Democracy and Democratization: Post-Communist Europe in Comparative Perspective

Books

John D. Nagle & Alison Mahr

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Sage Politics Texts

    Series Editor

    IAN HOLLIDAY

    City University of Hong Kong

    SAGE Politics Texts offer authoritative and accessible analyses of core issues in contemporary political science and international relations. Each text combines a comprehensive overview of key debates and concepts with fresh and original insights. By extending across all main areas of the discipline, SAGE Politics Texts constitute a comprehensive body of contemporary analysis. They are ideal for use on advanced courses and in research.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures and Tables

    Figures

    • 8.1 Configuration of national elites (and associated regime types) 213
    • 8.2 State and civil society configurations with implications for democracy 221

    Tables

    • 3.1 Comparison of the standard of living of East-Central European states with the European Union, 1995/6 55
    • 3.2 Public satisfaction with development of democracy, 1991 v. 1994 56
    • 3.3 Public belief in a market economy, 1991 v. 1994 58
    • 3.4 Public agreement with the direction of the country, 1991 v. 1994 59
    • 3.5 Change in condition over the period 1989–1994 61
    • 4.1 Approval ratings of public institutions in Poland, 1993–1997 82
    • 4.2 Opinion of government's performance in Hungary, 1997 92
    • 4.3 Percentage of respondents expressing some or great confidence in Church/state institutions, 1994/5 93
    • 5.1 Key economic indicators, 1989–1998 106
    • 5.2 Comparative economic indicators, 1996 107
    • 5.3 Percentage of countries' exports to the EU subject to non-tariff barriers, 1995 111
    • 6.1 Political participation, 1995 151
    • 6.2 Environmental concerns in comparison, 1997 165
    • 7.1 Parliamentary election results in Poland, 1991–1997 173
    • 7.2 Parliamentary election results in Hungary, 1990–1998 174
    • 7.3 Parliamentary election results in the Czech Republic, 1992–1998 176
    • 8.1 Attitudes toward authoritarian and antipolitical options in East-Central Europe, 1991–1993 210
    • 8.2 Attitudes towards last communist government, current regime and future outlook 218
    • 9.1 Confidence level in major institutions in post-communist Europe, Southern Europe and selected Western democracies, 1990–1991 233
    • 9.2 Citizen willingness to engage in political protest in post-communist Europe, Southern Europe and selected Western democracies, 1990–1991 234
    • 9.3 Popular support for greater equality, state-paternalism and personal responsibility in post-communist Europe, Southern Europe and selected Western democracies, 1990–1991 235
    • 10.1 Some estimates of income inequality in post-communist Europe and Western democracies 246
    • 10.2 Trends in inequality by region, 1960s-1990s 247
    • 10.3 Attitudinal support for democracy in Poland compared with Latin American and Southern European nations, 1992 248
  • Bibliography

    Note: The journal Transition becomes Transitions in 1997.
    Abraham, Arpad (1996) ‘Winners and Losers’, Figyelö, 6 August. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service. pp. 96–208.
    Adorno, Theodor, E.Frankel-Brunswick and D.Levinson (1950) The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper & Row.
    Ágh, Attila (1996) ‘From Nomenklatura to Clientura: the Emergence of New Political Elites in East-Central Europe’, in G.Pridham and P.Lewis (eds), Stabilising Fragile Democracies: Comparing New Party Systems in Southern and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge. pp. 44–68.
    Ágh, Attila (1998) The Politics of Central Europe. London: Sage.
    Agócs, Peter and SandorAgócs (1994) ‘Youth in Post-Communist Hungary’, Society, 31 (3): 76–81.
    Agüero, Felipe (1995) ‘Democratic Consolidation and the Military in Southern Europe and South America’, in RichardGunther, Hans-JürgenPuhle and NikiforosDiamandouros (eds), The Politics of Democratic Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 124–165.
    Albright, Madeleine (1992) ‘The Glorious Revolutions of 1989’, in LarryGarber and EricBjornlund (eds), The New Democratic Frontier: A Country by Country Report on Elections in Central and Eastern Europe. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. pp. 11–19.
    Almond, Gabriel and SidneyVerba (1963) The Civic Culture. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
    Amsden, Alice (1989) Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Amsden, Alice H., JacekKochanowicz and LanceTaylor (1994) The Market Meets its Match. Restructuring the Economies of Eastern Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Arendt, Hannah (1960) The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Meridian Books.
    Ascherson, Neal (1992) ‘1989 in Eastern Europe’, in JohnDunn (ed.), Democracy – The Unfinished Journey. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Avineri, Shlomo (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Bachrach, Peter (1967) The Theory of Democratic Elitism: A Critique. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
    Baczynski, Jerzy, JacekMojkowski, JoannaSolska, EwaSzemplinska and PawelTarnowski (1997) ‘Four Weddings and a Funeral: The Polish Economy under the Rule of the SLD-PSL Coalition in the Years 1993–97’, Polityka, 6 September. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Baker, Kendall (1981) Germany Transformed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Balcerowicz, Leszek (1994) ‘The European Periphery: Poland’, in JohnWilliamson (ed.), The Political Economy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. pp. 153–177.
    Balogh, András (1994) ‘National Minorities and International Security’, Review of International Affairs, XLIV (1023): 24–27.
    Banfield, Edward (1958) The Moral Basis of a Backward Society. New York: Free Press.
    Barany, Zoltan (1995) ‘Favorable Trends for Romania's Romani’, Transition, 1 (19), 20 October 1995: 26–31.
    Barber, Benjamin (1992) ‘Jihad versus McWorld’, Atlantic Monthly, (March): 53–63.
    Bartha, Attila and JozsefPeter Martin (1995) ‘Certificate of Origin’, Figyelö, 23 November. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Bartlett, David and WendyHunter (1997) ‘Market Structures, Political Institutions, and Democratization: the Latin American and East European Experiences’, Review of International Political Economy, 4 (1): 87–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/096922997347869
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1976) ‘The Party in the System-Management Phase: Change and Continuity’, in AndrewJanos (ed.), Authoritarian Politics in Communist Europe. Berkeley, CA: Institute of International Studies.
    Baylis, Thomas (1973) ‘Elites and the Idea of Post-Industrial Society in the Two Germanies’ APSA conference paper, New Orleans, September 4–8.
    Beck, Carl, FredericFlaron and MiltonLodge (1973) Comparative Communist Political Leadership. New York: McKay.
    Bell, Daniel A. (1995) ‘Democracies in Confucian Societies’, in Daniel A.Bell, DavidBrown, KanishkaJayasuriya and DavidJones (eds), Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia. Oxford: St Martin's Press. pp. 17–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230376410
    Bell, Daniel A. and KanishkaJayasuriya (1995) ‘Understanding Illiberal Democracy’, in Daniel A.Bell, DavidBrown, KanishkaJayasuriya and DavidJones (eds), Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia. Oxford: St Martin's Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230376410
    Bell, Daniel A., DavidBrown, KanishkaJayasuriya and DavidJones (eds) (1995) Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia. Oxford: St Martin's Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230376410
    Bell, John D. (1993) ‘Bulgaria’, in StephenWhite, JudyBatt and Paul G.Lewis (eds), Developments in East European Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 83–97.
    Berend, Ivan (1995) ‘Alternatives of Transformation’, in BeverlyCrawford (ed.), Markets, States, and Democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Berlin, Isaiah (1958) Two Concepts of Liberty. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Berlin, Isaiah (1997) ‘Die Zwei Gesichter der Freiheit’, Die Zeit, 28 November: 13–14.
    Bermeo, Nancy (1994) ‘Comments on The European Periphery’, in JohnWilliamson (ed.), The Political Economy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. pp. 197–206.
    Bernhard, Michael (1996) ‘Civil Society after the First Transition’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 29/3: 309–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X%2896%2980019-5
    Bertsch, Gary and ThomasGanschow (eds) (1976) Comparative Communism: The Soviet, Chinese, and Yugoslav Models. San Fransisco: W.H. Freeman.
    Białecki, Ireneusz and BarbaraHeyns (1994) ‘Educational Attainment, the Status of Women, and the Private School Movement in Poland’, in ValentineMoghadam (ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 110–134.
    Bisschop, Gita (1996) ‘Optimism Wanes for a Prompt Cleanup’, Transition, 2 (10), 17 May 1996: 42–45.
    Bivand, Roger (1994) ‘Return of the New: The Regional Imprint of the 1993 Parliamentary Elections in Poland’, European Urban and Regional Studies, 1/1: 63–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096977649400100106
    Blahoz, Josef (1994) ‘Parties in the Czech and Slovak Republics’, in KayLawson (ed.), How Parties Work. Westport, CN: Praeger. pp. 229–247.
    Blocker, Joel (1997a) ‘Europe: Council of Europe – A Leading Gateway to Integration’. Radio Free Europe <.http://www.rferl.org/nca...1/F.RU.971111154036.html> 11 November.
    Blocker, Joel (1997b) ‘Europe: EU Promises Most, Delivers Least to the East’. Radio Free Europe <http://www.rferl.org/nca...1/F.RU.971111153853.html> 11 November.
    Bollag, Burton (1996) ‘A Museum Devoted to the Largest Minority Group in Europe – The Gypsies – Gets a Home of Its Own’, Chronicle of Higher Education, 42 (20), 26 January: A36.
    Bottomore, Tom (1966) Elites and Society. London: Penguin.
    Bracher, Karl Dietrich (1970) The German Dictatorship. New York: Praeger.
    Brown, Archie and JackGray (eds) (1977) Political Culture and Political Change in Communist Systems. New York: Holmes and Meier.
    Brown, David (1995) ‘Democratization and the Renegotiation of Ethnicity’, in Daniel A.Bell, DavidBrown, KanishkaJayasuriya, and DavidJones (eds), Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia. Oxford: St Martin's Press. pp. 134–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230376410
    Brown, J.F. (1991) Surge to Freedom. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Brown, J.F. (1994) Hopes and Shadows. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Brown, J.F. (1997) ‘Goodbye (and Good Riddance?) to De-Communization’, Transitions, 4 (2): 28–34.
    Bryant, Stephen R. (1991) ‘Polish-Lithuanian Relations: Past, Present, and Future’, Problems of Communism, 40: 67–84.
    Bunce, Valerie (1995) ‘Should Transitologists Be Grounded?’, Slavic Review, 54 (1): 111–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2501122
    Bunce, Valerie and MáriaCsanádi (1993) ‘Uncertainty in the Transition: Post Communism in Hungary’, East European Politics and Societies, 7 (2): 240–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888325493007002003
    Burton, Michael, RichardGunther and JohnHigley (1992) ‘Elites and democratic consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe: an overview’, in JohnHigley and RichardGunther (eds), Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 323–348.
