Culture, Society and Economy: Bringing Production Back in

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Don Robotham

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    Introduction

    1 Richard Ashcraft, Revolutionary Politics and Locke's Two Treatises of Government. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986; G.W.F. Hegel, Philosophy of Right. Trans. T.M. Knox. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967; Christopher Hill, ‘James Harrington and the people’, in C. Hill (ed.) Puritanism and Revolution: Studies in the Interpretation of the English Revolution of the 17th Century. New York: St Martin's Press,1997 pp. 269–86. Christopher Hill, Thomas Hobbes and the revolution in political thought’, in C. Hill (ed.) Puritanism and Revolution. New York: St Martin's Press, 1997, pp.248–68.

    2 Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism1933–1944, Second edn. New York: Oxford University Press,1944.

    3 Ronald Dore, Flexible Rigidities. London: The Athlone Press, 1986; Ronald Dore, ‘Goodwill and the spirit of market capitalism’, British Journal of Sociology 34(4) (1983):459–82.

    4 William E. Scheuerman, Between the Norm and the Exception: The Frankfurt School and the Rule of Law. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1997; William Scheuerman, Carl Schmitt: The End of Law. Lanham, MD:Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999.

    5 George Monbiot, Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain. New York: Pan Books, 2001.

    6 Vladimir Lenin, ‘Imperialism: the highest stage of capitalism’, in H.M. Christman (ed.) Essential Works of Lenin: ‘What Is to Be Done?’ and Other Writings. New York: Dover Publications, [1916] 1987; Rudolf Hilferding, Finance Capital: A Study of the Latest Phase of Capitalist Development. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981; Carl Schmitt, The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy. Trans. E. Kennedy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985.

    7 Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political. Trans. G. Schwab. New Brunswick, NJ:Rutgers University Press, 1976.

    8 C.B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962.

    9 Mary Kaldor, Helmut Anheier and Marlies Glasius (eds) Global Civil Society 2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

    10 Ulrich Beck, ‘The analysis of global inequality: from national to cosmopolitan perspective’, in M. Kaldor et al. Global Civil Society 2003, pp. 45–55.

    11 Wolfgang J. Mommsen, ‘The antinomical structure of Max Weber's political thought’, in Wolfgang J. Mommsen (ed.) The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber: Collected Essays. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989, pp. 24–43.

    12 Wolfgang J. Mommsen, ‘Capitalism and socialism: Weber's dialogue with Marx’,in W.J. Mommsen, Political and Social Theory, pp. 53–73.

    13 Yahia Said and Meghnad Desai, ‘Trade and global civil society: the anti-capitalist movement revisited’, in M. Kaldor et al. Global Civil Society 2003, pp. 59–85.

    14 David Schweickart, After Capitalism. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002.

    Bringing the Economy Back in

    1 Mark Rupert and Hazel Smith(eds) Historical Materialism and Globalization. New York: Routledge, 2002.

    2 Anthony Giddens, Runaway World: How Globalization Is Reshaping Our Lives. New York: Routledge, 2000.

    3 Stuart Hall, ‘New Labour has picked up where Thatcherism left off, The Guardian, 6 August 2003.

    4 Robert J. Samuelson, ‘The creaky job machine’, The Washington Post, 17September 2003, A27.

    5 G.W.F. Hegel, Philosophy of Right. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

    6 Karl Marx, Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft). Trans. M. Nicolaus, ed. by Q. Hoare. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1974.

    7 Ibid.

    8 Ibid.

    9 John Gray, False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism. London: Granta Books, 1998.

    10 Emile Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society. Trans. G. Simpson. New York: Free Press, 1947.

    11 Peter S. Goodman and Philip P. Pan, ‘Chinese workers pay for Wal-Mart's low prices’,The Washington Post, 8 February 2004, AO1.

    12 Peter Dicken, Global Shift: Reshaping the Global Economic Map in the21st Century, Fourth edn. New York: The Guilford Press, 2003.

    13 Juliet Eilperin, ‘Homemade-titanium rule creates defense squabble’, The Washington Post, 24 June 2003.

    14 Leslie Wayne, ‘Butting heads with the Pentagon’, The New York Times,23 July 2003.

    15 Giddens, Runaway World; Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

    16 Alec Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism. London: Unwin Hyman, 1983; Pekka Sutela, Economic Thought and Economic Reform in the Soviet Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    Politics as Culture: Stuart Hall

    1 Lawrence Grossberg, ‘On postmodernism and articulation: an interview with Stuart Hall’, in D. Morley and K.-H. Chen (eds) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 1997.

