Decentralisation, Corruption and Social Capital: From India to the West
Publication Year: 2008
Subject: Comparative Politics (general)
Can decentralization reduce a democratic deficit? Can decentralization make public administration more efficient and act as a safeguard against corruption? What can we learn from India's experience from its extensive decentralization reforms so far?
In this book, Sten Widmalm adopts comparative and empirical approaches to examine how decentralization is connected to social capital and corruption. Using evidence from in-depth field studies in Madhya Pradesh and Kerala, and analyzing it against historical cases from around the world, he presents theoretical perspectives and policy suggestions. Widmalm's journey takes him to ancient Rome, Greece and India, as well as to the West, China, Latin America, and Russia of more recent times.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: What Do We Mean By Decentralisation? A Historical and Conceptual Overview of Federalism's Closest Cousin
- Chapter 3: Decentralisation in India: In Theory and Practice
- Chapter 4: Corruption and its Causes
- Chapter 5: Corruption in India
- Chapter 6: The Utility of Bonding Trust and a New Look at the Role of Social Capital in Development
- Chapter 7: Discussion: How Decentralisation, Corruption and Civil Society Connect
Copyright © Sten Widmalm, 2008
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2008 by
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ISBN: 978-0-7619-3664-0 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Ashok R. Chandran, Samprati Pani, Amrita Saha and Trinankur Banerjee.
Permissions to use the author's previously published material have been obtained.
‘Explaining Corruption at the Village and Individual Level in India: Findings from a Study of the Panchayati Raj Reforms’ in Asian Survey.
© 2005 by The Regents of the University of California. Reprinted from Asian Survey, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 756–776, by permission of the Regents.
‘The Utility of Bonding Social Capital’, Journal of Civil Society, Vol. 1:1, (2005) pp. 61–74. Reprinted by permission from Taylor & Francis (UK) Journals, http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals.
‘What Are Decentralisation and Panchayati Raj Reforms, and Who Likes Them?’, in Decentralisation and Local Governance, edited by L.C. Jain. New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2005, reprinted by permission from Orient Longman.
List of Tables[Page 7]
- 3.1 Perceived Change in Distance between Power Holders and Citizens 85
- 3.2 Perceived Change by Gender in Distance between Power Holders and Citizens 86
- 3.3 Bivariate Regression: Gender and Influence 90
- 3.4 Cross-tabulation: Caste and Influence 93
- 3.5 Bivariate Regression: Caste and Influence 93
- 3.6 Bivariate Regression: Education and Influence 97
- 3.7 Bivariate Regression: Housing and Influence 98
- 3.8 Cross-tabulation: State and Membership of Organisations 100
- 3.9 Bivariate Regression: Membership of Organisations and Influence 101
- 3.10 Multivariate OLS Regression, Model A: Madhya Pradesh and Kerala 102
- 3.11 Multivariate OLS Regression, Model B: Kerala 104
- 3.12 Multivariate OLS Regression, Model C: Madhya Pradesh 104
- 5.1 Matching Measurements of Performance 143
- 5.2 Perceptions about Bribes in the Medical and Education Sectors 145
- 5.3 Test Results 151
- 5.4 Trivariate OLS Regression: Explaining Acceptance of Bribery 153
- 5.5 Bivariate Regressions: Inter-group and Intra-group Trust and Performance 157
- 5.6 Bivariate Regressions: Local Leaders' Trust in Panchayat Representatives and Performance 160 [Page 8]
- 5.7 Bivariate Regressions Including Only the Citizen Survey 161
- 5.8 Bivariate Regressions 164
- 6.1 Political Mobilisation, and Bonding and Bridging Trust 187
List of Figures[Page 9]
- 2.1 From Non-centralised (or Conglomerate) States to Centralised Political Entities 38
- 2.2 Forms of Decentralisation 43
- 3.1 The Panchayati Raj—The Three-tier System Below State Level in India 65
- 3.2 Panchayat Reforms and Influence 87
- 3.3 Gender and Panchayat Influence 89
- 3.4 Influence after Panchayat Reforms in Madhya Pradesh and Kerala 91
- 3.5 Caste and Influence after Panchayat Reforms in Madhya Pradesh and Kerala 95
- 3.6 Education Levels 97
- 3.7 Housing Standard 98
- 4.1 Wage Levels and Corruption 119
- 5.1 Attitudes to Bribery 148
- 5.2 The Ideal Civil Servant/Public Sector Worker 149
- 5.3 Question on Inter-group Trust 157
- 5.4 Question on Intra-group Trust 158
- 5.5 How Decentralisation, Trust and Corruption are Related 162
- 7.1 Trust and Clean Government 200
- 7.2 Decentralisation and Trust 201
- 7.3 Decentralisation, Trust, Clean Government and Something More 201
This book has been written as part of a research project financed by Sida/Sarec, the Swedish Research Council and the Faculty of Social Sciences at Uppsala University. I am very grateful for their support. The research has been carried out in cooperation with the Department of Government, Uppsala University, the Institute of Social Sciences in New Delhi, Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) in New Delhi, Debate in Bhopal, the Madhya Pradesh Institute of Social Science Research in Ujjain, Samarthan in Bhopal, Health Action by People (HAP) in Thiruvananthapuram and the University of Kerala, also in Thiruvananthapuram. I wish to express my gratitude for the support and help received in this project from colleagues in India, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. In India, I received invaluable help from George Mathew, Satinder Singh Sahni, R.S. Gautam, R. Gopalakrishnan, Anand Inbanathan, Jacob Kattakayam, Raman Kutty, Yogesh Kumar, Dinesh C. Sah and Surendra Kumar Jena. In Sweden I am particularly indebted to Sten Ottosson and Johan Carlberg who assisted me in compiling the information and who added analytical insights to several of the historical examples discussed. I am also grateful to Karl-Oskar Lindgren, Frida Widmalm, Christer Karlsson, Peter Knutar, Staffan Smedby, Ingmar Nevéus, Hans Blomkvist, Sven-Erik Svärd, Karl-Göran Algotsson Sverker Gustavsson, Axel Hadenius, Jan Teorell, Kåre Vernby, Sven Oskarsson, Ellen Almgren, Hanna Bäck, Per Pettersson Lidbom and Anders Westholm. In the United States, I received many valuable comments from Ramsay MacMullen and Philip Oldenburg, who took the time to comment on an early version of the manuscript. James Manor in the United Kingdom and Bikram Singh and Shastri Ramachandran in India provided support and inspiration for the project in its earliest phase. And for the last 10 years, Bernard Vowles has helped me to make research proposals for this project readable and more coherent. I am very grateful for that.[Page 12]
I also wish to thank the anonymous reviewer and all the encouragement from SAGE, in particular Ashok R. Chandran and Samprati Pani, who gave strong and professional support for this project. Finally, but not least, I want to thank my family—Frida, Vera, Irma and Aina for all their love; Ulla, Sven-Erik, Sven, Anders and Marianne. And thank you so much Katarina Eklund for backing up me and my family when we needed it most.
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