Deciphering Cyberspace: Making the Most of Digital Communication Technology
Publication Year: 2003
Deciphering Cyberspace: Making the Most of Digital Communication Technology, a collection of new chapters by media experts, social-psychologists, and legal scholars, lucidly explores the modern digital information revolution with one goal: to demystify digital communication technology. By examining its subject matter from the three perspectives of technology, markets, and policy, Deciphering Cyberspace provides an impressively comprehensive view of the technical nature of cyberspace, its social impact, and legal significance for individuals, institutions, and society. Marrying the broad social and psychological impact of technology to the personal, this text goes beyond mere operation of technology and illuminates how systems work. Deciphering Cyberspace is a must-have volume for anyone interested in keeping connected and learning about the ever-changing world of technology in our increasingly mediated world. ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part II: Markets
- Chapter 4: Children in Cyberspace
- The Child/Internet Interface
- Intellectual Development
- Internet and the Social World
- Identity Formation and the Internet
- Chapter 5: Social and Psychological Uses of the Internet
- Who Uses the Internet?
- When the Web Resembles the Real World
- Re-Creating Identity
- What is the True Self? Online and Offline
- Emergence and Complexity
- Cyberinterview: Marvin Kane
- Chapter 6: Connected Learning in the Information Age
- The Infrastructure of Education
- The Unique Qualities of Digital Media
- Administrative Challenges
- Cyberinterview: Rick Marx
- Chapter 7: Adopting Instructional Technologies
- Brief Overview
- Assessing the Impact of Instructional Technologies
- The Promise of Instructional Technologies
- Challenges Facing Administrators
Part III: Policy
For Janice, my kindred spirit and companion who makes it all possible
Copyright © 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Deciphering cyberspace: making the most of digital communication technology/Leonard Shyles, editor.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2219-9 (cloth) – ISBN 0-7619-2220-2 (pbk)
1. Telecommunication–History. 2. Cyberspace. 3. Information society. I. Shyles, Leonard, 1948-
TK5102.2 .D43 2002
02 03 04 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Margaret H. Seawell
Editorial Assistant: Alicia Carter
Production Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Copy Editor: Kate Peterson
Indexer: Molly Hall
Cover Designer: Ravi Balasuriya
I thank Villanova University for providing the atmosphere necessary for scholarly research to proceed. In particular, I wish to thank Father Kail Ellis, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, for supporting this project with his advice and guidance. I also thank the Department of Communication and especially my Chair, Terry Nance, for her support.
I thank my sponsoring editor at Sage Publications, Margaret Seawell, for her unyielding faith and advocacy for this project. Margaret is a writer's dream who inspires her authors to strive for the best. Thanks also go to Alicia Carter, editorial assistant at Sage, for shepherding the project to speedy completion with a sure hand.
I thank all the contributors, both authors and interviewees, who have made this book a great single volume on a complex topic: Mark Banschick, Josepha Silman Banschick, Dan Birenbaum, Charles Ehlin, Marvin Kane, Keith Lee, Janessa Light, JoAnn Magdoff, Rick Marx, Leigh Maxwell, Thomas McCain, Katherine Neikirk, Judy Pearson, Jeffrey Rubin, and Michael Young. All clearly and concisely contributed important insights on a breathtaking constellation of issues. I am truly blessed to have been able to work with such a great group.
I am fortunate to have done this project with such fine people, ethical actors whose word is their bond, who are great at what they do, and who are willing and able to share their expertise with the world. I consider them to be not just colleagues, but friends.— Leonard Shyles[Page x]
This collection of new chapters by media experts, social psychologists, and legal scholars explores the current digital telecommunication revolution, of which the Internet is but a current manifestation. It is especially intended for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students studying mass communication, telecommunications, and digital media. The book presents a brief, clear, conceptual view of digital communication technology, assessing its nature and impact on individuals, institutions, and society on the threshold of the new millennium. To bring greater depth and perspective to a broad and diverse field, Deciphering Cyberspace also features interviews with industry engineers and leading practitioners.
This book is written with one main goal: to demystify digital communication technology. We present in simple language a three-element model that makes the subject of digital communication accessible. By examining digital media from the perspectives of technology, markets, and policy, we present a clear yet comprehensive view of the nature and impact of cyberspace.
Deciphering Cyberspace explains the physical nature of digital communication systems; the book also describes social, psychological, and legal aspects of digital media and telecommunication networks. Knowing how such systems work and what their impact is from multiple perspectives has the practical benefit of enabling you to make informed choices about which systems can best serve your individual and organizational needs. A guiding principle of the book, therefore, is that a sound conceptual grasp of the nature of digital media can help you keep connected in our increasingly mediated world.
In addition to mass media students, other audiences for this book include administrators and corporate executives wanting to know how digital systems can improve their business, novices considering adopting systems for work and play who want to learn more about how to assess a system before buying one, and those concerned about forfeiting their privacy to a new device who want to know how at risk they are for various abuses and what legal remedies are available to counter them. Still other audiences include parents wishing to protect their children from exposure to objectionable content.[Page xii]Technology
Deciphering Cyberspace begins from the premise that all communication systems are composed of physical elements that enable them to function; therefore, to assess their capabilities, it is essential to understand the technical properties of such systems. Understanding the physical nature of digital media is critical in deciding which systems are best suited to your needs. Knowing how systems work rather than merely being able to operate a particular device that may become outdated in a year or two enables you to function more effectively in the new media environment. For this reason, the book explains the physical principles that govern the functioning of all digital communication systems, not merely those currently in use.
For example, music audiences can now download music from the Internet instead of using CDs, a prospect that did not even exist when digital CDs began replacing analog tape as the standard storage medium for music. However, to understand which systems are best for a given function, it is necessary to understand how their technical characteristics (storage capacity, signal quality, transmission, retrieval, dissemination capabilities, etc.) compare with one another. Knowing how systems work and their technical characteristics, and not just the procedures for operating a particular piece of equipment, is a central focus of the book.
The first three chapters, by Shyles, provide a comprehensive explanation of the physical nature of digital media. Chapter 1, “Radio and Television Broadcasting,” explains how sounds, images, and other forms of electronic communication are converted into radio energy to be transmitted through space at the speed of light. The technologies used to accomplish this have undergone continuous development and refinement since 1900, but the principles on which they are based have remained a constant since the inception of broadcasting, and remain as critical to today's digital information technologies as they were to the transmission of Morse code via wireless telegraphy more than a century ago. It is therefore essential to understand broadcasting in order to know how current digital media work, for without radio energy, much of today's commerce in messages (i.e., cell phone conversations, digital video, and satellite communication) would be impossible.
Chapter 2, “Computers in Communication: Concepts and Application,” explains from both conceptual and physical perspectives how computers enable users to create (encode), store, manipulate, and display (decode) electronically any kind of information, including data, text, images, and sound. First, on a conceptual level, the chapter explains the nature of binary code, and how any kind of information may be transformed into binary code, the only information format the modern digital computer can understand. Then, on a physical level, the chapter explains how integrated circuits, [Page xiii]composed of millions of transistors acting as electronic switches, capture and store the code used to represent voice, text, and video information.
Chapter 3, “Sending Messages Across the Network,” explains how digital information is transmitted, making message sharing among distant users possible. A central topic is bandwidth, or the capacity of a channel to move information from one place to another in a given period of time. Currently, the main conduit for such traffic is the public switched telephone network (PSTN), largely accessed through modems, including wire and cable technologies, and those using radio energy for wireless transmissions. Without the PSTN and similar (private) networks, e-mail and the Internet as we know them could not exist, leaving computer users isolated from one another.
