Deciphering Cyberspace: Making the Most of Digital Communication Technology

Books

Leonard Shyles

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  • Dedication

    For Janice, my kindred spirit and companion who makes it all possible

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    Acknowledgments

    I thank Villanova University for providing the atmosphere necessary for scholarly research to proceed. In particular, I wish to thank Father Kail Ellis, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, for supporting this project with his advice and guidance. I also thank the Department of Communication and especially my Chair, Terry Nance, for her support.

    I thank my sponsoring editor at Sage Publications, Margaret Seawell, for her unyielding faith and advocacy for this project. Margaret is a writer's dream who inspires her authors to strive for the best. Thanks also go to Alicia Carter, editorial assistant at Sage, for shepherding the project to speedy completion with a sure hand.

    I thank all the contributors, both authors and interviewees, who have made this book a great single volume on a complex topic: Mark Banschick, Josepha Silman Banschick, Dan Birenbaum, Charles Ehlin, Marvin Kane, Keith Lee, Janessa Light, JoAnn Magdoff, Rick Marx, Leigh Maxwell, Thomas McCain, Katherine Neikirk, Judy Pearson, Jeffrey Rubin, and Michael Young. All clearly and concisely contributed important insights on a breathtaking constellation of issues. I am truly blessed to have been able to work with such a great group.

    I am fortunate to have done this project with such fine people, ethical actors whose word is their bond, who are great at what they do, and who are willing and able to share their expertise with the world. I consider them to be not just colleagues, but friends.

    — Leonard Shyles

    Introduction

    This collection of new chapters by media experts, social psychologists, and legal scholars explores the current digital telecommunication revolution, of which the Internet is but a current manifestation. It is especially intended for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students studying mass communication, telecommunications, and digital media. The book presents a brief, clear, conceptual view of digital communication technology, assessing its nature and impact on individuals, institutions, and society on the threshold of the new millennium. To bring greater depth and perspective to a broad and diverse field, Deciphering Cyberspace also features interviews with industry engineers and leading practitioners.

    This book is written with one main goal: to demystify digital communication technology. We present in simple language a three-element model that makes the subject of digital communication accessible. By examining digital media from the perspectives of technology, markets, and policy, we present a clear yet comprehensive view of the nature and impact of cyberspace.

    Deciphering Cyberspace explains the physical nature of digital communication systems; the book also describes social, psychological, and legal aspects of digital media and telecommunication networks. Knowing how such systems work and what their impact is from multiple perspectives has the practical benefit of enabling you to make informed choices about which systems can best serve your individual and organizational needs. A guiding principle of the book, therefore, is that a sound conceptual grasp of the nature of digital media can help you keep connected in our increasingly mediated world.

    In addition to mass media students, other audiences for this book include administrators and corporate executives wanting to know how digital systems can improve their business, novices considering adopting systems for work and play who want to learn more about how to assess a system before buying one, and those concerned about forfeiting their privacy to a new device who want to know how at risk they are for various abuses and what legal remedies are available to counter them. Still other audiences include parents wishing to protect their children from exposure to objectionable content.

    Technology

    Deciphering Cyberspace begins from the premise that all communication systems are composed of physical elements that enable them to function; therefore, to assess their capabilities, it is essential to understand the technical properties of such systems. Understanding the physical nature of digital media is critical in deciding which systems are best suited to your needs. Knowing how systems work rather than merely being able to operate a particular device that may become outdated in a year or two enables you to function more effectively in the new media environment. For this reason, the book explains the physical principles that govern the functioning of all digital communication systems, not merely those currently in use.

    For example, music audiences can now download music from the Internet instead of using CDs, a prospect that did not even exist when digital CDs began replacing analog tape as the standard storage medium for music. However, to understand which systems are best for a given function, it is necessary to understand how their technical characteristics (storage capacity, signal quality, transmission, retrieval, dissemination capabilities, etc.) compare with one another. Knowing how systems work and their technical characteristics, and not just the procedures for operating a particular piece of equipment, is a central focus of the book.

    The first three chapters, by Shyles, provide a comprehensive explanation of the physical nature of digital media. Chapter 1, “Radio and Television Broadcasting,” explains how sounds, images, and other forms of electronic communication are converted into radio energy to be transmitted through space at the speed of light. The technologies used to accomplish this have undergone continuous development and refinement since 1900, but the principles on which they are based have remained a constant since the inception of broadcasting, and remain as critical to today's digital information technologies as they were to the transmission of Morse code via wireless telegraphy more than a century ago. It is therefore essential to understand broadcasting in order to know how current digital media work, for without radio energy, much of today's commerce in messages (i.e., cell phone conversations, digital video, and satellite communication) would be impossible.

    Chapter 2, “Computers in Communication: Concepts and Application,” explains from both conceptual and physical perspectives how computers enable users to create (encode), store, manipulate, and display (decode) electronically any kind of information, including data, text, images, and sound. First, on a conceptual level, the chapter explains the nature of binary code, and how any kind of information may be transformed into binary code, the only information format the modern digital computer can understand. Then, on a physical level, the chapter explains how integrated circuits, composed of millions of transistors acting as electronic switches, capture and store the code used to represent voice, text, and video information.

    Chapter 3, “Sending Messages Across the Network,” explains how digital information is transmitted, making message sharing among distant users possible. A central topic is bandwidth, or the capacity of a channel to move information from one place to another in a given period of time. Currently, the main conduit for such traffic is the public switched telephone network (PSTN), largely accessed through modems, including wire and cable technologies, and those using radio energy for wireless transmissions. Without the PSTN and similar (private) networks, e-mail and the Internet as we know them could not exist, leaving computer users isolated from one another.

    The chapter covers technologies that transfer messages through wire and cable (copper, coaxial, and fiber optic), and through wireless facilities (terrestrial microwave and satellite transmitters). All are currently used in telephony and in broadcasting for voice, image, and data transmission. Rounding out the chapter are short descriptions of how telecommunication networks provide access to users through switching and signaling architectures, and how digitalization, packet switching, multiplexing, and signal compression all increase network capacity, enabling more efficient use of available bandwidth.

    Markets

    To succeed, new technologies that offer superior features to those already in use must appeal to potential users. They must come to be perceived as offering significant advantages over what they replace, and at an acceptable level of risk. As has been noted elsewhere:

    An engineer's opinion of a new device is secondary, perhaps even irrelevant, to whether the item will succeed in the marketplace. Doubters of this view need only recall past media inventions that offered improved programming but failed as consumer products: eight-track tape, quadraphonic stereo, and video laser disks, for example. Therefore, the most powerful computer, or any other program package or communication device, is not the one with the greatest fidelity, storage capacity, or speed of delivery, but the one that people will use. (Shyles, 1997, p. 6)

    As stated, technical superiority alone cannot guarantee the success of new systems. In addition to possessing superior technical features over what they are intended to replace, new devices must also come to be perceived by various publics as able to meet their needs or fulfill their desires, and at a reasonable cost. Therefore, ergonomic, cognitive, affective, and emotional factors; social and economic factors; cultural and ethical norms; issues of taste; and compatibility with established values all affect the adoption of new innovations and the appeal of new products.

    It is difficult to predict what impact perceptions will have on the adoption of a particular innovation by a social group, even after a device becomes available. To reduce risk, a new product may be developed in accordance with a research program designed to tap the wishes of the public for hints about the most promising directions to pursue. However, even in successful cases, devices may come to be used in ways never considered by the inventor or the marketing campaign; users often surprise designers by employing products in novel ways. For example, rap artists scratch vinyl records with phonograph needles to produce percussion effects for their music; new age architects use old tires filled with sand to build homes in the great Southwest that are remarkably efficient at withstanding heat. In these cases, products are clearly used in innovative ways unintended by their inventors.

    It should be stated clearly at the outset that Deciphering Cyberspace does not use the term markets the way marketing professionals do. Whereas marketing refers more narrowly to research on a proposed product designed to build brand name awareness, or to test new products in order to develop promotions and advertising campaigns for them, this book uses the term markets more expansively. In this book, markets refer to the functions, uses, and gratifications of telecommunication systems for users on social, psychological, and practical levels. Digital media systems may be viewed in terms of the purposes to which they are put, as well as their social, psychological, and practical effects. Marketing professionals may therefore be interested in these chapters for the insight they provide about why users adopt some products and how they use them.

    For example, in Chapter 4, “Children in Cyberspace,” authors Mark R. Banschick and Josepha Silman Banschick offer an insightful and sweeping panorama of the impact of digital media on one of its largest and most devoted market segments: young people. Firmly grounded in the psychological theories of Piaget, Freud, Dewey, and Erikson, and working from the perspective of decades of clinical practice in child psychiatry, the authors advance a theory of amplification to account for unprecedented extremes made possible by the Internet, extremes that offer both benefits and risks to children and that increase the potential for good and productive work as well as for inappropriate and immoral endeavors. Say the authors: “The freedom and anonymity [of the Internet] offer a vast world of experimentation that can be liberating but can also promote unhealthiness.” They explain how, on the one hand, the Internet helps shy users connect to others online, leading to a widening of the repertoire of social intercourse, while empowering pedophiles to exploit victims via chat rooms without even leaving home.

    The chapter addresses three crucial aspects of child development affected by the Internet: intellectual growth and education, social influence, and identity and value formation, in the contexts of commercialism, intimacy, peer pressure, blurring generational boundaries, violence, independence and rebellion, work and play, social roles, and sexual and moral development. The chapter makes a much-needed contribution to theory on the effects of digital media on children by assessing the impact of the Internet on the social, psychological, cognitive, and emotional life of young people. It offers readers a perspective useful for understanding the impact of the Internet on one of its largest, most important, and involved audiences.

    Chapter 5, “Social and Psychological Uses of the Internet,” further explores the social and psychological functions of cyberspace. Authors JoAnn Magdoff and Jeffrey B. Rubin use their experience as psychotherapists (and several case studies) to explore ways the Internet affects our sense of mind, body, and self. They describe how different age groups use digital systems differently, and how users' worldviews condition such use. They describe how insinuating computers into the social world alters the cadence of human interaction, increasing social commerce and the achievement of desired goals among actors, sometimes in unforeseen ways. They use several case studies as a backdrop to articulate the concept of emergence, when “disparate units, people, ideas, and bits of code connect and link in unexpected ways that suddenly trigger many more … connections” that may have been wholly unanticipated. According to the authors, emergence affords users “the means to leap to novel levels of interaction” offering “unprecedented possibilities for the transformation of the self.”

    Two additional chapters on markets deal with the adoption and use of instructional technologies (IT), the first from the standpoint of teachers and students, and the second from an administrative perspective. For people operating in networked environments, including corporate, government, and nonprofit organizations, these chapters offer a wealth of insight and information about how organizations and individuals will likely be affected by the introduction of digital media.

    In Chapter 6, “Connected Learning in the Information Age,” authors Thomas A. McCain and Leigh Maxwell argue that new and emerging digital media are transforming education as no prior media innovation has done before. With pointed awareness, they warn of the importance of avoiding the hyperbole so often associated with past communication technologies that were once heralded with hope and promise, only to fail to win wide acceptance in the classroom. As an object lesson, they quote Thomas Edison's 1922 vision for the movies: “The motion picture is destined to revolutionize our educational system and in a few years it will supplant … the use of textbooks.” They argue that the digital network is a true innovation, unlike previous candidates; their reasoning is the substance of their chapter.

    They describe how digital media are already changing the very definition of such terms as teacher, student, education, and learning. In addition, the infrastructures being transformed by tools that make connected learning possible comprise all the elements of our educational institutions, including the physical trappings traditionally associated with schools (classrooms, books and journals, etc.) and the roles of individuals who work and study there.