    Butorova, Zora and MartinButora (1995a) ‘Political Parties, Value Orientations, and Slovakia's Road to Independence’, in GordonWightman (ed.), Party Formation in East-Central Europe. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
    Butorova, Zora and MartinButora (1995b) ‘Improving Ethnic Relationships Is Always More Difficult Than Making Them Worse’, SME, 27 April. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Bystydzienksi, Jill M. (ed.) (1992) Women Transforming Politics: Worldwide Strategies for Empowerment. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Bystydzienksi, Jill M. (1995) ‘Women and Families in Poland: Pressing Problems and Possible Solutions’, in B.Łobodzińska (ed.), Family, Women and Employment in Central and Eastern Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 193–203.
    Cain, Michael J.G. (1998) ‘Liberalism Under the Microscope’, Transitions, 5 (2): 49–53.
    Caldwell, Gillian (1998) ‘Sold Into the Sex Trade’, Transitions, 5 (1): 70–1.
    Cammack, Paul (1994) ‘Democratization and Citizenship in Latin America’, in GeraintParry and MichaelMoran (eds), Democracy and Democratization. London: Routledge. pp. 174–195.
    Carey, Henry F. (1996) ‘From Big Lies to Little Lies: State Mass Media Dominance in Post-Communist Romania’, East European Politics and Societies, 10 (1): 16–45.
    Castañeda, Jorge (1994) Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War. New York: Vintage Books.
    Cebulak, Wojciech (1997) ‘Social Turmoil in Post-Socialist Eastern Europe – A Revolution Gone Astray?’, East European Quarterly, 31/1 (March): 111–119.
    CEER (1997) ‘Public Pulse’, Central European Economic Review, September: 8.
    Černá, Alena and EvaTošovská in cooperation with PavelCetkovský (1995) ‘Economic Transformation and the Environment’, Eastern European Economics, 33 (3): 5–43.
    Chilcote, Ronald (1994) Theories of Comparative Politics: The Search for a Paradigm Reconsidered. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Chirot, Daniel (1995) ‘National Liberation and Nationalist Nightmares’, in BeverlyCrawford (ed.), Markets, States, and Democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Chirot, Daniel (1996) ‘Why Central Europe is Not Quite Ready for Peron, but May Be One Day’, East European Politics and Societies, 10 (3): 536–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888325496010003007
    Clark, Ed and AnnaSoulsby (1996) ‘The Re-formation of the Managerial Elite in the Czech Republic’, Europe–Asia Studies, 48 (2): 285–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668139608412347
    Coleman, Brian (1997) ‘Eastward Ho!’, Central European Economic Review, June: 20–21, 24, 29.
    Comisso, Ellen (1997) ‘Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty?’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 30 (1): 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X%2896%2900020-7
    Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (1993) ‘Human Rights and Democratization in Hungary’. CSCE: Washington, DC. December.
    Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (1994a) ‘Human Rights and Democratization in Poland’. CSCE: Washington, DC. January.
    Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (1994b) ‘Human Rights and Democratization in the Czech Republic’. CSCE: Washington, DC September.
    Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (1997) ‘The Continued Use of Torture in Turkey’. CSCE: Washington, DC.
    Cook, Linda J. (1995) ‘Labor Unions in Post-Communist Countries’, Problems of Post-Communism, 42 (2): 13–18.
    Cornia, Giovanni Andrea and SandorSipos (eds) (1991) Children and the Transition to the Market Economy. Brookfield, VT: Avebury.
    Corrin, Chris (1993) ‘People and Polities’, in StephenWhite, JudyBatt and Paul G.Lewis (eds), Developments in East European Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 186–204.
    Corrin, Chris (1994) Magyar Women. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Crane, Keith (1995) ‘The Costs and Benefits of Transition’, in John P.Hardt and Richard S.Kaufman (eds), East Central European Economies in Transition. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp 25–48.
    Crowe, David and JohnKolsti (eds) (1991) The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
    Crozier, M., S.Huntington and J.Watanuki (1975) The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission. New York: New York University Press.
    Csagoly, Paul (1998) ‘Green Economies’, Transitions, 5 (6): 74–77.
    Cuthbertson, Ian M. and JaneLeibowitz (eds) (1993) Minorities: The New Europe's Old Issue. New York and Atlanta: Institute for East West Studies.
    Dahl, Robert (1956) A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dahl, Robert (1971) Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Dahl, Robert (1995) ‘The Newer Democracies: From the Time of Triumph to the Time of Troubles’, in DanielNelson (ed.), After Authoritarianism: Democracy or Disorder?Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Dahrendorf, Ralf (1997) ‘An der Schwelle zum autoritären Jahrhundert’, die Zeit, 21 November: 7–8.
    Darnovsky, Marcy, BarbaraEpstein and RichardFlacks (eds) (1995) Cultural Politics and Social Movements. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Dawisha, Karen and BruceParrot (1994) Russia and the New States of Eurasia: The Politics of Upheaval. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628337
    Deacon, Bob (1993) ‘Social Change, Social Problems and Social Policy’, in StephenWhite, JudyBatt and Paul G.Lewis (eds), Developments in East European Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 225–239.
    Deacon, Bob (1997) ‘Social Policy in Eastern Europe and the Former USSR’, in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1997,
    3rd edn.
    London: Europa Publications. pp. 76–81.
    Deak, István (1994) ‘Post-Post-Communist Hungary’, New York Review of Books, LXI/14: 33–38.
    Dealy, Glen (1992) ‘Pipe Dreams: The Pluralistic Latins’, in HowardWiarda (ed.), Politics and Social Change in Latin America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Deininger, Klaus and LynSquire (1996) ‘A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality’, World Bank Economic Review, 10 (3): 565–591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/wber/10.3.565
    Denni Telegraf (1996a) ‘Trust in Constitutional Institutions Moderately Declined’, 6 February. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Denni Telegraf (1996b) ‘The President Is Trusted by the Greatest Number of Citizens in a Year’, 1 October. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Deschouwer, Kris and BrunoCoppieters (1994) ‘A West European Model for Social Democracy in East-Central Europe’, in M.Waller, B.Coppieters and K.Deschouwer (eds), Social Democracy in a Post-Communist Europe. London: Frank Cass. pp. 1–18.
    Diamond, Larry (1996) ‘Democracy in Latin America: Degrees, Illusions, and Directions for Consolidation’, in TomFarer (ed.), Beyond Sovereignty: Collectively Defending Democracy in the Americas. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Diamond, Larry, JuanLinz and Seymour MartinLipset (eds) (1989a) Democracy in Developing Countries. Volume 3. Asia. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    Diamond, Larry, JuanLinz and Seymour MartinLipset (eds) (1989b) Democracy in Developing Countries: Volume 4: Latin America. London: Adamantine.
    Diehl, Jackson (1997) ‘Visit to a Strange New Poland’, Washington Post, 5 October: C1–C2.
    Dobrosielski, Marian (1996) ‘Polens Säkularisierung’, Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, 1: 9–12.
    Dogan, Mattei and DominiquePelassy (1990) How to Compare Nations,
    2nd edn.
    Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Done, Kevin (1997) ‘Transition still painful for those in new markets’, Financial Times, 3 December: 2.
    Drozdiak, William (1998) ‘Right-Wing Violence on Rise in Eastern Germany’, Washington Post, 5 March: A23, A27.
    Druker, Jeremy (1997) ‘Present but Unaccounted For’, Transitions, 4 (4): 22.
    Dusza, Erika, ZoltanGaal and FerencSengal (1997) ‘The Underworld Cannot Be Eliminated – Mafia in Hungary’, Magyar Hirlap, 29 January. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Dyer, Geoff (1997) ‘Brazilian MPs show a fickleness to parties’, Financial Times (London), 11/12 October: 4.
    Dziewanowski, M.K. (1996) ‘Polish Populism’, in JosephHeld (ed.), Populism in Eastern Europe: Racism, Nationalism, and Society. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Eberstadt, Nicholas (1994) ‘Health and Mortality in Central and Eastern Europe: Retrospect and Prospect’, in James R.Millar and Sharon L.Wolchik (eds), The Social Legacy of Communism. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. pp. 196–225.
    Echikson, William (1997) ‘EU Rethinks its Funding to East’, RFE/RL Newsline, 9 September.
    Economic Commission for Europe (1996) Economic Survey of Europe 1995–96. New York: United Nations.
    Economist (1995) ‘Eastern Europe's Hungry Children’, 16 December: 50.
    Economist (1996a) ‘Health in Eastern Europe: Out of the Ward’, 3 August: 45–46.
    Economist (1996b) ‘Meciar, Magyars and Maps’, 10 August 1996: 38–39.
    Economist (1996c) ‘Free At Last, to Die’, 21 September: 53–54.
    Economist (1998) ‘Awkward Would-be Partners’, 28 February: 54–56.
    Eggleton, Roland (1997) ‘Europe: How the OSCE Fosters Human Rights, Security and Civil Society’ Radio Free Europe <http://www.rferl.org/nca...1/F.RU.971111153755.html> 11 November.
    Einhorn, Barbara (1994) ‘Democratization and Women's Movements in Central and Eastern Europe’, in V.Moghadam (ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 48–74.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1991) Country Profile for Poland (1991–92). London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1992) Country Profile for Poland (1992–93). London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1993a) Country Profile for Poland (1993–94). London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1993b) Country Report for Poland, 3rd Quarter 1993. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1994) Country Report for Poland, 1st Quarter 1994. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1995a) Country Report for Hungary, 2nd Quarter 1995. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1995b) Country Report for Hungary, 4th Quarter 1995. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1995c) Country Report for Poland, 1st Quarter 1995. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1995d) Country Report for Poland, 3rd Quarter 1995. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1996a) Country Report for Poland, 2nd Quarter 1996. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1996b) Country Report for Hungary, 1st Quarter 1996. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1996c) Country Report for Poland, 2nd Quarter 1996. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1997a) Country Profile for Czech Republic (1997–98). London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1997b) Country Profile for Hungary (1997–98). London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1997c) Country Profile for Poland (1997–98). London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1997d) Country Report for Czech Republic, 2nd Quarter 1997. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1998a) Country Report for Czech Republic, 2nd Quarter 1998. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1998b) Country Report for Hungary, 2nd Quarter 1998. London: EIU.
    EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) (1998c) Country Report for Poland, 2nd Quarter 1998. London: EIU.