The chapter covers technologies that transfer messages through wire and cable (copper, coaxial, and fiber optic), and through wireless facilities (terrestrial microwave and satellite transmitters). All are currently used in telephony and in broadcasting for voice, image, and data transmission. Rounding out the chapter are short descriptions of how telecommunication networks provide access to users through switching and signaling architectures, and how digitalization, packet switching, multiplexing, and signal compression all increase network capacity, enabling more efficient use of available bandwidth.Markets
To succeed, new technologies that offer superior features to those already in use must appeal to potential users. They must come to be perceived as offering significant advantages over what they replace, and at an acceptable level of risk. As has been noted elsewhere:
An engineer's opinion of a new device is secondary, perhaps even irrelevant, to whether the item will succeed in the marketplace. Doubters of this view need only recall past media inventions that offered improved programming but failed as consumer products: eight-track tape, quadraphonic stereo, and video laser disks, for example. Therefore, the most powerful computer, or any other program package or communication device, is not the one with the greatest fidelity, storage capacity, or speed of delivery, but the one that people will use. (Shyles, 1997, p. 6)
As stated, technical superiority alone cannot guarantee the success of new systems. In addition to possessing superior technical features over what they are intended to replace, new devices must also come to be perceived by [Page xiv]various publics as able to meet their needs or fulfill their desires, and at a reasonable cost. Therefore, ergonomic, cognitive, affective, and emotional factors; social and economic factors; cultural and ethical norms; issues of taste; and compatibility with established values all affect the adoption of new innovations and the appeal of new products.
It is difficult to predict what impact perceptions will have on the adoption of a particular innovation by a social group, even after a device becomes available. To reduce risk, a new product may be developed in accordance with a research program designed to tap the wishes of the public for hints about the most promising directions to pursue. However, even in successful cases, devices may come to be used in ways never considered by the inventor or the marketing campaign; users often surprise designers by employing products in novel ways. For example, rap artists scratch vinyl records with phonograph needles to produce percussion effects for their music; new age architects use old tires filled with sand to build homes in the great Southwest that are remarkably efficient at withstanding heat. In these cases, products are clearly used in innovative ways unintended by their inventors.
It should be stated clearly at the outset that Deciphering Cyberspace does not use the term markets the way marketing professionals do. Whereas marketing refers more narrowly to research on a proposed product designed to build brand name awareness, or to test new products in order to develop promotions and advertising campaigns for them, this book uses the term markets more expansively. In this book, markets refer to the functions, uses, and gratifications of telecommunication systems for users on social, psychological, and practical levels. Digital media systems may be viewed in terms of the purposes to which they are put, as well as their social, psychological, and practical effects. Marketing professionals may therefore be interested in these chapters for the insight they provide about why users adopt some products and how they use them.
For example, in Chapter 4, “Children in Cyberspace,” authors Mark R. Banschick and Josepha Silman Banschick offer an insightful and sweeping panorama of the impact of digital media on one of its largest and most devoted market segments: young people. Firmly grounded in the psychological theories of Piaget, Freud, Dewey, and Erikson, and working from the perspective of decades of clinical practice in child psychiatry, the authors advance a theory of amplification to account for unprecedented extremes made possible by the Internet, extremes that offer both benefits and risks to children and that increase the potential for good and productive work as well as for inappropriate and immoral endeavors. Say the authors: “The freedom and anonymity [of the Internet] offer a vast world of experimentation that can be liberating but can also promote unhealthiness.” They explain how, on the one hand, the Internet helps shy users connect to others online, leading [Page xv]to a widening of the repertoire of social intercourse, while empowering pedophiles to exploit victims via chat rooms without even leaving home.
The chapter addresses three crucial aspects of child development affected by the Internet: intellectual growth and education, social influence, and identity and value formation, in the contexts of commercialism, intimacy, peer pressure, blurring generational boundaries, violence, independence and rebellion, work and play, social roles, and sexual and moral development. The chapter makes a much-needed contribution to theory on the effects of digital media on children by assessing the impact of the Internet on the social, psychological, cognitive, and emotional life of young people. It offers readers a perspective useful for understanding the impact of the Internet on one of its largest, most important, and involved audiences.
Chapter 5, “Social and Psychological Uses of the Internet,” further explores the social and psychological functions of cyberspace. Authors JoAnn Magdoff and Jeffrey B. Rubin use their experience as psychotherapists (and several case studies) to explore ways the Internet affects our sense of mind, body, and self. They describe how different age groups use digital systems differently, and how users' worldviews condition such use. They describe how insinuating computers into the social world alters the cadence of human interaction, increasing social commerce and the achievement of desired goals among actors, sometimes in unforeseen ways. They use several case studies as a backdrop to articulate the concept of emergence, when “disparate units, people, ideas, and bits of code connect and link in unexpected ways that suddenly trigger many more … connections” that may have been wholly unanticipated. According to the authors, emergence affords users “the means to leap to novel levels of interaction” offering “unprecedented possibilities for the transformation of the self.”
Two additional chapters on markets deal with the adoption and use of instructional technologies (IT), the first from the standpoint of teachers and students, and the second from an administrative perspective. For people operating in networked environments, including corporate, government, and nonprofit organizations, these chapters offer a wealth of insight and information about how organizations and individuals will likely be affected by the introduction of digital media.
In Chapter 6, “Connected Learning in the Information Age,” authors Thomas A. McCain and Leigh Maxwell argue that new and emerging digital media are transforming education as no prior media innovation has done before. With pointed awareness, they warn of the importance of avoiding the hyperbole so often associated with past communication technologies that were once heralded with hope and promise, only to fail to win wide acceptance in the classroom. As an object lesson, they quote Thomas Edison's 1922 vision for the movies: “The motion picture is destined to revolutionize our [Page xvi]educational system and in a few years it will supplant … the use of textbooks.” They argue that the digital network is a true innovation, unlike previous candidates; their reasoning is the substance of their chapter.
They describe how digital media are already changing the very definition of such terms as teacher, student, education, and learning. In addition, the infrastructures being transformed by tools that make connected learning possible comprise all the elements of our educational institutions, including the physical trappings traditionally associated with schools (classrooms, books and journals, etc.) and the roles of individuals who work and study there.
The authors argue that the new arrangements created by digital telecommunication are increasing possibilities for education and a myriad of other human enterprises while reducing the space, time, and effort required for such pursuits. Among the features of the new media not available in past innovations, and that account for their success, are their two-way nature and their flexibility in providing both synchronous and asynchronous rapid access for multiple users in distant locations, qualities that afford users unprecedented interactive capacity, feedback, convenience, and efficiency. In addition, users can now access a wide range of applications covering a broad scope of subject matter, capabilities that all bode well for the future of digital media in distance learning, inside and outside of the traditional classroom. The impact of such media on organizational culture and their effect on traditional educational practices (lecturing vs. dialogue, conducting research, assessing knowledge claims) are also addressed, with fascinating implications for the future.
In Chapter 7, “Adopting Instructional Technologies,” author Judy C. Pearson draws from her administrative experience to offer guidance to future supervisors faced with the challenge of adopting IT. Her advice and expertise are invaluable to corporate executives, nonprofit organization officers, and government agency managers.
Pearson presents a brief history of IT, including a description of the capabilities of digital systems currently available. She presents a rationale for the attraction of IT organizations to systems, outlining the potential for IT to control costs and improve efficiency in providing instruction to the work force. Pearson also considers the advantages of IT adoption in promoting democratization, leveling the playing field for users of diverse backgrounds. She also presents major criticisms.
Pearson is sensitive to both intended and unintended effects of IT adoption in the workplace. She advises maximizing workplace morale when IT systems are adopted, and she warns of the danger of failing to deal effectively with morale issues in securing successful integration of systems after capital investments have been made. Pearson is knowledgeable about and sensitive to IT's differential fit into different work environments, and the [Page xvii]danger of yielding to political pressure in adopting systems that may not be suitable for a given setting. To achieve IT's promise, Pearson offers a clear set of principles based on her experience as an administrator useful to all charged with the job of adopting IT systems.Policy
The law can significantly affect the development and application of new technologies. Even in the most progressive, laissez-faire business environment, legislators must often regulate the way technology operates. Policy goals may include ensuring fair and equitable distribution of the benefits of new products to promote the general welfare and stimulate robust commerce in the marketplace. Of course, special interests may try to shape regulation solely for their benefit or profit. However, ideally, laws are enacted to maximize advantages for all interested parties.
For example, in the early days of radio, broadcasters who generally opposed government intervention requested federal controls when unregulated use of the airwaves led to chaos. Station owners had been increasing transmitter power to reach listeners at the expense of other broadcasters in the same area, a practice that resulted in jamming neighbor stations using the same frequencies. The bedlam that followed destroyed the system for all users. As a result, broadcasters requested federal regulation to restore the system.