    2 Stuart Hall, The problem of ideology: Marxism without guarantees’, in ibid., pp. 25–46. p.41.

    3 Colin Sparks, ‘Stuart Hall, cultural studies and Marxism’, in ibid., pp., p. 97.

    4 Stuart Hall, ‘The problem of ideology’.

    5 Hegel, Philosophy of Right. p. 10.

    6 Ludwig Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity. Trans. G. Eliot. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1957.

    7 G.W.F. Hegel, The Phenomenology of Mind. Trans. J.B. Baillie. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1967. p. 75.

    8 Georg Lukács, The Young Hegel: Studies in the Relations between Dialectics and Economics. Trans. R. Livingstone. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press, 1976. pp. 454–457.

    9 Hegel, Phenomenology. p. 75.

    10 Shlomo Avineri, Hegel's Theory of the Modern State. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1988. p. 68.

    11 Hegel, Philosophy of Right. p. 12–13.

    12 Stuart Hall, ‘The problem of ideology’. p. 45.

    13 Ibid. p. 45.

    14 Ibid. p. 27.

    15 Stuart Hall, ‘What is this “black” in black popular culture?,’ in D. Morley and K.-H. Chen, Stuart Hall, pp. 465–75. p.470.

    16 Hall, ‘The problem of ideology’. p. 40.

    17 Colin Sparks, ‘Stuart Hall, Cultural Studies and Marxism.’ p. 95.

    18 Hall, ‘New Labour’.

    19 Hall, ‘What is this “black”?’.

    20 Ibid. p. 473.

    21 Hall, ‘The problem of ideology’, p. 30.

    22 Stuart Hall, ‘Gramsci's relevance for the study of race and ethnicity’, in Morley and Chen, Stuart Hall,pp. 412–40.

    23 Hall, ‘What is this “black”?’ p. 472.

    24 Hall, ‘Gramsci's relevance’. p. 418.

    25 Hall, ‘The problem of ideology’. p. 26.

    26 Ibid. p. 44.

    27 Anne Showstack Sassoon, Gramsci's Politics, Second edn. Minneapolis:University of Minnesota Press, 1987. pp. ix-x.

    28 Ibid. p. 252.

    29 Ibid. p. xiii.

    30 Ibid. p. 192 emphasis in original.

    31 Ibid. p. 187.

    32 Alec Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism, London: Unwin Hyman., p.198.

    33 Stephen F. Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography 1888–1938. New York: Oxford University Press,1980. pp. 160–212.

    34 Hall, ‘Gramsci's relevance’. pp. 419–420.

    35 Sassoon, Gramsci's Politics, p. 93.

    36 Ibid. p. 93 emphasis in original.

    37 Hall, ‘What is this “black”?’ pp. 465–472.

    38 Ibid. pp. 472.

    39 Ibid. pp. 474.

    40 Stuart Hall, ‘New ethnicities’, in D. Morley and K.-H. Chen (eds) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. New York:Routledge, 1997, p. 447.

    41 Hall, ‘What is this “black”?’ p. 471.

    42 Don Robotham, ‘Pluralism as an ideology’, Social and Economic Studies 29(1) pp. (1980): 69–89.

    43 Don Robotham, ‘Blackening the Jamaican nation: the travails of a black bourgeoisie in a globalizing world’, Identities: Global Studies of Culture and Power 7(1) (2000).

    44 Don Robotham, ‘The development of a black ethnicity in Jamaica’, in R. Lewis and P. Bryan (eds) Garvey: His Work and Impact. Kingston:ISER, University of the West Indies, 1989, pp. 23–38.

    Gilroy: Neither Black Nor Atlantic

    1 Paul Gilroy, Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line. First edn. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000; Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

    2 David Harvey, The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

    3 Paul Gilroy, ‘The organic crisis of British capitalism and race: the experience of the seventies’, in The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (eds) London: Routledge, 1970.

    4 Sharon J. Daye, Middle Class Blacks in Britain: A Racial Fraction of a Class or a Class Fraction of a Racial Group? London: St Martin's Press, 1994.

    5 Paul Gilroy, ‘Police and thieves’, in Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies(eds) The Empire Strikes Back, pp. 95–142.

    6 Ibid. p. 143–181.

    7 Paul Gilroy, ‘Steppin’ out of Babylon: race, class and autonomy’, in BCCCS, The Empire Strikes Back, pp.276–314.

    8 Ibid. p. 284.

    9 Ibid. Gilroy's italics.p. 281.

    10 Gilroy, Black Atlantic. pp. 3–15.

    11 Friedrich Engels, Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy. New York: International Publishers, [1888] 1970; Ludwig Feuerbach. The Essence of Christianity. New York:Harper Torchbooks, 1957.