    The authors argue that the new arrangements created by digital telecommunication are increasing possibilities for education and a myriad of other human enterprises while reducing the space, time, and effort required for such pursuits. Among the features of the new media not available in past innovations, and that account for their success, are their two-way nature and their flexibility in providing both synchronous and asynchronous rapid access for multiple users in distant locations, qualities that afford users unprecedented interactive capacity, feedback, convenience, and efficiency. In addition, users can now access a wide range of applications covering a broad scope of subject matter, capabilities that all bode well for the future of digital media in distance learning, inside and outside of the traditional classroom. The impact of such media on organizational culture and their effect on traditional educational practices (lecturing vs. dialogue, conducting research, assessing knowledge claims) are also addressed, with fascinating implications for the future.

    In Chapter 7, “Adopting Instructional Technologies,” author Judy C. Pearson draws from her administrative experience to offer guidance to future supervisors faced with the challenge of adopting IT. Her advice and expertise are invaluable to corporate executives, nonprofit organization officers, and government agency managers.

    Pearson presents a brief history of IT, including a description of the capabilities of digital systems currently available. She presents a rationale for the attraction of IT organizations to systems, outlining the potential for IT to control costs and improve efficiency in providing instruction to the work force. Pearson also considers the advantages of IT adoption in promoting democratization, leveling the playing field for users of diverse backgrounds. She also presents major criticisms.

    Pearson is sensitive to both intended and unintended effects of IT adoption in the workplace. She advises maximizing workplace morale when IT systems are adopted, and she warns of the danger of failing to deal effectively with morale issues in securing successful integration of systems after capital investments have been made. Pearson is knowledgeable about and sensitive to IT's differential fit into different work environments, and the danger of yielding to political pressure in adopting systems that may not be suitable for a given setting. To achieve IT's promise, Pearson offers a clear set of principles based on her experience as an administrator useful to all charged with the job of adopting IT systems.

    Policy

    The law can significantly affect the development and application of new technologies. Even in the most progressive, laissez-faire business environment, legislators must often regulate the way technology operates. Policy goals may include ensuring fair and equitable distribution of the benefits of new products to promote the general welfare and stimulate robust commerce in the marketplace. Of course, special interests may try to shape regulation solely for their benefit or profit. However, ideally, laws are enacted to maximize advantages for all interested parties.

    For example, in the early days of radio, broadcasters who generally opposed government intervention requested federal controls when unregulated use of the airwaves led to chaos. Station owners had been increasing transmitter power to reach listeners at the expense of other broadcasters in the same area, a practice that resulted in jamming neighbor stations using the same frequencies. The bedlam that followed destroyed the system for all users. As a result, broadcasters requested federal regulation to restore the system.

    In 1927, Congress created the Federal Radio Commission (FRC) to solve the problem. The FRC regulated the hours of operation for all radio stations and placed a ceiling on transmitter power. Thus, stations could once again reach their audiences, and broadcasting blossomed into a prodigiously profitable operation. In this case, regulation was viewed as clearly good for business.

    Since that time, policy has not been restricted only to laws governing the physical nature of radio energy. The government has also enacted rules concerning military, economic, social, and cultural issues. For example, federal regulations created the Emergency Broadcast Service, placed limits on the number of stations that a single party could own (limits that have been relaxed over the years), made rules regarding advertising, and passed laws dealing with obscenity and indecency.

    From the above, it is clear that the federal government has had a long history of regulating telecommunication interests. The Communications Act of 1934, creating the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and the Telecommunications Act of 1996, opening competition among media and telecommunication interests, are two more recent examples of efforts by the federal government to shape the way media may serve the convenience, interest, and necessity of U.S. citizens. Thus, to decipher cyberspace, it is of critical importance to understand the relationship of law, regulation, and policy to technology development.

    In Chapter 8, “Law and Regulation, Part I: Individual Interests,” authors Keith Lee and Janessa Light grapple with the interpretation and application of existing mass media law regarding individual rights in light of digital technology development. The struggle to mold the existing regulatory structure to the Internet shows clearly that traditional legal principles do not always fit the new realities, sometimes requiring the creation of new laws.

    Say the authors: “In this ever-shifting legal landscape of cyberspace, it is important for Internet users to be aware of their personal rights and remedies as they communicate over this new medium.” The authors then embark on an analysis of freedom of expression in the application of the First Amendment to the Internet, including a discussion of indecent speech, the use of filters, and the case of child pornography. Discussion then moves to the topics of privacy, with specific reference to employee privacy in the workplace, the misappropriation of identity and identity theft, the use of cookies, and anonymous speech. They conclude with an exploration of the legal ramifications of intellectual property, specifically focusing on copyright violations in linking and framing, and copyright issues related to music and video piracy.

    In Chapter 9, “Law and Regulation, Part II: Business Interests,” authors Janessa Light and Katherine Neikirk tackle the topic of how the courts extend existing business regulation to fit the new digital technology manifested by the Internet. What are the legal issues companies and consumers should be aware of in transacting business over the Internet? How do the courts apply legal principles developed over centuries to digital systems that have only begun to emerge over the past decade?

    As the authors make clear, this is not the first time that traditional legal principles have been applied to a new technology—the law has managed to deal with radio and television, technologies that the Founding Fathers never imagined. Light and Neikirk discuss the rights and remedies concerning a person's business interests in cyberspace, including trademarks in domain names, registration of domain names (including discussion of an area of the law called cybersquatting), and using trade names for navigation via metatags and ad keying. They discuss the Internet's impact on the field of personal jurisdiction and examine defamation law on the Internet with respect to liability, collection of damages for defamation, and defenses.

    An objective of both of these chapters was to link explicitly, wherever possible, the legal principles used for judgments about cyberspace to the rationales used in prior cases concerning earlier media systems. By so doing, it is hoped that readers, lawyers and nonlawyers alike, will get a clearer picture of how some legal judgments are made and how regulatory frameworks develop.

    The Interviews

    Five people contributed interviews for this book. They were chosen to offer their insights and perceptions from the perspectives of e-commerce and technology. Two are electronics engineers. Another, a computer programmer, is a mainframe expert. The remaining two are both working in e-commerce; one is a Web designer for other businesses; the other is a contributing editor to a http://dot.com company.

    Each interview provides a unique view of how technology, markets, and policy interact to shape the business side of the digital telecommunication revolution. For readers interested in knowing more about the work-world across the digital landscape, these interviews will deepen your understanding of what it's like to be on the front lines.

    To decipher cyberspace, it is necessary to understand the nexus of activity between technology, markets, and policy and how these forces interact to shape digital telecommunication. By presenting its subject matter from this perspective, Deciphering Cyberspace provides understanding of how digital media operate and what their effects are on individuals, organizations, and society. It makes the world of digital communication accessible, enabling you to make more rational, optimal, practical judgments about what it can do for you.

  • Appendix: U.S. Radio Spectrum Allocations and Uses (30 MHz-300 GHz)

