Deconstructing Heterosexism in the Counseling Professions: A Narrative Approach

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Edited by: James M. Croteau, Julianne S. Lark, Melissa A. Lidderdale & Y. Barry Chung

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  • Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series

    SERIES EDITOR

    Paul B. Pedersen, PhD

    Professor Emeritus, Syracuse University Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii

    EDITORIAL BOARD

    • Patricia M. Arredondo, EdD
    • Arizona State University
    • J. Manuel Casas, PhD
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
    • Harold E. Cheatham, PhD
    • Professor Emeritus Penn State University
    • William E. Cross, Jr., PhD
    • City University of New York
    • Candice Marie Fleming, PhD
    • University of Colorado
    • Mary Fukuyama, PhD
    • University of Florida
    • L. Sunny Hansen, PhD
    • Professor Emeritus University of Minnesota
    • Allen E. Ivey, EdD
    • Professor Emeritus University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    • Teresa LaFromboise, PhD
    • Stanford University
    • Jun-Chih Gisela Lin, PhD
    • ABPP, Texas A & M University
    • Don C. Locke, EdD
    • University of North Carolina at Asheville
    • Amado M. Padilla, PhD
    • Stanford University
    • Freddy Paniagua, PhD
    • University of Texas Medical Branch
    • Joseph G. Ponterotto, PhD
    • Fordham University
    • Derald Wing Sue, PhD
    • Columbia University Teachers College
    • Norman D. Sundberg, PhD
    • Professor Emeritus University of Oregon
    • Junko Tanaka Matsumi, PhD
    • Kwansei Gakuin University Nishinomiya-City Japan
    • Joseph E. Trimble, PhD
    • Western Washington University
    • Melba J. T. Vasquez, PhD
    • Independent Practice Austin, Texas
    • Clemmont E. Vontress PhD
    • Professor Emeritus George Washington University

    VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES

    • Increasing Multicultural Understanding (2nd edition): A Comprehensive Model by Don C. Locke
    • Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Paul B. Pedersen
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs edited by Richard W Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida
    • Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients (2nd edition): A Practical Guide by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention by Charles R. Ridley
    • Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide by Mark S. Kiselica
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Assessment, Education and Training, and Supervision edited by Donald B. Pope-Davis and Hardin L. K. Coleman
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, Volume 2 edited by Kenneth Cushner and Richard W Brislin
    • Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment by Richard H. Dana
    • Psychological Testing of American Minorities (2nd edition) by Ronald J. Samuda
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development by Derald Wing Sue et al.
    • Counseling Multiracial Families by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, and Mark E. Kenney
    • Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling by Mary A. Fukuyama and Todd D. Sevig
    • Counseling With Native American Indians and Alaska Natives: Strategies for Helping Professionals by Roger D. Herring
    • Diagnosis in a Multicultural Context: A Casebook for Mental Health Professionals by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Psychotherapy and Counseling With Asian American Clients: A Practical Guide by George K. Hong and MaryAnna Domokos-Cheng Ham
    • Counseling Latinos and La Familia: A Guide for Practitioners by Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo and Maritza Gallardo-Cooper
    • Counseling Persons of African Descent: Raising the Bar of Practioner Competence edited by Thomas A. Parham
    • Ethics in a Multicultural Context by Sherlon P. Pack-Brown and Carmen Braun Williams
    • Deconstructing Heterosexism in the Counseling Professions: A Narrative Approach by James M. Croteau, Julianne S. Lark, Melissa A. Lidderdale, and Y. Barry Chung

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Foreword

    These 36 authors are asking us, the readers, a question regarding the principle of inclusiveness in the practice of counseling. The book is intensely personal, and each author took a considerable risk in the degree of self-disclosure in his or her narrative story. This is a book not only about lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues but, more important, also about the deeper issues of being inclusive with regard to the thousands of differences, including demographic, status, and affiliation as well as ethnographic characteristics, which combine to define our individual identities. This book is a test of the legitimacy of counseling, and if the field of counseling fails this test, then it has lost a great deal of its professional legitimacy. There is a great deal at stake here, not just for the authors but for the readers as well.

    The Multicultural Aspect of Counseling (MAC) series is honored to include this book among the several dozen books that address culture-centered issues of the counseling profession. It is interesting to note in the introduction to Section II that the decision to publish this book in the MAC series was carefully made, both to address LGB as a culture and to address at the same time how LGB is addressed differently in each cultural context. The editors decided to follow the principle of cultural inclusiveness and publish this book in the context of other multicultural books of the MAC series to emphasize the interactivity of LGB issues with other aspects of our cultural identities.