    12 Gilroy, Against Race. pp. 127ff.

    13 Frank Furedi, The Silent War: Imperialism and the Changing Perception of Race. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998; Paul Gordon Lauren, Power and Prejudice: The Politics of Diplomacy and Racial Discrimination. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.

    14 Neil MacMaster,Racism in Europe: 1870–2000. London:Palgrave, 2001.

    15 Gilroy, ‘Steppin’ out of Babylon’. pp. 277 & 283.

    16 MacMaster, Racism in Europe. p. 69–70.

    17 Robert Brenner, The Boom and the Bubble: The US in the World Economy. New York: Verso, 2002.

    18 Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Afrotopia: The Roots of African American Popular History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp.35–38.

    19 Ibid. p. 190.

    20 Gilroy, Black Atlantic. p. 1–40.

    21 Ibid. p. 23.

    22 Ibid. p. 27.

    23 Moses, Afrotopia. p. 78–79.

    24 Ibid. p. 79.

    25 Wilson Jeremiah Moses (ed.)Classical Black Nationalism: From the American Revolution to Marcus Garvey. New York: New York University Press,1996. pp. 19–20.

    26 Gilroy, Black Atlantic. p. 25.

    27 Ibid. p. 26.

    28 Ibid. p. 25.

    29 Ibid. p. 26.

    30 Moses, Classical Black Nationalism, pp. 22–28; Moses, Afrotopia. pp. 77–79, 104–105,196–198.

    31 Moses, Classical Black Nationalism, pp. 101–104; Moses, Afrotopia. pp. 77–104.

    32 Gilroy, Black Atlantic. p. 27.

    33 Ibid. p. 29.

    34 Ibid. p. 27.

    35 Ibid. pp. 34–35.

    36 Ibid. p. 29.

    37 Ibid. p. 32–36; Hall, ‘New ethnicities’, pp. 441–449.

    38 Gilroy, Black Atlantic. p. 32.

    39 Ibid. p. 37–38, pp.112–113.

    40 Ibid. p. 37.

    41 Ibid. p. 120.

    42 Ibid. p. 122.

    43 Ibid. p. 127.

    44 Ibid. p. 144.

    45 Ibid. p. 37.

    46 Ibid. p. 37.

    47 Ibid. p. 39.

    48 Ibid. p. 126.

    49 Ibid. p. 112.

    50 Moses, Classical Black Nationalism.

    51 Herbert Hill, Horace Cayton,Arna Bontemps and Saunders Redding, ‘Reflections on Richard Wright: a symposium on an exiled native son’, in D.B. Gibson (ed.) Five Black Writers: Essays on Wright, Ellison, Baldwin,Hughes, and Leroi Jones. New York: New York University Press, 1970,pp. 58–69, p. 66.

    Globalization and Risks

    1 Anthony Giddens, Runaway World, New York: Routledge, 2000.

    2 Ibid. p. 62–63.

    3 Ibid. p. 68.

    4 Ibid. p. 91.

    5 Ibid. pp. 91–93.

    6 Ibid. p. 91.

    7 Ibid. pp. 94–95.

    8 Alec Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism. London: Unwin Hyman, 1983.

    9 Anthony Giddens, Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994. pp. 74–75 & 156–57.

    10 Ota Sik, The Third Way: Marxist-Leninist Theory and Modern Industrial Society. London: Wildwood House International Arts and Sciences, 1976.

    11 Wlodzimierz Brus and Laski Kasimierz, From Marx to the Market: Socialism in Search of an Economic System. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996; Janos Kornai,Contradictions and Dilemmas: Studies on the Socialist Economy and Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

    12 Giddens, Beyond Left and Right. p. 126.

    13 Ibid. pp. 40–41.

    14 Giddens, Runaway World. pp. 97–99.

    15 Ulrich Beck, The Brave New World of Work. Trans. P. Camiller. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000; Anthony Giddens, The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998.

    16 Julian Le Grand and Will Bartlett, Quasi-Markets and Social Policy. London:Macmillan, 1993.

    17 Robert Wade, ‘Globalization and its limits: reports of the death of the national economy are greatly exaggerated’, in S. Berger and R. Dore (eds) National Diversity and Global Capitalism. Ithaca, NY:Cornell University Press, 1996, pp. 60–88.