    Ellingstad, Mark (1997) ‘The Maquiladora Syndrome: Central European Prospects’, Europe-Asia Studies, 49 (1): 7–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668139708412424
    Encarnacion, Omar (1997) ‘Social Concertation in Democratic and Market Transitions: Comparative Lessons from Spain’, Comparative Political Studies, 30 (4): 387–419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010414097030004001
    Esping-Andersen, Gosta (1994) ‘Budgets and Democracy: towards a Welfare State in Spain and Portugal, 1960–1986’, in IanBudge and DavidMcKay (eds), Developing Democracy. London: Sage. pp. 112–128.
    Ester, Peter, LoekHalman and VladimirRukavishnikov (1997) From Cold War to Cold Peace?Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.
    Etzioni-Halevy, Eva (ed.) (1997) Classes and Elites in Democracy and Democratization. New York: Garland.
    Eulau, Heinz and MosheCzudnowski (eds) (1976) Elite Recruitment in Democratic Politics. New York: John Wiley.
    Eyal, Jonathan (1997) ‘Eastern Europe: A Critique of the Western Perspective’, in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 1997,
    3rd edn.
    London: Europa Publications. pp. 3–12.
    Fábián, Katalin (unpublished) ‘Within Yet Without: Problems of Women's Powerlessness in Democratic Hungary’. Department of Political Science, Syracuse University, NY.
    Fainsod, Merle (1953) How Russia is Ruled. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Farrell, Barry (ed.) (1970) Political Leadership in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Chicago: Aldine.
    Fidler, Stephen (1997) ‘Forces to be Reckoned With’, Financial Times (London), 17 September: 15.
    Filas, Agnieszka and JaroslawKnap in cooperation with JacekSzczesny (1997) ‘The Corporate Choice: Who Are Polish Entrepreneurs Going to Back?’ Wprost, 20 April. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 97–176.
    Fischer, George (1968) The Soviet System and Modern Society. New York: Atherton.
    Fisher, Sharon (1995) ‘Ethnic Hungarians Back Themselves Into a Corner’, Transition, 1 (24): 58–63.
    Fisher, Sharon (1996) ‘Slovak Nationalities Council Rejects Minority Language Law’, OMRI Daily Digest, 227 (II): 22 November.
    Fleron, Frederic (ed.) (1969) Communist Studies and the Social Sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Fong, Monica and GillianPaull (1994) ‘Women's Economic Status in the Restructuring of Eastern Europe’, in V.Moghadam (ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 217–247.
    Forowicz, Krystyna (1998a) ‘Advantage to the Green’, Rzeczpospolita, 23 April. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Forowicz, Krystyna (1998b) ‘Farewell to Poisoners’, Rzeczpospolita, 17 July. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Frankland, Erich G. (1995) ‘The Role of Green Parties in East Europe's Transition, 1989–1994’, East European Quarterly, 29 (3): 315–345.
    Freedom House (1996) Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, 1995–1996. New York: Freedom House.
    Freeman, Richard B. (1993) ‘What Direction for Labor-Market Institutions in Eastern and Central Europe?’, in BertramSilverman, RobertVogt and MurrayYanowitch (eds), Double Shift: Transforming Work in Postsocialist Societies. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 95–115.
    Friedrich, Carl (1950) The New Belief in the Common Man. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
    Friedrich, Carl and ZbigniewBrzezinski (1956) Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Funk, Nanette and MagdaMueller (eds) (1993) Gender Politics and Post Communism. New York: Routledge.
    Furnham, Adrian (1994) ‘The Psychosocial Consequences of Youth Unemployment’, in Anne C.Petersen and Jeylan T.Mortimer (eds) Youth Unemployment and Society. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. pp. 199–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664021.012
    Furtak, Robert (1996) ‘Zum Verhältnis von Staatspräsident und Regierung in postkommunistischen Staaten’, in OttoLuchterhand (ed.), Neue Regierungssysteme in Osteuropa und der GUS. Berlin: Arno Spitz. pp. 115–150.
    Gaal, Zoltan (1996) ‘The Increase in Crime is Inevitable’, Magyar Hirlap, 29 October. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Garber, Larry (1992) ‘Bulgaria’, in LarryGarber and EricBjornlund (eds), The New Democratic Frontier: A Country by Country Report on Elections in Central and Eastern Europe. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. pp. 133–160.
    Garber, Larry and EricBjornlund (eds) (1992) The New Democratic Frontier: A Country by Country Report on Elections in Central and Eastern Europe. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.
    Garten, Jeffrey (1992) A Cold Peace: America, Japan, Germany and the Struggle for Supremacy. New York: Times Books.
    Garton Ash, Timothy (1989) We The People. London: Granta Books.
    Garton Ash, Timothy (1990) The Uses of Adversity. New York: Vintage Books.
    Garton Ash, Timothy (1996) ‘Neo-Pagan Poland’, New York Review of Books, 11 January: 10–14.
    Garton Ash, Timothy (1997) ‘Eastern Europe No Longer Exists’, RFE/RL Newsline, 9 September.
    Gati, Charles (1996, 1997) ‘The Mirage of Democracy’, in Open Media Research Institute, The OMRI Annual Survey of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 340–354.
    GazetaWyborcza (1997a) ‘The Line for Scanning’, 19 July. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    GazetaWyborcza (1997b) ‘Where the Wind Blows in the Electorate’, 24 September. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    GazetaWyborcza (1998) ‘CBOS on Public Institutions; NBP Goes Up the Fastest’, 10 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Gebethner, Stanislaw (1996) ‘Proportional Representation Versus Majoritarian Systems: Free Elections and Political Parties in Poland, 1989–1991’, in ArendLijphart and CarlosWaisman (eds), Institutional Design in New Democracies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Gibson, David (1996) ‘High Public Confidence in the Church’, Transition, (2) 7:29.
    Giessmann, Hans-Joachim (1996) ‘Democracy as a Function of Transformation in Eastern Central Europe’, paper presented at the International Studies Association meeting in San Diego, CA, 16–20 April.
    Gigli, Susan (1995) ‘Toward Increased Participation in the Political Process’, Transition, 1 (16): 18–21.
    Gills, Barry (1993) ‘Korean Capitalism and Democracy’, in BarryGills, JoelRocamora and RichardWilson (eds), Low Intensity Democracy. London: Pluto Press. pp. 226–257.
    Gills, Barry, JoelRocamora and RichardWilson (eds) (1993) Low Intensity Democracy. London: Pluto Press.
    Giorgi, Liana (1995) The Post-Socialist Media: What Power the West?Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.
    Glaeßner, Gert-Joachim (1997) ‘Von der Perestroika zur liberalen Demokratie’, in G.J.Glaeßner and M.Reiman (eds), Systemwechsel und Demokratisierung. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. pp. 13–44.
    Glenny, Misha (1990) The Rebirth of History: Eastern Europe in the Age of Democracy. London: Penguin Books.
    Goban-Klas, Tomasz (1994) The Orchestration of the Media: The Politics of Mass Communication in Communist Poland and the Aftermath. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Goble, Paul (1997a) ‘The Security NATO Can't Provide’, RFE/RL Newsline, 1: 142, Part II, 20 October.
    Goble, Paul (1997b) ‘Polish Parliament Supports Tough Anti-Abortion Law’, RFE/RL Newsline1:182: part II, 18 December.
    Goble, Paul (1997c) ‘But Restrictive Abortion Legislation Returns to Force’, RFE/RL Newsline1:186: part II, 23 December.
    Goldfarb, Jeffrey (1992) After the Fall. New York: Basic Books.
    Gortat, Radzislawa (1993) ‘The Feud Within Solidarity's Offspring’, Journal of Communist Studies, 9 (4): 116–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523279308415235
    Gortat, Radzislawa (1994) ‘The development of Social Democracy in Poland’, in M.Waller, B.Coppieters and K.Deschouwer (eds), Social Democracy in a Post-Communist Europe. London: Frank Cass. pp. 136–154.
    Gowan, Peter (1995) ‘Neo-Liberal Theory and Practice for Eastern Europe’, New Left Review, 213: 3–60.
    Gowan, Peter (1996) ‘Poland's Transition from State Socialism to Capitalism’, in GerdNonneman (ed.), Political and Economic Liberalization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 65–99.
    Graham, Ann and JohannaRegulska (1997) ‘Expanding Political Space for Women in Poland’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 30 (1): 65–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X%2896%2900024-4
    Greider, William (1996) One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Greider, William (1997) ‘Saving the Global Economy’, Nation, 15 December: 11–16.
    Gross, Jan (1992) ‘Poland: From Civil Society to Political Nation’, in IvoBanac (ed.), Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 56–71.
    Gunther, Richard (1992) ‘Spain: the Very Model of the Modern Elite Settlement’, in JohnHigley and RichardGunther (eds), Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–80.
    Gunther, Richard, Hans-JürgenPuhle and NikiforosDiamandouros (eds) (1995) The Politics of Democratic Consolidation: Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Gyurcsik, Iván (1993) ‘New Legal Ramifications of the Question of National Minorities’, in Ian M.Cuthbertson and JaneLeibowitz (eds), Minorities: The Neiv Europe's Old Issue. New York and Atlanta: Institute for EastWest Studies. pp. 19–50.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1997) A Berlin Republic: Writings on Germany (translated by StevenRendall). Omaha, NB: University of Nebraska Press.
    Haggard, Stephen (1994) ‘Politics and Institutions in the World Bank's East Asia’, in AlbertFishlow (ed.), Miracle or Design? Lessons from the East Asian Experience. Washington, DC: Overseas Development Council.
    Haggard, Stephen and RobertKaufman (1995) The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Hancock, Ian (1991) ‘Romani Nationalism’, in DavidCrowe and JohnKolsti (eds), The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 133–150.
    Hann, Endre (1998) ‘Two Elections in Hungary’, Nepszava, 30 May. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Haraszti, Miklos (1998) ‘Young Bloods’, Transitions, 5 (7): 48–53.
    Hardt, John P. and Richard S.Kaufman (eds) for the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States (1995) East Central European Economies in Transition. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
    Harsanyi, Doina Pasca (1993) ‘Women in Romania’, in NanetteFunk and MagdaMueller (eds), Gender Politics and Post-Communism. New York: Routledge. pp. 39–52.
    Hartmann, Jürgen (1998) Politik auf den Trümmern der Zweiten Welt. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.
    Hausleitner, Mariana (1993) ‘Women in Romania Before and After the Collapse’, in NanetteFunk and MagdaMueller (eds), Gender Politics and Post-Communism. New York: Routledge. pp. 53–61.
    Havel, Václav (1997) Newshour with JimLehrer, 16 May 1997.
    Hedges, Chris (1997) ‘Fascists Reborn as Croatia's Founding Fathers’, Neiv York Times, 12 April: 3.
    Heitlinger, Alena (1995) ‘Women's Equality, Work and Family in the Czech Republic’, in B.Łobodzińska (ed.), Family, Women and Employment in Central and Eastern Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 87–99.