    This is a book of stories told by professionals that will transform the reader as well as educate, connect, and empower the generic competencies of counselors. It is not only a book about a special LGB population. It is a book about liberation over oppression and the “core alignment” of counseling on achieving human potential. Many of the stories led LGB readers to exclaim, “It was just like that for me!” We hope many of our other readers will be able to see how these stories are “just like them” as well. In the editors' own words, “We contend that the telling, listening, and reflecting on stories about navigating sexual orientation within the counseling professions comprise the missing ‘map’ or ‘key’ in the journey to bring LGB affirmation more fully into the heart of what it is to be a counseling professional” (Croteau, Lark, & Lance, Ch. 1, this volume).

    This is a book about change in how counseling is provided and received so that the change can be positive with regard to inclusiveness. This comprehensive text seeks to move LGB-affirmative practice, training, and research from the edge to the center of counseling professional discourse. The first section of 18 chapters provides the “narrative voices” of the authors speaking out about their own personal and private journeys as they take risks about how you, the reader, will interpret their choices. The second section of two longer chapters focuses on the special issues and contexts for the narrative perspectives. The concluding chapters of the book link the narratives and special issues in “deconstructing, envisioning, and making practice suggestions” to the reader. The book does not limit itself to identifying what is wrong but also makes concrete and practical suggestions for making things right.

    Many of the authors talk about the risks they were taking in writing these chapters and how vulnerable they felt having disclosed such personal information to the relative strangers who will read this book. Many of the stories demonstrate the extent and power of inappropriate exclusivity that remains strong in the profession of counseling. The profession of counseling has a long way to go, but progress is being made.

    Paul B.PedersenSenior Editor Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series

    Preface

    At its heart, this is a book of stories about the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual counseling professionals as they confront sexual orientation issues in their personal and professional lives. All four of us who are editors of this book have dedicated significant energy in our careers to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues. All of us have lived our professional lives openly lesbian or gay. The book is “about us” in a profound way that has been unique in our professional writing experiences.

    LGB lives have historically been rendered invisible in the wider society and popular culture. Even with today's increasing public visibility, LGB lives too often remain invisible, with any representation remaining an exception or exotic event. Amidst significant developments in LGB-affirmative practice and scholarship in the counseling professions, our lives as LGB counseling professionals continue to feel marginal. We continue to be “the only one” in most of our professional contexts, and our daily work occurs most often in institutional and social structures steeped in heterosexism. Our own stories of struggles and successes as LGB professionals seem genuinely honored only in LGB-focused professional groups (e.g., the Association for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling, the Society of Counseling Psychology's Section on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Awareness).

    The promise of professional visibility and validation that this book brings to our own lives as LGB professionals has made our editing and writing work a deeply emotional experience. We feel honored and empowered by the opportunity to make this book a reality. We acknowledge that we would not have had this opportunity if not for the LGB and heterosexual ally counseling professionals who pioneered the LGB-affirmative counseling movement. We also acknowledge that we would not have been able to take advantage of the opportunity to do this book without the many people in our lives right now who provide us with personal and professional support and nurture.

    We placed a strong value on inclusiveness in putting this book together. We wanted this book to be more inclusive than is the norm in sexual orientation literature in our field. While it is rewarding to take account of our progress toward greater inclusion, it is also painful to take account of how such progress has been only modest or marginal. We do think this book is stronger than prior literature in being a deeper and more honest inclusion of issues around both race and bisexuality. We have done some justice to inclusion in other ways, too. The voices of professionals who manage their minority sexual orientations in less public and “out” ways are present in the book. Gender weaves through the writing and is there to be considered by readers. There are stories and commentary related to issues around professional and economic status. Included is the often-ignored disability voice. On the other hand, despite our efforts, we had little success in finding a way to give voice to the transgender experience among counseling professionals; transgender issues are only briefly mentioned in a few places in the book. The absence of transgender in the book title, thus, is meant to represent the lack of genuine inclusion and to avoid the false impressions that can be created by nominal inclusion. We do acknowledge and support the historical and cultural movement toward the inclusion of transgender people and issues in the LGB-affirmative counseling movement. We encourage work toward a transformation in the counseling professional that will be inclusive of both sexual and gender diversities.

