Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance


Edited by: Helmut K. Anheier & Yudhishthir Raj Isar

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  • Part 1: Metropolitan Cultural Politics, Policies and Governance

    Part 2: Indicator Suites

  • The Cultures and Globalization Series

    The Cultures and Globalization Series brings together essays examining the reciprocal relationships between cultural change and globalization. Too often the emphasis is placed on the impact of the latter on the former – this Series aims to readdress the balance. Over the course of 5 volumes, the key contemporary topics in the cultural field are covered: from identity politics and the creative industries to cultural expression, heritage, memory and city cultural governance and policy. Written by leading experts as well as emerging scholars from all the geocultural regions of the world and various distinct disciplines, the essays offer a range of different conceptual views of contemporary cultural change, thereby providing a platform for students and academics to engage in open debate. Furthermore, they are complemented by a variety of empirical ‘indicator suites’ rich in colour and graphics, which present quantitative data in a highly innovative, accessible and engaging way. As a result, The Cultures and Globalization Series is an indispensible reference tool for students of contemporary culture.

    Series Editors: Helmut K. Anheier and Yudhishthir Raj Isar

    Current Volumes

    Vol. 5: Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance (2012)

    Vol. 4: Heritage, Memory and Identity (2011)

    Vol. 3: Cultural Expression, Creativity and Innovation (2010)

    Vol. 2: The Cultural Economy (2008)

    Vol. 1: Conflicts and Tensions (2007)


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    This volume is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Dragan Klaic (1950–2011), who supported, inspired and enriched the Series.