    30–30.56 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio
    30.56–32 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Servicesa
    32–33 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio
    33–35.19 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    35.19–35.69 MHzPaging and Radiotelephone Service
    35.69–36 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    36–37 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio
    37–38 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services; radio astronomy
    38–38.25 MHzRadio astronomy
    38.25–39 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio
    39–40 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    40–42 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; meteor burst communications; Industrial, Scientific and Medical; scientific telemetry
    42–43.19 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    43.19–43.69 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services; Paging and Radiotelephone Service
    43.69–46.6 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services; cordless phones
    46.6–47 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; cordless phones
    47–49.6 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services; cordless phones
    49.6–50 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; cordless phones; baby monitors, toys
    50–54 MHzAmateur Radio Service
    54–72 MHzTV channels 2, 3, and 4
    72–73 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services; paging control; auditory assistance; radio-controlled model aircraft
    73–74.6 MHzRadio astronomy
    74.6–74.8 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services; paging control; auditory assistance
    74.8–75.2 MHzAviation runway marker beacons
    75.2–76 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services; paging control; auditory assistance, radio-controlled model boats and cars
    76–88 MHzTV channels 5 and 6
    88–108 MHzFM radio broadcasting; future digital audio radio services; wireless microphones
    108–117.975 MHzAir navigation aids
    117.975–121.9375 MHzAir traffic control; search and rescue beacons
    121.9375–123.0875 MHzAviation services communications
    123.0875–123.5875 MHzAviation services communications
    123.5875–128.8125 MHzAir traffic control
    128.8125–132.0125 MHzAviation services communications
    132.0125–136 MHzAir traffic control
    136–137 MHzAviation services communications
    137–138 MHzNon-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) for data communications; weather satellites
    138–144 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio, 139–140.5 and 141.5–143 MHz to be reallocated to private sector
    144–146 MHzAmateur Radio Service, including satellites and space station operations
    146–148 MHzAmateur Radio Service mobile operations
    148–150.05 MHzNon-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO), federal fixed, mobile and satellite uses, science telemetry
    150.05–150.8 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio
    150.8–152 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    152–152.255 MHzPaging and Radiotelephone Service
    152.255–152.495 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    152.495–152.855 MHzPaging and Radiotelephone Service
    152.855–154 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services, Broadcast Auxiliary Services
    154–156.2475 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services, maritime radio
    156.2475–157.0375 MHzMaritime radio
    157.0375–157.1875 MHzFederal maritime radio
    157.1875–157.45 MHzMaritime radio
    157.45–157.755 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    157.755–158.115 MHzPaging and Radiotelephone Service
    158.115–161.575 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services, maritime radio
    161.575–161.625 MHzMaritime radio
    161.625–161.775 MHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services
    161.775–162.0125 MHzMaritime radio, Private Mobile Radio Services
    162.0125–173.2 MHzFederal mobile and fixed radio; weather broadcasts; Stolen Vehicle Recovery Service; Private Mobile Radio Services; Broadcast Auxiliary Services; wireless microphones
    173.2–173.4 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    173.4–174 MHzFederal mobile and fixed radio
    174–216 MHzTV channels 7–13; biomedical telemetry; wireless microphones
    216–220 MHzDefense radar; maritime radio; geophysical telemetry; Interactive Video and Data Service; Amateur Radio; Low-Power Radio Service for theft tracking, auditory assistance and health care. To be reallocated to private sector
    220–222 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    222–225 MHzAmateur Radio Service
    225–328.6 MHzDefense air, ground and maritime uses (fixed and mobile); search-and-rescue beacons; car alarms; radio astronomy
    328.6–335.4 MHzDefense air, ground and maritime uses (fixed and mobile); search-and-rescue beacons; car alarms; radio astronomy
    335.4–399.9 MHzDefense air, ground and maritime uses (fixed and mobile); search-and-rescue beacons; car alarms; radio astronomy
    399.9–400.05 MHzNon-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) for data communications
    400.05–400.15 MHzStandard frequency and time signal satellites (not used)
    400.15–401 MHzNon-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) for data communications; meteorological aids and defense weather satellites
    401–402 MHzMeteorological aids; weather balloons; science telemetry
    402–406 MHzMeteorological aids; animal tracking; proposed for medical implants
    406‐406.1 MHzSatellite-based search-and-rescue beacons
    406.1–410 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio
    410–420 MHzDefense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; Space Research Service; airborne radar
    420–450 MHzDefense and scientific radar and balloons; Amateur Radio Service
    450–451 MHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services
    451–454 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    454–455 MHzGeneral Aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service; Paging and Radiotelephone Service
    455–456 MHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services, proposed for Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO)
    456–459 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    459–460 MHzGeneral Aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service; Paging and Radiotelephone Service, proposed for Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO)
    460–462.5375 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services
    462.5375–462.7375 MHzGeneral Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) and Family Radio Service (FRS) for personal communications
    462.7375–467.5375 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services, including emergency medical telemetry
    467.5375–467.7375 MHzGeneral Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) and Family Radio Service (FRS) for personal communications
    467.7375–470 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services, including emergency medical telemetry; weather satellites
    470–512 MHzTV channels 14–20; biomedical telemetry
    512–608 MHzTV channels 21–36; biomedical telemetry
    608–614 MHzRadio astronomy; biomedical telemetry; formerly TV channel 37
    614–746 MHzTV channels 38-59
    746–764 MHzTV channels 60–62. Reallocated to special broadcasting, fixed and mobile services
    764–776 MHzTV channels 63, 64. Reallocated to Private Mobile Radio Services for public safety use
    776–794 MHzTV channels 65–67. Reallocated to special broadcasting, fixed and mobile services
    794–806 MHzTV channels 68, 69. Reallocated to Private Mobile Radio Services for public safety use
    806–821 MHzSpecialized Mobile Radio Services; Private Mobile Radio Services
    821–824 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services for public safety use
    824–849 MHzCellular Radiotelephone Service
    849–851 MHzCommercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems
    851–866 MHzSpecialized Mobile Radio Services; Private Mobile Radio Services
    866–869 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services for public safety use
    869–894 MHzCellular Radiotelephone Service
    894–896 MHzCommercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems
    896–901 MHzSpecialized Mobile Radio
    901–902 MHzPersonal Communications Service (PCS)—Narrowband for advanced paging
    902–928 MHzDefense radar; Location and Monitoring Service; amateur radio; Industrial, Scientific and Medical; unlicensed devices
    9287ndash;929 MHzMultiple Address Systems
    929–930 MHzPrivate Mobile Radio Services, especially paging
    930–931 MHzPersonal Communications Service (PCS)—Narrowband for advanced paging
    931–932 MHzPaging and Radiotelephone Service, especially nationwide paging
    932–935 MHzMultiple Address Systems; federal and nonfederal fixed microwave
    935–940 MHzSpecialized Mobile Radio
    940–941 MHzPersonal Communications Service (PCS)—Narrowband for advanced paging
    941–942 MHzFixed microwave
    942–944 MHzFixed microwave
    944–960 MHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services; Multiple Address Systems; fixed microwave
    960–1215 MHzAerospace radar; defense communications
    1215–1240 MHzAerospace radar; synthetic aperture radar for earth sensing; global positioning system (GPS) navigation satellites
    1240–1300 MHzAerospace radar; Amateur Radio Service; thermotherapy
    1300–1350 MHzAerospace radar
    1350–1400 MHzAerospace radar; defense communications, remote control and nuclear alerting; earth sensing. 1385-1400 MHz to be reallocated to private sector
    1400–1427 MHzRadio astronomy; satellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted
    1427–1435 MHzDefense air telemetry and fixed uses. To be reallocated to private sector
    1435–1525 MHzAerospace test telemetry; satellite audio broadcasting to foreign countries
    1525–1544 MHzSatellite “L-band”: Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service
    1544–1545 MHzSafety-related mobile satellite communications
    1545–1559 MHzGeostationary Mobile Satellite Service
    1559–1610 MHzGlobal positioning system (GPS) satellites, radio altimetry
    1610–1610.6 MHzNon-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO); radio altimetry
    1610.6–1613.8 MHzNon-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO); radio astronomy
    1613.8–1626.5 MHzNon-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO)
    1626.5–1645.5 MHzGeostationary Mobile Satellite Service
    1645.5–1646.5 MHzSafety-related mobile satellite communications
    1646.5–1660.5 MHzGeostationary Mobile Satellite Service; radio astronomy
    1660.5–1668.4 MHzRadio astronomy; no transmissions permitted
    1668.4–1670 MHzRadio astronomy
    1670–1690 MHzWeather satellites and balloons. 1670-1675 to be reallocated to private sector
    1690–1700 MHzWeather satellites
    1700–1710 MHzWeather satellites; fixed microwave
    1710–1850 MHzDefense and other federal satellite, fixed, mobile, and aerospace uses; radio astronomy. 1710-1755 MHz to be reallocated to private sector
    1850–1990 MHzPersonal Communications Services (PCS)—Broadband; unlicensed PCS devices; fixed microwave
    1990–2025 MHzMobile Satellite Services; Broadcast Auxiliary Services; cable TV and local broadcast TV relay
    2025–2110 MHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services; Space Research Service
    2110–2150 MHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services; Space Research Service; fixed microwave; Emerging Technologies
    2150–2160 MHzMultipoint Distribution Service
    2160–2165 MHzFixed microwave; Emerging Technologies
    2165–2200 MHzMobile Satellite Services; fixed microwave; Emerging Technologies
    2200–2290 MHzDefense and science satellites and telemetry
    2290–2300 MHzSpace Research Service for deep space use
    2300–2305 MHzNo primary use. Amateur Radio secondary use
    2305–2320 MHzWireless Communications Service
    2320–2345 MHzSatellite “S-band”: Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service
    2345–2360 MHzWireless Communications Service
    2360–2390 MHzAerospace testing; planetary radar. 2385–2390 MHz to be reallocated to private sector
    2390–2400 MHzAmateur Radio Service; unlicensed Data-PCS
    2400–2483.5 MHzAmateur Radio Service; unlicensed devices and Industrial, Medical equipment; fixed microwave. Portions available for other private sector and educational use
    2483.5–2500 MHzNon-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO)
    2500–2690 MHzMultipoint Distribution Service; Instructional Television Fixed Service; satellite earth sensing
    2690–2700 MHzRadio astronomy; satellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted
    2700–2900 MHzDefense and civil aerospace and weather radar
    2900–3100 MHzDefense and maritime navigation radar
    3.1–3.3 GHzDefense radar; satellite earth sensing
    3.3–3.5 GHzDefense aerospace; Amateur Radio Service
    3.5–3.6 GHzDefense radar
    3.6–3.7 GHzDefense radar; data communications; Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service. 3.65–3.7 GHz to be reallocated to private sector
    3.7–4.2 GHzSatellite “C-band”: Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; fixed microwave
    4.2–4.4 GHzRadio altimetry
    4.4–4.5 GHzDefense aerospace; mobile and fixed uses; nuclear antiterrorism
    4.5–4.66 GHzDefense, scientific aerospace, naval uses. 4.635-4.66 GHz reallocated to private sector
    4.66–4.685 GHzGeneral Wireless Communications Service
    4.6857ndash;4.99 GHzDefense aerospace; mobile and fixed uses
    4.99–5 GHzRadio astronomy. No transmissions permitted
    5–5.25 GHzAviation landing systems; missiles; weather and ocean radar. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
    5.25–5.35 GHzDefense and weather radar; satellite earth sensing. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
    5.35–5.65 GHzDefense and weather radar
    5.65–5.85 GHzDefense radar; automatic door openers. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure and other unlicensed devices; Amateur Radio Service
    5.85–5.925 GHzDefense radar; Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; Amateur Radio Service; unlicensed devices; Dedicated Short Range Communications
    5.925–6.425 GHzGeostationary Fixed Satellite Service; fixed microwave
    6.425–6.525 GHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services; TV relay; satellite feeder links
    6.525–6.875 GHzFixed microwave; radio astronomy
    6.875–7.075 GHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services; audio satellite feeder links
    7.0757–7.125 GHzBroadcast Auxiliary Services
    7.1257–7.19 GHzFixed microwave for aviation facilities
    7.19–7.235 GHzSpace Research Service for deep space use
    7.235–7.9 GHzFixed microwave for aviation facilities; weather satellites
    7.9–8.025 GHzSatellite “X-band”: Defense satellites and fixed microwave; control of electrical power distribution
    8.025–8.4 GHzEarth remote sensing satellites
    8.4–8.45 GHzSpace Research Service for deep space use
    8.45–8.5 GHzSpace Research Service
    8.57ndash;9 GHzDefense and civil radar for navigation, weather and ocean study; weapon location; planetary radar
    9–9.2 GHzDefense aerospace radar
    9.2–9.3 GHzMaritime navigation and safety radar; control of unmanned air vehicles
    9.3–9.5 GHzMaritime navigation and safety radar; weather radar
    9.5–10 GHzWeather radar; control of unmanned air vehicles; satellite earth sensing
    10–10.5 GHzDefense missile radar; weather and ocean radar; Amateur Radio. Proposed educational use
    10.5–10.55 GHzPolice speed radar; automatic door openers; alarms
    10.55–10.6 GHzFixed microwave
    10.6–10.68 GHzFixed microwave; satellite earth sensing
    10.68–10.7 GHzRadio astronomy; weather study. No transmissions permitted
    10.7–11.7 GHzFixed microwave; Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service
    11.7–12.2 GHzSatellite “Ku-band”: Direct-to-Home Fixed Satellite Service; Broadcast Auxiliary Service
    12.2–12.7 GHzDirect Broadcast Satellite Service
    12.7–13.25 GHzBroadcast Auxiliary Service; Cable Television Antenna Relay Service; fixed microwave
    13.25–13.4 GHzAirborne navigation radar; Space Research Service
    13.4–13.75 GHzMaritime radar; satellite altimetry for ocean study
    13.75–14 GHzGeostationary Fixed Satellite Service; maritime radar, weather, ocean scientific radar; Space Shuttle radar; Space Research Service
    14–14.5 GHzGeostationary Fixed Satellite Service; maritime, air navigation radar; Space Station
    14.5–15.35 GHzDefense radar and microwave links; Space Research Service; aviation facility links
    15.35–15.4 GHzRadio astronomy
    15.47–15.7 GHzMobile satellite links; aviation landing systems
    15.7–17.2 GHzAerospace and scientific radar
    17.2–17.3 GHzRadar and satellite earth sensing
    17.3–17.7 GHzDirect Broadcast Satellite Service
    17.7–20.2 GHzSatellite “K-band”: Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; Non-Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; Mobile Satellite Service; weather satellites; defense signals intelligence satellites; fixed microwave
    20.2–21.2 GHzDefense satellites
    21.2–23.6 GHzFixed microwave; satellite earth sensing; radio astronomy; intersatellite links
    23.67–24 GHzRadio astronomy; satellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted
    24–24.05 GHzAmateur Radio Service; unlicensed fixed links; satellite earth sensing; Industrial, Scientific, Medical
    24.05–24.25 GHzPolice speed radar; security sensors; unlicensed fixed links
    24.25–24.45 GHzDigital Electronic Message Service
    24.45–24.65 GHzAirport surface detection radar
    24.65–24.75 GHzIntersatellite and radar satellite links
    24.75–25.05 GHzAerospace radar. Proposed for future Direct Broadcast Satellites
    25.05–25.25 GHzDigital Electronic Message Service. Proposed for future Direct Broadcast Satellites
    25.25–27.5 GHzSpace-to-space links for scientific missions; defense broadband on-site networks
    27.5–29.5 GHzLocal Multipoint Distribution Service; satellite “Ka-band”; Geostationary and Non-Geostationary Fixed and Mobile Satellite Services
    29.5–30 GHzGeostationary and Non-Geostationary Fixed Satellite Services
    30–31 GHzDefense signals intelligence satellites; radio astronomy
    31–31.3 GHzLocal Multipoint Distribution Service; fixed links for traffic control
    31.3–31.8 GHzSatellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted
    31.8–32 GHzAerospace navigation; deep space communications
    32–33.4 GHzIntersatellite links; deep space communications
    33.4–36 GHzWeather radar; satellite earth sensing; deep space communications; police radar
    36–37 GHzSatellite earth sensing
    37–37.5 GHzProposed general commercial wireless services; manned space exploration; satellite earth sensing
    37.5–38.6 GHzProposed broadband satellite services and general commercial wireless services
    38.67–40 GHzBroadband local exchange services
    40–40.5 GHzScientific and commercial satellite services; manned space exploration
    40.5–41.5 GHzProposed broadband satellite services and general commercial wireless services
    41.5–42.5 GHzProposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service
    42.5–43.5 GHzRadio astronomy
    43.5–45.5 GHzDefense satellites
    45.5–46.9 GHzVehicle anticollision radar
    46.9–47 GHzProposed general commercial wireless services
    477–47.2 GHzAmateur Radio Service
    47.2–50.2 GHzPoint-to-multipoint broadband services; stratospheric platforms; Non-Geostationary and Geostationary Fixed Satellite Services; radio astronomy
    50.2–50.4 GHzSatellite earth sensing; no transmissions permitted
    50.4–51.4 GHzDefense satellites
    51.4–59 GHzSatellite earth sensing; proposed for intersatellite links
    59–64 GHzUnlicensed communications; industrial safety and control; satellite earth sensing; proposed for intersatellite links; Industrial, Scientific, Medical
    64–66 GHzSatellite earth sensing
    66–71 GHzMobile Satellite Services; aerospace radar
    71–74 GHzProposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed communications devices
    74–75.5 GHzFixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services
    75.5–76 GHzAmateur Radio Service
    76–77 GHzVehicle anticollision radar; Amateur Radio
    77–81 GHzAmateur Radio Service; weather radar; microscopy
    81–84 GHzFixed and Mobile Satellite Services
    84–86 GHzProposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; satellite earth sensing
    86–92 GHzRadio astronomy; satellite earth sensing; videography
    92–95 GHzProposed vehicle anticollision radar; synthetic vision systems; radio astronomy
    95–100 GHzProposed vehicle anticollision radar; weather radar
    100–102 GHzSatellite earth sensing; radio astronomy
    102–105 GHzProposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed communications devices
    105–116 GHzSatellite earth sensing; radio astronomy
    116–134 GHzProposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed devices; satellite earth sensing
    134–142 GHzProposed vehicle anticollision radar
    142–149 GHzAmateur Radio Service; satellite earth sensing
    149–150 GHzFixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Satellite Services
    150–151 GHzSatellite earth sensing
    151–164 GHzProposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed devices; Big Bang cosmic radiation
    164–168 GHzSatellite earth sensing; radio astronomy. No transmissions permitted
    168–170 GHzFixed and Mobile Services
    170–174.5 GHzFixed and Mobile Services; intersatellite links
    174.5–176.5 GHzSatellite earth sensing
    176.5–182 GHzFixed and Mobile Services; intersatellite links
    182–185 GHzSatellite earth sensing; radio astronomy. No transmissions permitted
    185–190 GHzFixed and Mobile Services; intersatellite links
    190–200 GHzMobile, Mobile Satellite, Radionavigation and Radionavigation; Satellite Services
    200–202 GHzSatellite earth sensing
    202–217 GHzFixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services
    217–231 GHzSatellite earth sensing; radio astronomy. No transmissions permitted
    231–235 GHzFixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services
    235–238 GHzSatellite earth sensing
    238–241 GHzFixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services
    241–250 GHzAmateur Radio Service; Industrial, Scientific, Medical; radar
    250–252 GHzSatellite earth sensing
    252–265 GHzMobile, Mobile Satellite, Radionavigation and Radionavigation; Satellite Services
    265–275 GHzFixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services; radio astronomy
    275–300 GHzFixed and Mobile Services