    Sharing coming-out stories is an LGB cultural phenomenon that holds great transformative power. We share our coming-out stories to educate and challenge others in formal situations such as LGB speakers' panels. We share our coming-out stories to increase connectedness in intensely personal contexts, such as disclosing our sexual orientations to our families of origin. We share our coming-out stories with other LGB people to gain the mutual empowerment that comes from discovering commonality in the struggle to overcome heterosexism. Though the stories in this book are not coming-out stories per se, the stories do render professional experiences with sexual orientation issues more visible or more “out.” We hope that this book of professional storytelling can be transformative: serving to educate, increase connectedness, and empower lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual counseling professionals in their work on sexual orientation issues.

    Years after coming out, having lost two lovers to AIDS and living and dying with the disease himself, Paul Monette wrote a memoir about his own coming-out experience. In that powerful book, he described the emotional significance that such stories still held in his life:

    I still shiver with a kind of astonished delight when a gay brother or sister tells of that narrow escape from the coffin world of the closet. “Yes, yes, yes,” goes a voice in my head, “it was just like that for me” … we laugh together then and dance in the giddy circle of freedom.

    (Monette, 1992, p. 2)

    The transformative power of coming-out stories may lie in how such stories “align at the core” but not necessarily in the details (Monette, 1992, p. 2). Perhaps that core alignment is really about the human potential for liberation over oppression. We hope that this book can touch some part of that core of human experience and be a transformative force for liberation within the counseling-related professions. We hope that at times the readers of this book will react to the stories and commentary herein with a sense of “astonished delight” and hear an internal voice that says, “It was just like that for me.” Our greatest hope for this book is that it be one more step toward a day when sexual orientation equity is a genuine reality in our disciplines, and all counseling professionals can truly “laugh together then and dance in the giddy circle of freedom. …”

    Reference
    Monette, P. (1992). Becoming a man: Half a life story. San Francisco: Harper.

    Acknowledgments

    In the preface, we acknowledged the pioneers of the LGB-affirmative counseling movement and the people in our lives who support us personally and professionally, and here we want to make special acknowledgement of the book's contributing authors, who have told their stories with extraordinary clarity, courage, and passion.

    In addition, we acknowledge Julie Meredith Davis and Victoria E. Cane, doctoral students at Western Michigan University, for their editorial and clerical assistance. The following reviewers are also gratefully acknowledged: Mary Andres, University of Southern California; Jason Platt, Alliant International University; and Shoshana D. Kerewsky, University of Oregon. Finally, our appreciation goes to the editorial staff at Sage: Art Pomponio, Veronica Novak, Melanie Birdsall, and Carla Freeman. We especially thank Art and Carla for their wise guidance, very competent copyediting, and warm support.

  • About the Editors

    James M. Croteau is a Professor in the Department of Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology at Western Michigan University. He received his doctoral and master's degrees from Southern Illinois University. Jim is a fellow of Division 17 of the American Psychological Association (APA). His practice, scholarship, and professional training specialties include lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues and issues of race and racism in White Americans. He coteaches a graduate course on LGB issues in counseling and development. He has organized and/or edited two special journal issues and published more than 30 journal articles and book chapters. Jim has served on editorial boards for the Journal of Counseling and Development, the Journal of Vocational Behavior, and The Counseling Psychologist. In 2003, he received the Outstanding Achievement Award from APA's Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns.

    Julianne S. Lark holds a PhD in Counseling Psychology from Western Michigan University and has 10 years of experience as a clinician. She is currently in independent practice and engages in clinical and advocacy work as an out lesbian. Julianne coteaches a graduate course on LGB issues in counseling and development. She has coauthored nine journal articles and has served as an ad hoc reviewer for The Counseling Psychologist.

    Melissa A. Lidderdale has a master's degree in Community Counseling from the University of Akron and is currently a doctoral student at Western Michigan University. Her areas of special interest/experience include counseling LGB clients, intersections of multiple oppressed identities, client perception of counseling outcome, and counselor supervision and education. She has worked in college and/or university counseling centers and has cotaught courses on LGB concerns for counseling and psychology graduate students. Melissa is a Trustee on the Executive Board of the Association for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling (a Division of the American Counseling Association, ACA) and has given 15 presentations at national, regional, and state professional conferences. She has authored one publication on training practitioners to work with LGB clients.

    Y. Barry Chung, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling and Psychological Services at Georgia State University. He received his doctoral and master's degrees from the University of Illinois. His specialties include career development and counseling, multicultural issues, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual studies. He has edited one book and published more than 30 journal articles and book chapters. He has served on the editorial boards of The Counseling Psychologist, The Career Development Quarterly, Asian Journal of Counseling, and Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.