    Held, David (1995a) ‘Democracy and the New International Order’, in DanieleArchibugi and DavidHeld (eds), Cosmopolitan Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 96–120.
    Held, David (1995b) Democracy and the Global Order. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Henkins, Kène, MaartenSprengers and FritzTazelaar (1996) ‘Unemployment and the Older Worker in the Netherlands’, Aging and Society, 16 (5): 561–578.
    Heper, Metin (1991) ‘Transitions to Democracy Reconsidered’, in DankwartRustow and KennethErickson (eds), Comparative Political Dynamics. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 192–210.
    Herda, Juergen (1998) ‘Klaus-Zeman Pact Could End Czech Instability’, RFE/RL Newsline, 2:146, Part: II, 31.
    Herrmann, Peter (1993) ‘Social Goals for Media Endorsed by Poles’, RFE/RL Research Report, 2 (5), 10 March: 58–59.
    Hess, Laura E., Anne C.Petersen and Jeylan T.Mortimer (1994) ‘Youth, Unemployment and Marginality: The Problems and the Solution’, in Anne C.Petersen and Jeylan T.Mortimer (eds), Youth, Unemployment and Society. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. pp. 3–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664021.003
    Hester, Al and KristinaWhite (eds) (1993) Creating a Free Press in Eastern Europe. Athens, GA: Cox Center, University of Georgia.
    HetiVilaggazdasag (1995) ‘I Have My Own Internal Criteria’ (Interview with MSZOSZ chairman Sandor Nagy), 18 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Hicks, Barbara (1996) Environmental Politics in Poland. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Higley, John, JudithKullberg and JanPakulski (1996) ‘The Persistence of Postcommunist Elites’, Journal of Democracy, 7/2 (April): 133–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.1996.0027
    Higley, John and JanPakulski (1995) ‘Elite Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 30: 415–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00323269508402348
    Hill, Ronald (1994) ‘Democracy in Eastern Europe’, in IanBudge and DavidMcKay (eds), Developing Democracy. London: Sage. pp. 267–283.
    Hockenos, Paul (1993) Free to Hate: The Rise of the Right in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. New York: Routledge.
    Hockenos, Paul (1995) ‘Comeback of the Communists’, New Politics, Winter: 79–82.
    Hoffman, Eva (1993) Exit into History. New York: Penguin.
    Holmes, Stephen (1993) The Anatomy of Antiliberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Holmes, Stephen (1995) ‘Cultural Legacies or State Collapse?’, paper delivered at Collegium Budapest (November).
    Holt, Robert and JohnRichardson (1970) ‘Competing Paradigms in Comparative Polities’, in R.Holt and J.Turner (eds), The Methodology of Comparative Research. New York: Free Press.
    Honolka, Harro (1987) Schwarzrotrgriin. Munich: Beck.
    Horowitz, Donald (1992) ‘Comparing Democratic Systems’, in ArendLijphart (ed.), Parliamentary versus Presidential Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hörster-Philipps, Ulrike (1983) ‘Conservative Concepts of Dictatorship in the Final Phase of the Weimar Republic’, in I.Wallimann and M.Dobkowski (eds), Towards the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Hough, Jerry (1977) The Soviet Union and Social Science Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hu, Shaohua (1997) ‘Confucianism and Western Democracy’, Journal of Contemporary China, 6 (15): 347–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10670569708724282
    Hunt, Swanee (1997) ‘Women's Vital Voices’, Foreign Affairs, 76 (4): 2–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20048116
    Huntington, Samuel (1968) Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Huntington, Samuel (1984) ‘Will More Countries Become Democratic?’, Political Science Quarterly, 99: 193–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2150402
    Huntington, Samuel (1991) The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Huntington, Samuel (1996) The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs reprint. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
    Hyde-Price, Adrian (1996) The International Politics of East-Central Europe. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Iankova, Elena A. (1996) ‘Women's Participation in Post-Communist Social Dialogue’, in B.Wejnert, M.Spencer and S.Drakulic (eds), Women in Post-Communism, Volume 2. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. pp. 141–154.
    Ignatieff, Michael (1993) Blood and Belonging: Journey into the New Nationalism. New York: Noonday.
    Íjgyártó, István (1993) ‘Codification of Minority Rights’, in Ian M.Cuthbertson and JaneLeibowitz (eds), Minorities: The New Europe's Old Issue. New York and Atlanta: Institute for EastWest Studies. pp. 273–284.
    Inglehart, Ronald (1977) The Silent Revolution in Europe: Changing Values and Political Styles among Western Publics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Inglehart, Ronald (1990) Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ionescu, Dan (1996) ‘More Controversy in Romania Over Treaty with Hungary’, OMRI Daily Digest, 179 (II): 16 September 1996.
    Jaeggi, Urs (1969) Macht und Herrschaft in der Bundesrepublik. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer.
    Janecki, Stanislaw and EwaOrnacka (1998) ‘War of Gangs’, Poznan Wprost, 10 May. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Janos, Andrew (ed.) (1976a) Authoritarian Politics in Communist Europe. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Janos, Andrew (1976b) ‘Systemic Models and the Theory of Change in the Comparative Study of Communist Societies, in A.Janos (ed.), Authoritarian Politics in Communist Europe. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Jayasuriya, Kanishka (1995) ‘The Political Economy of Democratization’, in Daniel A.Bell, DavidBrown, KanishkaJayasuriya and DavidJones (eds), Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia. Oxford: St Martin's Press. pp. 107–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230376410
    Joas, Hans (1997) ‘Der Liberalismus ist kein politisches Heilversprechen’, die Zeit, 21 November: 13.
    Johnson, Owen V. (1993) ‘Whose Voice? Freedom of Speech and the Media in Central Europe’, in AlHester and KristinaWhite (eds), Creating a Free Press in Eastern Europe. Athens, GA: Cox Center for International Mass Communications Training and Research, The University of Georgia. pp. 1–51.
    Jones, David Martin (1995) ‘Democracy and Identity’, in Daniel A.Bell, DavidBrown, KanishkaJayasuriya and DavidJones (eds), Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia. Oxford: St Martin's Press. pp. 41–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230376410
    Jowitt, Kenneth (1992) The Neiv World Disorder. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
    Jung, Bohdan (1995) ‘Young Polish Consumers’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 11 (3): 286–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523279508415291
    Jurrjens, Rudolf Th. (1978) The Free Flow of People, Ideas and Information in Soviet Ideology and Politics. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Te Amsterdam.
    Kádár, Béla (1993) ‘External Liberalization: Gradualism or Shock Approach’, in SiebertHorst (ed.), Overcoming the Transformation Crisis. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). pp. 173–188.
    Kalyvas, Stathis (1996) The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Kaminski, Matthew (1997) ‘Unequal Partners: Widening Trade Deficits Could Snarl EU Accession Talks’, Central European Economic Review, November: 9–10.
    Kariel, Henry (1970) Frontiers of Democratic Theory. New York: Random House.
    Karkoszka, Andrzej (1993) ‘A Call for Confidence-Building Measures for Minorities in Eastern Europe’, in Ian M.Cuthbertson and JaneLeibowitz (eds), Minorities: The New Europe's Old Issue. New York and Atlanta: Institute for EastWest Studies. pp. 209–225.
    Karl, Terry Lynn (1991) ‘Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America’, in DankwartRustow and PaulErickson (eds), Comparative Political Dynamics. New York: HarperCollins.
    Karp, Regina (1995) ‘Postcommunist Europe: Back from the Abyss?’, in DanielNelson (ed.), After Authoritarianism: Democracy or Disorder?Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1995) ‘Opinion Polls Reflect Political Stability’, Transition, 1 (20): 40–41.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1996a) ‘Politicians Endanger Independence of Polish Public TV’, Transition, 2 (8): 28–30.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1996b) ‘Abortion Law Eased by the Polish Parliament’, OMRI Daily Digest, 170 (II): 3 September.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1996c) ‘Abortion Law Liberalized in Poland’, OMRI Daily Digest, 207 (II): 24 October.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1996d) ‘Poles Divided Over Church's Renewed Political Role’, Transition, 2 (7): 11–13.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1997a) ‘Poland's Phoenix Rises’, Transitions, 4 (6): 62–65.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1997b) ‘Lustration Law in Polish Sejm Commission’, OMRI Daily Digest, 243 (II): 18 December.
    Karpinski, Jakub (1997c) ‘Abortion Law Eased by the Polish Parliament’ in Open Media Research Institute, Forging Ahead, Falling Behind. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 47–48.
    Kaufman, Michael T. (1998) ‘His and Hers, Ours and Theirs’, Transitions, 5 (1): 3.
    Kawczynski, Rudko (1997) ‘The Politics of Romani Polities’, Transitions, 4 (4): 24–29.
    Kay, Bruce (1996) ‘“Fujipopulism” and the Liberal State in Peru, 1990–1995’, Journal of Inter American Studies and World Affairs (Winter).
    Kayal, Michele (1993) ‘The Unfinished Revolution: The Czech Republic's Press in Transition’, in AlHester and KristinaWhite (eds), Creating a Free Press in Eastern Europe. Athens, GA: Cox Center for International Mass Communications Training and Research, University of Georgia. pp. 257–280.
    Keller, Suzanne (1963) Beyond the Ruling Class. New York: Random House.
    Kennedy, Michael D. (ed.) (1994) Envisioning Eastern Europe: Postcommunist Cultural Studies. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
    van Kersbergen, Kees (1994) ‘The Distinctiveness of Christian Democracy’, in DavidHanley (ed.), Christian Democracy in Europe: a Comparative Perspective. London: Pinter.
    Kesselman, Mark and JoelKrieger (1997) European Politics in Transition,
    3rd edn.
    Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Kettle, Steve (1996) ‘Czech Republic’, in Open Media Research Institute, Building Democracy. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 16–23.
    Kettle, Steve, ChrystynaLapychak, UstinaMarkus and MichaelMihalka (1995) ‘Specter of Racism’, Transition, 1 (10): 18.
    Klaven, Jonathan and AnthonyZamparutti (1995) Foreign Direct Investment and Environment. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Kligman, Gail (1994) ‘Women and the Feminization of Poverty’, in James R.Millar and Sharon L.Wolchik (eds), The Social Legacy of Communism. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. pp. 252–270.
    Knox, Paul and JohnAgnew (1993) Geography of the World Economy. New York: Edward Arnold.
    Koff, Sondra and StephenKoff (1997) ‘Transition to Democracy: Explanatory Models’, in D.Carlton and P.Ingram (eds), The Search for Stability in Russia and the Former Soviet Bloc. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Kohak, Erazim (1997) ‘Consolidating Freedom in Central Europe’, Dissent, Spring: 21–26.