In 1927, Congress created the Federal Radio Commission (FRC) to solve the problem. The FRC regulated the hours of operation for all radio stations and placed a ceiling on transmitter power. Thus, stations could once again reach their audiences, and broadcasting blossomed into a prodigiously profitable operation. In this case, regulation was viewed as clearly good for business.
Since that time, policy has not been restricted only to laws governing the physical nature of radio energy. The government has also enacted rules concerning military, economic, social, and cultural issues. For example, federal regulations created the Emergency Broadcast Service, placed limits on the number of stations that a single party could own (limits that have been relaxed over the years), made rules regarding advertising, and passed laws dealing with obscenity and indecency.
From the above, it is clear that the federal government has had a long history of regulating telecommunication interests. The Communications Act of 1934, creating the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and the Telecommunications Act of 1996, opening competition among media and telecommunication interests, are two more recent examples of efforts by the [Page xviii]federal government to shape the way media may serve the convenience, interest, and necessity of U.S. citizens. Thus, to decipher cyberspace, it is of critical importance to understand the relationship of law, regulation, and policy to technology development.
In Chapter 8, “Law and Regulation, Part I: Individual Interests,” authors Keith Lee and Janessa Light grapple with the interpretation and application of existing mass media law regarding individual rights in light of digital technology development. The struggle to mold the existing regulatory structure to the Internet shows clearly that traditional legal principles do not always fit the new realities, sometimes requiring the creation of new laws.
In Chapter 9, “Law and Regulation, Part II: Business Interests,” authors Janessa Light and Katherine Neikirk tackle the topic of how the courts extend existing business regulation to fit the new digital technology manifested by the Internet. What are the legal issues companies and consumers should be aware of in transacting business over the Internet? How do the courts apply legal principles developed over centuries to digital systems that have only begun to emerge over the past decade?
As the authors make clear, this is not the first time that traditional legal principles have been applied to a new technology—the law has managed to deal with radio and television, technologies that the Founding Fathers never imagined. Light and Neikirk discuss the rights and remedies concerning a person's business interests in cyberspace, including trademarks in domain names, registration of domain names (including discussion of an area of the law called cybersquatting), and using trade names for navigation via metatags and ad keying. They discuss the Internet's impact on the field of personal jurisdiction and examine defamation law on the Internet with respect to liability, collection of damages for defamation, and defenses.
An objective of both of these chapters was to link explicitly, wherever possible, the legal principles used for judgments about cyberspace to the rationales used in prior cases concerning earlier media systems. By so doing, [Page xix]it is hoped that readers, lawyers and nonlawyers alike, will get a clearer picture of how some legal judgments are made and how regulatory frameworks develop.The Interviews
Five people contributed interviews for this book. They were chosen to offer their insights and perceptions from the perspectives of e-commerce and technology. Two are electronics engineers. Another, a computer programmer, is a mainframe expert. The remaining two are both working in e-commerce; one is a Web designer for other businesses; the other is a contributing editor to a http://dot.com company.
Each interview provides a unique view of how technology, markets, and policy interact to shape the business side of the digital telecommunication revolution. For readers interested in knowing more about the work-world across the digital landscape, these interviews will deepen your understanding of what it's like to be on the front lines.
To decipher cyberspace, it is necessary to understand the nexus of activity between technology, markets, and policy and how these forces interact to shape digital telecommunication. By presenting its subject matter from this perspective, Deciphering Cyberspace provides understanding of how digital media operate and what their effects are on individuals, organizations, and society. It makes the world of digital communication accessible, enabling you to make more rational, optimal, practical judgments about what it can do for you.[Page xx]
Appendix: U.S. Radio Spectrum Allocations and Uses (30 MHz-300 GHz)[Page 349]
30–30.56 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio 30.56–32 MHz Private Mobile Radio Servicesa 32–33 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio 33–35.19 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 35.19–35.69 MHz Paging and Radiotelephone Service 35.69–36 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 36–37 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio 37–38 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services; radio astronomy 38–38.25 MHz Radio astronomy 38.25–39 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio 39–40 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 40–42 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; meteor burst communications; Industrial, Scientific and Medical; scientific telemetry 42–43.19 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 43.19–43.69 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services; Paging and Radiotelephone Service 43.69–46.6 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services; cordless phones 46.6–47 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; cordless phones 47–49.6 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services; cordless phones 49.6–50 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; cordless phones; baby monitors, toys 50–54 MHz Amateur Radio Service 54–72 MHz TV channels 2, 3, and 4 72–73 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services; paging control; auditory assistance; radio-controlled model aircraft 73–74.6 MHz Radio astronomy 74.6–74.8 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services; paging control; auditory assistance 74.8–75.2 MHz Aviation runway marker beacons 75.2–76 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services; paging control; auditory assistance, radio-controlled model boats and cars [Page 350] 76–88 MHz TV channels 5 and 6 88–108 MHz FM radio broadcasting; future digital audio radio services; wireless microphones 108–117.975 MHz Air navigation aids 117.975–121.9375 MHz Air traffic control; search and rescue beacons 121.9375–123.0875 MHz Aviation services communications 123.0875–123.5875 MHz Aviation services communications 123.5875–128.8125 MHz Air traffic control 128.8125–132.0125 MHz Aviation services communications 132.0125–136 MHz Air traffic control 136–137 MHz Aviation services communications 137–138 MHz Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) for data communications; weather satellites 138–144 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio, 139–140.5 and 141.5–143 MHz to be reallocated to private sector 144–146 MHz Amateur Radio Service, including satellites and space station operations 146–148 MHz Amateur Radio Service mobile operations 148–150.05 MHz Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO), federal fixed, mobile and satellite uses, science telemetry 150.05–150.8 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio 150.8–152 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 152–152.255 MHz Paging and Radiotelephone Service 152.255–152.495 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 152.495–152.855 MHz Paging and Radiotelephone Service 152.855–154 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services, Broadcast Auxiliary Services 154–156.2475 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services, maritime radio 156.2475–157.0375 MHz Maritime radio 157.0375–157.1875 MHz Federal maritime radio 157.1875–157.45 MHz Maritime radio 157.45–157.755 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 157.755–158.115 MHz Paging and Radiotelephone Service 158.115–161.575 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services, maritime radio 161.575–161.625 MHz Maritime radio 161.625–161.775 MHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services 161.775–162.0125 MHz Maritime radio, Private Mobile Radio Services 162.0125–173.2 MHz Federal mobile and fixed radio; weather broadcasts; Stolen Vehicle Recovery Service; Private Mobile Radio Services; Broadcast Auxiliary Services; wireless microphones 173.2–173.4 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 173.4–174 MHz Federal mobile and fixed radio 174–216 MHz TV channels 7–13; biomedical telemetry; wireless microphones 216–220 MHz Defense radar; maritime radio; geophysical telemetry; Interactive Video and Data Service; Amateur Radio; Low-Power Radio Service for [Page 351]theft tracking, auditory assistance and health care. To be reallocated to private sector 220–222 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 222–225 MHz Amateur Radio Service 225–328.6 MHz Defense air, ground and maritime uses (fixed and mobile); search-and-rescue beacons; car