    List of Boxes, Figures, Tables, Maps and Photos

    • 2.1 Formal–Informal Interdependence in Russia, Ramon Lobato 38
    • 3.1 Contesting the Ecology of African Public Space, Phil Wood 51
    • 3.2 Rebuilding Public Space in Serbia – Literally, Phil Wood 52
    • 3.3 Migrantas – a Visual Language of Migration, Phil Wood 52
    • 3.4 ‘Me and the other in Turin's Museums’, Phil Wood 53
    • 3.5 Idea Stores, Phil Wood 54
    • 3.6 Festival Kanal: From no-go to Must-go Zones, Phil Wood 55
    • 3.7 Ethnic Clubbing and Niche Entrepreneurialism in the European Metropolis, Kira Kosnick 56
    • 5.1 Quebec's Sustainability Action Plan, Nancy Duxbury, Catherine Cullen, and Jordi Pascual 78
    • 5.2 Culture and Sustainable Development Imagined, Nancy Duxbury, Catherine Cullen, and Jordi Pascual 79
    • 5.3 New Approaches to Policy Activism from International to Local and Back to Global, Paul Nagle 83
    • 21.1 Living Infrastructure in Medellín, Octavio Arbeláez Tobón 230
    • 21.2 Transformation through Civic Culture, Laura Collier 231
    • 22.1 Multicultural Dandenong, Terry Flew and Mark Gibson 239
    • 30.1 Granville Island Cultural District, Catherine Murray and Tom Hutton 311
    • 30.2 The Expo '86 Gamble, Catherine Murray and Tom Hutton 312
    • 30.3 Vancouverism, Catherine Murray and Tom Hutton 313
    • 30.4 The Neighbourhood Strategy of Multi-Use Centres, Catherine Murray and Tom Hutton 315
    • 30.5 Vancouver 2010 Winter Cultural Olympiad, Catherine Murray and Tom Hutton 316
    • 32.1 Barcelona: a Policy Paragon? Yudhishthir Raj Isar 331
    • 32.2 An Integrated Urban Revitalization Process in Tel Aviv–Jaffa, Shulamit Shulov Barkan 337
    • I.1 Dynamics of local and global relational patterns 2
    • 1.1 Global activity of industrial lobbies in the formation of policy in Brussels, Washington, DC, and Montevideo 28
    • 5.1 Sustainability action plan developed by the Province of Quebec, Canada 77
    • 6.1 Anholt City Brand Hexagon 90
    • 12.1 Evolution of the added value in Creative Industries sub-sectors in Antwerp, 2000–2007 157
    • 17.1 Detail of the ‘Cultural Arc’ in the inner city of Johannesburg (Newtown) 197
    • 23.1 Organizations playing a role in the cultural policies of Mexico City 245
    • 23.2 Performances in Mexico City (Federal District) 248
    • 29.1 Audience attendance in the Metropolitan Museum System, 1952–2009 303
    • 29.2 Audiences for the performing arts in Torino, 1990–2009 304
    • 29.3 Public and private expenditure for the cultural sector in the Piedmont region and in the Torino province, 1999–2008 305
    • 29.4 Tourism in Torino: attendances and arrivals, 2000–2009 307
    • 2.1 Cost of three book titles as a percentage of average income in South Africa, India and the USA 39
    • 3.1 Top 25 world cities by percentage of foreign-born (FB) in the population 45
    • 6.1 Approaches to developing a place/city brand 89
    • 12.1 Benchmark results of Antwerp, Rotterdam, Stuttgart and Manchester 158
    • 19.1 The cultural assets of L'viv 215
    • 22.1 Unemployment rates by state/territory, Australia 236
    • 22.2 Breakdown of suburban creative industry employment against national averages (per cent) 238
    • 1.1 Brussels: spatial location and clustering of actors involved in culture-related policy-making 21
    • 1.2 Clustering of Information Society policy stakeholders in Washington, D.C. 24
    • 1.3 Spatial clustering of actors involved in cultural policy-making in Montevideo 25
    • 27.1 Cinemas in São Paulo (2009) 275
    • 27.2 Theatres and spaces for theatre performances in São Paulo (2009) 276
    • 27.3 Concert halls and spaces for music performances in São Paulo (2009) 277
    • 27.4 Cultural centres in São Paulo (2009) 278
    • 27.5 Museums in São Paulo (2009) 279
    • 27.6 Art galleries in São Paulo (2009) 280
    • 27.7 Libraries in São Paulo (2009) 281
    • 27.8 Diversity of cultural infrastructure in São Paulo (2009) 282
    • 7.1 Bilbao, 2010 – Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum; Jeff Koons, Puppy (Michele Nastasi) 103
    • 7.2 Dubai, 2010 – Skidmore Owings Merrill, Burj Khalifa (Michele Nastasi) 105
    • 7.3 Paris, 2010 – La Défense (Michele Nastasi) 107
    • 10.1 A market area in 1960s Abu Dhabi (Source: © BP plc; ARC113279_222 BP archive. University of Warwick) 135
    • 10.2 Modern Abu Dhabi – a scene from the Central Business District (Yasser Elsheshtawy) 136
    • 10.3 Saadiyat Island – Guggenheim in the foreground, and Nouvel's Domed Louvre in the back (Yasser Elsheshtawy) 138
    • 10.4 Picasso Exhibition held at the Emirates Palace Hotel (Yasser Elsheshtawy) 140
    • 10.5 Satellite view of Abu Dhabi Island showing the relationship to Saadiyat Island (courtesy of NASA) 141
    • 10.6 A street corner gathering in Abu Dhabi's Central Business District, used by its low-income South-Asian community (Yasser Elsheshtawy) 142
    • 33.1 Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower, Vietnam (Mieka Ritsema) 342
    • 33.2 Quiet residential street in Ciputra Hanoi International City (Mieka Ritsema) 343
    • 33.3 Hanoi's streets (Mieka Ritsema) 344
    • 33.4 The Atlantic side of Table Mountain, Cape Town (Mieka Ritsema) 344
    • 33.5 Table Mountain, Cape Town (Mieka Ritsema) 345
    • 33.6 Brush Park neighborhood, Detroit (Mieka Ritsema) 346
    • 33.7 Downtown Detroit (Mieka Ritsema) 347
    • 33.8 Chandigarh, India (Mieka Ritsema) 348
    • 33.9 Detroit's East Side streets (Lily Baum Pollans) 349


    Asu Aksoy teaches in the Cultural Management Programme at Istanbul Bilgi University and was also involved in the setting up of Santralistanbul, a new cultural complex at the site of Istanbul's first electricity power plant, as well as with Istanbul's successful bid to become a European Capital of Culture in 2010. She has recently completed a Cultural Mapping of Istanbul for the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism and writes about urban and cultural policy in Turkey. Her earlier research was on the changing media consumption practices in Europe of Turkish-speaking migrants, a topic on which she has authored and co-authored many articles.

    Helmut K. Anheier (PhD, Yale) is Dean of the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, holds a chair in sociology at Heidelberg University and serves as Academic Director of the Center for Social Investment there. From 2001 to 2009, he was Professor of Public Policy and Social Welfare at UCLA's School of Public Affairs and Centennial Professor at the London School of Economics. Earlier, he founded and directed the Centre for Civil Society at LSE and the Center for Civil Society at UCLA. Before embarking on an academic career, he served as a social affairs officer to the United Nations. He is currently researching the nexus between globalization, civil society, and culture and is interested in policy analysis and methodological questions.

    Octavio Arbeláez Tobón is a lawyer who specializes in cultural marketing. He has an MA in philosophy and is a doctoral candidate in design and creation at the National University of Caldas, Colombia. He has been professor at the National University of Colombia and the National University of Caldas, where he was dean of the Faculty of Arts. He has studied the relationship between culture and development in the transformation of Colombian cities as well as the cultural dimension of new technologies and their application to so-called ‘knowledge cities’ in Latin America.