    Kohn, Hans (1945) The Idea of Nationalism. New York: Macmillan.
    Kolakowski, Leszek (1968) Towards a Marxist Humanism. New York: Grove.
    Kornhauser, William (1959) Politics of Mass Society. New York: Free Press.
    Kostova, Dobrinka (1994) ‘The Transition to Democracy in Bulgaria’, in ValentineMoghadam (ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 92–109.
    Köves, Andras and PaulMarer (eds) (1991) Foreign Economic Liberalization: Transformations in Socialist and Market Economies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Koza, Patricia (1997) ‘A Bitter Crop: Polish Farmers Face a Tough Row’, Central European Economic Review, June: 20.
    Krajewska, Anna (1995) ‘Education in Poland’, Eastern European Economics, 33 (4): 38–54.
    Kramer, John M. (1994) ‘Drug Abuse in Central and Eastern Europe’, in James R.Millar and Sharon L.Wolchik (eds), The Social Legacy of Communism. New York: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. pp. 149–177.
    Kramer, John M. (1997) ‘Drug Abuse in East-Central Europe’, Problems of Post Communism, 44 (3): 35–42.
    Kratochvilova, Katerina and RomanGallo (1996) ‘Racism on the Increase’, Miada Fronta Dnes, 6 December. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Krejci, Oskar (1995) History of Elections in Bohemia and Moravia. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Krieger, Leonard (1972) The German Idea of Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Krol, Marcin (1997) ‘Measuring the Costs of “Free” Education’, Transitions, 4 (4): 82–83.
    Krupa, Piotr (1995) ‘Poles Arm Themselves’, Prawo I Zycie, 25 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Krygier, Martin (1997) ‘Virtuous Circles: Antipodean Reflections on Power, Institutions, and Civil Society’, East European Politics and Societies, 11 (4): 36–88.
    Kryshtanovskaya, Olga (1994) ‘Transformation of the Old Nomenklatura to New Elites’, Izvestia, 18 May.
    Kuehl, Warren (1969) Seeking World Order. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
    Kumar, Krishan (1993) ‘Civil society: an inquiry into the usefulness of an historical term’, British Journal of Sociology, 44 (3): 375–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591808
    Kurczewski, Jacek (1997) ‘Poland's Perpetually New Middle Class’, Transition, 3 (5): 22–25.
    Kürti, Lásló (1991) ‘Rocking the State: Youth and Rock Music Culture in Hungary, 1976–1990’, East European Politics and Society, 5 (3), Fall: 483–513.
    Kwasniewska, Teresa (1994) ‘Who Will Vote and How’, Nowa Trybuna Opolska, 17–18 December. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Lane, David and CameronRoss (1995) ‘The Changing Composition and Structure of Political Elites’, in DavidLane (ed.), Russia in Transition. London: Longman.
    Lapalombara, Joseph (1968) ‘Macrotheories and Microapplications in Comparative Politics: A Widening Chasm’, Comparative Politics, 1:1. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/421375
    Latawski, Paul (1995) ‘In Defense of Presidential Prerogative’, Transition, 1 (8): 40–43.
    Legutko, Ryszard (1994) ‘From Three Perspectives’, Zycie Warszawy, 17 August. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Leko, Istvan (1997) ‘Did the Creators of the Transformation Fail?’, Tyden, 22 December. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Lemon, Alaina (1996a) ‘Amnesty International Criticizes Czech Republic’, OMRI Daily Digest, 119 (II): 19 June.
    Lemon, Alaina (1996b) ‘Czech Post Denies Mail Service to Romani Housing Estate’, OMRI Daily Digest, 109 (II): 5 June.
    Lemon, Alaina (1996c) ‘No Land, No Contracts for Romani Workers’, Transition, 2 (13): 28–31.
    Lenski, Gerhard (1966) Power and Privilege. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lesniewski, Bartlomiej and JacekSzczesny (1997) ‘Duty-Free: What Consumers Owe to Smugglers’, Wprost, 21 December. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Leven, Bozena (1996) ‘Distributional Effects of Poland's Transition: The Status of Pensioners’, Comparative Economic Studies, 38 (4): 121–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ces.1996.42
    Lewin, Moshe (1988) The Gorbachev Phenomenon: A Historical Interpretation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Lewis, Paul (1997) ‘Theories of Democratization and Patterns of Regime Change in Eastern Europe’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 13 (1): 4–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523279708415329
    LidoveNoviny (1996) ‘The Media Are Trustworthy’, 6 November. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Liebert, Ulrike and MaurizioCotta (eds) (1990) Parliament and Democratic Consolidation in Southern Europe: Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey. London: Pinter.
    Lieven, Anatol (1997) ‘Consumerism is the New Invader’, Financial Times, 28 November: 2.
    Lijphart, Arend (1969) ‘Consociational Democracy’, World Politics, XXI (2): 207–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2009820
    Lijphart, Arend (1979) ‘Consociation and Federation: Conceptual and Empirical Links’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 12 (3): 499–515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900051714
    Lijphart, Arend (ed.) (1992) Parliamentary versus Presidential Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Linz, Juan and AlfredStepan (1978) The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Crisis, Breakdown, and Reequilibration. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Linz, Juan and AlfredStepan (1996) Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Linz, Juan, AlfredStepan and RichardGunther (1995) ‘Democratic Transition and Consolidation in Southern Europe, with Reflections on Latin America and Eastern Europe’, in RichardGunther, Hans-JürgenPuhle and NikiforosDiamandouros (eds), The Politics of Democratic Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 77–123.
    Linz, Juan and ArturoValenzuela (eds) (1994) The Failure of Presidential Democracy, Volume I: Comparative Perspectives; Volume 2: The Case of Latin America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin (1959a) Political Man. Garden City, NJ: Free Press.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin (1959b) ‘Some Social Requisites of Democratic Economic Development and Political Legitimacy’, American Political Science Review, 53 (March): 69–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1951731
    Lipset, Seymour Martin (1992) ‘The Centrality of Political Culture’, in ArendLijphart (ed.), Parliamentary versus Presidential Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin (1993) ‘Concluding Reflections’, in LarryDiamond and MarcPlattner (eds), Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy Revisited. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 119–132.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin and SteinRokkan (1967) ‘Party Systems, Social Cleavages and Voter Alignments’, in S.M.Lipset and S.Rokkan (eds), Social Cleavages and Party Systems. New York: Free Press.
    Łobodzińska, Barbara (1995a) ‘Equal Opportunities’, in B.Łobodzińska (ed.), Family, Women and Employment in Central and Eastern Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 261–274.
    Łobodzińska, Barbara (ed.) (1995b) Family, Women and Employment in Central and Eastern Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Łobodzińska, Barbara (1995c) ‘The Family and Working Women During and After Socialist Industrialization and Ideology’, in BarbaraŁobodzińska (ed.), Family, Women and Employment in Central and Eastern Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 3–46.
    Lodge, Milton (1968) ‘Groupism in the Post-Stalin Period’, Midwest Journal of Political Science, 12 (3): 330–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2110133
    Lohr, Steve (1998) ‘Business Asian Style: A Revaluing of Values’, Neiv York Times, 9 February: B9-B11.
    Lomax, Bill (1994) ‘Impediments to Democratization in East-Central Europe’, in GordonWightman (ed.), Party Formation in East-Central Europe. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. pp. 179–201.
    Lomax, Bill (1997) ‘The Strange Death of Civil Society in Post-communist Hungary’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 13 (1): 41–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523279708415331
    Lotspeich, Richard (1995) ‘Crime in the Transition Economies’, Europe-Asia Studies, 47 (4): 555–589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668139508412276
    Lucas, Edward (1998) ‘Eastern Europe: time to smarten up’, Economist Special Issue: The World in 1998. p. 44.
    Luchterhand, Otto (1996) ‘Präsidentialismus in den GUS-Staaten’, in OttoLuchterhand (ed.), Neue Regierungssysteme in Osteuropa und der GUS. Berlin: Arno Spitz. pp. 223–274.
    Luczak, Maciej in cooperation with KatarzynaZielezinska (1997) ‘Nationalized Freedom’, Wprost, 15 June. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Lyman, Randall (1994) ‘Mixed Reviews: A Human Rights Report on the Czech Republic’, Prognosis, 7 December. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Macridis, Roy (1955) The Study of Comparative Government. New York: Random House.
    MagyarNemzet (1995a) ‘There Are Limits Beyond Which One Cannot Retreat’, 4 February. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    MagyarNemzet (1995b) ‘The Still-Functioning Brakes Might Begin To Slip’, 27 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    MagyarNemzet (1996) ‘Subtle Means of Manipulation in Public Television’, 2 November. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service
    Mahr, Alison and JohnNagle (1995) ‘Resurrection of the Successor Parties and Democratization in East-Central Europe’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 28 (4): 393–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0967-067X%2895%2900025-P
    Malloy, James (1987) ‘The Politics of Transition in Latin America’, in HarveyKline and HowardWiarda (eds), Latin American Politics and Development. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Manser, Roger (1993) Failed Transitions: The Eastern European Economy and Environment Since the Fall of Communism. New York: The New Press.
    Maravall, José María (1995) ‘The Myth of the Authoritarian Advantage’, in LarryDiamond and MarcPlattner (eds), Economic Reform and Democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 13–27.
    Marger, Michael (1987) Elites and Masses: An Introduction to Political Sociology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Marian, Bela (1997) ‘According to the Population, Living Standards were High During Kádár Era’, Nepszava, 10 February. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Markovits, Andrei and PhilipGorsky (1993) The German Left: Red, Green and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Markowski, Radoslaw (1997) ‘Political Parties and Ideological Spaces in East Central Europe’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 30 (3): 221–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X%2897%2900006-8
    Mason, David (1996) Revolution and Transition in East-Central Europe,
    2nd edn.
    Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Mason, David, DanielNelson and BohdanSzklarski (1991) ‘Apathy and the Birth of Democracy: The Polish Struggle’, East European Politics and Societies, 5 (2): 205–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888325491005002001
    Mason, David S., AntalOrkeny and SvetlanaSidorenko-Stephenson (1997) ‘Increasingly Fond Memories of a Grim Past’, Transitions, 3 (5): 15–19.
    Matthews, Donald (1954) The Social Background of Political Decision-Makers. New York: Random House.
    Maull, Hanns (1997) ‘Die Kosten der Kungelei’, die Zeit, 12 December: 6.
    Maxwell, J.M. (1990) ‘Economic Reforms in New Democracies: The Southern European Experience’, East-South System Transformations, working paper no. 3 (October), Department of Political Science: University of Chicago.
    McClune, Emma (1994) ‘Czechs Fear Crime Wave That Isn't There’, Prague Post, 13 September. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    McKinsey, Kitty (1997) ‘Poland: Pension Crisis Looms’. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty <http://www.rferl.org/nca...3/F.RU.970303160644.html> 18 November.