    18 Peter Dicken, Global Shift. New York: The Guilford Press. p.35.

    19 Ibid. p. 52.

    20 Ibid. p. 230.

    21 Ibid. p. 452.

    22 Alexandra Frean, ‘Huge increase in poor families’, The Times, 14 June2000; Peter Riddell, ‘Labour fails to bridge the class divide’, The Times, 29 June 2000, 1; Patrick Wintour, ‘Class-riven UK exposed in new study’, The Guardian, 12 July 2000.

    23 David Walker, ‘Brown's beneficence’, The Guardian, 17 July 2000.

    24 Giddens, Runaway World. pp. 38–53.

    Capitalism Organized and Disorganized

    1 Rudolf Hilferding, Finance Capital. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981; Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage, 1994; Scott Lash and John Urry, The End of Organized Capitalism. Madison, WI:University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

    2 Manuel Castells, The Power of Identity. Vol. II, The Information Age: Economy Society and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997; Manuel Castells, The Rise of the Network Society. Vol. I, The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers,1996.

    3 Manuel Castells, End of Millenium. Vol. II, The Information Age: Economy Society and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998; Castells, Power of Identity; Castells, Rise of Network Society.

    4 Mike Featherstone, Undoing Culture: Globalization, Postmodernism and Identity. London: Sage Publications, 1995; Mike Featherstone (ed.)Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. London: Sage, 1990.

    5 Lash and Urry, Economies, pp. 285–286; Dicken, Global Shift. pp. 464–465.

    6 P.J. Cain and A.G. Hopkins, British Imperialism: 1688–2000, Second edn. London: Longman, 2002.

    7 Lash and Urry, End of Organized Capitalism. pp. 270–279.

    8 Lash and Urry, Economies. p. 3.

    9 Georg Lukács, ‘In search of bourgeois man’, in G. Lukács (ed.) Essays on Thomas Mann. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1965.pp. 21–22.

    10 Lash and Urry, Economies. pp. 32–59.

    11 Wolfgang Mommsen, ‘Capitalism and socialism’, in W.J. Mommsen (ed.) The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989, pp. 53–73.

    12 Ibid. p. 59.

    13 Hans Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy. Trans. E. Forster and L. Jones. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989; Franz Neumann, Behemoth. New York:Oxford University Press, 1944. pp. 15–16, 32, 210–228.

    14 Wolfgang J. Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber: Collected Essays. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989.

    15 Lash and Urry, Economies. pp. 49–54.

    16 Anthony Giddens, A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism: Power,Property and the State. 2 vols. Vol. 1. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1981.

    17 Lash and Urry, Economies. p. 315.

    18 Gray, False Dawn.

    19 Lash and Urry, End of Organized Capitalism. pp. 283.

    20 Lash and Urry, Economies. p. 3.

    21 Castells, Rise of Network Society; Lash and Urry, Economies. pp. 94–104.

    22 Lash and Urry, Economies. pp. 4–5.

    23 Steven Lukes, Individualism: Key Concepts in the Social Sciences. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1973. pp. 38 & 157.

    24 Lash and Urry, Economies, p. 11.

    25 Lukes, Individualism. p. 55.

    26 Ibid. pp. 41 & 72.

    27 Ibid. pp. 35–38.

    28 David Schweickart, Against Capitalism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press,1996. pp. 180–182.

    29 Lukes, Individualism. pp. 150–151.

    30 Ibid. pp. 151–152.

    31 Louis Dumont, Essays on Individualism: Modern Ideology in Anthropological Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1986. pp. 25 & 117.

    32 Mike Featherstone, Undoing Culture. London: Sage, 1995. pp.78–79.

    33 Lash and Urry,End of Organized Capitalism. p. 286.

    34 Johannes Fritsche, Historical Destiny and National Socialism in Heidegger's Being and Time. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999. p. 213.

    35 Ulrich Beck, The analysis of global inequality’, in M. Kaldor et al. (eds)Global Civil Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 45–55.

    36 Lash and Urry, End of Organized Capitalism. pp. 3–7.

    37 Lash and Urry, Economies. p. 280.

    38 Ibid. pp. 279–281.

    39 Mary Kaldor, Helmut Anheier and Marlies Glasius, ‘Global civil society in an era of regressive globalization’, in M. Kaldor et al. (eds) Global Civil Society 2003, pp. 3–33.

    40 Harold Meyerson, ‘Plutocrats and populists’, The Washington Post, 5 February 2004, A21.

    41 Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Vol.1, Public Worlds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996; U. Hannerz, Transnational Connections: Culture, Peoples, Places. London: Routledge, 1996.