    Emilia Birlo (artwork) is a visual artist and fashion designer who divides her time between Berlin and Los Angeles. Her art designs can be viewed at

    Laura Collier is completing a Master's in Global Communications at The American University of Paris. She has a background working and volunteering in communications for cultural institutions and NGOs in the United States, Colombia and France. She holds a Bachelor's degree from Georgetown University in Classics and German language.

    Catherine Cullen has worked in the cultural arena for the last 30 years. After initial experience in publishing, editing and journalism, she became editor in chief of LIBER, the first European cultural supplement issued jointly by several major European newspapers. She is currently Vice-President of the Culture Committee of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG). She has been Deputy Mayor in charge of Culture for the City of Lille, France, since 2001, and was responsible for Lille 2004, European Capital of Culture. In 2008, she also became councillor for Culture for Lille Metropole Communauté Urbaine.

    Stuart Cunningham is Distinguished Professor of Media and Communications, Queensland University of Technology, and Director of the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation. His most recent books are The Media and Communications in Australia (with Graeme Turner) and In the Vernacular: A Generation of Australian Culture and Controversy. He has served as Commissioner, Australian Film Commission; foundation Chair, QPIX, Queensland's screen resource centre; Executive Council member, Australian Academy of the Humanities; Panel Chair, ARC College of Experts; President of the Council for Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences; and member of the Library Board of Queensland.

    Luca Dal Pozzolo, an architect, is Vice-President of Fondazione Fitzcarraldo, an independent centre for planning, research, training and documentation on culture, arts and media management, economics and policy. He is also Director of the Cultural Observatory of Piedmont and professor at the Polytechnic of Torino and the University of Bologna. He has directed research on cultural policy, cultural economics and the management and sustainability of cultural organizations and their audiences and is the author of several books and articles on the design process, urban phenomena and local development.

    Simin Davoudi is Professor of Environment Policy and Planning in the School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape at Newcastle University, UK. She is a past President of the Association of the European Schools of Planning; she has served as an expert adviser for several UK and European public bodies and has been a visiting professor at a number of European universities. Conceptions of Space & Place in Strategic Spatial Planning and Planning for Climate Change are among her latest books.

    Nancy Duxbury is a senior researcher and coordinator of the ‘Cities, Cultures and Architecture’ research group of the Centre for Social Studies at the University of Coimbra. She is also an adjunct professor with Simon Fraser University, Vancouver. From 2005 to 2008, she was the executive director of the Centre of Expertise on Culture and Communities and before that Director of Research of the Creative City Network of Canada, and Cultural Planning Analyst at the City of Vancouver. She was lead author of Under Construction: The State of Cultural Infrastructure in Canada (2008) and guest co-editor of a double issue of Culture and Local Governance on ‘Culture and Sustainable Communities’ (2011).

    Yasser Elsheshtawy is Associate Professor of Architecture at the United Arab Emirates University. His recent research interests are urbanization patterns in Middle Eastern cities with a particular emphasis on informal urbanism, a topic on which he recently edited a special issue of the journal Built Environment. Among his publications are Dubai: Behind an Urban Spectacle, The Evolving Arab City and Planning Middle Eastern Cities. He has been a consultant for the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UN-ESCWA), serves on many editorial boards, and is a columnist for AIRoyya, an Arabic daily specializing in financial affairs.

    Terry Flew is Professor of Media and Communications at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT), in Brisbane, Australia. He is the author of New Media: An Introduction, Understanding Global Media (Palgrave) and The Creative Industries, Culture and Policy (SAGE) and is well known internationally in creative industries research. He has been President of the Australian and New Zealand Communication Association, and has provided expert advice to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the National Academies Forum, the Australian Communications and Media Authority, Brisbane City Council and the European Science Foundation. During 2011–12 he was seconded to the Australian Law Reform Commission to lead the National Classifications Scheme Review for the Australian Government.

    Mark Gibson is author of Culture and Power – A History of Cultural Studies and Editor of Continuum – Journal of Media and Cultural Studies; he has published widely on everyday life, cultural geography and creative industries. He is Coordinator, at Monash University, of the Graduate Communications and Media Studies programme in the National Centre for Australian Studies and Research Coordinator in the School of Journalism, Australian and Indigenous Studies.

    Xin Gu graduated in Civil Engineering from Shanghai Tonji University, obtained a Master's in European Urban Cultures from Manchester Metropolitan University, where she also completed her doctorate on creative industry networks and the city. She is currently a postdoctoral research fellow at Queensland University of Technology, where she is lead researcher on the ARC-financed project ‘Designing Creative Clusters in China and Australia’.