alarms; radio astronomy 328.6–335.4 MHz Defense air, ground and maritime uses (fixed and mobile); search-and-rescue beacons; car alarms; radio astronomy 335.4–399.9 MHz Defense air, ground and maritime uses (fixed and mobile); search-and-rescue beacons; car alarms; radio astronomy 399.9–400.05 MHz Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) for data communications 400.05–400.15 MHz Standard frequency and time signal satellites (not used) 400.15–401 MHz Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) for data communications; meteorological aids and defense weather satellites 401–402 MHz Meteorological aids; weather balloons; science telemetry 402–406 MHz Meteorological aids; animal tracking; proposed for medical implants 406‐406.1 MHz Satellite-based search-and-rescue beacons 406.1–410 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio 410–420 MHz Defense and other federal mobile and fixed radio; Space Research Service; airborne radar 420–450 MHz Defense and scientific radar and balloons; Amateur Radio Service 450–451 MHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services 451–454 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 454–455 MHz General Aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service; Paging and Radiotelephone Service 455–456 MHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services, proposed for Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) 456–459 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 459–460 MHz General Aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service; Paging and Radiotelephone Service, proposed for Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Little LEO) 460–462.5375 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services 462.5375–462.7375 MHz General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) and Family Radio Service (FRS) for personal communications [Page 352] 462.7375–467.5375 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services, including emergency medical telemetry 467.5375–467.7375 MHz General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) and Family Radio Service (FRS) for personal communications 467.7375–470 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services, including emergency medical telemetry; weather satellites 470–512 MHz TV channels 14–20; biomedical telemetry 512–608 MHz TV channels 21–36; biomedical telemetry 608–614 MHz Radio astronomy; biomedical telemetry; formerly TV channel 37 614–746 MHz TV channels 38-59 746–764 MHz TV channels 60–62. Reallocated to special broadcasting, fixed and mobile services 764–776 MHz TV channels 63, 64. Reallocated to Private Mobile Radio Services for public safety use 776–794 MHz TV channels 65–67. Reallocated to special broadcasting, fixed and mobile services 794–806 MHz TV channels 68, 69. Reallocated to Private Mobile Radio Services for public safety use 806–821 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio Services; Private Mobile Radio Services 821–824 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services for public safety use 824–849 MHz Cellular Radiotelephone Service 849–851 MHz Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems 851–866 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio Services; Private Mobile Radio Services 866–869 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services for public safety use 869–894 MHz Cellular Radiotelephone Service 894–896 MHz Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems 896–901 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio 901–902 MHz Personal Communications Service (PCS)—Narrowband for advanced paging 902–928 MHz Defense radar; Location and Monitoring Service; amateur radio; Industrial, Scientific and Medical; unlicensed devices 9287ndash;929 MHz Multiple Address Systems 929–930 MHz Private Mobile Radio Services, especially paging 930–931 MHz Personal Communications Service (PCS)—Narrowband for advanced paging 931–932 MHz Paging and Radiotelephone Service, especially nationwide paging 932–935 MHz Multiple Address Systems; federal and nonfederal fixed microwave 935–940 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio 940–941 MHz Personal Communications Service (PCS)—Narrowband for advanced paging 941–942 MHz Fixed microwave 942–944 MHz Fixed microwave 944–960 MHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services; Multiple Address Systems; fixed microwave [Page 353] 960–1215 MHz Aerospace radar; defense communications 1215–1240 MHz Aerospace radar; synthetic aperture radar for earth sensing; global positioning system (GPS) navigation satellites 1240–1300 MHz Aerospace radar; Amateur Radio Service; thermotherapy 1300–1350 MHz Aerospace radar 1350–1400 MHz Aerospace radar; defense communications, remote control and nuclear alerting; earth sensing. 1385-1400 MHz to be reallocated to private sector 1400–1427 MHz Radio astronomy; satellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted 1427–1435 MHz Defense air telemetry and fixed uses. To be reallocated to private sector 1435–1525 MHz Aerospace test telemetry; satellite audio broadcasting to foreign countries 1525–1544 MHz Satellite “L-band”: Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service 1544–1545 MHz Safety-related mobile satellite communications 1545–1559 MHz Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service 1559–1610 MHz Global positioning system (GPS) satellites, radio altimetry 1610–1610.6 MHz Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO); radio altimetry 1610.6–1613.8 MHz Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO); radio astronomy 1613.8–1626.5 MHz Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO) 1626.5–1645.5 MHz Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service 1645.5–1646.5 MHz Safety-related mobile satellite communications 1646.5–1660.5 MHz Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service; radio astronomy 1660.5–1668.4 MHz Radio astronomy; no transmissions permitted 1668.4–1670 MHz Radio astronomy 1670–1690 MHz Weather satellites and balloons. 1670-1675 to be reallocated to private sector 1690–1700 MHz Weather satellites 1700–1710 MHz Weather satellites; fixed microwave 1710–1850 MHz Defense and other federal satellite, fixed, mobile, and aerospace uses; radio astronomy. 1710-1755 MHz to be reallocated to private sector 1850–1990 MHz Personal Communications Services (PCS)—Broadband; unlicensed PCS devices; fixed microwave 1990–2025 MHz Mobile Satellite Services; Broadcast Auxiliary Services; cable TV and local broadcast TV relay 2025–2110 MHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services; Space Research Service [Page 354] 2110–2150 MHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services; Space Research Service; fixed microwave; Emerging Technologies 2150–2160 MHz Multipoint Distribution Service 2160–2165 MHz Fixed microwave; Emerging Technologies 2165–2200 MHz Mobile Satellite Services; fixed microwave; Emerging Technologies 2200–2290 MHz Defense and science satellites and telemetry 2290–2300 MHz Space Research Service for deep space use 2300–2305 MHz No primary use. Amateur Radio secondary use 2305–2320 MHz Wireless Communications Service 2320–2345 MHz Satellite “S-band”: Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service 2345–2360 MHz Wireless Communications Service 2360–2390 MHz Aerospace testing; planetary radar. 2385–2390 MHz to be reallocated to private sector 2390–2400 MHz Amateur Radio Service; unlicensed Data-PCS 2400–2483.5 MHz Amateur Radio Service; unlicensed devices and Industrial, Medical equipment; fixed microwave. Portions available for other private sector and educational use 2483.5–2500 MHz Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (Big LEO) 2500–2690 MHz Multipoint Distribution Service; Instructional Television Fixed Service; satellite earth sensing 2690–2700 MHz Radio astronomy; satellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted 2700–2900 MHz Defense and civil aerospace and weather radar 2900–3100 MHz Defense and maritime navigation radar 3.1–3.3 GHz Defense radar; satellite earth sensing 3.3–3.5 GHz Defense aerospace; Amateur Radio Service 3.5–3.6 GHz Defense radar 3.6–3.7 GHz Defense radar; data communications; Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service. 3.65–3.7 GHz to be reallocated to private sector 3.7–4.2 GHz Satellite “C-band”: Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; fixed microwave 4.2–4.4 GHz Radio altimetry 4.4–4.5 GHz Defense aerospace; mobile and fixed uses; nuclear antiterrorism 4.5–4.66 GHz Defense, scientific aerospace, naval uses. 4.635-4.66 GHz reallocated to private sector 4.66–4.685 GHz General Wireless Communications Service 4.6857ndash;4.99 GHz Defense aerospace; mobile and fixed uses 4.99–5 GHz Radio astronomy. No transmissions permitted 5–5.25 GHz Aviation landing systems; missiles; weather and ocean radar. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure 5.25–5.35 GHz Defense and weather radar; satellite earth sensing. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure 5.35–5.65 GHz Defense and weather radar 5.65–5.85 GHz Defense radar; automatic door openers. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure [Page 355]and other unlicensed devices; Amateur Radio Service 5.85–5.925 GHz Defense radar; Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; Amateur Radio Service; unlicensed devices; Dedicated Short Range Communications 5.925–6.425 GHz Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; fixed microwave 6.425–6.525 GHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services; TV relay; satellite feeder links 6.525–6.875 GHz Fixed microwave; radio astronomy 6.875–7.075 GHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services; audio satellite feeder links 7.0757–7.125 GHz Broadcast Auxiliary Services 7.1257–7.19 GHz Fixed microwave for aviation facilities 7.19–7.235 GHz Space Research Service for deep space use 7.235–7.9 GHz Fixed microwave for aviation facilities; weather satellites 7.9–8.025 GHz Satellite “X-band”: Defense satellites and fixed microwave; control of electrical power distribution 8.025–8.4 GHz Earth remote sensing satellites 8.4–8.45 GHz Space Research Service for deep space use 8.45–8.5 GHz Space Research Service 8.57ndash;9 GHz Defense and civil radar for navigation, weather and ocean study; weapon location; planetary radar 9–9.2 GHz Defense aerospace radar 9.2–9.3 GHz Maritime navigation and safety radar; control of unmanned air vehicles 9.3–9.5 GHz Maritime navigation and safety radar; weather radar 9.5–10 GHz Weather radar; control of unmanned air vehicles; satellite earth sensing 10–10.5 GHz Defense missile radar; weather and ocean radar; Amateur Radio. Proposed educational use 10.5–10.55 GHz Police speed radar; automatic door openers; alarms 10.55–10.6 GHz Fixed microwave 10.6–10.68 GHz Fixed microwave; satellite earth sensing 10.68–10.7 GHz Radio astronomy; weather study. No transmissions permitted 10.7–11.7 GHz Fixed microwave; Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service 11.7–12.2 GHz Satellite “Ku-band”: Direct-to-Home Fixed Satellite Service; Broadcast Auxiliary Service 12.2–12.7 GHz Direct Broadcast Satellite Service 12.7–13.25 GHz Broadcast Auxiliary Service; Cable Television Antenna Relay Service; fixed microwave [Page 356] 13.25–13.4 GHz Airborne navigation radar; Space Research Service 13.4–13.75 GHz Maritime radar; satellite altimetry for ocean study 13.75–14 GHz Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; maritime radar, weather, ocean scientific radar; Space Shuttle radar; Space Research Service 14–14.5 GHz Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; maritime, air navigation radar; Space Station 14.5–15.35 GHz Defense radar and microwave links; Space Research Service; aviation facility links 15.35–15.4 GHz Radio astronomy 15.47–15.7 GHz Mobile satellite links; aviation landing systems 15.7–17.2 GHz Aerospace and scientific radar 17.2–17.3 GHz Radar and satellite earth sensing 17.3–17.7 GHz Direct Broadcast Satellite Service 17.7–20.2 GHz Satellite “K-band”: Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; Non-Geostationary Fixed Satellite Service; Mobile Satellite Service; weather satellites; defense signals intelligence satellites; fixed microwave 20.2–21.2 GHz Defense satellites 21.2–23.6 GHz Fixed microwave; satellite earth sensing; radio astronomy; intersatellite links 23.67–24 GHz Radio astronomy; satellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted 24–24.05 GHz Amateur Radio Service; unlicensed fixed links; satellite earth sensing; Industrial, Scientific, Medical 24.05–24.25 GHz Police speed radar; security sensors; unlicensed fixed links 24.25–24.45 GHz Digital Electronic Message Service 24.45–24.65 GHz Airport surface detection radar 24.65–24.75 GHz Intersatellite and radar satellite links 24.75–25.05 GHz Aerospace radar. Proposed for future Direct Broadcast Satellites 25.05–25.25 GHz Digital Electronic Message Service. Proposed for future Direct Broadcast Satellites 25.25–27.5 GHz Space-to-space links for scientific missions; defense broadband on-site networks 27.5–29.5 GHz Local Multipoint Distribution Service; satellite “Ka-band”; Geostationary and Non-Geostationary Fixed and Mobile Satellite Services 29.5–30 GHz Geostationary and Non-Geostationary Fixed Satellite Services 30–31 GHz Defense signals intelligence satellites; radio astronomy 31–31.3 GHz Local Multipoint Distribution Service; fixed links for traffic control 31.3–31.8 GHz Satellite earth sensing. No transmissions permitted [Page 357] 31.8–32 GHz Aerospace navigation; deep space communications 32–33.4 GHz Intersatellite links; deep space communications 33.4–36 GHz Weather radar; satellite earth sensing; deep space communications; police radar 36–37 GHz Satellite earth sensing 37–37.5 GHz Proposed general commercial wireless services; manned space exploration; satellite earth sensing 37.5–38.6 GHz Proposed broadband satellite services and general commercial wireless services 38.67–40 GHz Broadband local exchange services 40–40.5 GHz Scientific and commercial satellite services; manned space exploration 40.5–41.5 GHz Proposed broadband satellite services and general commercial wireless services 41.5–42.5 GHz Proposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service 42.5–43.5 GHz Radio astronomy 43.5–45.5 GHz Defense satellites 45.5–46.9 GHz Vehicle anticollision radar 46.9–47 GHz Proposed general commercial wireless services 477–47.2 GHz Amateur Radio Service 47.2–50.2 GHz Point-to-multipoint broadband services; stratospheric platforms; Non-Geostationary and Geostationary Fixed Satellite Services; radio astronomy 50.2–50.4 GHz Satellite earth sensing; no transmissions permitted 50.4–51.4 GHz Defense satellites 51.4–59 GHz Satellite earth sensing; proposed for intersatellite links 59–64 GHz Unlicensed communications; industrial safety and control; satellite earth sensing; proposed for intersatellite links; Industrial, Scientific, Medical 64–66 GHz Satellite earth sensing 66–71 GHz Mobile Satellite Services; aerospace radar 71–74 GHz Proposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed communications devices 74–75.5 GHz Fixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services 75.5–76 GHz Amateur Radio Service 76–77 GHz Vehicle anticollision radar; Amateur Radio 77–81 GHz Amateur Radio Service; weather radar; microscopy 81–84 GHz Fixed and Mobile Satellite Services 84–86 GHz Proposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; satellite earth sensing 86–92 GHz Radio astronomy; satellite earth sensing; videography 92–95 GHz Proposed vehicle anticollision radar; synthetic vision systems; radio astronomy 95–100 GHz Proposed vehicle anticollision radar; weather radar 100–102 GHz Satellite earth sensing; radio astronomy [Page 358] 102–105 GHz Proposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed communications devices 105–116 GHz Satellite earth sensing; radio astronomy 116–134 GHz Proposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed devices; satellite earth sensing 134–142 GHz Proposed vehicle anticollision radar 142–149 GHz Amateur Radio Service; satellite earth sensing 149–150 GHz Fixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Satellite Services 150–151 GHz Satellite earth sensing 151–164 GHz Proposed Licensed Millimeter Wave Service; unlicensed devices; Big Bang cosmic radiation 164–168 GHz Satellite earth sensing; radio astronomy. No transmissions permitted 168–170 GHz Fixed and Mobile Services 170–174.5 GHz Fixed and Mobile Services; intersatellite links 174.5–176.5 GHz Satellite earth sensing 176.5–182 GHz Fixed and Mobile Services; intersatellite links 182–185 GHz Satellite earth sensing; radio astronomy. No transmissions permitted 185–190 GHz Fixed and Mobile Services; intersatellite links 190–200 GHz Mobile, Mobile Satellite, Radionavigation and Radionavigation; Satellite Services 200–202 GHz Satellite earth sensing 202–217 GHz Fixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services 217–231 GHz Satellite earth sensing; radio astronomy. No transmissions permitted 231–235 GHz Fixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services 235–238 GHz Satellite earth sensing 238–241 GHz Fixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services 241–250 GHz Amateur Radio Service; Industrial, Scientific, Medical; radar 250–252 GHz Satellite earth sensing 252–265 GHz Mobile, Mobile Satellite, Radionavigation and Radionavigation; Satellite Services 265–275 GHz Fixed, Fixed Satellite and Mobile Services; radio astronomy 275–300 GHz Fixed and Mobile ServicesSOURCE: Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, September 1995 edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA); “U.S. Radio Spectrum Allocations and Uses (30 MHz-300 GHz)” [Poster], 1998, America's Airwaves, Bennett Z. Kobb.
a. For information on this servisce and others in the appendix, see the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Web site (http://www.fcc.gov). The FCC's Wireless Telecommunications Bureau (http://wireless.fcc.gov) handles nearly all FCC domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies. Wireless communications services include Amateur, Cellular, Paging, Broadband PCS, and Public Safety.
Ad keying The practice of linking Web page banner advertisements to particular search keywords, including trademarked terms.
AM (amplitude modulation) A process by which an audio signal modulates the amplitude of a carrier. In AM radio, the carrier consists of a sine wave whose amplitude is made to copy the variations of an audio source.
Analog bandwidth The frequency range between the lowest and highest frequencies used to transmit analog radio signals. For example, a standard commercial AM radio channel in the United States uses a bandwidth of 9 kHz, while a standard analog television signal uses 6 MHz. Bandwidth is measured in cycles per second (cps; otherwise known as hertz, Hz).
B2B Business-to-business transactions on the Web.
B2C Business-to-consumer transactions on the Web.
Binary code A communication system using two symbols (e.g., 1s and 0s) to carry information. Binary code can carry any type of information including text, images, and sound.