    SOURCE: Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, September 1995 edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA); “U.S. Radio Spectrum Allocations and Uses (30 MHz-300 GHz)” [Poster], 1998, America's Airwaves, Bennett Z. Kobb.

    a. For information on this servisce and others in the appendix, see the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Web site (http://www.fcc.gov). The FCC's Wireless Telecommunications Bureau (http://wireless.fcc.gov) handles nearly all FCC domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies. Wireless communications services include Amateur, Cellular, Paging, Broadband PCS, and Public Safety.

    Glossary

    Ad keying The practice of linking Web page banner advertisements to particular search keywords, including trademarked terms.

    AM (amplitude modulation) A process by which an audio signal modulates the amplitude of a carrier. In AM radio, the carrier consists of a sine wave whose amplitude is made to copy the variations of an audio source.

    Analog bandwidth The frequency range between the lowest and highest frequencies used to transmit analog radio signals. For example, a standard commercial AM radio channel in the United States uses a bandwidth of 9 kHz, while a standard analog television signal uses 6 MHz. Bandwidth is measured in cycles per second (cps; otherwise known as hertz, Hz).

    B2B Business-to-business transactions on the Web.

    B2C Business-to-consumer transactions on the Web.

    Binary code A communication system using two symbols (e.g., 1s and 0s) to carry information. Binary code can carry any type of information including text, images, and sound.

    Bits per second (bps) The fundamental measure of digital bandwidth. Bit is short for binary digit, the smallest quantity of information that can be carried in digital code. In numerical form, a bit consists of a single digit, either a 1 or a 0; in an electrical circuit, a bit is the state of being either on or off—in other words, the circuit is either closed, allowing electricity to flow, or open, stopping the flow of electricity.

    Boolean algebra A method of logical deduction invented by English mathematician George Boole. Boole's system uses three basic constructs to make logical inferences and perform mathematical calculation with symbols and numbers, respectively, called AND, OR, and NOT gates. Boole's gates are binary in nature because they categorize statements as either true or false.

    Broadband Information channels that can handle data streams requiring large bandwidth. A single AM radio channel, for example, uses 9 kHz of radio spectrum, whereas a single analog television channel uses 6 MHz. The television channel requires more space because it has to pass more information. Channels are therefore either narrow or broad, depending on how much information they can pass. In general, voice channels require less bandwidth than those carrying sound, pictures, and color information. Internet traffic featuring television-quality streaming video would therefore be considered a broadband service.

    Carrier That part of any communication system used for moving intelligence from one point to another (e.g., in a radio signal, the carrier is the high-frequency sine wave on which audio signals are imposed; in a written letter, the carrier is the paper on which a message is written and the ink used to do the writing).

    Clipper Chip An integrated circuit designed to allow federal agencies to access computer systems to decrypt what is stored for the sake of security. One justification for the Clipper Chip is to fight terrorism.

    Code Prior agreements between senders and receivers about what various signals will mean. All methods of communicating rely on codes. Successful communication relies on both unimpeded reception of a message's physical component and accurate decoding of the pattern of information (or intelligence) it contains.

    Cookie A tiny file placed on a user's computer whenever a particular Web page is accessed. Cookies typically enable Web sites and Web site advertisers to keep track of the pages that viewers access. To be “cookied” means to be tracked online as a consumer, and perhaps targeted for future marketing campaigns.

    Cyberspace An umbrella term referring to the digital telecommunication and broadcast communication infrastructures enabling users to create, store, manipulate, transmit, retrieve, and share information in the form of text, data, images, and sound, including motion visuals.

    Cybersquatting The act of registering domain names without the intent to use them, but rather to sell them.

    Data mining The act of digging into old databases and extracting the rules of operation as well as data for that business.

    Dialogic technologies Technologies that allow for information sharing and interaction between people via the telephone, teleconferences, voice mail, cable and satellite television, point-to-point microwave radio communication, electronic blackboards, computer instruction, and more recently, computer-mediated communication such as e-mail, bulletin boards, and computer instant messaging and conferencing. Dialogic systems may be either synchronous (interaction takes place in real time) or asynchronous (interaction takes place at different times and at users' convenience).

    Digital bandwidth A measure of a digital medium's ability to transmit information from one point to another in a given amount of time, usually expressed in terms of bps (bits per second) transmitted.

    Dilution of trademark The act of diminishing the value of a trademark held by another. Trademark dilution claims in court reflect a clash between the rights of a trademark holder and a domain name registrant. Two types of trademark dilution are blurring, use of a trademark on a dissimilar product, and tarnishment, association of a trademark with an inferior or unwholesome product or service.

    Distance learning Conducting education and providing instruction in settings beyond the normal face-to-face classroom through the use of telecommunication technologies and audiovisual media.

    Domain names An Internet address that locates a particular server hosting a Web site on the Internet, much like a street address that is used to locate a person's residence. The six “top level” domain suffixes are .com = commercial; .net = network; .org = organization; .edu = education; .mil = military; and .gov = government (there are also designations for countries, e.g., .ca for Canada, .th for Thailand).

    http://Dot.com 1. A suffix used with a URL (universal resource locator) to direct Internet traffic to the intended destination. 2. Any company conducting its business either exclusively or largely through the use of a Web site. Examples in e-commerce include http://Amazon.com and http://Travelocity.com.

    E-commerce (electronic commerce) The use of electronic communication technologies to conduct business, including business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) interactions. The purposes of the interactions may vary from advertising to purchasing to account and inventory management functions.

    Encode The act of expressing or inputting information, externalizing it in some form that can be shared by consumers or users. Writing a letter, making a speech, and using a computer keyboard for data entry are all forms of encoding.

    Fiber-optic cable A communication transmission technology that uses flexible glass fiber in place of copper or aluminum wire or cable, and light pulses in place of electrical signals, to move digital information from one point to another. Signals through fiber-optic cable may be encoded using either a laser light or light-emitting diode (LED) and are decoded by a photodiode at the receiving end.

    Flaming A practice in which persons use aggressive and inflammatory language on the Internet.

    FM (frequency modulation) A process by which an audio signal modulates the frequency of a carrier. FM radio is called such because it is the frequency, not the amplitude, of the carrier wave that is changed by an audio source. FM is less subject to noise, static, and interference than AM, making it a desirable alternative for functions requiring greater fidelity and sound quality (i.e., radio broadcasts of symphonic music).

    Frames Multiple, independently scrollable regions on a Web page.

    Hertz (Hz) A synonym for cycles per second (cps), named for the German scientist Heinrich Hertz, who in 1887 demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be propagated and detected amid other waves using oscillating circuits.

    Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) A nonproprietary publishing language for the World Wide Web. Special tags, denoted in brackets, are used to mark text to be displayed in a particular way on a Web page.

    Instructional technologies (IT) All the available means used to create, store, transmit, retrieve, and manipulate information for training and/or educational purposes (these can include computer and telephone networks, video teleconferencing, e-mail, even correspondence courses via the traditional postal service).

    Intellectual property Nonphysical material and content created by thought and protected by copyright laws as recognized by the United States and other governments. Providing intellectual property rights acts as an incentive to individuals to create new products, processes, or works of art.

    Legacy programs Computer databases and operating systems that have been outmoded by newer versions but that are still in use on mainframe and older computer systems and are in need of upgrading or replacement. Legacy work is the upgrading of computer databases or facilities for private corporations that need to make a transition, often from mainframe storage to PC platforms, without losing any data.

    Link A highlighted entry (usually a word or phrase) on a Web page that, when clicked, permits seamless and rapid navigation from that Web page to another.

    Local area network (LAN) An interconnection of computer and telephone systems linking a number of users in an area, usually within a company, to provide faster exchange of information than would otherwise be possible using the public switched telephone network.

    Meta-tag A hidden HTML code that provides information about a Web page, such as which keywords represent the Web page's content and who created the page. Many search engines use this information.

    Microwave relay A wireless communication facility that uses radio energy in the GHz range to send messages from point to point. Radio transmission in the form of microwaves is used to carry broadcast signals, telephone traffic, and a myriad of satellite and mobile and fixed radio services in the United States. Microwave radio energy must follow a line-of-sight path; it is blocked by physical obstructions.

    Modem The first device built for sending computer data over analog phone lines by converting digital signals into analog sound and vice versa. The term modem stands for modulator-demodulator. When placed between a computer terminal and a telephone line, it produces tones from carrier signals modulated by binary code, performing translation functions between them.

    Modulate To vary some aspect of a communication medium or carrier in order for it to contain a message. Some modulation (variation or change) is required to impose a pattern of intelligence on any medium.

    Multimedia communication Content featuring voice, text, data, images, and/or motion visuals.