    Kim Gurney is a Research Associate in the University of Johannesburg's Research Centre on Visual Identities in Art and Design, exploring the nexus of culture and economics. She is also a visual artist, often engaging with gaps, disappearance and in/visibility, and a freelance journalist, with a special interest in business and culture. She holds an Honours degree in Fine Art from the University of Cape Town (South Africa), an MA in International Journalism from City University (UK) and an Honours degree in Journalism from Rhodes University (South Africa).

    David Halle is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He divides his time between New York and Los Angeles. His publications include Art Gallery Districts, Historic Preservation, and Mega Projects: Urban Change on Manhattan's Far West Side, New York & Los Angeles: The Uncertain Future (edited with Andrew Beveridge), New York & Los Angeles: Politics, Society and Culture (ed.) and Inside Culture: Art and Class in the American Home.

    Michael Hoelscher (PhD, Berlin) is senior lecturer at the Department of Sociology, University of Heidelberg, Germany, and Senior Research Fellow at the University of Oxford. His main fields of interest are globalization, especially European integration, cultural sociology, economic sociology, higher education, and quantitative comparative methods. He has published several journal articles in these fields.

    Tom Hutton is Professor in the Centre for Human Settlements and School of Community & Regional Planning, University of British Columbia and an Associate of the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, and Green College, UBC. His research and teaching focus on urban and regional change in advanced and transitional societies, in particular the cultural economy of the city, creative industries and labour, the influence of space and built environment on the shaping of new industry formation, and the role of the inner city in cultural development. See

    Yudhishthir Raj Isar is an independent cultural adviser, writer and public speaker and is also Professor of Cultural Policy Studies at The American University of Paris and Eminent Research Visitor at the University of Western Sydney. He serves on the boards of several cultural institutions. From 2004 to 2008 he was President of the international association Culture Action Europe. Previously, at UNESCO, he was Executive Secretary of the World Commission on Culture and Development; in 1986–1987 he was Executive Director of The Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Lucina Jiménez, PhD in Anthropology, is Director-General of the AC International Art Consortium and School (CONARTE) and President of the Mexican Communication, Culture and Arts Observatory; member of the International Group of Experts in Art Education, Culture and Citizens of the Organization of Latin American States, of the Latin American Group of Education and Culture of the UNESCO Chair for Cultural Policies and International Cooperation. She coordinates the ProIDEA Art Education research programme of the University of the Cloister of Sor Juana, the National Teaching University and CONARTE. Among her publications are Teatro y Públicos, el lado oscuro de la Sala, Cultura y Democracia and Políticas Culturales en Transición.

    Dragan Klaic, who died on 25 August 2011, was a theatre scholar and cultural analyst. He served as a Permanent Fellow of Felix Meritis Foundation in Amsterdam and was a professor of the arts and cultural policy at the University of Leiden's Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts. He lectured widely at various universities, spoke at conferences and symposia and served as adviser, editor, researcher and trainer. His fields of engagement were contemporary performing arts, European cultural policies, strategies of cultural development and international cultural cooperation, interculturalism and cultural memory.

    Linda Knudsen McAusland has over 30 years experience in the cultural sector in public policy, programme, organization and community development, with a recent focus on whole systems and transformational change. She has worked internationally and cross-culturally and most recently spent three-and-a-half years in Ukraine designing and implementing community outreach and needs assessment and also consulting on, coaching in support of, and co-designing organizational and community change processes.

    Lily Kong is a Professor of Geography at the National University of Singapore. She is a social and cultural geographer, who has published widely in a number of areas, ranging from cultural policy and creative economies, to music, religion, place histories and national identities. Her work has focused on the Asian cities of Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Taipei and Beijing. Her recent books include: Creative Cities, Creative Economies: Asian-European Perspectives, Singapore Hawker Centres, Landscapes: Ways of Imagining the World, and The Politics of Landscapes in Singapore: Constructions of ‘Nation’.

    Kira Kosnick is Professor of Sociology at Goethe University Frankfurt. She gained her PhD in Cultural Anthropology from the New School for Social Research in 2003. Her research interests focus on transnational migration to Europe, migrant media practices, subaltern publics and the politics of cultural struggle in European urban centres. She is currently conducting a European Research Council Starting Grant Project on post-migrant youth and urban leisure practices in London, Berlin and Paris.

