard in professional learning: Implementation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin & Learning Forward.
    Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (2015). Implementing change: Patterns, principles, and potholes (
    4th
    ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    Hord, S. M., & Roussin, J. L. (2013). Implementing change through learning: Concerns-based concepts, tools, and strategies for guiding change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Hord, S. M., Rutherford, W. L., Huling, L., & Hall, G.E. (2014). Taking charge of change. Austin, TX: SEDL.
    Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development (
    3rd
    ed.). Alexandria: VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Lindsey, D. B., Lindsey, R. B., Hord, S. M., & Von Frank, V. (2015). Reaching the highest standard in professional learning: Outcomes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin & Learning Forward.
    Shirley M. Hord, PhDLearning ForwardSeptember 2014

    Preface

    Let's open a conversation space. Within these pages is a guidebook for how to design a school for meaningful professional learning using a supportive structure, called the Five-Part Plan (FPP). The FPP model provides teachers time and experiences to grow and advance into effective/highly effective facilitators of student learning through active engagement in self-selected learning designs. Unique features of the FPP include the following:

    • Creating a shared vision among school staff for effective classroom learning environments
    • Alignment to the teacher evaluation system
    • Teachers self-selection of learning designs
    • Opportunities for teachers to act as knowledge producers
    • Attention to three dimensions of professional learning: technical, psychological/emotional, and social
    • Knowledge Showcase
    • Creation of a Professional Knowledge Base

    For one year, the research-informed FPP was enacted at four schools—one high school and three elementary schools. It was created synergistically by principals, teacher leaders, and myself, the university partner, in response to a compelling need for teachers to have time to improve teaching practice as measured by teacher evaluation, and to create ownership in their learning. This book is meant to serve as a manual for educators who want to design schools for authentic, purposeful, and enjoyable professional learning. Strategies for implementation, along with stories of enactment and results, are included throughout the chapters.

    Features of the Book

    Designing Schools for Meaningful Professional Learning explores how school-based educators can work collaboratively to create a highly effective, low-stress culture of collaboration and knowledge building for supporting student learning. Research, articles, and literature abound with theories and practices about effective professional learning, but it is often difficult for educators to find the planning time to translate theory into practice at their school. This book offers a detailed plan that responds to the need for teachers to find time to learn collaboratively through a variety of self-selected learning designs connected to their classroom and to advance teachers’ facilitation of student learning as measured by the teacher evaluation system. Each chapter guides school-based educators with authentic highlights, successes, and challenges using comments and vignettes, and provides protocols, facilitation suggestions, and troubleshooting tips for implementation.

    Chapter 1Moving to Meaningful Professional Learning in Schools provides information from research and experts in the field about professional learning and what it currently looks like in schools. Decisions made about professional learning are examined, as well as who influences and makes those decisions. Reasons are explored for why schools should be intentionally designed for professional learning. The FPP for designing a school for meaningful professional learning is introduced in this chapter, accompanied by how the FPP aligns professional learning to teacher evaluation. Two unique ideas about professional learning are introduced in this chapter and explored in later chapters: (1) how teachers can become knowledge producers to inform and advance their practice, and (2) how teachers can create a Professional Knowledge Base for archiving successful practices in student learning.

    Chapter 2The Five-Part Plan: How to Design a School for Meaningful Professional Learning describes each part of the research-informed plan that four schools implemented for one year. Protocols and suggestions for facilitation are described in detail.

    Part 1—Reaching Consensus results in the Five Agreements, a consensus among school staff about what five practices should be in every classroom every day to support student learning. Teacher evaluation elements align the Five Agreements with descriptors of effective/highly effective teaching methods to ensure the five practices are in concert with what will be measured.

    Part 2—Selecting the Learning Design results in teachers selecting one of nine learning designs to learn how to become effective/highly effective with the Five Agreements.

    Part 3—Implementing the Learning Design Cycle describes how teachers collaborate in two cycles of learning designs to connect learning outside of their classrooms to practice and enactment inside them.

