Publication Year: 2017
Technology is developing rapidly. It is an essential part of how we live our daily lives–in a mental and physical sense, and in professional and personal environments. Cybercognition explores the ideas of technology addiction, brain training, and much more. This text provides readers with a guide to understanding concepts related to the online world. It answers important questions: • What is the impact of digital technology on our learning, memory, attention, problem-solving, and decision making? • If we continue to use digital technology on a large scale, can it change the way we think? • Can human cognition keep up with technology? Suitable for students on Cyberpsychology and Cognitive Psychology courses at all levels, as well as anyone with an inquiring mind.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Exploring the Concept of Cyberspace
- Chapter 2: The Human Information Processor
- Chapter 3: The Population(s) of Cyberspace
- Chapter 4: Attracting Attention in the Digital Environment
- Chapter 5: Digital Gaming, Brain Training and Cognition
- Chapter 6: Multitasking
- Chapter 7: Task Switching and Digital Technology: The Impact of Interruptions
- Chapter 8: Technology and Education
- Chapter 9: Decision-Making in the Online Environment: Credibility
- Chapter 10: Search Strategies and Heuristics
- Chapter 11: Technology Addictions and Cognition
- Chapter 12: The End: Where Do We Go from Here?
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
© Lee Hadlington 2017
First published 2017
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research orprivate study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016954335
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British Library
ISBN 978-1-4739-5719-0 (pbk)
Editor: Luke Block
Editorial assistant: Lucy Dang
Production editor: Imogen Roome
Copyeditor: Neil Dowden
Proofreader: Leigh C. Timmins
Indexer: Elske Janssen
Marketing manager: Lucia Sweet
Cover design: Wendy Scott
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in the UK
To Mrs Denise, for all the help with the proof-reading (and the inherent abuse that accompanied it)
To Nadia, for being the most supportive office mate I could ever hope for and the endless supply of chocolate
To my Mom and Dad who never really knew what I was doing, but were always there to support me
To Steph … for being the most valuable baseline for my ramblings and for being there when it all became a little bit too much[Page vi]
About the Authors
Whilst on a research-related jolly to London to visit an organisation I was working with I had the fortune to be standing on a crowded tube, in rush hour with a colleague. In my position as a psychologist and general all-round nosey individual I began to scan the carriage for something that would distract me from (a) the rather noxious smell of perfume, deodorant and old shoes that was inhabiting my nose and (b) my inherent dislike of crowded spaces. A scene that, to this day, I still recount began to catch both my eye and my intellectual curiosity. A mother was standing over a pushchair wilfully transfixed by something on her smartphone. Meanwhile, her daughter sat mesmerised by her mother’s interactions with the aforementioned device, occasionally pausing to quickly scan the environment in front of her to see if there was anything slightly more interesting. When this process failed, the child’s facial expression changed somewhat suddenly, and all of a sudden she began grasping at the air uttering the words, ‘iPad, Mommy … iPad, Mommy’. Sure enough, without actually saying a word and taking her eyes of the smartphone, the mother rummaged around in a jumble of bags that lay behind the pushchair and produced an iPad. Once received the child began to gleefully swipe, shake and poke to her heart’s content while the mother continued on her quest to wear the screen of the smartphone out by the sheer power of staring.
I had previously explored some aspects of human cognition online as part of a funded research project, but my experience on the tube in London started me on a path that resulted in this book. I started to think about the way in which we all seemed to be drifting in a trance-like state in a world that was subsumed by digital technology, and where the interactions I had viewed on the tube were becoming the norm, not the exception. As I started to delve a little deeper into the subject matter, I started to notice more and more how digital technology was impacting on our daily lives. I sat in coffee shops noticing that people were sitting down and automatically taking out their smartphones and placing them on the tables in front of them; on nights out, friends would be more interested in posting the perfect selfie to Facebook than they were in actually engaging in socialisation; couples out for a romantic meal would sit next to each other, often communicating through the medium of WhatsApp to find out what the other was ordering; people walking blindly across roads or into street furniture whilst being preoccupied with posting what they had for breakfast on Twitter. Now before we get into name calling, I do have mates and my name isn’t Billy – I just observed these things whilst I was alone, and it is something that once you notice you find it hard to switch off. [Page xii]I wanted to start to understand the impact digital technology was having in terms of both its depth and breadth, not just in the context of social and developmental issues but also the processes that govern these, the cognitive processes that underlie them. More and more I became interested in the way we deploy our existing cognitive skills whilst we are engaged in the use of digital technology. My secondary concern was the one that actually served to drive me to complete this book, and that was if we are using digital technology on such a massive scale, could it be actually changing the way in which we think? The question didn’t really present itself as being something simple or straightforward, and even now I am still finding new information that adds to the story that is being told here. It isn’t until you actually sit down and commit words to screen that you realise the enormity of the issue as well as the complexity that underlies such a question. The key to this book is that the story is just beginning, and I want it to be seen as a first attempt to draw most of the strands of research on this topic together in one place. If the reader takes anything away at the end, it should be the understanding that more work is needed in this area and more research needs to be conducted so further tales can be told. The question of whether digital technology is impacting on the way in which we think seems even more poignant when we consider the interaction viewed on the London tube several years ago; it is the younger and developing generation that is being immersed in a technological environment that no one else will have experienced before. Now this isn’t about being judgemental, or implementing a nanny-state where the time spent on the Internet is strictly governed; it is more about being responsible and acquiring as much information as possible about both the positives and negatives for engaging in the use of digital technology.
If you are expecting a stuffy, aloof and humourless exploration of our interactions with digital technology that is devoid of anecdotal evidence and a feverish attempt to engage the reader … you had better step away from this book and leave quietly. However, if you like the sound of an alternative approach to the former, have an interest in the area of cyberpsychology and want to start to understand the current themes that guide our exploration of cognition online, then, reader, you have come to the right place.
References[Page 193][Page 226]2013 ). More than just fun and games: The longitudinal relationships between strategic video games, self-reported problem solving skills, and academic grades. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(7), 1041–1052., and (2004 ). If not now when? The effects of interruption at different moments within task execution. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 6(1), 271–278., and (2012 ). Juggling on a high wire: Multitasking effects on performance. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 70(2), 156–168., and (1999 ). Web wisdom: How to evaluate and create information quality on the web. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum., and (2013 ). Social networking sites and cognitive abilities: Do they make you smarter? Computers and Education, 63, 10–16., , , and (1989 ). Visual attention. In (Ed.), Foundations of cognitive science (pp. 631–682). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.(2004 ). Task interruption: Resumption lag and the role of cues. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 43–48). Retrieved from http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA480333, and (2002 ). Memory for Goals: An Activation-Based Model. Cognitive Science (Vol. 26). http://doi.org/10.1016/S0364-0213(01)00058-1, and (2013 ). The association between media multitasking, task-switching, and dual-task performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39(5), 1485–1495. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0031208, and (2008 ). The end of theory: The data deluge makes the scientific method obsolete. Wired Magazine, 16(7).(1995 ). Learning and memory: An integrated approach ((2nded.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.2004 ). An integrated theory of the mind. Psychological Review, 111(4), 1036–1060. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.111.4.1036, , , , , and (2009 ). What does doodling do? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 100–106. http://doi.org/10.1002/acp(2013 ). Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults. Nature, 501(7465), 97–101. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature12486, , , , , , … (2010 ). Computers in human behavior: The influence of leads on cognitive load and learning in a hypertext environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 140–150. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.10.014, and ([Page 194] , , , and ( 2013 ). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alterations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 75, 1161–1167. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-013-0472-72013 ). Cognition (, and (6thed.). London: Pearson.1984 ). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Development, 25(4), 518–529. http://doi.org/10.1016/0263(2005 ). The split-attention principle in multimedia learning. The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning., and (1994 ). Overriding stimulus-driven attentional capture. Perceptionand Psychophysics, 55(5), 485–496. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03205306, and (2000a ). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417–423. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2(2000b ). The phonological loop and the irrelevant speech effect: Some comments on Neath. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7(3), 544–549. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11082863(2008 ). Understanding changes in mental workload during execution of goal-directed tasks and its application for interruption management. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 14(4), 21–28., and (2000 ). Measuring the effects of interruptions on task performance in the user interface. SMC 2000 Conference Proceedings (2000 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: “Cybernetics Evolving to Systems, Humans, Organizations, and Their Complex Interactions”) (Cat. No.00CH37166), 2, 757–762. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.2000.885940, , and (2002 ). When and where do we apply what we learn? A taxonomy for far transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 612–637. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.612, and (2003 ). Moticons: Detection, distraction and task. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58(5), 515–545. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00021-1, , and (2008 ). Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 765–777. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0013494, , , and (2009 ). Investigating the effects of computer mediated interruptions: An analysis of task characteristics and interruption frequency on financial performance. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 10(4), 177–189. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.accinf.2009.10.003, , and (2002 ). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: Anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(4), 817–827. http://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1997, , and (2008 ). The dark side of information: Overload, anxiety and other paradoxes and pathologies. Journal of Information Science, 35(2), 180–191. http://doi.org/10.1177/0165551508095781, and ([Page 195] ( 2002 ). Designing online banner advertisements: Should we animate? In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 363–366). http://doi.org/10.1145/503376.5034412013 ). Media multitasking is associated with symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(2), 132–135. http://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0291, , and (2013 ). Assessment in and of serious games: An overview. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2013, 1–2. http://doi.org/10.1155/2013/136864, , , , and (2011 ). Measuring multitasking behavior with activity-based metrics. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 18(2), 1–22. http://doi.org/10.1145/1970378.1970381, , and (2008 ). The “digital natives” debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 775–786. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00793.x, , and (1999 ). Banner blindness: What searching users notice and do not notice on the World Wide Web. Houston, TX: Rice University.(2005 ). Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use. CyberPsychology and Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 8(1), 39–51. http://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2005.8.39, and (2003 ). Aligning teaching for constructing learning.(1992 ). A theory of fads, fashion, custom, and cultural change as informational cascades. Journal of Political Economy, 100(5), 992. http://doi.org/10.1086/261849, , and (1998 ). Learning from the behavior of others: Conformity, fads, and informational cascades. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(3), 151–170. http://doi.org/10.1257/jep.12.3.151, , and (2014 ). Representations of “trolls” in mass media communication: A review of media-texts and moral panics relating to “internet trolling.” International Journal of Web Based Communities, 10(1), 7. http://doi.org/10.1504/IJWBC.2014.058384(2007 ). Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion. NeuroImage, 35(1), 430–440. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.11.048, , , , , , … (2010 ). Learning through face-to-face and online discussions: Associations between students’ conceptions, approaches and academic performance in political science. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(3), 512–524. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00966.x, , , and (1992 ). How many things do you like to do at once? An introduction to monochronic and polychronic time. The Executive, 6(4), 17–26., , and (2008 ). Impasse-driven learning in the context of video games. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(4), 1530–1541. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.05.010, , and ([Page 196] , , and ( 2011 ). Do action video games improve perception and cognition? Frontiers in Psychology, 2(September), 226. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.002262008 ). The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive control. Acta Psychologica, 129(3), 387–398. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2008.09.005, , , , and (2005 ). Information problem solving by experts and novices: Analysis of a complex cognitive skill. Computers in Human Behavior, 21(3), 487–508. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563204001591, , and (1997 ). Psychology of computer use: XLVII. Parameters of Internet use, abuse and addiction: The first 90 days of the Internet Usage Survey. Psychological Reports, 80, 879–882. http://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.529(2010 ). Why so serious? On the relation of serious games and learning. Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, 4(1), 7–24. Retrieved from http://www.eludamos.org/index.php/eludamos/article/view/vol4no1-2, and (1957 ). A mechanical model for human attention and immediate memory. Psychological Review, 64(3), 205–215.(1971 ). Decision and stress. New York: Academic Press.(1982 ). The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 1–16. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1982.tb01421.x, , , and (1991 ). Individual differences in multiple-task performance. In (Ed.), Mutiple-task performance (pp. 363–386). London: Taylor & Francis., and (2000 ). Growing up digital. Change, 32(2), 10–20.(1993 ). Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In and (Eds.), Gambling behavior and problem gambling (pp. 241–272). Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press.(1997 ). A theoretical model of the behavioural addictions – Applied to offending. In , , and (Eds.), Addicted to crime? (pp. 13–65). Chichester: John Wiley.(2010 ). From VLEs to learning webs: The implications of Web 2.0 for learning and teaching. Interactive Learning Environments, 18(1), 1–10.(2007 ). Cognitive stopping rules for terminating information search in online tasks. MIS Quarterly, 31(1), 89–104. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2017333, , and (2006 ). A longitudinal perspective regarding the use of VLEs by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(2), 177–192. http://doi.org/10.1080/10494820600852795, , and (2008 ). Strategies for guiding interactive search: An empirical investigation into the consequences of label relevance for assessment and selection. Human–Computer Interaction, 500(23), 1–46. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07370020701851078, and ([Page 197] , , , , , , and ( 2011 ). The relationship between media use in the bedroom, sleep habits and symptoms of insomnia. Journal of Sleep Research, 20(4), 569–575. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2011.00913.x2000 ). Web commerical and advertising hierarchy-of-effects. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(1–2), 35–42., and (2012 ). Brain training in progress: A review of trainability in healthy seniors. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6(June), 183. http://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00183, , and (2001 ). Paradoxes of the Web: The ethical dimensions of credibility. Library Trends, 49(3), 441–453.(2005 ). High-cost banner blindness: Ads increase perceived workload, hinder visual search, and are forgotten. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 12(4), 423–445. http://doi.org/10.1145/1121112.1121116, , , and (2011 ). The social brain in adolescence: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(8), 1654–1664. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.10.011, , , and (2012 ). Multitasking. Experimental Economics, 15(4), 641–655. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-012-9318-8, and (1995 ). Task complexity affects information seeking and use. Task Information Processing and Management, 31(2), 191–213. http://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4573(95)80035-R, and (2012 ). Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 74(4), 641–647. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-012-0284-1, , and (2011 ). Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Perception, 40(10), 1183–1192. http://doi.org/10.1068/p6939, and (2014 ). Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(Feb.). http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00069, , , and (2010 ). The shallows: How the Internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London: Atlantic Books.(2009 ). Multitasking across generations: Multitasking choices and difficulty ratings in three generations of Americans. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 483–489. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.10.012, , , , and (2009 ). Everyday technologies for Alzheimer’s disease care: Research findings, directions, and challenges. Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 5(6), 479–488. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2009.09.003, , and (2006 ). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: Beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(3), 117–124. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.01.011, , , and ([Page 198] , and ( 1995 ). Characterising browsing strategies in the World Wide Web. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 27(95), 1065–1073.1963 ). Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54(1), 1–22. http://doi.org/10.1037/h0046743(1989 ). Heuristic and systematic information processing within and beyond the persuasion context. In and (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 212–252). New York: Guilford Press., , and (1999 ). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.it/books?id=5X_auIBx99EC, and (2006 ). A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents. Annals of General Psychiatry, 5, 16. http://doi.org/10.1186/1744-859X-5-16, and (2015 ). Investigating mobile users’ ringer mode usage and attentiveness and responsiveness to communication. 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, MobileHCI 2015, (pp. 6–15). http://doi.org/10.1145/2785830.2785852, and (2003 ). Development of a Chinese internet addiction scale and its psychometric study. Chinese Journal of Psychology. http://doi.org/10.6129/CJP, , , , and (2008 ). University students’ internet use and its relationships with academic performance, interpersonal relationships, psychosocial adjustment, and self-evaluation. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 11(4), 467–469. http://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0128, and (2008 ). The young and techless? Investigating internet use and problem-solving behaviors of young adults in Singapore. New Media and Society, 10(5), 771–791. http://doi.org/10.1177/1461444808094356(2011 ). The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: An exploratory cross-sectional analysis. Journal of Sleep Research, 20(2), 311–317. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2010.00883.x, and (2000 ). Herding behaviour and the size of customer base as a commitment to quality. Economica, 67(267), 375–398. http://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0335.00214, , and (2009 ). Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences , 63(4), 455–462. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.01925.x, , , , , , and (2000 ). Internet addiction, usage, gratification, and pleasure experience: The Taiwan college students’ case. Computers and Education, 35(1), 65–80. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1315(00)00019-1, and (2013 ). Digital media, the developing brain and the interpretive plasticity of neuroplasticity. Transcultural Psychiatry, 50(2), 192–215. http://doi.org/10.1177/1363461512474623, and (2011 ). A taxonomy of external and internal attention. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 73–101., , and ([Page 199] , , and ( 1987 ). The effects of video game playing on the response selection of elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology, 42(1), 82–85.2006 ). The Memory Recall of Pop-Up Advertisements amongst Experienced Internet Users. Dublin: Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology.(1980 ). After effects of stress on human performance and social behavior: A review of research and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 88(1), 82. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.1.82(2008 ). How do users search web home pages? An eye-tracking study of multiple navigation menus. Technical Communication, 55(2), 176–194., , and (1990 ). Deleterious effects of intermittent interruptions on the task performance of knowledge workers: A laboratory investigation. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.(1999 ). The role of attention in the development of short-term memory: Age differences in the verbal span of apprehension. Child Development, 70(5), 1082–1097. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00080, , , , and (1950 ). The relative effect on audience attitude of the first versus the second argumentative speech of a series. Communications Monographs, 17(2), 105–122.(1968 ). Ergonomics and computer display design. Computer Bulletin, 12(3), 94., and (1990 ). Flow: The psychology of optimal performance. Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.(2001 ). Notification, disruption, and memory: Effects of messaging interruptions on memory and performance. INTERACT ’01, 263–269. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.26.418, , and (2007 ). An eye-tracking study of information usage in Web search: Variations in target position and contextual snippet length. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 407–416). ACM. Retrieved from http://www.divinewrite.com.au/downloads/MS_eye_tracking_study.pdf, and (2000 ). Instant messaging: Effects of relevance and time. In and (Eds.), People and Computers XIV: Proceedings of HCI 2000, Vol. 2, British Computer Society (pp. 71–76)., , and (2004 ). A diary study of task switching and interruptions. CHI ’04 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 6(1), 175–182. http://doi.org/10.1145/985692.985715, , and (2003 ). Cognition and the Web: Moving from theory to Web design. Human Factors and Web Development, 147–165. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=sKvi5fVL-uAC&oi=fnd&pg=PA147&dq=czwerinski+2000++cognition+web&ots=j6YMu6GCFt&sig=YVdLL4JUtiDrJWAuSN43tDMgakE, and ([Page 200] , , and ( 2011 ). Why do I keep interrupting myself? Environment, habit and self-interruption. Chi, 3127–3130. http://doi.org/10.1145/1978942.19794052011 ). Understanding the risky business of adolescence. Neuron, 69(5), 837–839. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.036(2008 ). Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: Immediate training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 720–730. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0014296, , , and (2013 ). Media multitasking between two conversational tasks. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1657–1663. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.052, , , and (2002 ). Validation of a new scale for measuring problematic Internet use: Implications for pre-employment screening. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 5(4), 331–345. Retrieved from http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/109493102760275581, , and (2001 ). Quality signals in information cascades and the dynamics of the distribution of motion picture box office revenues. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 25(3–4), 593–614. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-1889(00)00037-3, and . (2007 ). Intelligence and educational achievement. Intelligence, 35(1), 13–21. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2006.02.001, , , and (2012 ). Are Smart phones spreading faster than any technology in human history? MIT Technology Review.(2000 ). Individual differences in multi-tasking ability: Exploring a nomological network. Ann Arbor, MI: University Of Michigan.(1994 ). Brain Gym® teacher’s edition – revised. Ventura, CA: Edu-Kinesthetics., and (2008 ). Practical applications for use of PDAs and smartphones with children and adolescents who have traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 23(6), 487–499. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2008-19368-005&site=ehost-live\nhttp://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=35821851&S=L&D=a9h&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESeprA4y9fwOLCmr02eprVSsKu4SK+WxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGptE, , , , , and (2007 ). Cognitive load in hypertext reading: A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(3), 1616–1641. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2005.08.012, and (2010 ). The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14, 179–189. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2009.10.004, , , , and (2001 ). Coveted or overlooked? The psychology of bidding for comparable listings in digital auctions. Market Letters, 12(3), 225–237., and (2004 ). Orienting response and memory for web advertisements: Exploring effects of pop-up window and animation. Communication Research, 31(5), 537–567. http://doi.org/10.1177/0093650204267932, and ([Page 201] , and ( 2001 ). From the “digital divide” to “digital inequality”: Studying internet use as penetration increases. Princeton, NJ: Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies, Princeton University, 15, 1–23. Retrieved from http://www.maximise-ict.co.uk/WP15_DiMaggioHargittai.pdf2012 ). Information search activity: An overview. European Review of Applied Psychology, 62(2), 49–62. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2012.03.004, , and (2004 ). Verification of the change blindness phenomenon while managing critical events on a combat information display. Human Factors, 46(2), 205–218., , , and (2009 ). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 182–188. http://doi.org/10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.182, , and (1986 ). Effect of playing a video game on a measure of spatial visualization. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62, 159–162., and (2009 ). Text messaging during simulated driving. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 51(5), 762–770. http://doi.org/10.1177/0018720809353319, , , , and (2003 ). Internet advertising: Is anybody watching? Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17(4), 8–23. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1094996803701431, and (1984 ). Selective attention and the organization of visual information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113(4), 501–17. http://doi.org/10.1037/0096-34184.108.40.2061(2004 ). Army digital systems and vulnerability to change blindness. US Army Research Institute for the Behavioural and Social Sciences. Retrieved from http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA433072(2003 ). Visual change detection in digital military displays. In Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference 2003, Orlando FL: IITSEC., and (2007 ). Oxford internet survey 2007 report: The internet in Britain. Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford., and (2007 ). Multitasking: The good, the bad and the unknown. Association for the Tutoring Profession, 53(9), 1689–1699. http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004(2010 ). Networks, crowds, and markets: Reasoning about a highly connected world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., and (2014 ). Play that can do serious good. American Journal of Play, 7(1), 50–72., , and (1990 ). Information problem solving: The Big Six skills approach to library and information skills instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation., and (2010 ). Internet use among college students: Tool or toy? Educational Review, 62(1), 85–96. http://doi.org/10.1080/00131910903519793, , and ([Page 202] , and ( 2009 ). A developmental neurobiological model of motivated behavior: Anatomy, connectivity and ontogeny of the triadic nodes. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(3), 367–382. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.10.0091999 ). Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology, 146(4), 348–361. http://doi.org/10.1007/PL00005481(2000 ). The effects of interruptions in work activity: Field and laboratory results. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 537–543., and (2007 ). From intermediation to disintermediation and apomediation: New models for consumers to access and assess the credibility of health information in the age of Web2. 0. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 129(1), 162.(2016 ). How do consumers search for and appraise health information on the world wide web? Qualitative study using focus groups, usability tests, and in-depth interviews. BMJ, 324(June), 573–577. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7337.573, and (2007 ). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion, 7(2), 336–353., , , and (2001 ). Beyond the myth of the ‘cyberkid’: Young people at the margins of the information revolution. Journal of Youth Studies, 4(4), 451–469. http://doi.org/10.1080/1367626012010190, and (2008 ). How Americans spend their money. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2008/02/10/opinion/10op.graphic.ready.html(2007 ). Playing an action video game reduces gender differences in spatial cognition. Psychological Science, 18(10), 850–5. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01990.x, , and (1999 ). A visit to the information mall: Web searching behavior of high school students. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(1), 24–37., , , , , , … (1991 ). Social cognition (, and (2nded.). London: McGraw-Hill.2000 ). Perceptions of Internet information credibility. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 77(3), 515–540. Retrieved from http://jmq.sagepub.com/content/77/3/515.short, and (2003 ). The perceived credibility of personal Web page information as influenced by the sex of the source. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(6), 683–701. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632(03)00021-9, and (2007 ). The role of site features, user attributes, and information verification behaviors on the perceived credibility of web-based information. New Media and Society, 9(2), 319–342. http://doi.org/10.1177/1461444807075015, and (2008 ). The credibility of volunteered geographic information. GeoJournal, 72(3–4), 137–148. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-008-9188-y, and (1980 ). Methodological solipsism considered as a research strategy in cognitive psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), 63. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00001771([Page 203] ( 2003 ). Prominence-interpretation theory: Explaining how people assess credibility online. In CHIEA’03 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 722–723). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=7659512001 ). Web credibility research: A method for online experiments and early study results. CHIEA ’01 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 295–296). http://doi.org/10.1145/634067.634242, , , , , , and (2003 ). How do users evaluate the credibility of Web sites? Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Designing for User Experiences (pp. 1–15). http://doi.org/10.1145/997078.997097, , , , , and (1999 ). The elements of computer credibility. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing, May (pp. 80–87). Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=303001, and (1998 ). Selectivity in distraction by irrelevant featural singletons: Evidence for two forms of attentional capture. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24(3), 847–858. http://doi.org/10.1037/0096-15220.127.116.117, and (2013 ). Action video games make dyslexic children read better. Current Biology, 23(6), 462–466. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.01.044, , , , , and (2003 ). Moving and looming stimuli capture attention. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 65(7): 999–1010.and (2005 ). Do new objects capture attention? Psychological Science, 16(4), 275–281. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01528.x, , and (1992 ). Sensation seeking and the tendency to view the world as threatening. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(1), 31–38. http://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90214-A, , and (1989 ). An approach to training based upon principled task decomposition. Acta Psychologica, 71(1–3), 89–146. http://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(89)90006-1, and (2013 ). When it comes to Facebook there may be more to bad memory than just multitasking. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2179–2182. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.031, , and (2011 ). Aggregate bandwagon effect on online videos’ viewership: Value uncertainty, popularity cues, and heuristics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(12), 2382–2395. http://doi.org/10.1002/asi, and (2005 ). Development of a Chinese version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Heavy Drinking. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(7), 1172–1179. http://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000172167.20119.9F, , , , , , … (2000 ). Sex differences in spatial cognition, computational fluency, and arithmetical reasoning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77(4), 337–353. http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.2000.2594, , , and ([Page 204] , , , and ( 2012 ). Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness: Evidence of bidirectional causality. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1(1), 62–70. http://doi.org/10.1037/a00269692008 ). It’s 3 A.M. – are you checking your email again? Businesswire. Retrieved from http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20080730005282/en/3-A.M.---Checking-Email(2004 ). Fast and frugal heuristics: The tools of bounded rationality. In (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of judgment and decision making (pp. 62–88). Oxford: Blackwell. http://doi.org/10.1002/9780470752937.ch4(2013 ). The cost of annoying ads. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on World Wide Web (pp. 459–469). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2488429, , and (2004 ). Constant, constant, multi-tasking craziness: Managing multiple working spheres. In CHI ‘04 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ( April 24–29 pp. 113–120). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=985707, and (1994 ). Transfer of skill from a computer game trainer to flight. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 36(3), 387–405. http://doi.org/10.1177/001872089403600301, , and (2005 ). High-cost banner blindness: Ads increase perceived workload, hinder visual search, and are forgotten. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 12(4), 423–445. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1121116, , , and (2005 ). Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of providing lecture notes: The role of internet technology as a delivery system and research tool. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(4), 291–298., and (2003 ). “Of course it’s true; I saw it on the Internet!” Critical thinking in the internet era. Communications of the ACM, 46(5), 70–75. http://doi.org/10.1145/769800.769804, and (2004 ). Eye-tracking analysis of user behavior in WWW search. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (pp. 478–479). http://doi.org/10.1145/1008992.1009079, , and (2003 ). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423(6939), 534–537. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature01647, and (2006a ). Effect of action video games on the spatial distribution of visuospatial attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32(6), 1465–1478. http://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1518.104.22.1685, and (2006b ). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of action video game players. Cognition, 101(1), 217–245. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2005.10.004.Enumeration, and (2007 ). Action video game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision. Psychological Science, 18(1), 88–94. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.08.021.Secreted, and ([Page 205] , , and ( 2007 ). Cognitive science implications for enhancing training effectiveness in a serious gaming context. Journal on Educational Resources in Computing, 7(3), 2–16. http://doi.org/10.1145/1281320.12813222005 ). Student searching behaviour and the web: Use of academic resources and google. Library Trends, 53(4), 539–554. http://doi.org/Article, and (1996 ). Behavioural addiction: An issue for everybody? Journal of Workplace Learning, 8(3), 19–25. http://doi.org/10.1108/13665629610116872(1998 ). Internet addiction: Does it really exist? In (Ed.), Psychology and the internet: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal implications (pp. 61–75). San Deigo, CA: Academic Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1998-06638-003&site=ehost-live(1999 ). Violent video games and aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 4(2), 203–212. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(97)00055-4(2000 ). Internet addiction – time to be taken seriously? Addiction Research, 8(5), 413. http://doi.org/10.3109/16066350009005587(2010 ). Internet abuse and internet addiction in the workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning, 22(7), 463–472. http://doi.org/10.1108/13665621011071127(2012 ). Facebook addiction: Concerns, criticism, and recommendations –A response to Andreassen and collegues. Psychological Reports, 110(2), 518–520. http://doi.org/10.2466/01.07.18.PR0.110.2.518-520(1999 ). Information overload: Addressing the productivity paradox in face-to-face electronic meetings. Journal of Management Information Systems, 16(3), 157–185. http://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.1999.11518260, and (2013 ). Should I send this message? Understanding the impact of interruptions, social hierarchy and perceived task complexity on user performance and perceived workload. Decision Support Systems, 55(1), 135–145. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2012.12.035, , and (2008 ). SIMONE: A Simulator for Interruptions and Message Overload in Network Environments. International Journal of Simulation and Process Modelling, 4(4/4), 237–247., and (2011 ). You’ve got email! Does it really matter to process emails now or later? Information Systems Frontiers, 13(5), 637–653. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-010-9242-4, , and (2008 ). Characteristics of excessive cellular phone use in Korean adolescents. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 11(6), 783–785. http://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2008.0096, , , , , and (2015 ). Cognitive failures in daily life: Exploring the link with Internet addiction and problematic mobile phone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 75–81. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.036(2013 ). Cognitive and behavioural concepts of cyber activities: Information processing of online content. Technical Report for TIN 3.040 Task 3., , and ([Page 206] , , , , , , … ( 2008 ). Divided versus selective attention: Evidence for common processing mechanisms. Brain Research, 1215, 137–146. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.03.0582007 ). The influence of self-esteem and locus of control on perceived email-related stress. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(6), 2791–2803. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2006.05.005, , and (1996 ). Hits and misses: Herd behavior and online product popularity. Marketing Letters, 7(4), 297–305. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF00435537, and (2010 ). Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: From user discussions to academic definitions. Journal of Politeness Research, 6(2), 215–242. http://doi.org/10.1515/JPLR.2010.011(2002 ). Learning new-media literacy: A new necessity for the Clickerati Generation. Telemedium Journal of Media Literacy.(2010 ). Trust online: Young adults’ evaluation of web content. International Journal of Communication, 4, 468–494. Retrieved from http://megafotos.ru/-NZaWpvYy5vcmc.ZN-ojs/index.php/ijoc/article/viewPDFInterstitial/636/423, and (2006 ). Personal learning environments. Sixth International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT’06), 1–2. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2006.1652565. (2016 ). To excel or not to excel: Strong evidence on the adverse effect of smartphone addiction on academic performance. Computers and Education, 98, 81–89. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.03.007, and (1999 ). Users’ interaction with the World Wide Web: problems and problem-solving. Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 36, 256–270., and (2011 ). What clever hominids browse: An empirical analysis of the relationship between web usage and academic performance in undergraduate students. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the South African Computer Lecturers’ Association, July (pp. 29–37)., , and (2010 ). Digitalnatives: Where is the evidence? British Educational Research Journal, 36(3), 503–520. http://doi.org/10.1080/01411920902989227, and (1995 ). A reexamination of the role of attention in learning from text. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 323–350.(2008 ). Developing a unifying framework of credibility assessment: Construct, heuristics, and interaction in context. Information Processing and Management, 44(4), 1467–1484. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2007.10.001, and (2004 ). Does animation attract online consumers’ attention? The effect of flash on information search performance and perceptions. Information Systems Research, 15(1), 60–86. http://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1040.0017, , and (2006 ). The internet’s growing role in life’s major moments. Pew Internet and American Life Project (April), 1–11., and (1993 ). Sensation seeking, risk appraisal, and risky behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 14(1), 41–52., and ([Page 207] , and ( 1953 ). The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1(2), 635–650. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF027169962014 ). Understanding novice users’ help-seeking behavior in getting started with digital libraries: Influence of learning styles. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1640735564?accountid=14643\nhttp://mlbsfx.sibi.usp.br:3410/sfxlcl41?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation&genre=dissertations+&+theses&sid=ProQ:ProQuest+Dissertations+&+Theses+Global&atitl(2006 ). Herding in online product choice. Psychology and Marketing, 23(5), 413–428. http://doi.org/10.1002/mar, and (2010 ). Did you see the unicycling clown? Inattentional blindness while walking and talking on a cell phone. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 597–607. http://doi.org/10.1002/acp, , , , and (2001 ). Individual differences in attentional strategies in multitasking situations. Human Performance, 14(4), 339–358., , and (2001 ). The cost of email interruption. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 5(1), 81–92. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1718383&show=abstract, , and (2002 ). Case study: Evaluating the effect of email interruptions within the workplace. Conference on Empirical Assessment in Software Engineering, Keele University (EASE) 2002, Keele, UK (April), 3–7. Retrieved from https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/489, , and (2011 ). The wired generation: Academic and social outcomes of electronic media use among university students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(5), 275–280. http://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0135, and (2011 ). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(25), 46–60. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1103228108, , , , , and (1890 ). The Principles of Psychology (Vols. 1 and 2). New York: Henry Holt and Company. http://doi.org/10.1037/10538-000(2001 ). A review of Web searching studies and a framework for future research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(3), 235–246. http://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4571(2000)9999:9999<::AID-ASI1607>3.0.CO;2-F, and (1998 ). Real life information retrieval: A study of user queries on the web. SIGIR Forum (ACM Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval), 32(1), 5–17. http://doi.org/10.1145/281250.281253, , , and (2000 ). Real life, real users, and real needs: A study and analysis of user queries on the Web. Information Processing and Management, 36(2), 207–227. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00005-5, , and (2011 ). Change blindness and inattentional blindness. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2(5), 529–546. http://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.130, , , and ([Page 208] , and ( 2009 ). Self-interruption on the computer: A typology of discretionary task interleaving. Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2009 (pp. 1799–1808). http://doi.org/10.1145/1518701.15189791983 ). Mental models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1988 ). Uniqueness of abrupt visual onset in capturing attention. Perception and Psychophysics, 43(4), 346–354. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03208805, and (2009 ). Are there cultural differences in learning style? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(1), 69–85. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.11.002, and (2014 ). Making sense of multitasking: The role of Facebook. Computers and Education, 70, 194–202. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.08.013(2012 ). The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement. Computers and Education, 58(1), 162–171. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.004(2011 ). Perceived academic effects of instant messaging use. Computersand Education, 56(2), 370–378. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.08.020, and (2012 ). No A 4 U: The relationship between multitasking and academic performance. Computers and Education, 59(2), 505–514. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.023, and (2011 ). The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(2), 119–132. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00387.x, , and (2001 ). Interdependence of nonoverlapping cortical systems in dual cognitive tasks. NeuroImage, 14(2), 417–426. http://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2001.0826, , , , , and (1973 ). Attention and effort. The American Journal of Psychology 88(2), 339–340. http://doi.org/10.2307/1421603(2005 ). Interruptions and online information processing: The role of interruption type, interruption content, and interruption frequency. In Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Meeting of International Communication Association (pp. 1–32). Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Interruptions+and+Online+Information+Processing:+the+role+of+interruption+type,+interruption+content+and+interruption+frequency#2, , and (2006 ). The psychological appeal of personalized content in web portals: Does customization affect attitudes and behavior? Journal of Communication, 56(1), 110–132. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00006.x, and (2007 ). For whom the mind wanders, and when. Psychological Science, 18(7), 614–621. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01948.x, , , , , and (2010 ). Social network addiction: A new clinical disorder? European Psychiatry, 25(1), 855–856. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-9338(10)70846-4, , , and ([Page 209] , and ( 2009 ). How useful is executive control training? Age differences in near and far transfer of task-switching training. Developmental Science, 12(6), 978–990. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00846.x2007 ). Information society – what is it exactly? (The meaning, history and conceptual framework of an expression). In (Ed.), Information society. From theory to political practice (Vol. 29). Budapest: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.(2003 ). Effects of scent and breadth on use of site-specific search on e-commerce Web sites. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10(3), 198–220., and (2007 ). Negative emotion enhances memory accuracy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(4), 213–218.(2011 ). 38% of college students can’t go 10 minutes without tech [STATS]. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2011/05/31/college-tech-device-stats/(1984 ). Acquiring effective notetaking skills: An alternative to professional notetaking. Journal of Reading, 27, 299–302.(2010 ). Facebook® and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1237–1245. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.024, and (2010 ). The role of inhibition in task switching: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17(1), 1–14. http://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.17.1.1, , , and (2010 ). Digital natives, better learners? Students’ beliefs about how the Internet influenced their ability to learn. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1384–1391. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.04.012(2001 ). Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: Early findings. Journal of Communication, 51(2), 366–382. http://doi.org/10.1093/joc/51.2.366, , and (2015 ). Checking email less frequently reduces stress. Computers in Human Behavior, 43(February), 220–228. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.005, and (2016 ). “Silence your phones”: Smartphone notifications increase inattention and hyperactivity symptoms. Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1011–1020. http://doi.org/10.1145/2858036.2858359, , and (2013 ). Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1987–1996. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.002, , and (2013 ). The impact of mobile phone usage on student learning. Communication Education, 62(3), 233–252. http://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2013.767917, and (2013 ). Development and validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS). PLoS ONE, 8(2), e56936. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056936, , , , , , … ([Page 210] ( 2000 ). The limited capacity model of mediated message processing. Journal of Communication, 46–70. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02833.x2007 ). Do people experience cognitive biases while searching for information? Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 14(5), 599–608. http://doi.org/10.1197/jamia.M2411.Introduction, and (2004 ). Load theory of selective attention and cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(3), 339–354. http://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3422.214.171.1249, , , and (2003 ). The role of perceptual load in processing distractor faces. Psychological Science, 14(5), 510–515., , and (2000 ). Exploring novice users’ training needs in searching information on the WWW. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 16(4), 326–335. http://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2729.2000.00145.x(2000 ). Differences between novice and experienced users in search information on the World Wide Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(6), 576–581., , and (2003 ). The effects of three different computer texts on readers’ recall: Based on working memory capacity. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(6), 767–783., and (2011 ). “Google reigns triumphant”? Stemming the tide of Googlitis via collaborative, situated information literacy instruction. Behavioral and Social Sciences Librarian, 30(4), 187–222.(2012 ). Back to the app: The costs of mobile appication interruptions. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services – MobileHCI ’12 (pp. 291–294)., , , and (2010 ). Teens, cell phones and texting: Text messaging becomes centerpiece communication. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1572/teens-cell-phones-text-messages.(2015 ). Report: Teens, social media and technology overview 2015. Pew Research Center, April ., and (2000 ). More than just talk on the move: Uses and gratifications of the cellular phone. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 77(2), 308–320. http://doi.org/10.1177/107769900007700206, and (2013 ). Always connected. How smartphones and social keep us engaged.(2002 ). Measuring the intrusiveness of advertisements: Scale development and validation. Journal of Advertising, 31(2), 37–47. http://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2002.10673665, , and (2014 ). Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). PloS One, 9(6), e98312. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098312, , , , , and (2013 ). Association between morningness–eveningness and the severity of compulsive Internet use: The moderating role of gender and parenting style. Sleep Medicine, 14(12), 1398–1404. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2013.06.015, and ([Page 211] , , and ( 1997 ). Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychological Science, 8(1), 60–64. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00545.x2008 ). Assistive technology for cognition: Understanding the needs of persons with disabilities. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 27(2). http://doi.org/10.1109/EMB.2007.907396, , and (2008 ). Eye tracking and online search: Lessons learned and challenges ahead. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(7), 1041–1052. http://doi.org/10.1002/asi, , , , , , … (2004 ). Addiction, a condition of compulsive behaviour? Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence of inhibitory dysregulation. Addiction, 99, 1491–1502. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00808.x, , and (1957 ). Experimental attempts to minimize the impact of first impressions. In (Ed.), The order of presentation in persuasion (pp. 62–75). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(2007 ). Digital footprints: Online identity management and search in the age of transparency. Pew Internet and American Life Project, December . Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Digital+Footprints+Online+identity+management+and+search+in+the+age+of+transparency+Findings#0, , , and (2013 ). Teens, social media, and privacy. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Washington DC: Pew Research Centre., , and (1997 ). On the trail of information searchers. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 466–471). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., and (2000 ). Tradeoffs in displaying peripheral information. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI 00 (pp. 241–248). ACM. http://doi.org/10.1145/332040.332438, and (1989 ). The space fortress game. Acta Psychologica, 71, 17–22. http://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(89)90003-6, and (1999a ). Augmenting library services: Toward the sharium. Proceedings of International Symposium on Digital Libraries. Symposium on Digital Libraries, March (pp. 40–47).(1999b ). Educating responsible citizens in the information society. Educational Technology Magazine, 39(2), 17–26. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Educating+Responsible+Citizens+in+the+Information+Society#0(2012 ). A (biometric) day in the life: Engaging across media. Paper presented at Re:Think 2012, 28 March, New York.