    Multiplexing The use of a single transmission channel to carry multiple signals.

    Multiuser domain (MUD) An interactive, multiplayer game played on the Internet.

    Multiuser domain, object-oriented (MOO) An object-oriented MUD.

    Multiuser shared hallucination (MUSH) A type of MUD in which the players themselves create new objects, construct new rooms, and so on.

    Netiquette The rules of etiquette on the Internet, such as guidelines for posting messages to online services.

    Packet switching A method of transmitting digital information by sending it out in small bundles or units independent from one another and then reassembling them into their proper order after they are received at their destination.

    Personal communication service (PCS) A wireless digital technology service using beepers, cellular phones, and data and paging devices to deliver messages intended for individual users. Most recently, wireless Internet is becoming another PCS The PCS band is that portion of the radio spectrum where cellular telephones and other PCS devices operate.

    Personal digital assistant (PDA) A device, such as the Palm Pilot, used for information storage and retrieval. As greater convergence of digital devices continues, devices like cell phones and PDAs will become more and more indistinguishable from one another.

    Public switched telephone network (PSTN) All the network infrastructure used to provide seamless telephone service to the public, including telephone instruments, wire and cable connections, cellular technology, fiber-optic lines, satellites designated for carrying telephone traffic, exchange offices, and so on.

    Radio frequency (RF) carrier Any high-frequency radio transmission suitable for radio transmission. Before sound waves can be transmitted to distant points without wires, they must first be transformed into an electrical signal and then superimposed onto an RF carrier. The RF carrier is created with an oscillator, an electronic circuit that produces a sine wave at a specific frequency. The RF carrier, after being modulated by the audio signal, is then propagated into space at the speed of light. This is the essence of radio and television broadcasting.

    Radio technologies Technologies that harness natural qualities of electricity and electromagnetic radiation to transmit sound, voice-modulated audio signals.

    Radio waves Electromagnetic radiation that carries radio frequencies—the physical phenomena that make broadcasting possible. At the simplest level, radio waves can be generated by rotating a loop of copper wire in a magnetic field. Such rotation induces an electric current in the wire. As the wire passes through each full rotation, the intensity and direction of the flow of electrons vary in an orderly pattern called a sine wave. Sine waves produced by continuous rotation feature several characteristics, including a frequency, the number of cycles per second; a period, the time it takes for one cycle to occur; an amplitude, the magnitude of the voltage in the wire; a wavelength, the length of one cycle in meters; and a phase, the difference between the same points on different waves. Radio waves travel at the speed of light, about 186,000 miles per second, or 300,000,000 meters per second.

    Satellite Wireless communication facilities in geosynchronous earth orbit that use radio energy to transfer messages from point to point. Satellite technology enables microwave signals to cross the ocean. By placing satellites 22,300 miles above the equator, they enter a geosynchronous orbit, meaning that they take 24 hours to make one revolution of the earth, thereby staying above the same spot on earth at all times. Radio transmission between a satellite and a ground station is therefore constant and reliable when the satellite maintains the same position relative to the earth.

    Search engine A program that searches documents on the Web for specified keywords. Search engine is a general class of programs, but the term is often used to describe systems such as Alta Vista and Excite that allow users to search for information and files.

    Spammers Entities, colloquially known as “spammers,” that e-mail unsolicited advertisements in mass sendings. The manner in which the Internet transmits data precludes easy identification of those spammers, ensuring that the geographic source of those entities may remain hidden or disguised.

    Throughput A measure of the amount of bandwidth carrying meaningful data compared to the overall information capacity of a device or transmission line.

    Transduction The process of transforming sound waves into electrical audio signals. (The telephone is therefore a transducer. At the receiving end of a telephone, the electrical pattern is transformed back into sound.)

    Transmissional technologies Technologies that engage users in noninter-active modalities such as watching television or listening to the radio.

    Universal resource locator (URL) The name for Internet Web locations. URLs contain several parts. The first section, the http://, designates which Internet protocol is to be used. The next section, the www, designates what Internet resource is being requested. The last section, the .org or .net and so on, designates the Web server to be reached and locates a specific home page or document on the Internet. URLs can be thought of as addresses.

    Virtual reality (VR) Mediated simulation of reality such as role-playing games (RPGs) and 3-D simulation technology. VR technologies create a feeling of immersion: Viewers or players feel as if they are inside the virtual space, as if they are surrounded by it, similar to the way the natural world surrounds us in real life.

    Vocoder The device, in a digital cell phone, that takes the audio signal produced by the voice and converts it into a digital bit stream through a process of sampling. It is the synthetic speech signal that is then transmitted over the telephone network.