    About the Contributors

    Eve M. Adams is an Assistant Professor and Director of Training for the Counseling Psychology PhD Program at New Mexico State University. She received her doctorate in Counseling Psychology in 1988 from The Ohio State University. She was a psychologist at the University of Akron's Counseling and Testing Center. Eve serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Counseling Psychology and has served on the Journal of Counseling and Development editorial board. Her research interests are multicultural identity development, gender role beliefs, sexual orientation, and career development. Her teaching interests are supervision, counseling skills, assessment and career counseling.

    Alan D. Berkowitz is an independent consultant who helps colleges, universities, public health agencies, and communities design programs that foster health and social justice. He is well-known for scholarship and innovative programs addressing issues of substance abuse, sexual assault, gender, social norms, and diversity and is the recipient of five national awards for his work in these areas. Alan is the editor and founder of The Report on Social Norms.

    Katheen J. Bieschke is currently an Associate Professor at Pennsylvania State University in the Department of Counselor Education, Counseling Psychology, and Rehabilitation Services. She received her degree in counseling psychology from Michigan State University in 1991. In addition to working with gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals in both a college counseling and private practice setting, Dr. Bieschke has written about and conducted research pertaining to the delivery of affirmative counseling and psychotherapy to gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients.

    Dr. Sharon L. Bowman is a professor and in her eighth year as Chair of the Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services at Ball State University, in Muncie, Indiana. She also has a small private practice. She earned her doctorate in counseling psychology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1989. Her research interests center around multiculturalism, including gender, race and ethnicity, LGB and cross-cultural issues, and vocational development.

    Catherine J. Brack, PhD, is an Associate Professor, Associate Director and former Training Director at Georgia State University Counseling Center. Dr. Brack received her PhD in Counseling Psychology from Indiana University in 1989 and came to the Counseling Center in 1990. Her research and clinical interests include feminist, systems, and cognitive therapy; psychological trauma; and supervision.

    Maria D. Carrubba, PhD, is currently a Counselor and Coordinator of Substance Abuse Services at the Student Counseling Service for Miami University. Maria has an MA in Substance Abuse Counseling from the University of Iowa and a PhD in Counseling Psychology from the University of Missouri-Columbia. Her specialty area is diversity issues, especially LGBT concerns and issues. Maria was one of the two Diversity Scholars for the 2003 ACCTA Conference and presented a program on “Exploring Issues of Multiple Identity.” She also serves on Community Advocacy Alliance, which is the Diversity Training Committee for Miami University.

    Kin-Ming Chan was born in Hong Kong. After obtaining his MSW in Hong Kong, he worked in mental health agencies as a social worker for 10 years. He then came to the United States to pursue his doctorate in counseling psychology at Western Michigan University and is still currently working toward his doctorate.

    Stuart F. Chen-Hayes, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Counselor Education/School and Family Counseling program at Lehman College of the City University of New York, in the Bronx. He has published articles on LGBT issues in various journals, has had chapters on LGBT issues published in multiple books, and is a prolific presenter on LGBT issues in counseling and counselor education. His research also includes transforming the school counseling profession, and he is a consultant with the Education Trust's National Center for Transforming School Counseling. He is past president of Counselors for Social Justice, a division of the American Counseling Association. He and his partner's successful journey in creating a multiracial family via surrogacy were featured in the March-April 2004 issue of Gay Parent Magazine.

    Madonna G. Constantine is Professor of Psychology and Education and Chair of the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. She received her PhD in Counseling Psychology from the University of Memphis. Dr. Constantine has more than 80 publications related to her research and professional interests. She currently serves as Senior Editor of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development and Associate Editor of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology and the Journal of Black Psychology. Her research and professional interests include the mental health of persons of African descent; multicultural competence issues in counseling, training, and supervision; and career development of people of color and psychologists in training.

    Louise A. Douce is currently the Director of the Counseling and Consultation Service at The Ohio State University. This multidisciplinary agency serves the full range of counseling and mental health needs of the OSU student body. Dr. Douce is a specialist in college student mental health and has been counseling college students for the past 25 years. She received her graduate degree in counseling psychology from the University of Minnesota in 1977 and has been nationally active in the education and training issues for psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, and counselors. She has published and presented in the areas of career development for women, multicultural competency with a special focus on LGB issues, supervision and training, and women's issues. She is the immediate past president of the Society of Counseling Psychology, Division 17 of APA and has served in several roles in that Division.