([Page 212] , , and ( 2005 ). No task left behind? Examining the nature of fragmented work. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 321–330). Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=10550172012 ). A pace not dictated by electrons: An empirical study of work without email. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems May 5–10 (pp. 555–564). http://doi.org/10.1145/2207676.2207754, , and (1990 ). Behavioural (non-chemical) addictions. British Journal of Addiction, 85(11), 1389–1394. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1990.tb01625.x(2010 ). Personal learning environments. In (Ed.), Emerging technologies in distance education, (pp. 177–193). Edmonton, AB: Athabasca University Press., and (2012 ). Effects of e-mail addiction and interruptions on employees. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 14(1), 82–94. http://doi.org/10.1108/13287261211221146, and (2003 ). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 38(1), 43–52. http://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3801_6, and (1970 ). Human factors engineering ((3rded.). New York: McGraw-Hill.2004 ). A study of the effects of online advertising: A focus on pop-up and in-line ads., and (2002 ). Comparison of four primary methods for coordinating the interruption of people in human-computer interaction. Human-Computer Interaction, 17(1), 63–139. http://doi.org/10.1207/S15327051HCI1701_2(2007 ). Factors and effects of information credibility. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Electronic Commerce (pp. 423–432). ACM. http://doi.org/10.1145/1282100.1282180, and (1977 ). A dual task response modality effect: Support for multiprocessor models of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29(4), 651–667. http://doi.org/10.1080/14640747708400639(2013 ). Credibility and trust of information in online environments: The use of cognitive heuristics. Journal of Pragmatics, 59, 210–220. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.07.012, and (2010 ). Social and heuristic approaches to credibility evaluation online. Journal of Communication, 60(3), 413–439. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01488.x, , and (2010 ). Using a games console in the primary classroom: Effects of “Brain Training” programme on computation and self-esteem. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), 242–255. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00918.x, and (1956 ). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81–97. http://doi.org/10.1037/h0043158([Page 213] , , , , and ( 2013 ). Working memory, fluid intelligence, and impulsiveness in heavy media multitaskers. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 20, 1274–1281. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0456-62003 ). The social construction of meaning: An alternative perspective on information sharing. Information Systems Research, 14(1), 87–106., and (1997 ). Human interaction with complex systems: Design issues and research approaches. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 27(3), 265–273., , and (2015 ). How learning styles and preferences of first-year nursing and midwifery students change. Australian Journal of Education, 59(2), 158–168. http://doi.org/10.1177/0004944115587917, , and (2008 ). The effect of interruption duration and demand on resuming suspended goals. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied, 14(4), 299–313. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0014402, , and (2011 ). Raising engagement in e-learning through gamification. The 6th International Conference on Virtual Learning ICVL 2011, (1), 323–329. Retrieved from http://icvl.eu/2011/disc/icvl/documente/pdf/met/ICVL_ModelsAndMethodologies_paper42.pdf(2009 ). Playing video games does not make for better visual attention skills. Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis, 6(1), 1–20., and (2006 ). Web 2.0: Principles and Best Practices [Excerpt]., and (2008 ). Prevalence and correlates of excessive internet use among youth in Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 37(1), 9–14., , and (2008 ). Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(1), 69–75. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2007.04.005, , and (2013 ). Pedestrian injuries due to mobile phone use in public places. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 57, 91–95. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.03.021, and (2005 ). Modeling the influence of task on attention. Vision Research, 45(2), 205–231. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2004.07.042, and (2000 ). The influence of cognitive load on learning from hypertext. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23(3), 237–255. http://doi.org/10.2190/81BG-RPDJ-9FA0-Q7PA, , , and (2001 ). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108(2), 291–310. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.2.291, , , and (2013 ). Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 8(2). http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518, , , , , , … ([Page 214] , , , , , , … ( 2012 ). Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 7(1), e29676. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.00296762014 ). Prediction of cyberslacking when employees are working away from the office. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 291–298. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.02.015, , and (2005 ). Is it age or IT: First steps toward understanding the net generation. Learning, Chapter 2(2), 2.1-2.20. http://doi.org/Article, and (2011 ). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination as predictors of problematic internet use in university students. Computers and Education, 57(1), 1109–1113. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.005(2013 ). Enhancing cognition with video games: A multiple game training study. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e58546. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058546, and (Ofcom. ( 2015 ). The Communications Market Report.Ofcom. ( 2016 ). Adults’ media use and attitudes report. Retrieved from http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/market-data-research/media-literacy/media-lit-research/adults-2013/2016 ). Risky decision-making in adolescent girls: The role of pubertal hormones and reward circuitry. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 74, 77–91. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.08.013, , , , , , and (2009 ). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(37), 15583–15587. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0903620106, , and (2010 ). Putting brain training to the test. Nature, 465(7299), 775–778. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature09042, , , , , , … (2011 ). Text advertising blindness: The new banner blindness? Journal of Usability Studies, 6(3), 172–197., , and (2008 ). E-learning’s effect on knowledge: Can you download tacit knowledge? British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(3), 552–554. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00764.x(2006 ). Why are users banner-blind? The impact of navigation style in the perception of web banners. Journal of Digital Information, 2(1)., and (2000 ). Cognitive style and on-line database search experience as predictors of Web search performance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 51(6), 558–566. http://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(2000)51:6<558::AID-ASI7>3.0.CO;2-9, and (2005 ). How college affects students: A third decade of research. The Journal of Higher Education, 63(3). pp. 355–358. http://doi.org/10.2307/1982025, and ([Page 215] ( 2000 ). Task switching and multitask performance. In and (Eds.), Control of cognitive processes: Attention and performance XVIII, (pp. 277–307). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.2001 ). Attention and performance. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 629–651., , and (1998 ). Attentional limitations in dual-task performance. Attention, 155–189., and (2004 ). Walking with the scarecrow: The information-processing approach to decision research. In and (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of judgment and decision making (pp. 110–132). Oxford: Blackwell. http://doi.org/10.1002/9780470752937.ch16, and (2007 ). Discrentionary task interleaving: Heuristics for time allocation in cogntive foraging. Jounral of Experimental Psychology: General, 136(3), 370–388. http://doi.org/10.2966/scrip., , and (1997 ). How the mind works. New York: Norton.(2005 ). Rational analyses of information foraging on the web. Cognitive Science, 29(3), 343–373. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0000_20(2009 ). Development of a new measure of polychronicity, 182–202., and (2005 ). Influencing brain networks: Implications for education. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(3, Special Issue), 99–103. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.01.007, and (2006 ). TCP/IP tutorial and technical overview. IBM Redbooks. Retrieved from http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~ijirasek/courses/cpsc441/tcpip_2001.ps, , , , , , and (2001a ). Digital natives, digital immigrants, Part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6. http://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424816(2001b ). Fun, play and games: what makes games engaging. In Digital Game-Based Learning (pp. 1–31). McGraw-Hill. http://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.66.085421(2005 ). Engage me or enrage me. EDUCAUSE Review, 40(5), 1–5.(2009 ). H. sapiens digital: From digital immigrants and digital natives to digital wisdom. Journal of Online Education, 5(3), 1–9. http://doi.org/www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=705(2012 ). From digital natives to digital wisdom: Hopeful essays for 21st century learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(2008 ). The woman who can’t forget: The extraordinary story of living with the most remarkable memory known to science: A memoir. New York: Simon and Schuster., and (PricewaterhouseCoopers. ( 2016 ). IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report – 2015 Full Year Results. Retrieved from http://www.iab.net/media/file/IAB_Full_year_2010_0413_Final.pdf2013 ). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1841–1848. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.02.014, , , and ([Page 216] , and ( 2008 ). Cognitive psychology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.2012 ). Training the brain: Fact and fad in cognitive and behavioral remediation. Brain and Cognition, 79(2), 159–179. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2012.02.006, and (2015 ). Facilitating student-driven constructing of learning environments using Web 2.0 personal learning environments. Computers and Education, 81, 235–246. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.012, , and (2013 ). Media multitasking and failures of attention in everyday life. Psychological Research, 1–9. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-013-0523-7, , , and (2014 ). Non-academic internet use in the classroom is negatively related to classroom learning regardless of intellectual ability. Computers and Education, 78, 109–114. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.05.007, , and (2008 ). On the applications of change blindness. Psychologia, 51(2), 100–106. http://doi.org/10.2117/psysoc.2008.100(1992 ). Selective attention and prose learning: Theoretical and empirical research. Educational Psychology Review, 4(4), 345–391.(2010 ). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8 to 18 year-olds. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 1–79. http://doi.org/P0-446179799-1366925520306, , and (2013 ). Everyday attention: Mind wandering and computer use during lectures. Computers and Education, 68, 275–283. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.05.001, , , and (2004 ). A review of behavioral and biological correlates of sensation seeking. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(3), 256–279. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00067-9(2011 ). Human attention in digital environments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2007 ). Predicting academic achievement with cognitive ability. Intelligence, 35(1), 83–92. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2006.05.004, and (2014 ). Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3(2), 83–89. http://doi.org/10.1556/JBA.3.2014.003, and (2008 ). The myth of multitasking. The New Atlantis, 105–110. Retrieved from http://faculty.winthrop.edu/hinera/CRTW-Spring_2011/TheMythofMultitasking_Rosen.pdf(2011 ). An empirical examination of the educational impact of text message-induced task switching in the classroom: Educational implications and strategies to enhance learning. Psicología Educativa, 17, 163–177. Retrieved from http://my.psychologytoday.com/files/attachments/40095/anempiricalexaminationoftheeducationalimpactoftextmessage-inducedtaskswitchingintheclassroom-educati.pdf, , , and ([Page 217] , , and ( 2013 ). Facebook and texting made me do it: Media-induced task-switching while studying. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 948–958. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.0012003 ). What was I looking for? The influence of task specificity and prior knowledge on students’ search strategies in hypertext. Interacting with Computers, 15(3 Special Issue), 409–428. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0953-5438(02)00064-4(2001 ). Executive control of cognitive processes in task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(4), 763–797. http://doi.org/10.1037//0096-15126.96.36.1993, , and (2006 ). Screenagers: Lessons in chaos from digital kids. New York: Hampton Press.(2014 ). Large-scale assessment of mobile notifications. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI ’14 (pp. 3055–3064). http://doi.org/10.1145/2556288.2557189, , , , , and . (2006 ). Experimental study of inequality and unpredictability in an artificial cultural market. Science, 311(5762), 854–856. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1121066, , and (2008 ). Threaded cognition: An integrated theory of concurrent multitasking. Psychological Review, 115(1), 101–130. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.115.1.101, and (2009 ). Toward a unified theory of the multitasking continuum: From concurrent performance to task switching, interruption, and resumption. In CHI ‘09: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1819–1828. http://doi.org/10.1145/1518701.1518981, , and (2016 ). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 321–325. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.045, and (2013 ). Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. PLoS ONE, 8(1). http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054402, , , and (2005 ). Comparing grades in online and face-to-face writing courses: Interpersonal accountability and institutional commitment. Computers and Composition, 22(4), 471–489. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compcom.2005.08.005, and (1995 ). How in the world did we ever get into that mode? Mode error and awareness in supervisory control. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 37(1), 5–19. http://doi.org/10.1518/001872095779049516, and (2001 ). Virtually perfect time sharing in dual-task performance: Uncorking the central cognitive bottleneck. Psychological Science, 12(2), 101–108. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00318, , , , , , and (2011 ). Augmenting web pages and search results to help peoplefind trustworthy information online. Proceedings of the Annual SIGCHI Conference. Retrieved from http://www.notjulie.com/research/web_credibility/paper.pdf, and ([Page 218] , , , , , and ( 2012 ). Distraction and pedestrian safety: How talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music impact crossing the street. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 266–271. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.07.0111999 ). Envisioning the Web: User expectations about the cyber-experience. Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 36, 17–24. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-27844497971&partnerID=tZOtx3y1, , and (1980 ). Minds, brains, and programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 417–457. http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4832-1446-7.50007-8(2000 ). Multiple object tracking and attentional processing. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Experimentale, 54(1), 1–14. http://doi.org/10.1037/h0087326, and (1949 ). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press., and (2004 ). Learning from hypertext: Research issues and findings. Research on Educational Communications, 605–620. Retrieved from http://learngen.org/~aust/EdTecheBooks/AECTHANDBOOK2ND/23.pdf, and (1997 ). The attentional blink. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1(8), 291–295., , and (1994 ). The origin of synaptic neuroplasticity: Crucial molecules or a dynamical cascade? Brain Research Reviews, 19(3), 241–263., , and (1984 ). Automatic and controlled processing revisited. Psychological Review, 91(2), 269–276. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.91.2.269, and (2015 ). The power of play: The effects of Portal 2 and Lumosity on cognitive and noncognitive skills. Computers and Education, 80, 58–67. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.08.013, , and (2011 ). The impact of salient advertisements on reading and attention on web pages. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(2), 174–190. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0024042, , , , , , and (1957 ). Models of man; social and rational. Oxford: Wiley.(1971 ). Designing organizations for an information-rich world. In (Ed.), Computers, communications, and the public interest (pp. 37–52). Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.(1974 ). About behaviourism. New York: Random House.(1999 ). Organizational behavior implications of the congruence between preferred polychronicity and experienced work-unit polychronicity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(1), 75–99. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3100205, and (2013 ). The nature of cyberbullying , and strategies for prevention. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 26–32. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.024, , and ([Page 219] , and ( 2008 ). Meet your iBrain. Scientific American, 19(5), 42–49.2010 ). Cognition and the Web. In 1st ITA Workshop on Network-Enabled Cognition: The Contribution of Social and Technological Networks to Human Cognition, Maryland, USA (pp. 1–41). Retrieved from http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21824/(2015 ). U.S. Smartphone Use in 2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/, , , , and (2010 ). Examining the effects of interruptions on processing of online news.(1971 ). Blink coding for information display. Human Factors, 13(3), 283–290. Retrieved from http://hfs.sagepub.com/content/13/3/283.short, and (1963 ). Higher nervous functions: The orienting reflex. Annual Review of Physiology, 25, 545–580.(2010 ). Coping with information overload in email communication: Evaluation of a training intervention. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1458–1466. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.04.024, and (2011 ). Google effects on memory: Cognitive consequences of having information at our fingertips. Science, 333(6043), 776–778. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1207745, , and (2003 ). The effects of interruptions, task complexity, and information presentation on computer-supported decision-making performance. Decision Sciences, 34(4), 771–797. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5414.2003.02292.x, , and (2010 ). Video games and spatial cognition. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 92–104. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0019491, and (2006 ). Predicting school achievement from general cognitive ability, self-perceived ability, and intrinsic value. Intelligence, 34(4), 363–374. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2005.11.004, , , and (1993 ). The structure and organization of memory. Annual peview of Psychology, 44, 453–495. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.70.5.1478, , and (2009 ). Effect of cell phone distraction on pediatric pedestrian injury risk. Pediatrics, 123(2), e179-85. http://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1382, , and (2012 ). Change blindness when viewing web pages. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, 41, 6098–6102. http://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-1067-6098, and (2008 ). Scientific habits of mind in virtual worlds. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(6), 530–543. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-008-9120-8, and (2003 ). Behavioural strategies in web interaction: A view from eye-movement research. In , and (Eds.), The mind’s eye: Cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research (pp. 633–644). http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044451020-4/50033-5, , and ([Page 220] , , , , , and ( 2013 ). Space Fortress game training and executive control in older adults: A pilot intervention. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognitive Development, 18(6), 653–677. http://doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2011.613450.Space1992 ). Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73–93. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.x(1976 ). Displays and the software interface. Applied Ergonomics, 7(3), 137–146. http://doi.org/10.1016/0003-6870(76)90202-7(2004 ). What do drivers fail to see when conversing on a cell phone? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 48, 2213–2217. http://doi.org/10.1177/154193120404801902, , and (2006 ). Multitasking in the automobile. Attention: From Theory to Practice, 121–133., and (2007 ). Cell-phone? Induced driver distraction. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3), 128–131. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00489.x, and (2003 ). Cell phone-induced failures of visual attention during simulated driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9(1), 23–32. http://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.9.1.23, , and (2001 ). Driven to distraction: Dual-task studies of simulated driving and conversing on a cellular telephone. Psychological Science, 12(6), 462–466. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00386, and (2011 ). Cognitive distraction while multitasking in the automobile. In (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory (Vol. 54, pp. 29–58). http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385527-5.00002-4, , and (2007 ). Using electronic media before sleep can curtail sleep time and result in self-perceived insufficient sleep. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 5(3), 204–214. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2007.00276.x, , , , , , … (2005 ). The basic psychological features of cyberspace. In The Psychology of Cyberspace. Retrieved from http://truecenterpublishing.com/psycyber/basicfeat.html(2015 ). Psychology of the digital age: Humans become electric. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2009 ). Decision-making and prepotent response inhibition functions in excessive internet users. CNS Spectrums, 14, 75–81., , , , , and (2008 ). The MAIN model: A heuristic approach to understanding technology effects on credibility. Digital Media, Youth, and Credibility, 73–100. http://doi.org/10.1162/dmal.9780262562324.073(2000 ). Source orientation in human-computer interaction. Communication Research, 27(6), 683–703., and ([Page 221] , , and ( 2009 ). Authority vs. peer: How interface cues influence users. CHI ‘09 Extended Abstract on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 4231–4236). http://doi.org/10.1145/1520340.15206452007 ). Serious games – an overview. Elearning, 73(10), 28. http://doi.org/10.1.1.105.7828, , and (1994 ). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4, 295–312. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0959475294900035(2011 ). Interruptions in the workplace: A case study to reduce their effects. International Journal of Information Management, 31(4), 385–394. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2010.10.010(1998 ). Growing up digital: The rise of the net generation. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://doi.org/10.1177/019263659908360714(1898 ). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Review, 2(4), 1–107. http://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-190001000-00013(2014 ). The mere presence of a cell phone may be distracting: Implications for attention and task performance. Social Psychology, 45(6), 479–488. http://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000216, , , and (2002 ). The heuristic-systematic model of social information processing. In and (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 195–211). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications., , and (2003 ). Preparing to resume an interrupted task: Effects of prospective goal encoding and retrospective rehearsal. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 58(5), 583–603. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00023-5, , , and (1991 ). Search, similarity, and integration of features between and within dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17(3), 652–676. http://doi.org/10.1037/0096-15188.8.131.522(2005 ). Multiple-object tracking in children: The “Catch the Spies” task. Cognitive Development, 20(3), 373–387. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2005.05.009, , and (1999 ). Theoretical aspects of neuroplasticity. Physiological Research, 48(2), 87–97., and (1999 ). Credibility and computing technology. Communications of the ACM, 42(5), 39–44. http://doi.org/10.1145/301353.301402, and (1972 ). Episodic and semantic memory. In and (Eds.), Organization of memory (Vol. 1, pp. 381–403). New York: Academic Press. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00047257(1992 ). Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 11(1), 13–33. http://doi.org/citeulike-article-id:513444, and ([Page 222] , , and ( 2000 ). Banner-advertised Web surveys. Marketing Research, 11(4), 16.1974 ). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124–1131. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.185.4157.1124, and (2012 ). Everyday attention failures: An individual differences investigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38(6), 1765–1772. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0028075, , , and (1998 ). Growth of theories on information seeking: An analysis of growth of a theoretical research program on the relation between task complexity and information seeking. Information Processing and Management, 34(2–3), 361–382. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4573(97)00074-5(1999 ). Task complexity, problem structure and information actions: Integrating studies on information seeking and retrieval. Information Processing and Management, 35(6), 819–837. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4573(99)00028-X(2005 ). The deepening divide: Inequality in the information society. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.. (1998 ). Interrupts: Just a minute never is. IEEE Software, 15(5), 97–103. http://doi.org/10.1109/52.714843, , and . (2004 ). Unseen and unaware: Implications of recent research on failures of visual awareness for human–computer interface design. Human-Computer Interaction, 19(4), 389–422. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327051hci1904_9, , and (2012 ). Loyalty and or disloyalty to a search engine: The case of young Millennials. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29(2), 125–135. http://doi.org/10.1108/07363761211206375, and (2013 ). The relationship between video game use and a performance-based measure of persistence. Computers and Education, 60(1), 52–58. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.07.003, , and (2011 ). Personal Internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1751–1759. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.03.002, , and (2011 ). Constant connectivity: Rethinking interruptions at work. Organization Studies, 32(7), 941–961. http://doi.org/10.1177/0170840611410829, and (2007 ). Cybercrime: The transformation of crime in the information age. Cambridge: Polity.(2009 ). How students evaluate information and sources when searching the World Wide Web for information. Computers and Education, 52(1), 234–246. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.08.003, , and (1998 ). An exploratory study of users’ interaction with world wide web resources: Information skills, cognitive styles, affective states, and searching behaviours. School of Information Sciences – Faculty Publications and Other Works, 445–454. Retrieved from http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_infosciepubs/35, and ([Page 223] ( 2000 ). Information visualization: Perception for design. New York: Morgan Kaufmann.2002 ). Reconceptualizing the digital divide. First Monday, 7(7).(2002 ). Believe it or not: Factors influencing credibility on the Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(2), 134–144. http://doi.org/10.1002/asi.10016, and (1913 ). Psychology as the behaviourist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158–177. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035056(2010 ). Supertaskers: Profiles in extraordinary multitasking ability. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17(4), 479–485. http://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.17.4.479, and (2003 ). Providing introductory psychology students access to lecture slides via Blackboard 5: A negative impact on performance. Journal of Education Technology Systems, 31(4), 463–474., , and (2012 ). Rethinking college students’ self-regulation and sustained attention: does text messaging during class influence cognitive learning? Communication Education, 3(61), 185–204., and (1998 ). Mind as action. New York: Oxford University Press.(1999 ). Factors influencing Web search strategies. In ASIS Annual Conference., and (2001 ). Questions as a factor in Web search strategy. Information Processing and Management, 37(5), 721–740. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4573(00)00043-1, and (1911 ). An introduction to mathematics. London: Williams and Norgate.(1997 ). Cyberspace: The human dimension. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co Ltd.(2013 ). Anatomy of the online dating romance scam. Security Journal, 1–13. http://doi.org/10.1057/sj.2012.57(2012 ). The online romance scam: A serious cybercrime. Cyberpsychology, 15(3), 181–183. http://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0352, and (1981 ). Processing resources in attention, dual task performance, and workload assessment. Retrieved from http://www.aviation.illinois.edu/avimain/papers/research/pub_pdfs/techreports/EPL-81-3.pdf(2002 ). Multiple resources and performance prediction. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3(2), 159–177. http://doi.org/10.1080/14639220210123806(2006 ). Information processing. In (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (, and (4thed., Vol. 42, pp. 111–149). New York: Wiley.2007 ). Internet addiction: Does it really exist? (Revisited). Young, 127–149., and (2007 ). Attention during lectures: Beyond ten minutes. Teaching of Psychology, 34, 85–89., and ([Page 224] , , , and ( 2007 ). The Webnas method: A holistic approach to the analysis of web navigating and search behaviour. Communication Methods and Measures, 3(3), 115–146.2008 ). Decision making, impulsivity and time perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(1), 7–12. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2007.10.004, and (2012 ). Examining the impact of off-task multi-tasking with technology on real-time classroom learning. Computers and Education, 58(1), 365–374. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.029, , , , , and (2014 ). Near- and far-transfer effects of working memory updating training in elderly adults. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(3), 403–408. http://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3011, , , and (2007 ). Comparison of Internet addicts and non-addicts in Taiwanese high school. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 79–96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.037, and (2000 ). Goal-directed and stimulus-driven determinants of attentional control. Control of Cognitive Processes: Attention and Performance Xviii, 73–103. http://doi.org/10.2337/db11-0571(1984 ). Abrupt visual onsets and selective attention: Evidence from visual search, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10(5), 601–621., and (1990 ). Abrupt visual onsets and selective attention: Voluntary versus automatic allocation. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 16(1), 121–134. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2137514, and (2007 ). The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 93–98. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.02.002, , , , and (2009 ). The association between adult ADHD symptoms and Internet addiction among college students: The gender difference. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(2), 187–191. http://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2008.0113, , , , and (2008 ). Validating the use and role of visual elements of web pages in navigation with an eye-tracking study. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on World Wide Web WWW 08, 11. http://doi.org/10.1145/1367497.1367500, , , and (2004 ). Assessing the effects of animation in online banner advertising: Hierarchy of effects model. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 4(2), 49–60. Retrieved from http://jiad.org/download?p=49&a=bi&pagenumber=1&w=100, , and (2004 ). Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 58, 487–494. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2004.01290.x, , , , , , … ([Page 225] , and ( 2007 ). Driver distraction: A review of the literature. Distracted Driving, 379–405. http://doi.org/10.1201/97814200074971999 ). Internet addiction: Symptoms, evaluation and treatment. Innovations in Clinical Practice: A Source Book, 17, 19–31. Retrieved from http://www.netaddiction.com/articles/symptoms.pdf(2012 ). Developing a dual-process information seeking model for exploratory search. Mikezarro.com. Retrieved from http://www.mikezarro.com/docs/Zarro_HCIR2012_FINAL.pdf(2011 ). The negative effect of e-mails at work. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 14(1), 82–94(2000 ). The effects of animation on information seeking performance on the World Wide Web: Securing attention or interfering with primary tasks? Journal of the AIS, 1(March). Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=374128(1999 ). Hypermedia interface design: The effects of number of links and granularity of nodes. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8(3), 331–358.(2000 ). Personality and risk-taking: Common biosocial factors. Journal of Personality, 68(6), 999. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00124, and (2005 ). From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer, 38(9), 25–32. http://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2005.297(