    Abha Narain Lambah is a practising conservation architect working in Mumbai. She has authored Through the Looking Glass: The Grade I Heritage of Mumbai and co-authored The Architecture of the Indian Sultanates, A City's Legacy: The Indian Navy's Heritage in Mumbai, A Conservation Manual for Owners & Occupiers: Heritage Buildings & Precincts, Mumbai and Conservation after Legislation: Issues for Mumbai. She has been a columnist on heritage issues for several Indian newspapers and magazines and has served on various advisory bodies.

    Charles Landry advises cities, working with them as a critical friend to harness their assets and potential. He develops his own projects using various cities as case studies from around the world such as the original ‘creative city’ concept, the ‘intercultural city’ with Phil Wood and more recently the ‘creative bureaucracy’. He has written several books (see

    Ramon Lobato, PhD, is a postdoctoral research fellow with the ARC Centre for Excellence in Creative Industries and Innovation at the Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia. He is the author of Shadow Economies of Cinema (forthcoming from the British Film Institute).

    Justin McGuinness teaches communications history, research methods and urban studies at The American University of Paris, and works on the historic built environment of North African cities. Educated in England and Kuwait (MA Durham, Social Sciences; PhD Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Town Planning), he has taught at the University of Tunis. His current research projects focus on gentrification and neo-liberal planning in Fès and Tunis and the politics of contemporary urban design in those cities.

    Janet Merkel is a PhD student in urban sociology at Humboldt University, Berlin. Since 2008 she has been a research fellow of the research unit ‘Cultural Sources of Newness’ at the Social Science Research Center (WZB) in Berlin. Her PhD project focuses on the interrelatedness of creativity and urban spaces and investigates the role, effects, and forms of public–private coordination in urban development for the promotion of the creative industries.

    Louise Mirrer has been President and CEO of the New York Historical Society since 2004. Earlier, she was Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs of the City University of New York and Professor at the CUNY Graduate Center and before that Vice Provost for Arts, Sciences and Engineering at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. She is a featured blogger on art, history and culture on The Huffington Post and has published widely on language, literature, history and women's studies. Her most recent book is Women, Jews, and Muslims in the Texts of Reconquest Castile.

    Catherine Murray is Associate Director of the Centre for Policy Studies on Culture and Communities at Simon Fraser University, Chair of the Department of Gender, Sexuality, and Women's Studies and Professor of Communication. She has a special interest in the devolution of cultural governance to the urban sphere, cultural pluralism and emerging ethnic cultural enterprises, and their intersection with race, gender and class. See,

    Paul Nagle is the founding Executive Director of the newly established Institute for Culture in the Service of Community Sustainability ICSCS. From 2002 to 2010 he was Director of Cultural Policy for the New York City Council Member Alan Gerson. Originally a playwright, Paul was Founding Executive Director of All Out Arts and Founding Executive Producer for its first five festivals, as well as Managing Director and Interim Executive Director of the Clemente Soto Vélez Cultural & Educational Center. He holds a BA in Arts Administration and an MA in cultural policy from New York University.

    Kate Oakley is a writer, academic and policy analyst. She is a Visiting Professor at the Department of Cultural Policy and Management, City University in London, where she is Course Director of the MA in Cultural Leadership. She is also a Visiting Professor at the University of the Arts in London. Her research interests include the politics of cultural policy, work in the cultural industries, and regional development.

    Justin O'Connor is a Professor in the Creative Industries faculty at the Queensland University of Technology, and Visiting Professor in the Department of Humanities, Shanghai Jiaotong University. Before that he was Director of the Manchester Institute for Popular Culture, Manchester Metropolitan University and Professor at the University of Leeds. While in Manchester he was responsible for that city's Nighttime Economy strategy, its Creative Industries Development Service and a new city museum.

    Jordi Pascual has coordinated the ‘Agenda 21 for culture’ process of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) since 2004. He also teaches urban cultural policies and management at the Open University of Catalonia. He has been a researcher at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (1992–1996), at the Interarts Foundation (1996–2) and the Institut de Cultura-Barcelona City Council (2000–2003). He has written on the relations between urban policies, culture and sustainability (Guide to Citizen Participation in Local Cultural Policy Development for European Cities) and has served as a member of the Jury of the European Capital of Culture.

    Edgar Pieterse is the holder of the Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation South African Research Chair in Urban Policy, directs the African Centre for Cities and is Professor in the School of Architecture, Planning and Geomatics at the University of Cape Town. His most recent books include: City Futures: Confronting the Crisis of Urban Development, Counter-Currents: Experiments in Sustainability in the Cape Town region (edited), and The African Cities Reader: Pan-African Practices (co-edited).