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    Further Readings

    Artificial Intelligence
    Can robots rule the world? Not yet. (2000, September 12). New York Times.
    An electronic circuit that draws its inspiration from life. (2000, June 29). New York Times.
    Schechter, B. (1999, August 3). A man, a plan, and a robot that makes eye contact. New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/080399sci-artficial-intelligence.htm
    Broadcasting and Cybermedia
    Brinkley, J. (1998, August 24). FCC wants HDTV glitch solved soon. New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/08/biztech/articles/24fcc.html
    Brinkley, J. (1999, October 11). Stations challenge digital-TV standard. New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/10/biztech/articles/11dtv.htm
    Carter, B. (1999, May 17). TV networks scramble to deal with era of new media. New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/05/biztech/articles/17tube.html
    Gartner, J. (1998, November 18). DVD developers wait for Windows. New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_DVD_Developers_Wait_For_Windows.html
    Hansell, S. (1998, June 10). NBC buying a portal to the Internet. New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/biztech/articles/10cnet.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (2000, May 12). Napster may have weak defense in fight with music industry. New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com...ech/00/05/cyber/cyberlaw/12law.html
    Kuczynski, A. (2000, January 6). Radio squeezes empty air space for profit. New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/columns/010600radio-ads.htm
    Labaton, S. (2000, May 31). U.S. seeks to ease some restrictions on broadcasters. New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/053100fcc-ownership.html
    Labaton, Stephen. (1998, November 20). Some digital TV services to be taxed. New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/20digi.html
    Lehmann-Haupt, R. (1998, November 5). Web radio expands listening horizons. New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/circuits/library/05libe.html
    Lewis, P. H. (1999, January 28). Life after the VCR: Choosing DVD or Divx. New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 1999, from http://www.nytimes/com/library/tech/99/01/circuits/articles/28pete.html
    Meyer, Michael. (1998, September 28). Ready for prime time?Newsweek, pp. 83–85.
    Mifflin, L. (1998, October 12). 24-Hour news channels force change at big three. New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/financial/tv-news-media.html
    Mifflin, L. (1999, February 1). Watch the tube or watch the computer?New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/01tube.html
    Mirapaul, M. (1999, January 21). Making movies, the do-it-yourself way, on the Web. New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/cyber/artsatlarge.html
    Reuters (2000). Soft rock or software–“Tech” radio is coming. New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/technology/tech-media-techradio.htm
    Roberts, Johnnie L. (1998, October 19). TV turns vertical. Newsweek, pp. 52–56.
    Schiesel, S. (1998, December 7). PC makers and bells in joint petition to U.S. on networks. New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/07phone-data.html
    Schiesel, S. (1998, March 9). Another setback in quest to marry TV and phones. New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/03/biztech/articles/09phone.html
    Schiesel, S. (1999, March 23). Cable TV and the Internet, too: Battling the bells, but with some high-speed whistles. New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/biztech/articles/23comcast.html
    Weinraub, B. (1999, December 20). Technology could soon hand TV control to the viewer. New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/122099outlook-tele.htm
    West, Don. (2000, January 3). The millennavision. Broadcasting & Cable, pp. 38–62.
    Copyright
    Clausing, J. (1998, October 28). Clinton signs digital copyright act. New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/articles/29wipo.html
    Clausing, J. (1998, October 9). House and Senate agree on complex copyright bill. New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/articles/09wipo.html
    Clausing, J. (2000, January 17). Wrestling group wins back use of its name on Internet. New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/17name.htm
    Digital copyright agreement for video. (1999, February 17). New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 1999, from http://www.nytimes/com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/17blue.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (1998, September 25). Can a Web link break copyright laws?New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/cyber/cyberlaw/25law.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (1998, October 30). Free book sites hurt by copyright law. New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/cyberlaw/30law.html
    Long, Doris, Risher, Carol, & Shapiro, Gary F. (1997). Questions and answers on copyright for the campus community. Oberlin: National Association of College Stores.
    Markoff, J. (1998, December 7). Microsoft's Cleartype sets off debate on originality. New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/07microsoft-flat.html
    Markoff, J. (1999, February 25). Sony to propose a method for protecting digital music. New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/25sony.html
    Markoff, J. (2000, May 10). The concept of copyright fights for Internet survival. New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com.../05/biztech/articles/10digital.html
    Mirapaul, M. (1998, December 17). Composers of game soundtracks seek Grammy recognition. New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/cyber/artsatlarge/17artsatlarge.html
    Pareles, J. (1999, February 1). Trying to get in tune with the digital age. New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/01tune.html
    Richtel, M. (1999, July 14). Standards are set for thwarting music pirates. New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/07/biztech/articles/14standard.htm
    Riordan, T. (1999, December 20). Parents considered vital to thrive on the Internet. New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/122099outlook-pate.htm
    Robinson, Sara. (2000, January 24). 3 copyright lawsuits test limits of new digital media. New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/24onli.htm
    Strauss, N. (1999, April 15). Technology you can dance to. New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/biztech/articles/15popx.html
    Cyberlaw
    ACLU in the Courts. (1997, June 20). ALA v. Pataki Decision. ACLU. Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/nycdadec.html
    ACLU in the Courts. (1999). Kathleen R. v. City of Livermore. ACLU. Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/kathleenrvlivermorepubliclibrary.html
    ACLU in the Courts. (1998, October 21). Kathleen R. vs. City of Livermore. ACLU. Retrieved February 18, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/kathleenrvslivermore.html
    ACLU vs. Reno Decision–Dalzell Decision. (1999). Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~mbanks/CDA/decision/dalzell.htm
    ACLU vs. Reno Decision–Introduction. (1999). Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~mbanks/CDA/decision/intro.htm
    ACLU vs. Reno Decision–Sloviter Decision. (1999). Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~mbanks/CDA/decision/sloviter.htm
    ACM, Inc. (1999). PICS: Internet access controls without censorship. Retrieved February 9, 1999, from http://www.w3.org/PICS/iacwcv2.htm
    American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (1999, January 14). Court upholds Livermore Library's uncensored Internet access policy. ACLU. Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/news/n011499a.html
    American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (1999). Supreme Court of the United States: Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union. ACLU. Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/renovacludec.html
    American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (1999). White Paper: Censorship in a box. ACLU. Retrieved February 18, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/issues/cyber.box.html
    Associated Press. (1999, March 12). FCC: No Internet regulation plans. New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/biztech/articles/12fcc-net.html
    Associated Press. (1999, March 18). FCC wants phone rates on Internet. New York Times. Retrieved March 18, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/w/AP-FCC-Phone-Matters.html
    Associated Press. (1999, February 25). Virginia passes law against unsolicited e-mail. New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 1999, from http://wysiwyg://24/http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/25spam.html
    Auletta, Ken. (1999, August 16). Annals of communications: Hard core: Why does Bill Gates think that the Microsoft antitrust trial has been such a disaster for him and for the company?The New Yorker, pp. 42–69.
    Availability of bombmaking information. (1997, June 20). Retrieved March 18, 1999, from http://jya.com/abi.htm
    Beeson, Ann, Hansen, Chris, & Steinhardt, Barry. (1999). ACLU White Paper: Fahrenheit 451.2: Is cyberspace burning? ACLU. Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/issues/cyber/burning.htm
    Biemiller, Lawrence, & Blumenstyk, Goldie. (1997, July 3). Supreme Court strikes down law on Internet indecency. Chronicle of Higher Education.
    Brinkema, Leonie M. (1998, February 26). ACLU in the Courts: Urofsky v. Allen, E.D. Virginia Decision. ACLU. Retrieved February 16, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/urofskyvallendec.html
    Brinkema, Leonie M. (1998, November 23). Mainstream Loudoun v. Board of Trustees of the Loudoun County Library. Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http://censorware.org/legal/loudoun/981123_memopin_jb.htm
    Brinkley, J. (1998, June 23). Appeals court overturns ruling on Windows 95. New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 1998 from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/biztech/articles/24microsoft.html
    Brinkley, J. (1998, October 20). As Microsoft trial gets started, Gates's credibility is questioned. New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/20microsoft.html
    Brinkley, J. (2000, April 4). U.S. judge says Microsoft violated antitrust laws with predatory behavior. New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/04soft.html
    Brinkley, J. (2000, June 1). Microsoft files its final arguments against breakup. New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/06/biztech/articles/01soft.html
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    Clausing, J. (1998, September 28). House backs away from regulating spam. New York Times. Retrieved September 28 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/cyber/articles/28spam.html
    Clausing, J. (1998). Marketers and Net activists reach agreement on spam. New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/cyber/articles/08spam.html
    Clausing, J. (1998, October 12). Technology bills languish as Congress races for exit. New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/12technology-legislation.html
    Clausing, J. (1999, February 11). More states consider laws restricting junk e-mail. New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/cyber/articles/11spam.html
    Clausing, J. (1999, January 24). State lawmakers ready scores of Internet bills. New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/,cyber/articles/24states.html
    Clausing, J. (1999, January 27). U.S. argues case on online smut law. New York Times. Retrieved January 27,1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/cyber/articles/27copa.html
    Compuserve, Inc. v. Cyber Promotions, Inc. (1997, February 3). Retrieved April 5, 1999, from http://www.leepfrog.com/ELaw/Cases/CompuServe_v_Cyber_Promo.html
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    Electronic Commerce & Law Report. (1999). ACLU v. Janet Reno: June 11, 1996. Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.bna.com/e-law/cases/aclureno.html
    Electronic Commerce & Law Report. (1999). The Washington Post v. Total News Inc. (Settlement). Retrieved September 23, 1999, from: http://zeus.bna.com/e-law/cases/totalset.htm
    Electronic Privacy Information Center. (1999). Child Online Protection Act. EPIC. Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.epic.org/free_speech/censorship/copa.html
    Excerpts from government's suit against Microsoft. (1998). New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/19microsoft-text.html
    Fairley Raney, R. (1999, January 29). Charges filed in U.S. hate e-mail case. New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/cyber/articles/29mail.html
    Fairley Raney, R. (1999, April 29). Internet stalking case ends in plea. New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/cyber/articles/29stalk.html
    Fairley Raney, R. (1999, February 3). Plea entered in Internet stalking case. New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/cyber/articles/03stalk.html
    FindLaw. (1969, June 9). United States Case Law: Supreme Court: Brandenburg v. Ohio. Retrieved March 16, 1999, from http://caselaw.findlaw/com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?navby=case&court=US&vol=395&page=447
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    FindLaw. (1997, December 4). United States Case Law: 4th Circuit Court of Appeals: Rice v. Paladin Enterprises. FindLaw. Retrieved March 16, 1999, from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcas...court=4th&navby=case&no=962412Pv2&exact=1
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    Howe Verhovek, S. (1999, February 3). Creators of anti-abortion Web site told to pay millions. New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/03abortion.html
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    Kaplan, C. S. (1998, October 2). In library filtering case, an unusual allyNew York Times. Retrieved October 2, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/cyberlaw/02law.html
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    Kaplan, C. S. (1998, January 1). The year saw many milestones in cyberlaw. New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/cyber/law/01019law.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (1999, March 12). Companies fight anonymous critics with lawsuits. New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/cyber/cyberlaw/12law.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (1999, April 30). Court lays down the law on labels for Web sites. New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 1999, from http://wysiwyg://10/http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/cyber/cyberlaw/30law.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (1999). Junk e-mail filters spawn a suit against Microsoft. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/cyber/cyberlaw/19law.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (1999, April 9). Ruling against domain name speculator could set precedent. New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/cyber/cyberlaw/09law.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (2000, February 4). Another legal defeat for victim of online hoax. New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/cyber/cyberlaw/04law.htm
    Kaplan, C. S. (2000). DVD lawsuit questions legality of linking. New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2000, from http://wysiwyg://9/http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/cyber/cyberlaw/07law.htm
    Kaplan, C. S. (2000). When the Internet moves faster than the courts. New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/cyber/cyberlaw/25law.htm
    Kozlowski, M. J. (1998, October 22). Site shutdown after PA AG files suit. Law Journal Extra. Retrieved March 25, 1999, from http://www.ljx.com/LJXfiles/paag.html
    Labaton, S. (2000, April 4). Judge builds legal argument aimed at surviving an appeal. New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/04/biztech/articles/04legal.html
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    Lessig, Lawrence. (1998, Summer). What things regulate speech: CDA 2.0 vs. filtering. Jurimetrics, pp. 629–670.
    Like the live view? Here's how we did it. (1999). Cornell University Home Page. Retrieved October 13, 1999, from http://www.info.cornell.edu/CUHomePage/liveview.htm
    Lohr, S. (1998, December 14). If Microsoft loses case, remedies are thorny. New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/14soft.html
    Lohr, S. (1998). An Intel executive testifies of a “credible and fairly terrifying” threat by Microsoft. New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/10soft.html
    Lohr, S. (1998, November 18). Microsoft told to stop shipments that violate contract with rival. New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/18sun.html
    Lohr, S. (1998, October 19). Sherman's 1890 nod to populism has been broadly interpreted. New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/19law.html
    Lohr, S. (1998). U.S. vs. Microsoft: Government sets the stage. New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/19microsoft-justice.html
    Loving v. Boren. (1997, January 28). Retrieved February 16, 1999, from http://www.gse.ucla/edu/iclp/loving.html
    Macavinta, C. (1998, February 11). Conviction in online threat case. CNET News. Retrieved March 25, 1999, from http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,19046,00.html
    Macavinta, C. (1998, May 4). Prison time for email threats. CNET News. Retrieved March 25, 1999, from http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,21766,0.html
    Mainstream Loudoun v. Loudoun County Libraries. (1999). Tech Law Journal. Retrieved February 9, 1999, from http://www.techlawjournal.com/courts/loudon/80407mem.htm
    Major, April M. (1997). Internet red light district: A domain name proposal for regulatory zoning of obscene content. John Marshall Journal of Computer and Information Law, 16, 21–33.
    Major, April M. (1998). Copyright law tackles yet another challenge: The electronic frontier of the World Wide Web. Rutgers Computer & Technology Law Journal, 8. Retrieved March 15, 1999. LexisNexis.
    Markoff, J. (1998, May 18). Defiant Gates defends his business practices. New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/19microsoft-gates.html
    Mendels, P. (1998). Court tackles new angle on library Internet filtering. New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/cyber/cyberlaw/04law.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, February 1). Decision expected Monday on Web anti-pornography law. New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/01kids.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, January 28). Hearings end in online pornography case. New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/cyber/articles/28copa.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, April 28). Intel e-mail ruling raises free speech questions. New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/cyber/articles/29intel.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, January 21). Internet smut law enters Court, with a snag. New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/cyber/articles/21copa.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, February 1). Judge delays online pornography law. New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/cyber/articles/02copa.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, June 24). Michigan faces challenge on online porn law. New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 1999, http://fromwysiwyg://13/http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/06/cyber/articles/24michigan.html
    Mueller, Christopher B., & Kirkpatrick, Laird C. (1996). Relevance. In Evidence under the rules: Text, cases, and problems (
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    Patrizio, A. (1999, February 16). Pentium III chips could hit 1 GHz this year. New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Pentium_III_Chips_Could_Hit_1_GHz_This_Year.html
    Perritt, Henry H., Jr. (1995, September 11). Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy: What is the Internet? Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.law.vill.edu/vcilp/technotes/whatis5.htm
    Post, David G. (1998, Fall). Law of Cyberspace Seminar syllabus. Philadelphia: Temple University Law School.
    Pregerson, Dean D. (1997, November 17). EPLR: Lockheed Martin Corp. v. Network Solutions Inc. Retrieved September 18, 1999, from http://zeus.bna.com/e-law/cases/locknsi.htm
    Raney, R. F. (1998, October 1). More trouble for man in hate mail case. New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/articles/01email.html
    Reuters. (1999, September 28). Analysts fear heavy Microsoft regulation most. New York Times. Retrieved September 28, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/technology/tech-microsoft-remedi.htm
    Rosenbaum, D. E. (1999, June 30). Vexing party, Clinton backs Year 2000 law. New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/06/biztech/articles/30year.html
    Supreme Court–State of New York. Stratton Oakmont, Inc. and Daniel Porush vs. Prodigy Services Company. (1999). Retrieved April 5, 1999, from http://www.epic.org/free_speech/stratton_v_prodigy_1995.txt
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    Weinstein, M. M. (1998, October 19). Previous antitrust cases leave room for both sides to cite them now. New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/19case.html
    Zimmerman, C. (1999, May 4). Judge puts lock on look-alike Web names. New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Judge_Puts_Lock_On_Look_Alike_Web_Names.html
    Distance Education/Distance Learning
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    Arenson, K. W. (1998, November 2). More colleges plunging into uncharted waters of online courses. New York Times. Retrieved November 2, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/02online-education.html
    Banks, Ingrid. (1998, October 16). Reliance on technology threatens the essence of teaching. Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. B5–B6.
    Biemiller, Lawrence. (1998, October 9). U. of Utah president issues a pointed warning about virtual universities. Chronicle of Higher Education, p. A32.
    Bronner, E. (1998, December 1). Textbooks shifting from printed page to screen. New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/01school-etex.html
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    Goldin, N. (1999, October 13). Online presentations boom as colleges compete for the brightest students. New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/101399web-tours-edu.htm
    Guernsey, Lisa. (1998, March 27). Distance education for the not-so-distant. Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A29–A30.
    Guernsey, Lisa. (1998, October 9). Some colleges try attracting students with their own on-line innovations. Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A31–A32.
    Honan, W. H. (1999, January 25). College freshmen's Internet use a way of life, but disparities emerge. New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/biztech/articles/25frosh.html
    Honan, W H. (1999, January 27). High tech comes to the classroom: Machines that grade essays. New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/biztech/articles/27grade.html
    Labriola, Don. (1997, October 7). Desktop video-conferencing. PC Magazine, pp. 219–231.
    Macavinta, C. (1999, September 27). Teachers see major obstacles to wiring schools. New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/cnet/CNET_0_4_201238_00.htm
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    McGrath, B. (1998, April). Partners in learning: Twelve ways technology changes the teacher-student relationship. T.H.E. Journal, 25(9), 58–61. Retrieved from //bmgrath@stevens-tech.edu
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    Mendels, P. (1998, November 18). Lawsuit challenges Internet subsidy for parochial schools. New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/cyber/education/18education.html
    Mendels, P. (1998, November 25). School laptop program raises concerns about equal access. New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/cyber/education/25education.html
    Mendels, P. (1998, October 14). Schools get Internet access, but how do teachers use it?New York TimesOnline. Retrieved October 15, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/education/14education.html