    Part 4—Sharing Professional Knowledge with Whole School Staff describes a Knowledge Showcase and how teachers share learning with evidence produced from participation in the two cycles of learning designs.

    Part 5—Creating a Professional Knowledge Base illustrates how a school can archive knowledge so that successful strategies and practices are remembered.

    Chapter 3Cycles of Learning Designs Connected to the Classroom details nine learning designs supported by research and Learning Forward's Standards for Professional Learning. Each design consists of a protocol for enactment and is illustrated with a vignette from practice. In each protocol is a description of the design that includes studying and planning a classroom lesson with the new practice, enacting the lesson in the classroom collaboratively, and assessing student outcomes. Unique to the learning designs is nonjudgmental, descriptive feedback about student results and teaching outcomes apart from the teacher. The nine learning designs included in this chapter are the following: (1) Collaborative Teaching and Assessing, (2) Peer Teaching, (3) Vertical Team Study, (4) Intentional Practicing with Student Response, (5) Using Technology—Linked-In Lessons, (6) Studying Video and Application, (7) Lesson Study, (8) Shared Learning with Teachers, Principals, and Coaches, and (9) Creative and Innovative Teaching.

    Chapter 4The Power of Teachers Selecting Learning Designs explores the need to promote teacher self-efficacy through selection of learning designs, how and why teachers select specific designs, the benefits for teachers selecting learning designs, and ways in which the choice of learning designs connects to growth through teacher evaluation.

    Chapter 5—Assessing and Evaluating Changes considers the difference between assessment and evaluation, and why assessment was an important term to use to determine the impact of the FPP. This chapter includes the results from implementing the FPP, specifically what was assessed and what improved as a result of teachers engaging in the FPP. A process to assess the FPP or any professional plan at a school is described, and a checklist is provided at the end of the chapter for a practitioner to use.

    Chapter 6The Principal: The Key to Making Learning Happen examines the crucial role of the principal in implementing the FPP, and the need for the principal to understand the value of professional learning to support and connect job-embedded learning to teacher evaluation. This chapter includes communication tools a principal can use to promote a climate of trust, and some “behind the scenes” actions a principal takes before introducing the FPP to staff.

    Chapter 7Three Dimensions of Learning Designs: Technical, Psychological/Emotional, and Social introduces three dimensions useful for developing and assessing learning designs: (1) Technical—how do you do it? (2) Psychological/Emotional—is it enjoyable for you? (3) Social—how do we learn together? Each dimension is explored through a research lens, and reasons are cited for why all three dimensions must be considered for professional learning to be an optimal experience.

    Chapter 8Building a School's Professional Knowledge Base proposes the development of a professional knowledge base and some reasons why each school should create one. Learning at three schools, from teachers’ engagement in two cycles of learning designs, was scrutinized as to whether practices contributed to both teacher and student learning. Suggestions were made for knowledge that should be archived so as to allow ongoing access for other educators.

    Chapter 9Meaningful Learning to Remember synthesizes learning from implementation of the FPP during one school year. Addressed are the benefits and challenges, some final thoughts, and an invitation for all school-based educators to take creative action to design their schools for meaningful professional learning. Wise educators must respond to the need for teachers to have time and efficacy to engage in professional learning that leads to advances in student learning. When educators establish a climate of collaboration and a culture of continuous learning at a school, dramatic changes can happen.