Bits per second (bps) The fundamental measure of digital bandwidth. Bit is short for binary digit, the smallest quantity of information that can be carried in digital code. In numerical form, a bit consists of a single digit, either a 1 or a 0; in an electrical circuit, a bit is the state of being either on or off—in other words, the circuit is either closed, allowing electricity to flow, or open, stopping the flow of electricity.
Boolean algebra A method of logical deduction invented by English mathematician George Boole. Boole's system uses three basic constructs to make logical inferences and perform mathematical calculation with symbols and numbers, respectively, called AND, OR, and NOT gates. Boole's gates are binary in nature because they categorize statements as either true or false.
Broadband Information channels that can handle data streams requiring large bandwidth. A single AM radio channel, for example, uses 9 kHz of radio spectrum, whereas a single analog television channel uses 6 MHz. The television channel requires more space because it has to pass more information. Channels are therefore either narrow or broad, depending [Page 360]on how much information they can pass. In general, voice channels require less bandwidth than those carrying sound, pictures, and color information. Internet traffic featuring television-quality streaming video would therefore be considered a broadband service.
Carrier That part of any communication system used for moving intelligence from one point to another (e.g., in a radio signal, the carrier is the high-frequency sine wave on which audio signals are imposed; in a written letter, the carrier is the paper on which a message is written and the ink used to do the writing).
Clipper Chip An integrated circuit designed to allow federal agencies to access computer systems to decrypt what is stored for the sake of security. One justification for the Clipper Chip is to fight terrorism.
Code Prior agreements between senders and receivers about what various signals will mean. All methods of communicating rely on codes. Successful communication relies on both unimpeded reception of a message's physical component and accurate decoding of the pattern of information (or intelligence) it contains.
Cookie A tiny file placed on a user's computer whenever a particular Web page is accessed. Cookies typically enable Web sites and Web site advertisers to keep track of the pages that viewers access. To be “cookied” means to be tracked online as a consumer, and perhaps targeted for future marketing campaigns.
Cyberspace An umbrella term referring to the digital telecommunication and broadcast communication infrastructures enabling users to create, store, manipulate, transmit, retrieve, and share information in the form of text, data, images, and sound, including motion visuals.
Cybersquatting The act of registering domain names without the intent to use them, but rather to sell them.
Data mining The act of digging into old databases and extracting the rules of operation as well as data for that business.
Dialogic technologies Technologies that allow for information sharing and interaction between people via the telephone, teleconferences, voice mail, cable and satellite television, point-to-point microwave radio communication, electronic blackboards, computer instruction, and more recently, computer-mediated communication such as e-mail, bulletin boards, and computer instant messaging and conferencing. Dialogic systems may be either synchronous (interaction takes place in real time) or asynchronous (interaction takes place at different times and at users' convenience).
[Page 361]Digital bandwidth A measure of a digital medium's ability to transmit information from one point to another in a given amount of time, usually expressed in terms of bps (bits per second) transmitted.
Dilution of trademark The act of diminishing the value of a trademark held by another. Trademark dilution claims in court reflect a clash between the rights of a trademark holder and a domain name registrant. Two types of trademark dilution are blurring, use of a trademark on a dissimilar product, and tarnishment, association of a trademark with an inferior or unwholesome product or service.
Distance learning Conducting education and providing instruction in settings beyond the normal face-to-face classroom through the use of telecommunication technologies and audiovisual media.
Domain names An Internet address that locates a particular server hosting a Web site on the Internet, much like a street address that is used to locate a person's residence. The six “top level” domain suffixes are .com = commercial; .net = network; .org = organization; .edu = education; .mil = military; and .gov = government (there are also designations for countries, e.g., .ca for Canada, .th for Thailand).
http://Dot.com 1. A suffix used with a URL (universal resource locator) to direct Internet traffic to the intended destination. 2. Any company conducting its business either exclusively or largely through the use of a Web site. Examples in e-commerce include http://Amazon.com and http://Travelocity.com.
E-commerce (electronic commerce) The use of electronic communication technologies to conduct business, including business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) interactions. The purposes of the interactions may vary from advertising to purchasing to account and inventory management functions.
Encode The act of expressing or inputting information, externalizing it in some form that can be shared by consumers or users. Writing a letter, making a speech, and using a computer keyboard for data entry are all forms of encoding.
Fiber-optic cable A communication transmission technology that uses flexible glass fiber in place of copper or aluminum wire or cable, and light pulses in place of electrical signals, to move digital information from one point to another. Signals through fiber-optic cable may be encoded using either a laser light or light-emitting diode (LED) and are decoded by a photodiode at the receiving end.
Flaming A practice in which persons use aggressive and inflammatory language on the Internet.
[Page 362]FM (frequency modulation) A process by which an audio signal modulates the frequency of a carrier. FM radio is called such because it is the frequency, not the amplitude, of the carrier wave that is changed by an audio source. FM is less subject to noise, static, and interference than AM, making it a desirable alternative for functions requiring greater fidelity and sound quality (i.e., radio broadcasts of symphonic music).
Frames Multiple, independently scrollable regions on a Web page.
Hertz (Hz) A synonym for cycles per second (cps), named for the German scientist Heinrich Hertz, who in 1887 demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be propagated and detected amid other waves using oscillating circuits.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) A nonproprietary publishing language for the World Wide Web. Special tags, denoted in brackets, are used to mark text to be displayed in a particular way on a Web page.
Instructional technologies (IT) All the available means used to create, store, transmit, retrieve, and manipulate information for training and/or educational purposes (these can include computer and telephone networks, video teleconferencing, e-mail, even correspondence courses via the traditional postal service).
Intellectual property Nonphysical material and content created by thought and protected by copyright laws as recognized by the United States and other governments. Providing intellectual property rights acts as an incentive to individuals to create new products, processes, or works of art.
Legacy programs Computer databases and operating systems that have been outmoded by newer versions but that are still in use on mainframe and older computer systems and are in need of upgrading or replacement. Legacy work is the upgrading of computer databases or facilities for private corporations that need to make a transition, often from mainframe storage to PC platforms, without losing any data.
Link A highlighted entry (usually a word or phrase) on a Web page that, when clicked, permits seamless and rapid navigation from that Web page to another.
Local area network (LAN) An interconnection of computer and telephone systems linking a number of users in an area, usually within a company, to provide faster exchange of information than would otherwise be possible using the public switched telephone network.
Meta-tag A hidden HTML code that provides information about a Web page, such as which keywords represent the Web page's content and who created the page. Many search engines use this information.
[Page 363]Microwave relay A wireless communication facility that uses radio energy in the GHz range to send messages from point to point. Radio transmission in the form of microwaves is used to carry broadcast signals, telephone traffic, and a myriad of satellite and mobile and fixed radio services in the United States. Microwave radio energy must follow a line-of-sight path; it is blocked by physical obstructions.
Modem The first device built for sending computer data over analog phone lines by converting digital signals into analog sound and vice versa. The term modem stands for modulator-demodulator. When placed between a computer terminal and a telephone line, it produces tones from carrier signals modulated by binary code, performing translation functions between them.
Modulate To vary some aspect of a communication medium or carrier in order for it to contain a message. Some modulation (variation or change) is required to impose a pattern of intelligence on any medium.
Multimedia communication Content featuring voice, text, data, images, and/or motion visuals.
Multiplexing The use of a single transmission channel to carry multiple signals.
Multiuser domain (MUD) An interactive, multiplayer game played on the Internet.
Multiuser domain, object-oriented (MOO) An object-oriented MUD.
Multiuser shared hallucination (MUSH) A type of MUD in which the players themselves create new objects, construct new rooms, and so on.
Netiquette The rules of etiquette on the Internet, such as guidelines for posting messages to online services.
Packet switching A method of transmitting digital information by sending it out in small bundles or units independent from one another and then reassembling them into their proper order after they are received at their destination.
Personal communication service (PCS) A wireless digital technology service using beepers, cellular phones, and data and paging devices to deliver messages intended for individual users. Most recently, wireless Internet is becoming another PCS The PCS band is that portion of the radio spectrum where cellular telephones and other PCS devices operate.