    McLellan (1970) Marx before Marxism. New York: Harper.
    Meier, Artur (1996) ‘The New European Divide’, in P.Mitev and J.Riordan (eds), Europe – The Young – The Balkans. Sofia: International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations.
    Meyer, Alfred (1967) ‘Authority in Communist Political Systems’, in LewisEdinger (ed.), Political Leadership in Industrialized Societies. New York: Wiley and Sons.
    Michnik, Adam (1997) ‘Gray is Beautiful: Thoughts on Democracy in Central Europe’, Dissent, Spring: 14–19.
    Mihalka, Michael (1997) ‘Competitive Enlargement?’RFE/RL Newsline. 1: 80, Part II, 24 July.
    Milić, Andjelka (1993) ‘Women and Nationalism in the Former Yugoslavia’, in NanetteFunk and MagdaMueller (eds), Gender Politics and Post-Communism. New York: Routledge. pp. 109–122.
    Millar, James R. and Sharon L.Wolchik (1994) The Social Legacy of Communism. New York: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
    Millard, Frances (1994a) ‘The Polish Parliamentary Election of September, 1993’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 27 (3): 295–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0967-067X%2894%2990016-7
    Millard, Frances (1994b) The Anatomy of the New Poland. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
    Miller, William L., StephenWhite and PaulHeywood (1998) Values and Political Change in Postcommunist Europe. New York: St Martin's Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230377448
    Mills, C. Wright (1951) White Collar. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mills, C. Wright (1956) The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Misztal, Bronislaw (1995) ‘The Uses of Freedom’, in M.Darnovsky, B.Epstein and R.Flacks (eds), Cultural Politics and Social Movements. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 264–286.
    Moghadam, Valentin M. (ed.) (1994a) Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Moghadam, Valentin M. (1994b) ‘Introduction: Gender Dynamics of Economic and Political Change’, in V.Moghadam (ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon. pp. 1–25.
    Mojzes, Paul (1992) Religious Liberty in Eastern Europe and the USSR: Before and After the Great Transformation. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs.
    Mommsen, Margareta (1997) ‘ “Delegative”, “halbierte” und “Nomenklatura” – emokratien’, in G-J.Glaeßner and M.Reiman (eds), Systemwechsel und Demokratisierung. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. pp. 233–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-322-87298-2_10
    Moody, Peter (1988) Political Opposition in Post-Confucian Society. New York: Praeger.
    Morawski, Witold (1992) ‘Economic Change and Civil Society in Poland’, in Paul GLewis (ed.), Democracy and Civil Society in Eastern Europe. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Mroziewicz, Dagmar (1996) ‘Polish Economic Reform Marred by High Unemployment’, Transition, 2 (13): 26–27.
    MTI – Hungarian News Agency (1994) ‘Left-Wing Youth Association Examined’, 10 August. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    MTI – Hungarian News Agency (1997) ‘Poll Shows 47 Percent Support EU Entry’, 7 August. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Muntyan, Bernard (1996) ‘A reflection on the concept Europe’, in P.Mitev and J.Riordan (eds), Europe – The Young – The Balkans. Sofia: International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations.
    Myant, Martin (1993) ‘Czech and Slovak Trade Unions’, Journal of Communist Studies, 9 (4): 59–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523279308415232
    Myant, Martin and MichaelWaller (1993) ‘Parties and Trade Unions in Eastern Europe’, Journal of Communist Studies, 9 (4): 161–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523279308415238
    Nagle, John (1970) The National Democratic Party: Right-Radicalism in the Federal Republic of Germany. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Nagle, John (1975) ‘A New Look at the Soviet Elite: A Generational Model of the Soviet System’, Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 3 (1): 1–13.
    Nagle, John (1977) System and Succession: The Social Basis of Political Elite Recruitment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Nagle, John (1992) ‘Recruitment of Elites’, in M.Hawksworth and M.Kogan (eds), Encyclopedia of Government and Politics. London: Routledge.
    Nagle, John (1997a) ‘Ethnos, Demos, and Democratization: A Comparison of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland’, Democratization, 4 (2): 28–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510349708403514
    Nagle, John (1997b) ‘Youth Political Socialization in Postcommunism: Skinheads, Yuppies and a Democratic Middle Majority?’, paper presented to the International Society of Political Psychology, Krakow, Poland, 21–24 June.
    Nagle, John (1998a) Introduction to Comparative Politics: Challenges of Conflict and Change in a Neiu Era,
    5th edn.
    Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Nagle, John (1998b) Confessions from the Left: On the Pain, Necessity and Joys of Political Renewal. New York: Peter Lang.
    Nagorski, Andrew (1993) The Birth of Freedom: Shaping Lives and Societies in the Neiu Eastern Europe. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Nelson, Daniel (1995) ‘Conclusion: In the Pursuit of Democracy and Security’, in DanielNelson (ed.), After Authoritarianism: Democracy or Disorder?Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Nelson, Joan M. (1994) ‘Panel Discussion’, in J.Williamson (ed.), The Political Economy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. pp. 472–477.
    Nepszava (1996) ‘Hungary Does Not Yet Have Organized Crime’, 4 October. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Nepszava (1997a) ‘Opinions of Ministries Worsen’, 10 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Nepszava (1997b) ‘Election Alliance Only with Guarantees’, 18 November. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Nepszava (1997c) ‘The Leader's Elite Becomes Increasingly Closed’, 24 January. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Nepszava (1998) ‘Appreciated Government Efforts’, 14 January. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Neiu York Times (1994) ‘Voices of Hope and Disquiet: Bread and Butter, Armies and the Future’, 30 September: A10.
    Nohlen, Dieter (1992) ‘Präsidentialismus versus Parlamentarismus in Lateinamerika’, Lateinamerikanische Jahrbuch:86–99.
    Nonneman, Gerd (1996a) ‘Economic Liberalization: The Debate’, in GerdNonneman (ed.), Political and Economic Liberalization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 3–30.
    Nonneman, Gerd (1996b) ‘Linkages Between Economic and Political Liberalization’, in G.Nonnemann (ed.), Political and Economic Liberalization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 307–313.
    Nonneman, Gerd (1996c) ‘Patterns of Economic Liberalization’, in G.Nonnemann (ed.), Political and Economic Liberalization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 31–43.
    Nonneman, Gerd (ed.) (1996d) Political and Economic Liberalization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
    NowaEuropa (1996) ‘Results of a CBOS Poll; We Rate Local Authorities and the President Highest’, 19 December. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Nowicki, Maciej (1993) Environment in Poland: Issues and Solutions. Dordrecht: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1731-9
    Nowotny, Thomas (1997) ‘Transition from communism and the Spectre of Latin-Americanization’, East European Quarterly, 31 (1): 69–91.
    Nye, R.A. (1977) The Anti-Democratic Sources of Elite Theory: Pareto, Mosca, Michels. London: Sage.
    Oberman, Jan (1991) ‘Czechoslovakia: Organized Labor – A New Beginning’, RFE/RL Research Institute Report on Eastern Europe, 2 (13): 23–25.
    O'Donnell, Guillermo and PhilippeSchmitter (1986) Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions About Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) (1994) ‘Market Access and FDI/Trade Linkages in Eastern Europe’, Working Paper No. 43. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) (1996) Economic Surveys: Netherlands 1996. Paris: OECD.
    Oilman, Bertell (1972) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Olson, Mancur (1971) The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Oltay, Edith (1993) ‘Hungary Attempts to Deal With its Past’, RFE/RL Research Institute Report, 2 (18): 6–10.
    OMRI (Open Media Research Institute)Omri Daily Digest (online volumes for 1993–1997, various issues).
    OMRI (Open Media Research Institute) (1996) Building Democracy. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
    OMRI (Open Media Research Institute) (1996, 1997) Forging Ahead, Falling Behind. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
    Orenstein, Mitchell (1995) ‘Who's Right? Who's Left’, Transition, 1 (14): 28–31.
    Orenstein, Mitchell (1996) ‘The Failures of the Neo-Liberal Social Policy in Central Europe’, Transition, 2 (13): 16–20.
    Orenstein, Mitchell (1998) ‘Lawlessness from Above and Below: How Economic Radicalism Shapes Political Institutions’, SAIS Review, 18 (1): 35–49.
    Orenstein, Mitchell and Raj M.Desai (1997) ‘State Power and Interest Group Formation: The Business Lobby in the Czech Republic’, Problems of Post-Communism, 44 (6): 43–52.
    Ost, David (1995) ‘Labor, Class and Democracy: Shaping Antagonisms in Post-Communist Society’, in BeverlyCrawford (ed.), Markets, States and Democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Ost, David (1997) ‘East-Central Europe in Transition’, in M.Kesselman and J.Krieger (eds), European Politics in Transition,
    3rd edn.
    Boston, MA: Houghton Miflin.
    Padorska, Joanna and MariuszJanicki (1997) ‘The Debutante has Stagefright’, Polityka, 2 August. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Palmer, Alan (1970) The Lands Between: A History of East-Central Europe since the Congress of Vienna. New York: Macmillan.
    PAP (Polska Agencja Prasowa) (1997a) ‘Opinion Center Says President Still Leads Popularity List’, 10 September. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    PAP (Polska Agencja Prasowa) (1997b) ‘Public Opinion Research Centre Poll Shows Majority Pleased With Political System’, 9 October. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    PAP (Polska Agencja Prasowa) (1997c) ‘Presidency, Army Receive High Opinion Poll Ratings’, 6 May. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    PAP (Polska Agencja Prasowa) (1997d) ‘Poll Finds Poles Favour Democracy Against Strongman Rule’, 1 October. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    PAP (Polska Agencja Prasowa) (1998a) ‘42 Percent of Poles Say Poland Better Under Communism’, 20 July. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    PAP (Polska Agencja Prasowa) (1998b) ‘Poland Makes Pact with EU on Combating Organised Crime’, 29 May. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Pauer, Jan (1995) ‘Der tschechische Liberalkonservativismus’, in I.Bock, J.Pauer and S.Mihalikova (eds), Tschechische Republik zwischen Traditionsbruch und Kontinuität. Bremen: Edition Temmen. pp. 11–68.
    Payer, Cheryl (1976) The Debt Trap: The IMF and the Third World. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Pehe, Jiri (1996a) ‘And Czechs on Czech-German Declaration’, OMRI Daily Digest, 99 (II): 22 May.
    Pehe, Jiri (1996b) ‘Czech-German Declaration Will Not Be Ready Before Elections’, OMRI Daily Digest, 70 (II): 9 April.