    Acknowledgments

    Abundant gratitude and appreciation goes to the principals, teacher leaders, teachers, instructional coaches, and students who inspired the content of this guidebook. Without the cooperation and dedication of these amazing educators who took risks with me to grow and learn, this book would not exist. Special thanks goes to the talented and supportive professional educators who comprise the Mathematically Connected Communities (MC2) and the MC2–Leadership Institute for Teachers at New Mexico State University, who provided a collaborative, supportive place promoting growth and creative action, and to my husband, Steve, for his technical help, for taking time to listen and reflect, and for exhibiting great patience during the writing process.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    • Denny Berry

      Assistant Professor (formerly Director, Cluster 6 Schools, Fairfax County Public Schools)

      Curry School of Education, University of Virginia

      Charlottesville, VA

    • Jenni Donohoo

      Research Consultant

      Greater Essex County District School Board

      Windsor, ON

    • Bill Hall

      Director of Educational Leadership & Professional Development

      Brevard Public Schools

      Viera, FL

    • Cate Hart Hyatt

      Educational Consultant

      Indiana University, Center on Education and Lifelong Learning

      Bloomington, IN

    • Shirley M. Hord

      Lecturer/Professional Developer, Independent Consultant—focus on school change/improvement, especially professional learning communities

      Informal affiliation, Scholar Laureate, Learning Forward

    • Alysson Keelen

      Howell Twp. Public School District

      Adelphia School

      Freehold, NJ

    • Nikki Golar Mouton

      Executive Director of Staff Development

      Gwinnett County Public Schools

      Suwanee, GA

    About the Author

    Janice Bradley, PhD, is a lifelong educator whose passion is to learn alongside educators to create equitable school cultures for powerful learning. She specializes in designing and facilitating authentic, relevant professional learning experiences for change and improvement in practice, with leaders at all levels of a school system, including leadership teams, principals, teacher leaders, instructional coaches, and mathematics teachers.

    Bradley's classroom experience includes teaching at all elementary grade levels with students from diverse backgrounds. Her district-level experience was obtained through serving as a K–12 mathematics specialist and coordinating professional learning experiences for mathematics teachers and leaders.

    At the university level, she has served as adjunct professor at three universities and currently is a faculty member at New Mexico State University. Her research interests include creating school climates for trust and collaboration, professional learning communities, systemic change, teacher leadership, and elementary mathematics.

    At the national level, she served as a site coordinator on a collaborative project with SEDL and the Charles A. Dana Center, funded by the Department of Education, where she facilitated learning for systemic change with educators in six states. She facilitated learning sessions at numerous conferences, and served as a consultant for educators who want to integrate research into practice. Bradley holds a doctorate in mathematics education from the University of Texas at Austin. Her dissertation was on mathematics coaching.

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    Resources

    Copyright © 2015 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Designing Schools for Meaningful Professional Learning: A Guidebook for Educators by Janice Bradley. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com

    Copyright © 2015 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Designing Schools for Meaningful Professional Learning: A Guidebook for Educators by Janice Bradley. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com