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    Mendels, P. (1998, September 23). Test preparation company offers virtual law degree. New York TimesOnline. Retrieved September 23, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/cyber/education/23education.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, July 14). Focus shifts to effectiveness of education technology. New York TimesOnline. Retrieved July 14, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/07/cyber/education/14education.htm
    Mendels, P. (1999, October 13). Kentucky reaches for high school students with Internet courses. New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/10/cyber/education/13education.htm
    Mendels, P. (1999, February 24). Report calls for teacher training in technology. New York TimesOnline. Retrieved February 24, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/cyber/education/24education.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, September 22). Study finds problems with Web class. New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/libra...ch/99/09/cyber/education/22education.htm
    Mendels, P. (1999, March 31). Universities grapple with computer use policies. New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/cyber/education/03education.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, October 20). University with long history in correspondence ventures onto Net. New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/10/cyber/education/20education.htm
    Mendels, P. (1999, February 17). Virginia law could hamper educators at state schools. New York TimesOnline. Retrieved February 17, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/cyber/education/17education.html
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    Watkins, Beverly T. (1991, September 4). The electronic classroom: Vanderbilt courses mix film, video, graphics, sound, and text; use of the facility spreads. Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A26–A30.
    Young, Jeffrey R., Guernsey, Lisa, Kiernan, Vincent, & Blumenstyk, Goldie. (1998, April 24). Microsoft's reach in higher education. Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A25–A34.
    E-Commerce
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    Associated Press. (1999, December 28). Web shoppers report satisfaction. New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/12/biztech/articles/28web-shopping.htm
    Barboza, D. (1999, February 8). Cisco and Motorola to develop wireless Internet system. New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/08wire.html
    Bloomberg News. (2000, January 5). Chip sales climb 25%. New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/05chip.htm
    Branscum, D., & Napoli, L. (1999, February 8). Taking a Web meeting. New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/08data.html
    Brinkley, J. (1998, November 18). Microsoft hampered OS/2, IBM official tells court. New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/18soft.html
    Caruso, D. (1999, July 19). A new model for the Internet: Fees for services. New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/07/biztech/articles/19digi.htm
    Chartrand, S. (1998, October 5). Patents: Software that tracks Web usage. New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/05patents.html
    Clausing, J. (1998, November 30). White House unveils e-commerce plans. New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/cyber/articles/01magaziner.html
    Clausing, J. (1999, June 8). FTC holds meeting on international e-commerce. New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/06/cyber/capital/08capital.html
    Clausing, J. (2000, February 15). Government fights spread of online auction fraud. New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/cyber/capital/15capital.htm
    Cohen, N. S. (1999, August 23). Corporations try to bar use of e-mail by unions. New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/08/biztech/articles/23unio.htm
    Dobrzynski, J. H. (2000, June 2). In online auctions, rings of bidders. New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/06/biztech/articles/02ebay.html
    Elliott, S. (2000, February 1). Shocking defeats and other Super Bowl XXXIV marketing memories. New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/libr...ancial/columns/020100superbowl-adcol.htm
    Freierman, S. (1998, December 2). Microsoft bets on barter advertising network. New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/02microsoft-link.html
    Hansell, S. (1998, November 17). Amazon stretching beyond its roots in books. New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/02microsoft-link.html
    Hansell, S. (1998, November 25). America Online sets its sights on e-commerce. New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/25commerce.html
    Hansell, S. (1998, August 24). Marketers ponder how to sell soap without the operas. New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/08/biztech/articles/24advertising.html
    Harmon, A. (1998, November 11). E-mail takes the stand and companies take a stand on e-mail. New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/11email.html
    Harmon, A. (1998, December 14). Witness in Microsoft case keeps the list of all lists. New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/14farb.html
    Johnston, D. (2000, February 17). U.S. officials lay out plan to fight computer attacks. New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/17net.htm
    Karpinski, R. (1998, October 20). New spec breaks the e-commerce ICE. New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_New_Spec_Breaks_The_E_Commerce_ICE.html
    Krochmal, M. (1998, November 24). Nader's group to contest AOL-Netscape merger. New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Nader_s_Group_to_Contest_AOL_Netscape_Merger.html
    Labaton, S. (1998, December 15). Three proposed telecommunications mergers draw challenges at an F.C.C. hearing. New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/15bell.html
    Levy, Steven, & Stone, Brad. (2000, February 21). Hunting the hackers. Newsweek, pp. 38–44.
    Lohr, S. (1998, October 1). White House to increase efforts to help fight software piracy. New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/01software-piracy.html
    Lohr, S. (2000, January 11). A mass medium for Main Street. New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/011100time-online.htm
    Lohr, S. (2000, January 12). Merger may produce rival Microsoft has dreaded. New York Times. Retrieved January 12, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/011200time-soft.htm
    Lohr, S. (2000, April 25). U.S. hoping 2 Microsoft monopolies are gentler than one. New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.co...00/04/biztech/articles/25split.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, July 1). In AT&T-TCI deal, cost and logistical problems. New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/07/biztech/articles/02phone.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, October 12). Microsoft memo offers a glimpse of Gates 2.0. New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/12microsoft-gates.html
    Markoff, J., & Robinson, S. (2000, February 15). Chat systems yield clues in Web attacks by hackers. New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/biztech/articles/15net.htm
    Marriott, M. (1998, December 17). Luck, be a microchip tonight. New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/circuits/articles/17gamb.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, December 8). Major players going online with SAT prep courses. New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/12/cyber/education/08education.htm
    Napoli, L. (1998, August 26). You say “page view,” I say “visit”: How to count Web traffic. New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/08/cyber/articles/26traffic.html
    Napoli, L. (1999, March 2). EBay says it is under investigation by U.S. New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/cyber/articles/02ebay.html
    Napoli, L., & Schiesel, S. (1998, December 7). “Literate smut” site tries electronic commerce. New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/07comp.html
    Non, S. G. (1998, November 18). Microsoft will dump RealNetworks. New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Microsoft_Will_Dump_RealNetworks.html
    Pareles, J. (1999, February 9). Leading recording companies to test online digital sales. New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/09blue.html
    Richtel, M. (1998, November 4). In search of a free ISP. New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/cyber/articles/04isp.html
    Richtel, M. (1999, June 21). As e-commerce surges, so do technical problems. New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/21tuff.html
    Richtel, M. (1999, December 19). The next waves of electronic commerce. New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/librar.../biztech/articles/122099outlook-nett.htm
    Richtel, M. (1999, February 8). Plan for free PCs has a few attachments. New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/08free.html
    Richtel, M. (2000, February 8). Yahoo attributes a lengthy service failure to an attack. New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/biztech/articles/08yahoo.htm
    Rosenthal, E. (2000, January 27). China issues rules to limit e-mail and Web content. New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/27china.htm
    Tedeschi, B. (1998, November 24). Holiday shopping season puts e-commerce to the test. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/cyber/commerce/24commerce.html
    Tedeschi, B. (1999, August 23). Online sales can be messy, especially those pesky returns. New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/08/cyber/commerce/23commerce.htm
    Thompson, C. (1998, December 1). Catalogue companies slow to set up shop online. New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/cyber/commerce/01commerce.html
    Wald, M. L. (1998, October 9). Senate spares Internet from taxes. New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/09net.html
    Encryption/Security
    Associated Press. (2000, February 3). Experts warn of Web surfing risk. New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/biztech/articles/03internet-warning.htm
    Bloomberg News. (1998, October 13). Congress passes anti-piracy bill. New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/13software-piracy.html
    Bloomberg News. (2000, May 1). Polaroid fingerprint reader for computer security gains use. New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2000, from http://wysiwyg://69/http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/articles/02polaroid-prints.html
    Clausing, J. (1998, July 7). Administration to allow limited data-scrambling exports. New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/07/biztech/articles/08encrypt.html
    Clausing, J. (1998, March 4). Gore letter seems to soften stance on encryption. New York Times. Retrieved March 5, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/cyber/articles/05encrypt.html#1
    Clausing, J. (1998, June 9). U.S. and industry discuss data encryption. New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/biztech/articles/10encrypt.html
    Clausing, J. (1999, March 12). Panel passes bill to halt limits on encryption. New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/cyber/articles/12encrypt.html
    Clausing, J. (2000, January 18). New encryption rules leave civil libertarians unhappy. New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2000, from http://wysiwyg://5/http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/cyber/capital/18capital.htm
    Common questions about encryption and computer privacy. (1998). Americans for Computer Privacy (ACP). Retrieved March 4, 1998, from http://www.computerprivacy.org/questions/
    Dalton, Gregory. (1998, August 31). Acceptable risks. Information Week, pp. 36–48.
    Encryption glossary. (1998). Americans for Computer Privacy (ACP). Retrieved March 4, 1998, from http://www.computerprivacy.org/glossary/
    Hafner, K. (2000, February 4). PC's vulnerable to security breaches, experts say. New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/biztech/articles/04compute.htm
    Kimber, L. (1999, February 24). How Nokia guards against crackers. New York Times. Retrieved February 24, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_How_Nokia_Guards_Against_Crackers.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, February 27). Encryption issue threatens Silicon Valley rapport with Clinton. New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/27industry.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, December 4). International group reaches agreement on data-scrambling software. New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/04encrypt.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, September 28). Potentially big security flaw found in Netscape software. New York Times. Retrieved September 28, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/biztech/articles/28java.html
    Markoff, J. (2000, January 11). Internet extortionist and thief challenges computer experts. New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/11cyber.htm
    Mosquera, M. (1999, January 22). Clinton seeks more funds for cyberterrorism. New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 1999, http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Clinton_Seeks_More_Funds_For_Cyberterrorism.html
    Mosquera, M. (1999, July 13). Encryption bill gaining momentum in House. New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Encryption_Bill_Gaining_Momentum_In_House.htm
    Mondex Security Strategy. (1998). Mondex International. Retrieved June 14, 1998, from http://www.mondex.com/mxi/cgibin/printpa...l?english+global&technology_security.html
    Rosen, James. (2000, June 25). Reno: Government alone can't stop online crimes. Panorama Daily Local News.
    Solomon, D., & Johnson, K. (2000, February 10). FBI launches cyberhunt. USA Today, 18(105).
    Varian, H. R. (2000, June 1). Managing online security risks. New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/columns/060100econ-scene.html
    Wayner, P. (1998, June 10). Cryptographers discuss finding of security flaw in “smart cards.”New York Times. Retrieved June 14, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/cyber/articles/10smartcard.html
    Wayner, P. (1998, August 25). IBM says encryption system prevents hacker attack. New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/08/cyber/articles/25encrypt.html
    Wayner, P. (2000, January 5). Attacks on encryption code raise questions about computer vulnerability. New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/05secu.htm
    Filtering Technology
    Clausing, J. (1999, January 27). Filtering bill comes to life again in Senate. New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/cyber/education/27education.html
    Mendels, P. (1998, November 23). Judge rules against filters at library. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/cyber/articles/24library.html
    Mendels, P. (1999, March 10). Schools split on using Internet filters. New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/cyber/education/10education.html
    Longevity of Digital Information
    Gajilan, Arlyn Tobias. (1999, July 12). History: We're losing it. Newsweek.
    Hafner, K. (1999, April 8). Books to bytes: the electronic archive. New York Times. Retrieved April 8, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/circuits/articles/08arch.html
    Nicholson, Leslie J. (1999, September 30). The post-Y2K bug: Technical obsolescence. Philadelphia Inquirer.
    Pollack, A. (1998, March 16). Digital film restoration raises questions. New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/03/biztech/articles/16restore.html
    Rothenberg, Jeff. (1995, January). Ensuring the longevity of digital documents. Scientific American, pp. 42–47.
    New Frontiers of Technology
    Associated Press. (1998, October 22). Implant transmits brain signals directly to computer. New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/circuits/articles/22brai.html
    Associated Press. (1999, September 1). Intel introduces new Internet chip. New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/f/AP-Intel-Internet-Chip.htm
    Brain, Marshall. (2000). How a cell phone works (How Stuff Works). Retrieved January 24, 2000, from http://www.howstuffworks.com/cell-phone.htm
    Calem, Robert E. (1992, December 6). The network of all networks. New York Times.
    Communications, computers, and networks. (1991, September). Scientific American [Special issue].
    How a Web page works (How Stuff Works). (2000). Retrieved January 25, 2000, from http://www.howstuffworks.com/web-page.htm
    How Web servers and the Internet work (How Stuff Works). (2000). Retrieved January 25, 2000, from http://www.howstuffworks.com/web-server1.htm
    Felton, Carole. (2000, January 25). Why is everyone jumping on the bandwidth?Jewish Exponent.
    Fischer, Claude. (1992). Technology and modern life. In America calling (pp. 1–32). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Fowler, John Henry (2000, May). Music software on the PC. Blueprints [Villanova University publication].
    Hertzberg, Robert. (1931). Is television coming around that corner at last? Radio Design, 4(1), 28–34.
    Coming to your desktop: The digital darkroom. (1998, June 10). New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/circuits/articles/11foto-side.html
    On this day (1915): Phone to Pacific from the Atlantic. (1999, January 25). New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/990125onthisday_big.html
    Alexander, H. (1998, October 1). Behind the lowly mouse: Clever technology close at hand. New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/circuits/howitworks/01how.html
    Austen, I. (2000, February 3). The case of the flickering pixels. New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/02/circuits/articles/03read.htm
    Barringer, F. (2000, May 15). Newspapers bring threat of Web into perspective. New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/05/biztech/articles/15medi.html
    Biersdorfer, J. D. (1999, October 7). Trapped in the Web without an exit. New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/10/circuits/articles/07tric.htm
    Bloomberg News. (1998, November 17). Cable and wireless to build new network. New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/17cable.html
    Brinkley, J. (1999, July 12). Broadcaster seeks change in digital TV format. New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/07/biztech/articles/12hdtv.htm
    Carrier, J. (1998, September 28). Satellites guiding industries on the move. New York Times. Retrieved September 28, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/biztech/articles/28find.html
    Editorial. (1998, March 4). Mr. Gates takes the stand. New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/editorial/04wed1.html
    Fisher, L. M. (1999, December 19). Software evolving into a service rented off the Net. New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 1999, from http://wysiwyg://11/http://www.nytimes.com/libra.../biztech/articles/122099outlook-soft.htm
    Fisher, L. M. (2000, February 7). New era approaches: Gigahertz chips. New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tch/00/02/biztech/articles/07chip.htm
    Friedlin, J. (2000, February 28). AOL, Microsoft, BellSouth announce wireless deals. New York Times. Retrieved February 29, 2000, from http://wysiwyg://70/http://www.nytimes.com/libra...0/02/biztech/articles/29tsc-wireless.htm
    Goldberg, C. (1998, March 11). Where do computers go when they die?New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/circuits/articles/12die.html
    Greenman, C. (1998, August 20). There's more than one way to scan a bar code. New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/08/circuits/howitworks/20how.html
    Guernsey, L. (2000, April 13). A chip in every pot. New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2000, from http://wysiwyg://121/http://www.nytimes.co...00/04/circuits/articles/13need.html
    Hafner, K. (1999, February 4). Talk is cheap, if you're careful. New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/circuits/articles/04cell.html
    Hafner, K. (1999, April 15). Web phones: the next big thing?New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/circuits/articles/15mobi.html
    Hansell, S. (1998, November 4). Got a dime? Citibank and Chase end test of electronic cash. New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/04card.html
    Hara, Y. (1998, November 16). U.S., Japan to set common digital interface. New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_U_S_Japan_To_Set_Common_Digital_Interface.html
    Hewlett Packard Labs. (1999, July 15). HP labs scientists are building computer chips in a whole new way. Hewlett Packard. Retrieved July 19, 1999, from http://www.hpl.hp.com/news/molecules_that_compute.htm
    Johnson, G. (1999, March 23). Mindless creatures acting “mindfully.”New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/032399sci-cellular-automata.html
    Johnson, R. C. (1998, December 2). Themescape creates information map. New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Themescape_Creates_Information_Map.html
    Johnson, R. C. (1999, February 24). Nuance expands speech-recognition technology. New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Nuance_Expands_Speech_Recognition_Tecnology.html
    Kaplan, C. S. (2000, May 5). Governments learn how to censor the Internet, report says. New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2000, from http://wysiwyg://87/http://www.nytimes.com...ech/00/05/cyber/cyberlaw/05law.html
    Katz, M. (1998, November 16). Wireless portable e-mail devices grow up. New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/cyber/articles/16portable.html
    Kennedy, R. (2000, January 24). Subways trade No. 2 pencils for 21st-century technology. New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/national/regional/ny-subway-trains.htm
    Krochmal, M. (1999, January 25). High definition comes into focus. New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_High_Definition_Comes_Into_Focus.html
    LaPedus, M. (1999, April 14). Samsung to develop line of wireless chips. New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_Samsung_To_Develop_Line_Of_Wireless_Chips_html
    Larsen, Judith K. (1990). Silicon Valley: A scenario for the information society of tomorrow. In Mediation, information, and communication (Vol. 3, pp. 193–200). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Lewis, P. H. (1998, June 17). Bigger, faster, more 3-D: The anatomy of the coming PC's. New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/circuits/articles/18anat.html
    Lewis, P. H. (1998, September 10). How fast is your system? Whose test are you using?New York Times. Retrieved September 10, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/circuits/articles/10benc.html
    Lewis, P. H. (1998, December 3). How to kick the tires when buying a computer. New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/circuits/articles/03pete.html
    Lewis, P. H. (1998, June 10). Shoot first, e-mail photos to Grandma later. New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/circuits/articles/11foto.html
    Licalzi O'Connell, P. (1999, September 30). Beyond geography: Mapping unknowns of cyberspace. New York Times.
    Lievrouw, Leah A. (2000, January). Nonobvious things about new media: “Dead media” and the loss of electronic cultural heritage. International Communication Association Newsletter, 28(1).
    Lievrouw, Leah A. (2000, March). Nonobvious things about new media: How fast is fast?International Communication Association Newsletter.
    Lohr, S. (2000, April 18). Microsoft will challenge Palm's hand-held computer dominance. New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2000, from http://wysiwyg://36/http://www.nytimes.com.../00/04/biztech/articles/18soft.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, November 17). Microsoft develops software to improve appearance of screen text. New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/17font.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, September 23). New venture to map Internet 3D. New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/biztech/articles/23internet-map.html
    Markoff, J. (1998, April 13). Researchers crack code in cell phones. New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/14phone.html
    Markoff, J. (1999, July 19). Chip designers search for life after Silicon. New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/07/biztech/articles/19chip.htm
    Markoff, J. (1999, February 8). One man's dream to spin a faster Web. New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/08band.html
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    Privacy
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    About the Contributors