    Pehe, Jiri (1996c) ‘Czech Elections End in Stalemate’, OMRI Daily Digest, 107 (II): June 3.
    Pehe, Jiri (1997a) ‘Czech and German Premiers Sign Declaration’, OMRI Daily Digest, 15 (II): 22 January.
    Pehe, Jiri (1997b) ‘Czechs Fall From Their Ivory Tower’, Transitions, 4 (3): 22–27.
    Pei, Minxin (1995) ‘The Puzzle of East Asian Exceptionalism’, in LarryDiamond and MarcPlattner (eds), Economic Reform and Democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 112–125.
    Pene, Stanislav and JanUrban (1998) ‘Extremist Acts Galvanize Roma Population’, Transitions, 5 (7): 39–40.
    Perczel, Tamas (1997) ‘What is the Deeper Meaning?’, Nepszava, 22 November. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Perlez, Jane (1998) ‘Dark Underside of Polish Family Life: Violence’, New York Times, 8 May, A-l, A-8.
    Petersen, Anne C. and Jeylan T.Mortimer (1994) Youth, Unemployment and Society. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664021
    Pfaff, William (1992) ‘Absence of Empire’, New Yorker, 10 August.
    Pfaff, William (1993) The Wrath of Nations: Civilization and the Furies of Nationalism. New York: Touchstone.
    Ploss, Sidney (1965) Conflict and Decision-Making in Soviet Russia: A Case Study of Agricultural Policy, 1953–1963. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Pocock, J.G.A. (1997) ‘What Do We Mean By Europe?’, The Wilson Quarterly, 21: 1, Winter: 12–29.
    Polish News Bulletin (1997) in LEXIS NEXIS/EUROPE/PNBUL. 17 July.
    Polityka (1997) ‘A Pensioner Can: Interview with Zenon Ruminski, head of the Polish National Party of Senior Citizens’, 14 June. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Pridham, Geoffrey (1995) ‘The International Context of Democratic Consolidation; Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective’, in RichardGunther, Hans-JürgenPuhle and NikiforosDiamandouros (eds), The Politics of Democratic Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 166–203.
    Pridham, Geoffrey and PaulLewis (1996) ‘Introduction: Stabilising fragile democracies and party system development’, in G.Pridham and P.Lewis (eds), Stabilising Fragile Democracies: Comparing New Party Systems in Southern and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge. pp. 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430132
    Prognosis (1994) ‘Czechs Say: We Want the Death Penalty’, 2 November. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Przeworski, Adam, PranabBardham and LuizCarlosBresserPeriera (1995) Sustainable Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664205
    Putnam, Robert (1995a) ‘Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy’, Journal of Democracy, 6: 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.1995.0002
    Putnam, Robert (1995b) ‘Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital’, Current, 373 (June).
    Racz, Barnabus (1993) ‘The Socialist-left Opposition in Post-Communist Hungary’, Europe-Asia Studies, 45 (4): 647–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668139308412113
    Rau, Zbigniew (ed.) (1991a) The Reemergence of Civil Society in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Rau, Zbigniew (1991b) ‘Introduction’, in Zbigniew, Rau (ed.), The Reemergence of Civil Society in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Boulder, CO, Westview Press. pp. 1–23.
    Ravich, Samantha Fay (1996) Marketization and Prosperity: Pathways to East Asian Democracy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
    Regulska, Johanna (1992) ‘Women and Power in Poland: Hopes or Reality’, in Jill M.Bystydzienksi (ed.), Women Transforming Politics. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 175–191.
    Regulska, Johanna and Mindy JaneRoseman (1998) ‘What is Gender?’, Transitions, 5 (1): 24–29.
    RFE/RL (Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty) Newsline (online volumes for 1997, 1998, various issues).
    Rhodes, Martin and Bastiaan vanApeldoorn (1997) ‘Capitalism versus Capitalism in Western Europe’, in M.Rhodes, P.Heywood and V.Wright (eds), Developments in West European Politics. New York: St Martins Press.
    Riggs, Fred (1992) ‘Presidentialism: A Problematic Regime Type’, in ArendLijphart (ed.), Parliamentary versus Presidential Democracy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Robinson, Anthony (1997) ‘A tough juggling act for ministers’, Financial Times, 19 September: 29.
    Rodrik, Dani (1993) ‘Comment on Béla Kádár: External Liberalization: Gradualism or Shock Approach’, in HorstSiebert (ed.), Overcoming the Transformation Crisis. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). pp. 189–193.
    Roe, Sarah (1997) ‘Progressive Inaction in Hungary’, Transitions, 4 (4): 33.
    Rose, Richard (1996) ‘Choosing Democracy as the Lesser Evil’, Transition, 2 (9): 40–45.
    Rose, Richard and ChristianHaerpfer (1994) ‘New Russia Barometer III’, Studies in Public Policy, 228.
    Rosenberg, Tina (1995) The Haunted Land: Facing Europe's Ghosts After Communism. New York: Random House.
    Roskin, Michael (1997) ‘Party Systems of Central and Eastern Europe’, East European Quarterly, 27 (1): 47–63.
    Ross, Robert and KentTrachte (1990) Global Capitalism: the New Leviathan. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Rothschild, Joseph (1974) East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
    Rothschild, Joseph (1989) Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe since World War II. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Rupnik, Jacques (1979) ‘Dissent in Poland, 1968–78: The End of Revisionism and the Rebirth of Civil Society’, in R.Tökes (ed.), Opposition in Eastern Europe. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press. pp. 60–112.
    Rutland, Peter (1997) ‘Russia's Broken Wheel of Ideologies’, Transitions, 4 (1): 47–53.
    Rzeczpospolita (1994) ‘Public Opinion Research Institute for Rzeczpospolita: Politicians Want Influence, Journalists Independence’, 30 June. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Rzeczpospolita (1995) ‘“Eurobarometer 1994”: Moods in the New Democracies; There Are a Few More Clouds’, 8 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Rzeczpospolita (1997) ‘Reforms are a Serious Commitment’, 13 November. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Sader, E. and Silverstein, K. (1991) Without Fear of Being Happy: Lula, the Workers Party and Brazil. London: Verso.
    Sadurski, Wojciech (1996) ‘Freedom of the Press in Postcommunist Poland’, East European Politics and Societies, 10 (3): 439–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888325496010003004
    Sartori, Giovanni (1962) Democratic Theory. New York: Praeger.
    Sartori, Giovanni (1970) ‘Concept Misformation in Comparative Polities’, American Political Science Review, 64 (4): 1033–1953. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1958356
    Sartori, Giovanni (1976) Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Schmidt, Fabian (1997) ‘Prague, Bonn Launch Reconciliation Fund’. RFE/RL Newsline, 1 (187), part II (30 December).
    Schmidt, Josephine (1998) ‘Gazeta Wyborcza Comes of Age’, Transitions, 5 (2): 92–93.
    Schmitter, Philippe and Terry LynnKarl (1994) ‘The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and Consolidologists: How Far to the East Should They Attempt to Go?’, Slavic Review, 53 (1): 173–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2500331
    Schneider, Howard (1997) ‘In Bid to Restrict Gypsies, Canada Limits Czech Visitors’, Washington Post, 9 October, A31.
    Schneider, Howard and ChristineSpolar (1997) ‘Czech Prejudice – and TV – Fuel Gypsy Migration to Canada’, Washington Post, 1 September, A23.
    Schöpflin, George (1990) ‘The Political Traditions of Eastern Europe’, Daedalus, Winter: 55–90.
    Schöpflin, George (1993) ‘Culture and Identity in Post-Communist Europe’, in StephenWhite, JudyBatt and Paul G.Lewis (eds), Developments in East European Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 16–34.
    Schumpeter, Joseph (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Schumpeter, Joseph (1997) ‘An Elite Theory of Democracy’ in Eva EtzioniHalevy (ed.), Classes and Elites in Democracy and Democratization. New York: Garland.
    Schweitzer, Arthur (1964) Big Business in the Third Reich. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Sebastian, Byron (1995) ‘Debts and Disgruntled Doctors’, Transition, 1 (24): 46–50.
    Shafir, Michael (1996) ‘Romanians Protest Appointment of Ethnic Hungarian Prefects’, OMRI Daily Digest, 244 (II): 19 December.
    Shafir, Michael (1998a) ‘Czech Crown Reaches Record Low’, RFE/RL Newsline (January 7).
    Shafir, Michael (1998b) ‘Czech Supreme Court Overturns Decision on Communist Leaders’, RFE/RL Newsline (22 January).
    Shafir, Michael (1998c) ‘Czech “Nostalgia” For Communist Regime Grows’, RFE/RL Newsline (25 February).
    Sheehan, Michael (1997) ‘The Emerging Pattern of International Relations in Eastern Europe’, in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 1997,
    3rd edn.
    London: Europa Publications Limited. pp. 19–22.
    Shils, Edward (1982) ‘The political class in the age of mass society: collectivistic liberalism and social democracy’, in M.Czudnowski (ed.), Does Who Governs Matter?DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press.
    Siebert, Horst (ed.) (1993) Overcoming the Transformation Crisis. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).
    Sierszula, Barbara (1998) ‘I Was Looked Upon As a Funny Moralist: Interview with Czech President Václav Havel’, Rzeczpospolita, 7–8 March. Translated by Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Siklova, Jirina (1998a) ‘Men and Women United for a Higher Purpose’, Transitions, 5 (1): 34–35.
    Siklova, Jirina (1998b) ‘Why We Resist Western-Style Feminism’, Transitions, 5 (1): 30–35.
    Silverman, Bertram, RobertVogt and MurrayYanowitch (eds) (1993) Double Shift: Transforming Work in Postsocialist Societies. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
    Singer, Daniel (1981) The Road to Gdansk. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Sipos, Sandor (1991) ‘Current and Structural Problems Affecting Children in Central and Eastern Europe’, in Giovanni AndreaCornia and SandorSipos (eds), Children and the Transition to the Market Economy. Brookfield, VT: Avebury. pp. 3–33.
    Skilling, Gordon (1966) ‘Interest Groups and Communist Polities’, World Politics, 18 (3): 435–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2009764
    Skilling, Gordon (1970) ‘Leadership and Group Conflict in Czechoslovakia’, in BarryFarrell (ed.), Political Leadership in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Chicago: Aldine.
    Skilling, Gordon and FranklynGriffiths (eds) (1971) Interest Groups in Soviet Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Skolkay, Andrej (1996) ‘Slovak Government Tightens Its Grip on the Airwaves’, Transition, 2 (8): 18–21.
    Smith, Michael (1997) ‘Steel obstacle on Poland's road to EU’, Financial Times, 28 November: 3.