    Collaborative Planning, Teaching, and Assessing (CPTA)
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Look at the objectives of the lesson
    • Align the objectives of the state standards
    • Study the standards
    • Identify learning targets for students
    • Plan the lesson flow
    • Look at the “Five Agreements” to identify intentional learning
    • Identify 1–3 research-based strategies to use during the lesson
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each adult will participate during the lesson
    • One teacher facilitates the collaboratively planned lesson
    • Teacher names the specific target or strategy used during the lesson so it is explicit to students
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended strategy
    • Teacher stops class three minutes before the bell or end of lesson to give students the exit ticket
    • Teachers collect student work samples and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teacher who taught the lesson shares first impressions of using intended strategies and overall observations of the lesson
    • Look at student work samples of exit tickets
    • Each teacher chooses an interesting strategy or way of thinking to share with the group
    • Identify students’ misconceptions or misunderstandings
    • Identify strategies to support student growth as measured by the state standards
    • Reflect on CPTA as a learning design—what did you learn that you can apply in your class?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the CPTA learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the CPTA cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?
    Peer Teaching
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Look at the objectives of the lesson
    • Align the objectives to the state standards
    • Study the standards
    • Identify learning targets for students
    • Plan the lesson flow
    • Look at the “Five Agreements” to identify intentional learning
    • Identify 1–3 research-based strategies to use during the lesson
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each teacher will participate during the lesson
    • One or both teachers facilitate the collaboratively planned lesson
    • Teacher names the specific target or strategy used during the lesson so it is explicit to students
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended strategy
    • Teacher stops class three minutes before the bell or end of lesson to give students the exit ticket
    • Teachers collect student work samples and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teachers share first impressions of using intended strategies and overall observations of the lesson
    • Look at student work samples of exit tickets
    • Each teacher chooses an interesting strategy or way of thinking to share with the group
    • Identify students’ misconceptions or misunderstandings
    • Identify strategies to support student growth as measured by the state standards
    • Reflect on Peer Teaching as a learning design— what did you learn that you can apply in your class?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Peer Teaching learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Peer Teaching cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?
    Vertical Team Study
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Identify the area of need for vertical learning
    • Identify the specific vertical learning focus
    • Set common goals using the “Five Agreements” to identify intentional learning
    • Identify resources, videos, research to study
    • Identify 1–3 research-based strategies to use during a lesson
    • Identify the “lesson flow” and where the strategies will be integrated in the lesson
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each teacher will participate during the lesson
    • One or more teachers facilitate the lesson
    • Teacher names the specific target or strategy used during the lesson so it is explicit to students
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended strategy
    • Teachers collect student work samples and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teachers share first impressions of using intended strategies and overall observations of the lesson
    • Look at student work samples, student observations, and anecdotes
    • Identify students’ misconceptions or misunderstandings
    • Identify strategies to support student growth as measured by the state standards
    • Reflect on Vertical Team Study as a learning design—what did you learn that you can apply in your class?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Vertical Team learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Vertical Team cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?
    Intentional Practicing With Student Response
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Use data to determine need
    • Study effective instructional strategies
    • Decide which strategies to practice
    • Practice using the strategies with other teachers
    • Look at the “Five Agreements” to identify intentional learning
    • Design a lesson integrating the specific strategy
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each teacher will participate during the lesson
    • One or more teachers facilitate the collaboratively planned lesson
    • Teacher names the specific target or strategy used during the lesson so it is explicit to students
    • Teachers clearly states purpose for students using the strategy
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended strategy
    • Teacher stops class three minutes before the bell or end of lesson to give students the exit ticket
    • Teachers collect student work samples and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teachers share first impressions of using intended strategies and overall observations of the lesson
    • Look at student work samples of exit tickets
    • Each teacher chooses an interesting response for using the strategy
    • Identify students’ misconceptions or misunderstandings
    • Identify strategies to support student growth as measured by the state standards
    • Reflect on Intentional Practicing with Student Response as a learning design—what did you learn that you can apply in your class?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Intentional Practice with Student Response learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Intentional Practice cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?
    Using Technology
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Identify the area of technology to use and clearly state the reason for using
    • Study how to use the technology
    • Design a lesson using or integrating technology
    • Align the objectives to the state standards
    • Study the standards
    • Identify learning targets for students
    • Look at the “Five Agreements” to identify intentional learning
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each teacher will participate during the lesson
    • One or more teachers facilitate the collaboratively planned lesson using or integrating technology