    Davide Ponzini, PhD, is a researcher focusing on planning theory, urban and cultural policies at the Politecnico di Milano. He has been a visiting scholar at Yale University, Johns Hopkins University, Columbia University and Sciences Po Paris. Author of II territorio dei beni culturali (2008), and co-author with Pier Carlo Palermo of Spatial Planning and Urban Development (2010) and with Michele Nastasi of the forthcoming Starchitecture: Scenes, Actors and Spectacles in Contemporary Cities.

    Ferdinand Richard is a musician who at the age of 26 founded a platform for the development of urban music and artistic expression in Marseille called AMI, of which he is still the director. He is a co-founder of the emblematic Friche Belle-de-Mai that will be a pivotal location for the 2012 Marseille–Provence European Capital of Culture programme. He was President of the European Forum for the Arts and Heritage, now Culture Action Europe, 1996–99 and is currently President of the Roberto Cimetta Fund for the mobility of artists and cultural operators in the Mediterranean. He is a consultant to international organizations and a visiting lecturer at several universities.

    Mieka Ritsema is a socio-cultural anthropologist with a focus on cities and urban life. She has a PhD in anthropology from Yale University and has taught at the University of Botswana, Yale University, and the University of Massachusetts, Boston. Her dissertation research, supported by a Fulbright fellowship, examined the contradictions of twentieth-century modernist cities through the lens of Botswana's capital city, Gaborone. Her research and teaching explore issues and experiences of rapid urban transformation, intergenerational tensions, and place-making practices in post-colonial societies.

    Kevin Robins has held professorships in Cultural Geography, Media and Communications, and Sociology. In recent years, he has worked extensively on issues of media and migration, particularly with respect to transnational Turkish migrants. He has also been involved with the Council of Europe's programme on Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity, producing the report The Challenge of Transcultural Diversities. Until recently he worked with the Goldsmiths College Leverhulme Media Research Centre on questions of European media and cultural policy and at present his focus is on media cultures, with particular reference to wider questions of European identity.

    Mathias Rouet is an urbanist who graduated in city planning from the University of the Sorbonne Paris 1 and in sociology from Dauphine University. He has worked with several architectural firms on the Grand Paris project and as a cartographer at The American University of Paris for a Paris Métropole call for proposals. His research in geography and urban sociology focuses on cultural scenes, the management of territorial conflict and urban governance.

    Pier Luigi Sacco, PhD, is Professor of Cultural Economics at the IULM University, Milan and also teaches Creative Industries at the University of Italian Switzerland (USI), Lugano, and writes for II Sole 24 Ore, Saturno and Flash Art. He is President of the scientific committee of the International Festival of Contemporary Art, Faenza, of the International Festival of Geography, Bardolino, of the Cultural Observatory of Marche Region and is Research Associate, Semeion Research Center, Rome. He has written prolifically on economic theory, game theory, cultural economics and cultural industries.

    Katharine Sarikakis has a PhD in contemporary history and is Professor in Communication Science and Media Governance at the University of Vienna. She has held positions among others at the University of Leeds, Karlstad University, Sweden, McGill University and Hainan University, China. She is the founding co-editor of the International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, and has written many articles and books in her field. She is the Chair of the Communications Law and Policy Section of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA). Email:

    Saskia Sassen is the Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology and co-chairs The Committee on Global Thought at Columbia University ( Her books have been translated into 21 languages. Her path-breaking The Global City came out in a new fully updated edition in 2001. Among her most recent works are Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages (Princeton University Press, 2008), A Sociology of Globalization (W.W. Norton, 2007), and the 4th fully updated edition of Cities in a World Economy (Sage, 2011). She is currently working on When Territory Exits Existing Frameworks (under contract with Harvard University Press). She contributes regularly to and

    Ihor Savchak is the founder and Director of the Centre for Cultural Management in L'viv, Ukraine. With the support of the European Cultural Foundation he has initiated and coordinates a pilot project entitled ‘Elaboration of a participative cultural framework for the city of L'viv’, the first ever bottom-up, community-driven cultural planning process since the country's independence in 1991.

    Stephen W. Sawyer is an urban and political historian. He is currently the Chair of History and Urban Studies at The American University of Paris and since 2010 has co-directed the major in Global Cities. In his numerous articles, book chapters, edited volumes and current book projects he has focused on the political and cultural construction of scale in cities and states in Western Europe and the United States. In 2011, he completed a two-year grant, with an international and interdisciplinary team of researchers, for the city of Paris on mapping cultural amenities in the Grand Paris.

    Annick Schramme, PhD, specializes in cultural policy and management, particularly with regard to Flanders. She is professor and academic coordinator of the Master of Management in Arts and Culture at the University of Antwerp and teaches the master class on creative and cultural industries at the Antwerp School of Management. She has published extensively in various aspects of arts and heritage policy, including the creative industries, and advises the Vice-Mayor for Culture and Tourism of the City of Antwerp on these matters. She is a board member of several cultural organizations in Flanders and the Netherlands.