    Smith, Peter (1992) ‘On Democracy and Democratization’, in HowardWiarda (ed.), Politics and Social Change in Latin America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Snyder, Tim (1995) ‘National Myths and International Relations: Poland and Lithuania 1989–1994’, East European Politics and Societies, 9 (2): 317–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888325495009002007
    Soros, Georg (1997) ‘The Capitalist Threat’, Atlantic Monthly, February: 45–58.
    Spolar, Christine (1997a) ‘Now Polish Candidates Must Snitch on Selves’, Washington Post, 26 August: A11.
    Spolar, Christine (1997b) ‘Hot Water Helps Clear the Air in Ski Resort’, Washington Post, 28 October: A-17.
    Spolar, Christine (1997c) ‘Slovak Leader Fans Bias Toward Hungarian Minority’, Washington Post, 30 November: A-23.
    Spolar, Christine (1997d) ‘Slovaks in Czech Republic Strive to Keep Their Ethnicity in Check’, Washington Post, 27 April: A-24.
    Spolar, Christine (1998a) ‘Hungarians Chafe at Crime, Economy’, Washington Post, 24 May: A26.
    Spolar, Christine (1998b) ‘Poland Forced to Face Upsurge in Crime’, Washington Post, 7 February: A16.
    Stastna, Jaroslava (1995) ‘New Opportunities in the Czech-Republic’, Transition, 1 (16): 24–28, 61.
    Staszewski, Wojciech and PawelWronski (1997) ‘Extraordinary Career of the Party of Senior Citizens’, Gazeta Wyborcza, 28 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Steffani, Winfried (1979) Parlamentarische und präsidentielle Demokratie. Cologne and Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
    Steffani, Winfried (1996) ‘Parlamentarisch-präsidentielle “Mischsysteme”?’, in OttoLuchterhand (ed.), Neue Regierungssysteme in Osteuropa und der GUS. Berlin: Arno Spitz. pp. 11–62.
    Stokes, Gale (1993) The Walls Came Tumbling Down: The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Swiecka, Agnieszka (1996) ‘The Fading Bloom of Youth’, Warsaw Voice, 10 March. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Szacki, Jerzy (1995) Liberalism after Communism. Budapest: Central European Press.
    Szczerbiak, Aleks (1997) ‘Harmonizing the Discordant Right’, Transition, 3 (6): 44–47.
    Szelenyi, Ivan (1997) ‘Socialist Opposition in Eastern Europe’, in RudolfTokes (ed.), Opposition in Eastern Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Szelenyi, Ivan, EvaFodor and EricHanley (1997) ‘Left Turn in PostCommunist Politics: Bringing Class Back in?’, East European Politics and Societies, 11 (1): 190–224.
    Szilagyi, Zsofia (1995) ‘Hungary’, in Open Media Research Institute, Building Democracy. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 36–43.
    Szilagyi, Zsofia (1996a) ‘Hungarian Parliament Amends Screening Law’, OMRI Daily Digest, 130 (II): 8 July.
    Szilagyi, Zsofia (1996b) ‘Hungary Has a Broadcast Media Law, at Last’, Transition, 2 (8): 22–25.
    Szilagyi, Zsofia (1996c) ‘Communication Breakdown Between the Government and the Public’, Transition, 2 (6): 41–43.
    Szilagyi, Zsofia (1996d) ‘Hungarian Parliament Ratifies Basic Treaty with Romania’, OMRI Daily Digest, 238 (II): 11 December.
    Szilagyi, Zsofia (1996e) ‘Scenes From the Media War’, Transition, 2 (8): 24.
    Szilagyi, Zsofia (1997) ‘A Year of Scandals and Resignations in Hungary’, in Open Media Research Institute, The OMRI Annual Survey of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: 1996. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 32–36.
    Szulc, Adam (1996) ‘Economic Transition and Poverty: The Case of the Vysehrad Group Countries’, Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper No. 138. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.
    Tamas, G.M. (1993) ‘Socialism, Capitalism, and Modernity’, in LarryDiamond and MarcPlattner (eds), Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy Revisited. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 54–68.
    Tatu, Michel (1969) Power in the Kremlin: From Khrushchev to Kosygin. New York: Viking.
    Tismaneanu, Vladimir (1992) Reinventing Politics. New York: Free Press.
    Tismaneanu, Vladimir (1994) ‘Fantasies of Salvation: Varieties of Nationalism in Postcommunist Eastern Europe’, in Michael D.Kennedy (ed.), Envisioning Eastern Europe. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
    Tismaneanu, Vladimir (1996) ‘The Leninist Debris or Waiting for Peron’, East European Politics and Society, 10 (4): 504–535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888325496010003006
    Toka, Gabor (1996) ‘Parties and electoral choices in east-central Europe’, in G.Pridham and P.Lewis (eds), Stabilising Fragile Democracies: Comparing New Party Systems in Southern and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge. pp. 100–125.
    Torrey, Barbara, TimothySmeeding and DebraBailey (1996) ‘Rowing Between Scylla and Charybdis: Income Transitions in Central European Households’, Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper No. 132. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.
    Tóth, András (1993) ‘Great Expectations – Fading Hopes: Trade Unions and System Change in Hungary’, Journal of Communist Studies, 9 (4): 85–97.
    Truman, David (1953) The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    TygodnikSolidarnosc (1996) ‘Banners and Bread: Solidarity and Polities’, 10 May. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    UJ Magyarorszag (1995) ‘What Is in the MSZOSZ's Package – The Bokros Program's Counterweight’, 30 March. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Ulam, Adam (1952) Titoism and the Cominform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    US News and World Report (1986) ‘Europe's Youth Drop in, Not Out’, 26 May: 31–32.
    Vinton, Louisa (1991) ‘Poland: Disparate Responses to Democracy and the Market’, RFE/RL Research Institute Report on Eastern Europe, 2 (13): 29–37.
    Volgyes, Ivan (1975a) ‘Hungary: From Mobilization to Depoliticization’, in IvanVolgyes (ed.), Political Socialization in Eastern Europe. New York: Praeger. pp. 92–131.
    Volgyes, Ivan (ed.) (1975b) Political Socialization in Eastern Europe: A Comparative Framework. New York: Praeger.
    Volgyes, Ivan (1975c) ‘Political Socialization in Eastern Europe: A Conceptual Framework’, in IvanVolgyes (ed.), Political Socialization in Eastern Europe. New York: Praeger. pp. 1–37.
    Walker, Jack (1966) ‘A critique of the elitist theory of democracy’, American Political Science Review, 60: 285–295. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1953356
    Walker, Martin (1995) ‘Overstretching Teutonia: Making the Best of the Fourth Reich’, World Policy journal, 12 (1): 1–18.
    Wallace, Claire and SukaKovacheva (1996) ‘Youth Cultures and Consumption in Eastern and Western Europe’, Youth and Society, 28 (2): 189–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X96028002003
    Waller, Michael (1994) ‘Voice, Choice and Loyalty: Democratization in Eastern Europe’, in GeraintParry and MichaelMoran (eds), Democracy and Democratization. London: Routledge. pp. 129–151.
    Waller, Michael (1995) ‘Starting-up Problems: Communists, Social Democrats, and Greens’, in GordonWightman (ed.), Party Formation in East-Central Europe. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
    Waller, Michael (1996) ‘Party Inheritances and Party Identities’, in G.Pridham and P.Lewis (eds), Stabilising Fragile Democracies: Comparing New Party Systems in Southern and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge. pp. 23–43.
    Waller, Michael, BrunoCoppieters and KrisDeschouwer (eds) (1994) Social Democracy in a Post-Communist Europe. Portland and London: Frank Cass.
    Washington Post (1997) ‘Green, Greener, Greenest’, 22 November: A15.
    Weil, Gordon (1994) ‘Economic Reform and Women’ in V.Moghadam (ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 280–301.
    Wejnert, Barbara, MettaSpencer and SlobodanDrakulic (eds) (1996) Women in Post-Communism, Volume 2. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Welsh, Helga A. (1996) ‘Dealing with the Communist Past: Central and East European Experiences after 1990’, Europe–Asia Studies, 48 (3): 413–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668139608412356
    Wesolowski, Wlodzimierz (1996) ‘The formation of political parties in post communist Poland’, in G.Pridham and P.Lewis (eds), Stabilising Fragile Democracies: Comparing New Party Systems in Southern and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge. pp. 229–253.
    Wesson, Robert (1990) International Relations in Transition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    White, Stephen, JudyBatt and Paul G.Lewis (eds) (1993) Developments in East European Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Whitehead, Laurence (ed.) (1996) The International Dimensions of Democratization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Wiarda, Howard (ed.) (1985) New Directions in Comparative Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Wiarda, Howard and HarveyKline (eds) (1996) Latin American Politics and Development,
    4th edn.
    Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Wiatr, Jerzy (1994) ‘From Communist Party to “Socialist Democracy of the Polish Republic”’, in KayLawson (ed.), How Parties Work. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 249–261.
    Williamson, John (1994a) ‘In Search of a Manual for Technopols’, in JohnWilliamson (ed.), The Political Economy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. pp. 9–28.
    Williamson, John (ed.) (1994b) The Political Economy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    Wolchik, Sharon L. (1994a) ‘The Politics of Ethnicity in Post-Communist Czechoslovakia’, East European Politics and Societies, 8 (1): 153–188.
    Wolchik, Sharon L. (1994b) ‘Women and the Politics of Transition in Central and Eastern Europe’, in ValentineMoghadam (ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 29–47.
    World Bank (1995) Understanding Poverty in Poland. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Wprost (1997) ‘The Czech Scenario’, 29 June. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Wynia, Gary (1990) The Politics of Latin American Development,
    3rd edn.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511571619
    Zajicek, Anna M. and Tony M.Calasanti (1995) ‘The Impact of Socioeconomic Restructuring on Polish Women’, in BarbaraŁobodzińska (ed.), Family, Women and Employment in Central and Eastern Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 179–191.
    Zakaria, Fareed (1997) ‘The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’, Foreign Affairs (November-December): 22–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20048274
    Zavecz, Tibor (1998) ‘Appreciated Government Efforts’, Nepszava, 14 January. Translated by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.
    Ziebura, Gilbert (1995) ‘The Beginning of the End for the European Union?’, Debatte, No. 1: 33–43.
    Ziemer, Klaus (1996) ‘Struktur- und Funktionsprobleme der Parlamente’, in OttoLuchterhand (ed.), Neue Regierungssysteme in Osteuropa und der GUS. Berlin: Arno Spitz. pp. 151–180.
    Zubek, Voytek (1994) ‘The Reassertion of the Left in Post-Communist Poland’, Europe-Asia Studies, 46 (5): 801–837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668139408412201
    Zycie Gospodarcze (1996) ‘Poverty in Poland’, 4 August. Transcribed by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website