    • Teacher names the specific target or strategy used during the lesson so it is explicit to students
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended strategy
    • Teacher stops class three minutes before the bell or end of lesson to give students the exit ticket
    • Teachers collect student work samples and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teacher who facilitated shares first impressions of integrating or using technology and overall observations of the lesson
    • Look at student work samples of exit tickets
    • Each teacher chooses an interesting strategy or way of thinking to share with the group
    • Identify students’ misconceptions or misunderstandings
    • Identify strategies to support student growth as measured by the state standards
    • Reflect on Using Technology as a learning design—what did you learn that you can apply in your class?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Using Technology learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Using Technology cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?
    Studying Video With Application
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Choose a video to study based on intended learning aligned to data and to the Five Agreements
    • Study the video and identify specific strategy to implement
    • Design a lesson integrating the using the video based strategy
    • Align the lesson to the state standards
    • Study the standards
    • Identify learning targets for students
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each teacher will participate during the lesson
    • One or more teachers facilitate the collaboratively planned lesson using integrating the strategy from video
    • Teacher names the specific target or strategy used during the lesson so it is explicit to students
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended strategy
    • Teacher stops class three minutes before the bell or end of lesson to give students the exit ticket
    • Teachers collect student work samples and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teacher who facilitated shares first impressions for integrating the strategy and overall observations of the lesson
    • Look at student work samples of exit tickets
    • Each teacher chooses an interesting strategy or way of thinking to share with the group
    • Identify students’ misconceptions or misunderstandings
    • Identify strategies to support student growth as measured by the state standards
    • Reflect on Studying Video with Application as a learning design—what did you learn that you can apply in your class?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Studying Video with Application learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Studying Video cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?
    Lesson Design
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Identify a teaching problem based on student needs and establish an overarching goal
    • Develop a research question
    • Design a lesson to research
    • Focus the lesson on student thinking, learning, and misunderstanding
      • Build a context for the lesson
      • Identify learningtargets and criteria for success
      • Engage students with concepts
      • Design a way for students to share their thinking
    • Identify evidence to collect to assess student learning of the target
    • Enact and observe the lesson
    • One teacher facilitates the lesson, the other teachers observe and document student thinking (NOTE: Teachers do not interact with the students)
    • Collect evidence of student thinking, such as work samples, pictures, videos, anecdotes, and student conversations
    • Debrief, reflect, and revise the lesson based on the data collected
    • Evaluate the lesson's impact on student learning
    • Share the results
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Lesson Study learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Lesson Study cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?
    Shared Learning With Teachers, Principals, and Coaches
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Align the lesson to the state standards
    • Study the standards
    • Identify learning targets for students
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each teacher, principal, and coach will participate during the lesson
    • One or more teachers facilitate the collaboratively planned lesson using integrating the strategy from video
    • Teacher names the specific target or strategy used during the lesson so it is explicit to students
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended strategy
    • Teacher stops class three minutes before the bell or end of lesson to give students the exit ticket
    • Teachers collect student work samples and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teacher who facilitated shares first impressions for integrating the strategy and overall observations of the lesson
    • Look at student work samples of exit tickets
    • Each teacher chooses an interesting strategy or way of thinking to share with the group
    • Identify students’ misconceptions or misunderstandings
    • Identify strategies to support student growth as measured by the state standards
    • Reflect on Studying Video with Application as a learning design—what did you learn that you can apply in your class?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Shared Learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Shared Learning cycle?
    • Why would teachers, coaches, and principals select this learning design?
    Creative and Innovative Teaching
    Part 1—PlanningPart 2—TeachingPart 3—Assessing
    • Identify the creative activity or innovation to try in the classroom
    • Pose questions and concerns about the innovation
    • Specify the intended results from using the creative activity or innovation
    • Study research about the creative activity or innovation
    • Design a classroom experience using the creative activity or innovation
    • Clarify roles during the experience
    • Align the experience to the state standards
    • Choose evidence of student understanding to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Decide how each teacher will participate in the classroom
    • One or more teachers facilitate the collaboratively planned classroom experience using the innovation
    • Observing teachers record student reactions and engagement with the intended innovation
    • Teachers collect student artifacts and exit tickets to bring to the “Assessment” session
    • Teacher who facilitated shares first impressions for integrating the innovation
    • Look at student work samples of exit tickets
    • Identify outcomes of using the innovation
    • Reflect on Creative and Innovative Teaching as a learning design—what did you learn that you want to build on?
    Checklist
    • How can your school implement the Creative and Innovative Teaching learning design?
    • When and where could teachers plan?
    • Who initiates, coordinates, and schedules the Creative Teaching cycle?
    • Why would teachers select this learning design?

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