    Josepha Silman Banschick is a journalist who writes on family issues and child psychology. She has collaborated with Mark R. Banschick on a number of projects, including several textbook chapters, child development spirituality, and the Divorce Course, a course on parenting for divorcing parents.

    Mark R. Banschick, M.D., is a child and adolescent psychiatrist in full-time private practice. He is a lecturer and contributing author in the areas of child development and the psychology of moral/spiritual behavior. He is Adjunct Professor at Hebrew Union College, New York, where he teaches in the Doctor of Ministry program, and the cofounder of the Integrated Medicine Study Group in Katonah, New York.

    Keith Lee is a second-year law student at Villanova University School of Law in Villanova, Pennsylvania. He is a member of the Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal, the Intellectual Property Society, and the Digital Law Forum. His casenote, “Resolving the Dissonant Constitutional Chords Inherent in the Federal Anti-Bootlegging Statute in United States v. Moghadam,” will appear in an upcoming issue of the Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal. In 1997, he graduated from the University of Maryland with a B.A. degree in government and politics and a B.A. degree in criminology and criminal justice.

    Janessa Light graduated from Villanova University School of Law in Villanova, Pennsylvania, in 2000. At Villanova, she served as President of the Villanova Intellectual Property Society for two years and contributed as a student representative on both the Villanova E-mail Policy Task Force and the Villanova Web Publishing Task Force. She received her dual undergraduate degree in rhetoric and communication and sociology from the University of California at Davis, where she graduated magna cum laude.

    JoAnn Magdoff received her master's degree in social work from Fordham University and a Ph.D. in anthropology from Princeton University. She pursued postdoctoral training at the Psychoanalytic Center for Training and Research at Columbia University and served as a supervisor in the Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology at the City University of New York. She was founder and first president of the New York chapter of the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists. She has also been a private consultant; her clients include international advertising agencies, financial institutions, and utility companies, among others. She is a frequent lecturer and writer on psychology and American culture and is a psychotherapist in private practice in New York City.

    Leigh Maxwell (Ph.D., telecommunications, Ohio State University, 1996) publishes research examining the impact of digital technologies on teaching, learning, and intellectual property. She resides in Madison, Wisconsin, where she works as a writer and consultant in private practice.

    Thomas A. McCain received his Ph.D. in communication from the University of Wisconsin. He has been on the faculty of the Ohio State University since 1973 and was Director of the Center for Advanced Study of Telecommunications (CAST) from 1990 to 1997. His research examines the relationship between communication technology and society. He is a former editor of the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media and has authored more than 175 scholarly papers, book chapters, and articles, including The 1000 Hour War: Communication in the Gulf (1994). McCain has served as consultant to numerous communication companies, government agencies, and universities in the United States and abroad, including the Ohio Board of Regents and Department of Education.

    Katherine Neikirk is a second-year law student at Villanova University School of Law in Villanova, Pennsylvania. She is a member of the Villanova Law Review, the Intellectual Property Society, and the Digital Law Forum. Her casenote, “Squeezing Cyberspace Into International Shoes: When Should Courts Exercise Personal Jurisdiction Over Non-Commercial Online Speech?” will appear in an upcoming issue of the Villanova Law Review. In 1996, she graduated from Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, with a B.A. degree in English.

    Judy C. Pearson received her B.A. degree from St. Cloud University and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Indiana University. She has taught in K-12 and at the college level. Her university positions were at Indiana, Bradley, Purdue, Iowa State, Michigan State, and Ohio. She has been both a faculty member and administrator. She is currently a full professor of human development and communication at Virginia Tech. In addition to several books, Pearson has published articles in numerous journals including the Journal of Communication, Communication Monographs, Communication Education, and Adolescence. She has served on the National Communication Association task force on technology and communication with Vinton Cerf, father of the Internet, and U.S. Representative Rick Baucher, originator of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Pearson is currently Director of the Northern Virginia Center and Associate Dean of the Graduate School of Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) and State University, where she administers the adoption of instructional technology.

    Jeffrey B. Rubin practices psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical psychotherapy in New York City and Bedford Hills, New York. He has taught at various psychoanalytic institutes including the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, the Object Relations Institute, and the C. G. Jung Foundation of New York. He currently teaches at the Harlem Family Institute and the Union Theological Seminary. Rubin is author of Psychotherapy and Buddhism: Toward an Integration and A Psychoanalysis for Our Time: Exploring the Blindness of the Seeing I. He is also author of two forthcoming books, The Art of Living and a new book integrating psychology and spirituality.

    Leonard Shyles (Ph.D., communication, Ohio State University) is Associate Professor of Communication at Villanova University in Villanova, Pennsylvania. His publications include journal articles and book chapters analyzing the content and impact of political media in presidential elections and other settings. He is coeditor and coauthor of The 1000 Hour War: Communication in the Gulf (1994), dealing with the use of telecommunication technologies to conduct the war in the Persian Gulf and to provide journalistic coverage of the conflict. Most recently, Shyles has published a comprehensive television production textbook, Video Production Handbook (1997). His current research focuses on understanding digital technology in the contexts of markets and policy.


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