    Dr. Sari H. Dworkin is a full Professor of Counselor Education at California State University, Fresno. She is a licensed psychologist and marriage and family therapist. Her area of expertise is LGB client issues. Dr. Dworkin has done extensive writing in this area. LGB clients make up the majority of her part-time therapy practice. In addition, Dr. Dworkin is active at the national levels of APA and ACA. She is a former president of Division 44 of the APA, The Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues.

    Mary A. Fukuyama received her PhD from Washington State University and has worked at the University of Florida Counseling Center for the past 22 years as a counseling psychologist, supervisor, and trainer. She is a clinical professor and teaches courses on spirituality and multicultural counseling for the Department of Counselor Education and the Counseling Psychology Program. She coauthored with Todd Sevig a book titled Integrating Spirituality into Multicultural Counseling, by Sage Publications. She was recently recognized as a Fellow by Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) of APA. Her practice specialties include working with university students from a developmental perspective, multicultural counseling, and training. She is an active member of the University of Florida's Center for Spirituality and Health, and her current research interests include conducting a qualitative study on “multicultural expressions” of spirituality.

    Dr. Jamie R. Funderburk is a Clinical Associate Professor and Licensed Psychologist at the University of Florida Counseling Center. She also holds an appointment as a clinical faculty member of the Counseling Psychology Program at the University of Florida. Dr. Funderburk provides clinical services, outreach, and consultation to University of Florida students, staff, and faculty and provides clinical supervision to graduate students in counseling. She received her PhD from the Counseling Psychology Program in 1987. Dr. Funderburk's research and publications are in the areas of suicide prevention, sexual and interpersonal violence awareness and trauma recovery, and the intersection of feminist and multicultural theories in counseling psychology. Her current research examines moderating influences on the impact of life experiences of both cultural and gender oppression on the well-being of college women seeking counseling.

    Susanna M. Gallor is a doctoral student in the Counseling Psychology Program at the University of Maryland, College Park. She is a student affiliate in APA, the Society of Counseling Psychology, the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues. Her research interests include lesbian and gay identity and coming-out issues, social support and well-being, multiple minority status issues, and multicultural training and competence.

    Jane Goodman, PhD, is Professor of Counseling and Director of The Adult Career Counseling Center at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. She has been active in professional associations for more than 25 years. She is a past president of the ACA, currently serves as an ACA Foundation Trustee, and is treasurer-designate of ACA. Her published works include books, guides, monographs, book chapters, and journal articles, primarily in the arena of career development and adult transitions.

    Dr. Phillip D. Johnson is an Assistant Professor of Counseling Psychology at Western Michigan University. He has a PhD in Counseling Psychology and a master's degree in Deafness Rehabilitation, and his professional experience is varied. He has worked in the fields of vocational rehabilitation, juvenile justice, and mental health, and for almost two decades he has worked in higher education. He has designed, developed, and directed academic achievement programs for Black and Latino college students and held positions such as Assistant Dean, Staff Psychologist, and Adjunct Assistant Professor at New York University. Dr. Johnson is interested in the topics of oppression and psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy. He is also interested in the psychological experience of African Americans as well as the humanistic and racial themes in psychology.

    Teresa S. Lance has a master's degree in Counseling from Central Michigan University and is currently a doctoral student in Counseling Psychology at Western Michigan University. She has co-taught a graduate course on LGB issues in counseling and development. She has worked at college/university counseling centers, where she has been able to further her growth in addressing LGBT issues in clinical work as well as in training and outreach provision.

    Marie L. Miville, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Psychology and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. She is also the Program Coordinator and Director of Training of Counseling Psychology programs at Teachers College. She received her doctorate in counseling psychology from the University of Maryland at College Park. Her doctoral research involved exploring the interrelations of collective identity (gender, cultural) and personal identity among Latinos and Latinas. Dr. Miville also developed the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale (M-GUDS), which measures attitudes of awareness and acceptance of how people are both similar to and different from each other. Her current research focuses on resiliency factors affecting identity development among LGBT youth.

    Michael Mobley is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of Missouri-Columbia in the Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology. He received his PhD in Counseling Psychology from The Pennsylvania State University in 1998. His areas of interests include perfectionism, racial and ethnic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual identity development, multicultural counseling competencies and training, and application of self-empowerment theory among African American adolescents. Since 1999, he has served as project director/principal investigator of the GEAR UP MU REACH Project, a 5-year, $2.1 million U.S. Department of Education grant.