Personal digital assistant (PDA) A device, such as the Palm Pilot, used for information storage and retrieval. As greater convergence of digital [Page 364]devices continues, devices like cell phones and PDAs will become more and more indistinguishable from one another.
Public switched telephone network (PSTN) All the network infrastructure used to provide seamless telephone service to the public, including telephone instruments, wire and cable connections, cellular technology, fiber-optic lines, satellites designated for carrying telephone traffic, exchange offices, and so on.
Radio frequency (RF) carrier Any high-frequency radio transmission suitable for radio transmission. Before sound waves can be transmitted to distant points without wires, they must first be transformed into an electrical signal and then superimposed onto an RF carrier. The RF carrier is created with an oscillator, an electronic circuit that produces a sine wave at a specific frequency. The RF carrier, after being modulated by the audio signal, is then propagated into space at the speed of light. This is the essence of radio and television broadcasting.
Radio technologies Technologies that harness natural qualities of electricity and electromagnetic radiation to transmit sound, voice-modulated audio signals.
Radio waves Electromagnetic radiation that carries radio frequencies—the physical phenomena that make broadcasting possible. At the simplest level, radio waves can be generated by rotating a loop of copper wire in a magnetic field. Such rotation induces an electric current in the wire. As the wire passes through each full rotation, the intensity and direction of the flow of electrons vary in an orderly pattern called a sine wave. Sine waves produced by continuous rotation feature several characteristics, including a frequency, the number of cycles per second; a period, the time it takes for one cycle to occur; an amplitude, the magnitude of the voltage in the wire; a wavelength, the length of one cycle in meters; and a phase, the difference between the same points on different waves. Radio waves travel at the speed of light, about 186,000 miles per second, or 300,000,000 meters per second.
Satellite Wireless communication facilities in geosynchronous earth orbit that use radio energy to transfer messages from point to point. Satellite technology enables microwave signals to cross the ocean. By placing satellites 22,300 miles above the equator, they enter a geosynchronous orbit, meaning that they take 24 hours to make one revolution of the earth, thereby staying above the same spot on earth at all times. Radio transmission between a satellite and a ground station is therefore constant and reliable when the satellite maintains the same position relative to the earth.
[Page 365]Search engine A program that searches documents on the Web for specified keywords. Search engine is a general class of programs, but the term is often used to describe systems such as Alta Vista and Excite that allow users to search for information and files.
Spammers Entities, colloquially known as “spammers,” that e-mail unsolicited advertisements in mass sendings. The manner in which the Internet transmits data precludes easy identification of those spammers, ensuring that the geographic source of those entities may remain hidden or disguised.
Throughput A measure of the amount of bandwidth carrying meaningful data compared to the overall information capacity of a device or transmission line.
Transduction The process of transforming sound waves into electrical audio signals. (The telephone is therefore a transducer. At the receiving end of a telephone, the electrical pattern is transformed back into sound.)
Transmissional technologies Technologies that engage users in noninter-active modalities such as watching television or listening to the radio.
Universal resource locator (URL) The name for Internet Web locations. URLs contain several parts. The first section, the http://, designates which Internet protocol is to be used. The next section, the www, designates what Internet resource is being requested. The last section, the .org or .net and so on, designates the Web server to be reached and locates a specific home page or document on the Internet. URLs can be thought of as addresses.
Virtual reality (VR) Mediated simulation of reality such as role-playing games (RPGs) and 3-D simulation technology. VR technologies create a feeling of immersion: Viewers or players feel as if they are inside the virtual space, as if they are surrounded by it, similar to the way the natural world surrounds us in real life.
Vocoder The device, in a digital cell phone, that takes the audio signal produced by the voice and converts it into a digital bit stream through a process of sampling. It is the synthetic speech signal that is then transmitted over the telephone network.[Page 366]
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Further Readings[Page 375]Artificial IntelligenceCan robots rule the world? Not yet. (2000, September 12). New York Times.An electronic circuit that draws its inspiration from life. (2000, June 29). New York Times.1999, August 3). A man, a plan, and a robot that makes eye contact. New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/080399sci-artficial-intelligence.htm(Broadcasting and Cybermedia1998, August 24). FCC wants HDTV glitch solved soon. New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/08/biztech/articles/24fcc.html(1999, October 11). Stations challenge digital-TV standard. New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/10/biztech/articles/11dtv.htm(1999, May 17). TV networks scramble to deal with era of new media. New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/05/biztech/articles/17tube.html(1998, November 18). DVD developers wait for Windows. New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/techweb/TW_DVD_Developers_Wait_For_Windows.html(1998, June 10). NBC buying a portal to the Internet. New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/biztech/articles/10cnet.html(2000, May 12). Napster may have weak defense in fight with music industry. New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com...ech/00/05/cyber/cyberlaw/12law.html([Page 376]2000, January 6). Radio squeezes empty air space for profit. New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/columns/010600radio-ads.htm(2000, May 31). U.S. seeks to ease some restrictions on broadcasters. New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/053100fcc-ownership.html(1998, November 20). Some digital TV services to be taxed. New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/biztech/articles/20digi.html. (1998, November 5). Web radio expands listening horizons. New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/11/circuits/library/05libe.html(1999, January 28). Life after the VCR: Choosing DVD or Divx. New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 1999, from http://www.nytimes/com/library/tech/99/01/circuits/articles/28pete.html(1998, September 28). Ready for prime time?Newsweek, pp. 83–85.. (1998, October 12). 24-Hour news channels force change at big three. New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/financial/tv-news-media.html(1999, February 1). Watch the tube or watch the computer?New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/01tube.html(1999, January 21). Making movies, the do-it-yourself way, on the Web. New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/cyber/artsatlarge.html(Reuters (2000). Soft rock or software–“Tech” radio is coming. New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/technology/tech-media-techradio.htm1998, October 19). TV turns vertical. Newsweek, pp. 52–56.(1998, December 7). PC makers and bells in joint petition to U.S. on networks. New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/07phone-data.html(1998, March 9). Another setback in quest to marry TV and phones. New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/03/biztech/articles/09phone.html(1999, March 23). Cable TV and the Internet, too: Battling the bells, but with some high-speed whistles. New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/biztech/articles/23comcast.html(1999, December 20). Technology could soon hand TV control to the viewer. New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/122099outlook-tele.htm(2000, January 3). The millennavision. Broadcasting & Cable, pp. 38–62.. ([Page 377]Copyright1998, October 28). Clinton signs digital copyright act. New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/articles/29wipo.html(1998, October 9). House and Senate agree on complex copyright bill. New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/articles/09wipo.html(2000, January 17). Wrestling group wins back use of its name on Internet. New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/17name.htm(Digital copyright agreement for video. (1999, February 17). New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 1999, from http://www.nytimes/com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/17blue.html1998, September 25). Can a Web link break copyright laws?New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/cyber/cyberlaw/25law.html(1998, October 30). Free book sites hurt by copyright law. New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/cyberlaw/30law.html(1997). Questions and answers on copyright for the campus community. Oberlin: National Association of College Stores., , & (1998, December 7). Microsoft's Cleartype sets off debate on originality. New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/biztech/articles/07microsoft-flat.html(1999, February 25). Sony to propose a method for protecting digital music. New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/25sony.html(2000, May 10). The concept of copyright fights for Internet survival. New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com.../05/biztech/articles/10digital.html(1998, December 17). Composers of game soundtracks seek Grammy recognition. New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/12/cyber/artsatlarge/17artsatlarge.html(1999, February 1). Trying to get in tune with the digital age. New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/01tune.html(1999, July 14). Standards are set for thwarting music pirates. New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/07/biztech/articles/14standard.htm(1999, December 20). Parents considered vital to thrive on the Internet. New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/122099outlook-pate.htm(2000, January 24). 3 copyright lawsuits test limits of new digital media. New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/24onli.htm. ([Page 378]1999, April 15). Technology you can dance to. New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/04/biztech/articles/15popx.html(CyberlawACLU in the Courts. (1997, June 20). ALA v. Pataki Decision. ACLU. Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/nycdadec.htmlACLU in the Courts. (1999). Kathleen R. v. City of Livermore. ACLU. Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/kathleenrvlivermorepubliclibrary.htmlACLU in the Courts. (1998, October 21). Kathleen R. vs. City of Livermore. ACLU. Retrieved February 18, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/kathleenrvslivermore.htmlACLU vs. Reno Decision–Dalzell Decision. (1999). Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~mbanks/CDA/decision/dalzell.htmACLU vs. Reno Decision–Introduction. (1999). Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~mbanks/CDA/decision/intro.htmACLU vs. Reno Decision–Sloviter Decision. (1999). Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~mbanks/CDA/decision/sloviter.htmACM, Inc. (1999). PICS: Internet access controls without censorship. Retrieved February 9, 1999, from http://www.w3.org/PICS/iacwcv2.htmAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (1999, January 14). Court upholds Livermore Library's uncensored Internet access policy. ACLU. Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/news/n011499a.htmlAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (1999). Supreme Court of the United States: Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union. ACLU. Retrieved February 2, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/renovacludec.htmlAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (1999). White Paper: Censorship in a box. ACLU. Retrieved February 18, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/issues/cyber.box.htmlAssociated Press. (1999, March 12). FCC: No Internet regulation plans. New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/biztech/articles/12fcc-net.htmlAssociated Press. (1999, March 18). FCC wants phone rates on Internet. New York Times. Retrieved March 18, 1999, from http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/w/AP-FCC-Phone-Matters.htmlAssociated Press. (1999, February 25). Virginia passes law against unsolicited e-mail. New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 1999, from http://wysiwyg://24/http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/biztech/articles/25spam.html1999, August 16). Annals of communications: Hard core: Why does Bill Gates think that the Microsoft antitrust trial has been such a disaster for him and for the company?The New Yorker, pp. 42–69.. (Availability of bombmaking information. (1997, June 20). Retrieved March 18, 1999, from http://jya.com/abi.htm[Page 379]1999). ACLU White Paper: Fahrenheit 451.2: Is cyberspace burning? ACLU. Retrieved September 8, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/issues/cyber/burning.htm, , & . (1997, July 3). Supreme Court strikes down law on Internet indecency. Chronicle of Higher Education., & . (1998, February 26). ACLU in the Courts: Urofsky v. Allen, E.D. Virginia Decision. ACLU. Retrieved February 16, 1999, from http://www.aclu.org/court/urofskyvallendec.html(1998, November 23). Mainstream Loudoun v. Board of Trustees of the Loudoun County Library. Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http://censorware.org/legal/loudoun/981123_memopin_jb.htm(1998, June 23). Appeals court overturns ruling on Windows 95. New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 1998 from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/biztech/articles/24microsoft.html(1998, October 20). As Microsoft trial gets started, Gates's credibility is questioned. New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 1998, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/biztech/articles/20microsoft.html(2000, April 4). U.S. judge says Microsoft violated antitrust laws with predatory behavior. New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/04soft.html(2000, June 1). Microsoft files its final arguments against breakup. New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/06/biztech/articles/01soft.html(The Brown Daily Herald, Inc. (1999). Retrieved February 22, 1999, from http://www.netspace.org/herald/issues/111795/cornell.f.html1996). Garbage in: Emerging media and regulation of unsolicited commercial solicitations. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 11(2). 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About the Contributors[Page 413]
Josepha Silman Banschick is a journalist who writes on family issues and child psychology. She has collaborated with Mark R. Banschick on a number of projects, including several textbook chapters, child development spirituality, and the Divorce Course, a course on parenting for divorcing parents.
Mark R. Banschick, M.D., is a child and adolescent psychiatrist in full-time private practice. He is a lecturer and contributing author in the areas of child development and the psychology of moral/spiritual behavior. He is Adjunct Professor at Hebrew Union College, New York, where he teaches in the Doctor of Ministry program, and the cofounder of the Integrated Medicine Study Group in Katonah, New York.
Keith Lee is a second-year law student at Villanova University School of Law in Villanova, Pennsylvania. He is a member of the Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal, the Intellectual Property Society, and the Digital Law Forum. His casenote, “Resolving the Dissonant Constitutional Chords Inherent in the Federal Anti-Bootlegging Statute in United States v. Moghadam,” will appear in an upcoming issue of the Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal. In 1997, he graduated from the University of Maryland with a B.A. degree in government and politics and a B.A. degree in criminology and criminal justice.
Janessa Light graduated from Villanova University School of Law in Villanova, Pennsylvania, in 2000. At Villanova, she served as President of the Villanova Intellectual Property Society for two years and contributed as a student representative on both the Villanova E-mail Policy Task Force and the Villanova Web Publishing Task Force. She received her dual undergraduate degree in rhetoric and communication and sociology from the University of California at Davis, where she graduated magna cum laude.
[Page 414]JoAnn Magdoff received her master's degree in social work from Fordham University and a Ph.D. in anthropology from Princeton University. She pursued postdoctoral training at the Psychoanalytic Center for Training and Research at Columbia University and served as a supervisor in the Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology at the City University of New York. She was founder and first president of the New York chapter of the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists. She has also been a private consultant; her clients include international advertising agencies, financial institutions, and utility companies, among others. She is a frequent lecturer and writer on psychology and American culture and is a psychotherapist in private practice in New York City.
Leigh Maxwell (Ph.D., telecommunications, Ohio State University, 1996) publishes research examining the impact of digital technologies on teaching, learning, and intellectual property. She resides in Madison, Wisconsin, where she works as a writer and consultant in private practice.
Thomas A. McCain received his Ph.D. in communication from the University of Wisconsin. He has been on the faculty of the Ohio State University since 1973 and was Director of the Center for Advanced Study of Telecommunications (CAST) from 1990 to 1997. His research examines the relationship between communication technology and society. He is a former editor of the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media and has authored more than 175 scholarly papers, book chapters, and articles, including The 1000 Hour War: Communication in the Gulf (1994). McCain has served as consultant to numerous communication companies, government agencies, and universities in the United States and abroad, including the Ohio Board of Regents and Department of Education.
Katherine Neikirk is a second-year law student at Villanova University School of Law in Villanova, Pennsylvania. She is a member of the Villanova Law Review, the Intellectual Property Society, and the Digital Law Forum. Her casenote, “Squeezing Cyberspace Into International Shoes: When Should Courts Exercise Personal Jurisdiction Over Non-Commercial Online Speech?” will appear in an upcoming issue of the Villanova Law Review. In 1996, she graduated from Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, with a B.A. degree in English.
Judy C. Pearson received her B.A. degree from St. Cloud University and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Indiana University. She has taught in K-12 and at the college level. Her university positions were at Indiana, Bradley, Purdue, Iowa State, Michigan State, and Ohio. She has been both a faculty member and administrator. She is currently a full professor of human development and communication at Virginia Tech. In addition to several books, Pearson has published articles in numerous journals including the Journal of [Page 415]Communication, Communication Monographs, Communication Education, and Adolescence. She has served on the National Communication Association task force on technology and communication with Vinton Cerf, father of the Internet, and U.S. Representative Rick Baucher, originator of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Pearson is currently Director of the Northern Virginia Center and Associate Dean of the Graduate School of Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) and State University, where she administers the adoption of instructional technology.
Jeffrey B. Rubin practices psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical psychotherapy in New York City and Bedford Hills, New York. He has taught at various psychoanalytic institutes including the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, the Object Relations Institute, and the C. G. Jung Foundation of New York. He currently teaches at the Harlem Family Institute and the Union Theological Seminary. Rubin is author of Psychotherapy and Buddhism: Toward an Integration and A Psychoanalysis for Our Time: Exploring the Blindness of the Seeing I. He is also author of two forthcoming books, The Art of Living and a new book integrating psychology and spirituality.
Leonard Shyles (Ph.D., communication, Ohio State University) is Associate Professor of Communication at Villanova University in Villanova, Pennsylvania. His publications include journal articles and book chapters analyzing the content and impact of political media in presidential elections and other settings. He is coeditor and coauthor of The 1000 Hour War: Communication in the Gulf (1994), dealing with the use of telecommunication technologies to conduct the war in the Persian Gulf and to provide journalistic coverage of the conflict. Most recently, Shyles has published a comprehensive television production textbook, Video Production Handbook (1997). His current research focuses on understanding digital technology in the contexts of markets and policy.