    Katia Segers is a professor in the department of Media Studies of the Free University of Brussels, where she has been Director of the Centre for Research on Media and Culture since 2002. She teaches also in the Master in Arts Management at the University of Antwerp. Her research and publications focus on the political economy of the cultural industries, cultural policy, children and the media and culture and media literacy. She is also the President of the Flemish Regulator for the Media, an independent external agency for the Flemish Community of Belgium and a member of the Expert Commission on Government Communication of the Flemish Parliament.

    Shlomit Shulov Barkan is the area head of Public and Non-profit Organizations in the School of Business, College of Academic Studies, Israel, and also teaches at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. She has a PhD in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. Her work focuses on the management of non-profit organizations in the cultural and social arena and the development of strong civil society. She has extensive managerial and consulting experience in the non-profit field and business as well.

    Maria Carolina Vasconcelos-Oliveira is a researcher on cultural issues, especially interested in the intersections among culture, development, public policies and urban space. She earned a Master's in Sociology at the University of São Paulo and is currently a PhD candidate there. Her Master's research on cultural institutions and audiences was recognized as one of the best in the cultural studies area by the Itaú Cultural Institute and won the Rumos award. She has been a member of the Labour and Development team at the Brazilian Centre for Analysis and Planning since 2005.

    Phil Wood describes himself as an urban therapist. After a career in British local government in community development, cultural policy and urban regeneration, he has been since 2 a freelance analyst and activist for cities around the world, in association with the Comedia agency. He is the author (with Charles Landry) of The Intercultural City: Planning for Diversity Advantage (Earthscan, 2008) and is principal adviser to the Council of Europe on its Intercultural Cities programme.

    Patrice Yengo, an anthropologist, is a professor at the Marien Ngouabi University of Brazzaville and is an organizer of music and theatre networks in that city. He also edits the series of publications called Mutations et défis en Afrique central, published by Karthala, Paris. He is currently a professor in residence at the Institute of Advanced Study in Nantes, France.

    Wil Zonneveld, PhD, is professor of urban and regional development at the Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design and OTB Research Institute, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands ( His expertise includes strategic territorial planning, the role of visions and concepts in planning, European territorial governance and the Europeanization of national territorial planning systems. He is co-editor-in-chief of the European Journal of Spatial Development (


    The Cultures and Globalization Series has benefited from the advice, support, and contributions of many individuals and organizations. We endeavour to acknowledge and thank all of them here. In the ultimate analysis, however, the co-editors alone are responsible for this final version of the publication.

    International Advisory Board
    • Hugo Achugar (Uruguay)
    • Arjun Appadurai (India/USA)
    • Benjamin Barber (USA)
    • Hilary Beckles (Barbados)
    • Tony Bennett (United Kingdom)
    • Craig Calhoun (USA)
    • George Corm (Lebanon)
    • Masayuki Deguchi (Japan)
    • Mamadou Diouf (Senegal)
    • Yehuda Elkana (Israel/Hungary)
    • Yilmaz Esmer (Turkey)
    • Mike Featherstone (United Kingdom)
    • Sakiko Fukuda-Parr (Japan/USA)
    • Nathan Gardels (USA)
    • Anthony Giddens (United Kingdom)
    • Salvador Giner (Spain)
    • Xavier Greffe (France)
    • Stuart Hall (Jamaica/United Kingdom)
    • Seung-Mi Han (Korea)
    • David Held (United Kingdom)
    • Vjeran Katunaric (Croatia)
    • Nobuku Kawashima (Japan)
    • Arun Mahizhnan (Singapore)
    • Achille Mbembe (Cameroon/South Africa)
    • Candido Mendes (Brazil)
    • Catherine Murray (Canada)
    • Sven Nilsson (Sweden)
    • Walter Santagata (Italy)
    • James Allen Smith (USA)
    • Prince Hassan bin Talal (Jordan)
    • David Throsby (Australia)
    • Jean-Pierre Warnier (France)
    • Margaret Wyszomirski (USA)
    • Yunxiang Yan (China/USA)
    • George Yúdice (USA)
    Additional Support
    Research Coordination for Indicator Suites

    Michael Hoelscher

    Research Assistance

    Matti Kunstek, Aysegül Argit, Linzhi Zhang

    We also thank the students in the seminar Stadt-Kultur-Globalisierung held during the summer term 2010 at the University of Heidelberg for their input.