    John M. O'Brien, PhD, is in full-time private practice in Portland, Maine, specializing in the treatment of substance abuse, grief, and lesbian/gay issues. He teaches courses in psychology and addiction part-time at the University of Maine at Augusta. In addition, he is the current Chair of the Section for LGB Awareness for the Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17) of APA.

    Theresa M. O'Halloran, EdD, LPC, CACIII, is an Associate Professor in the Counselor Education Program at Adams State College, Alamosa, Colorado. Since 1997, she has been a counselor educator, training MA-and PhD-level counseling students, and since 1989, a counselor specializing in trauma and addictions treatment for adolescents and adults. Dr. O'Halloran performs research and publication in areas of counselor training methods, career development, and secondary traumatic stress.

    Stacey M. Pearson, PhD, is a psychologist and Assistant Director of Psychology Training at the University of Michigan's Counseling and Psychological Services. Currently she serves as the Chair of the Commission for Counseling and Psychological Services (CCAPS) of the American College Personnel Association. She is also Clinical Director of a non-profit counseling center, Turning Point Counseling Services. Dr. Pearson's major research interests are African American women in treatment and multicultural counseling and training.

    Ruperto M. Perez, PhD, is Assistant Director for Clinical Services/Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Florida Counseling Center. Prior to the University of Florida, he served as Counseling Services Coordinator and Internship Training Director at the Counseling and Testing Center at The University of Georgia from 1993–2002. Dr. Perez is a Fellow (Division 17, Counseling Psychology) of APA, past Division 17 Vice President for Diversity and Public Interest, and current Special Interest Groups Coordinator for Division 17. He is also a member of the APA Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest. In addition, Dr. Perez is a current member of ACPA Commission for Counseling and Psychological Services (CCAPS) and has served as Directorate Body member, Commission Chair, and CCAPS liaison to APA Division 17. He is coeditor of the Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients, published by APA.

    Julia C. Phillips is the Associate Director of Training at the Counseling, Testing, and Career Center at The University of Akron (UA). She is also an ad hoc faculty member in the Department of Psychology at UA. She received her PhD in Counseling Psychology from The Ohio State University in 1992 and worked at the University Counseling Center at Texas Tech until 1994, when she returned home to northeast Ohio. Her professional interests lie in the areas of training and diversity issues.

    Mark Pope, EdD, is currently an Associate Professor of Counseling and Family Therapy at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He has written extensively on sexual minority issues in general and multicultural career counseling as well as the history of counseling. Dr. Pope is past president of the ACA and National Career Development Association (NCDA). He is a Fellow of NCDA, Society of Counseling Psychology, and APA. He was the recipient of the Robert Swan Lifetime Achievement Award for Career Development as well as the ACA's highest civil rights award, the Kitty Cole Human Rights Award. He also received the California Association for Counseling and Development's Human Rights Award and the Human Rights Award from the American Counseling Association of Missouri. Dr. Pope is also nationally certified as a Master Career Counselor and Master Addictions Counselor.

    Beverly J. Vandiver is an Associate Professor of Counseling Psychology at The Pennsylvania State University. The focus of her research is on racial identity, notably in Black racial identity and the development of the Cross Racial Identity Scale (Vandiver et al., 2000), and other cultural identities such as gender.

    Joy S. Whitman, PhD, is Associate Professor at DePaul University in the Human Services and Counseling Program. She is a board trustee in the Association for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling, a division of APA, and a member of the Ethics Committee for ACA. Her research and professional foci center on LGB issues in counseling and the training of counselors working with LGB clients and students, lesbian and bisexual identity management, and mentoring LGB graduate students. She received her doctorate in Counseling Psychology from West Virginia University.

    Jennipher Wiebold, PhD, CRC, is an Assistant Professor and a Rehabilitation Counseling/Teaching Program Co-Coordinator at Western Michigan University in the Departments of Blindness and Low Vision Studies and Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology. Dr. Wiebold received her PhD in Rehabilitation Psychology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She is a rehabilitation counselor educator specialized in blindness and low vision. Dr. Wiebold's research interests include immersion strategies in rehabilitation counseling curricula, employment issues experienced by persons with blindness or low vision, and quality of life issues among older adults with sensory impairments. She is currently serving on the Board of Directors at the Disability Resource Center.


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