    Design and Production

    Indicator suites were designed by Donnie Luu (New York)

    Cover and Divider Artwork

    Emilia Birlo


    Saskia Kyas, Hertie School of Governance

    Jocelyn Guihama, School of Public Affairs, UCLA

    Tijana Maneva, The American University of Paris

    Financial Support

    We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the following institutions:

    • The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation
    • Compagnia di San Paolo
    • The Fritt Ord Institute
    • University of Heidelberg
    • Hertie School of Governance
    • UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture

    Foreword: Culture and its many Spaces


    Culture is far more than a designation of a specialized institutional domain, as in expressions such as the arts or the entertainment sector. Whether the observer or practitioner know it or not, culture is an inevitable part of all endeavors, from craft-work to finance to how we use interactive technologies, notably the internet and electronic games. There is no exiting from culture or the cultural. Even in fields as unlikely as high finance, I have found that the cultural is omnipresent, notably the specialized cultures of trust that are essential given the vast amounts of money traded in seconds. Without such cultures of trust that type of trading would not be feasible.

    And yet, far too often, as an object of study, culture has been confined to the self-evident domain of ‘Culture’. This volume, however, like its four predecessors in The Cultures and Globalization Series, breaks away from that assumption: it seeks out the cultural in a vast range of domains, most of which we do not associate with one of the several established/conventional meaning of culture. In that sense it engages the cultural as a generic condition that is to be found in governance frameworks, in financial markets, in the making of built environments and the intermediations connecting what Henri Lefebvre conceived of as the far order of state and law, on the one hand, and the order of daily life, on the other. Though none of the authors argues it, the volume's framework seems to allow for constitutions and other foundational framings, to be conceived of as cultures of governance. Invoking Chakravarty's Provincializing Europe, I would posit that one outcome of this volume is to ‘provincialize’ presumptions of neutrality and techne: the chapters extend the cultural onto domains that have been thought of as technocratic, in the sense of an objectivity that escapes the cultural.

    In that regard it is part of a new kind of urban scholarship that once again makes the city a strategic site for the exploration of the major challenges confronting society, challenges which tend to become concrete and urgent in cities. The city was a heuristic space – a space capable of producing knowledge about some of the major transformations of an epoch. This heuristic capacity of cities was a major factor in the beginnings of urban scholarship in our early western modernity. This is evident in the work of Simmel, Weber, Benjamin, Lefebvre, and most prominently the Chicago School, especially Park and Wirth, both deeply influenced by German sociology. These thinkers confronted massive processes – industrialization, urbanization, alienation, a new cultural formation they called ‘urbanity.’ Studying the city was not simply studying the urban. It was about studying the major social processes of an era.

    But for much of the time since then, the city was rarely studied as a lens onto larger realities. Critical was the fact that the city ceased being the fulcrum for epochal transformations and thus a strategic site for research about non-urban processes. The urban was increasingly flattened into what came to be called ‘social problems.’

    Today, as we have entered a global era, the city is once again emerging as a strategic site for understanding some of the major new trends reconfiguring the social order. The city and the metropolitan region emerge as one of the strategic sites where major macro-social trends materialize and hence can be constituted as an object of study. Each of those trends is marked by specific contents and consequences. The urban moment is but one moment in their often complex, multi-sited trajectories.

    The cultural presence in struggles around political, economic, technical, and legal issues centered in the realities of cities can become catalysts for changes in a whole range of institutional domains – markets, participatory governance, judicial recourse, cultures of engagement and deliberation, and rights for members of the urban community regardless of lineage and origin.

    The resurgence of the city as a site for research on these major contemporary dynamics is evident in many different disciplines – sociology, anthropology, economic geography, cultural studies, and literary criticism. Most recently, economists are beginning to address the urban and regional economy in their analyses in ways that go beyond older forms of urban economics.

    This volume is a significant contribution to this larger body of research and interpretation. In these authors' chapters, culture becomes a transversal condition that takes on multiple different shapes and contents. Further, it is embedded in an enormous diversity of institutional spaces, each with its specific cultural genealogies and trajectories. There are features and contents of urbanization and globalization that evince particularly distinctive instantiations of the cultural. Among these are the rise of the new information technologies, the intensifying of transnational and translocal dynamics, and the strengthening presence and voice of socio-cultural diversity. All of these are at a cutting edge of actual change. These trends do not encompass the majority of social conditions; on the contrary, most social reality probably corresponds to older continuing and familiar trends. Yet, although these trends may involve only parts of the urban condition and cannot be confined to the urban, they are strategic in that they mark the urban condition in novel ways and make it, in turn, a key research site for major urban and non-urban trends. This volume introduces the reader to a whole range of situations and conditions that capture key aspects of these three powerful global shapers. It opens new ground for research, interpretation and policy making in our emergent global urban era.

    (Between Venice and Beijing, both old and grand, but in such different ways).

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