    42 Lash and Urry, Economies. p. 306.

    43 Lash and Urry, End of Organized Capitalism. p. 290.

    44 Ibid. pp. 312–313.

    45 Robert Brenner, The Boom and the Bubble. New York: Verso, 2002.

    46 Lash and Urry, Economies. pp. 305–313.

    47 Marc Edelman, ‘Transnational peasant and farmer movements and networks’, in M. Kaldor et al. (eds) Global Civil Society 2003, pp. 185–220.

    48 Lash and Urry, Economies. pp. 280–292.

    Network Society Theory

    1 Manuel Castells, Rise of Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. pp.376–428.

    2 Ibid. p. 421.

    3 Doug Henwood, After the New Economy. New York: The New Press, 2003. p. 147.

    4 Manuel Castells, The Power of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. p.6.

    5 Ibid. p. 6.

    6 Ibid. p. 7.

    7 Ibid. p. 7.

    8 Castells, Rise of Network Society. p. 426.

    9 Ibid. p. 423, boldface is in text.

    10 Ibid. p. 425.

    11 Ibid. p. 8.

    12 Ibid. p. 8.

    13 Ibid. p. 8.

    14 Ibid. p. 9.

    15 Castells, Power of Identity. p. 8.

    16 Johannes Fritsche, Historical Destiny and National Socialism in Heidegger's Being and Time. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999.

    17 Ibid. p. 69.

    18 Castells, Rise of Network Society. p. 199–200.

    19 Max Weber, ‘Politics as a vocation’, in H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York:Oxford, 1958, pp. 115–28; Wolfgang J. Mommsen, ‘Politics and scholarship: the two icons in Max Weber's life’, in W.J. Mommsen (ed.) The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber: Collected Essays. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989. pp.3–23.

    20 Castells, Power of Identity. p. 9.

    21 Ibid. p. 9.

    22 Ibid. p. 8.

    23 Ibid. p. 10.

    24 Fritsche, Historical Destiny. p. 17ff.

    25 Castells, Power of Identity. p. 10.

    26 Ibid. p. 11.

    27 Ibid. p. 11.

    28 Ibid. p. 11.

    29 Ibid. p. 11, italics in original.

    30 Ibid. p. 11.

    31 Castells, Rise of Network Society. p. 199.

    32 Ibid. pp. 182–183.

    33 Ibid. p. 182.

    34 Ibid. p. 24.

    35 Ibid. p. 97–98.

    36 Ibid. p. 97–99.

    37 Ibid. p. 98.

    38 Ibid. p. 168.

    39 Ibid. p. 168.

    40 Ibid. p. 20.

    41 Martin Carnoy, Sustaining the New Economy: Work, Family and Community in the Information Age. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2000; Manuel Castells, ‘The informational economy and the new international division of labor’, in M. Carnoy et al. (eds)The New Global Economy in the Information Age:Reflections on Our Changing World. University Park, PA:Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993. pp. 15–43.

    42 Carnoy et al., The New Global Economy in the Information Age.

    43 Ibid. p. 2.

    44 Bennett Harrison, Lean and Mean: Why Large Corporations Will Continue to Dominate the Global Economy. New York: Guilford Press, 1994. p.171.

    45 Ibid. pp. 125–171.

    46 Martin Carnoy, ‘Multinationals in a changing world economy’, in Carnoy et al. The New Global Economy in the Information Age. pp. 45–96. p. 46.

    47 Castells, ‘The informational economy’. pp. 19–20.

    48 Carnoy, Sustaining the New Economy. pp. 60–61.

    49 Ibid. p. 62.

    50 Castells, Rise of Network Society. p. 173.

    51 Ibid. p. 196.

    52 Ibid. p. 151.

    53 Ibid. p. 152.

    54 Ibid. p. 156.

    55 Ibid. p. 171, boldface in original.

    56 Ibid. pp.194–195.

    57 Ibid. p. 163.

    58 Peter Dicken, Global Shift. New York: Guilford Press, 2003.

    59 Ibid. p. 421, Figure 12.7.

    60 Ibid. p. 421.

    61 Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage, 1994.

    62 Ronald Dore, ‘Goodwill and the spirit of market capitalism’. British Journal of Sociology 334(4) (1983): 459–82; Ronald Dore, ‘Where we are now: musings of an evolutionist’, Work, Employment & Society 3(4) (1989):425–46.

    63 Ronald Dore, British Factory Japanese Factory: The Origin of National Diversity in Industrial Relations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press,1973; Ronald Dore, Flexible Rigidities. London: The Athlone Press, 1986; Ronald Dore, and Mari Sako, How the Japanese Learn to Work. London: Routledge, 1989.

    64 Dore, British Factory-Japanese Factory.

    65 Castells, End of Millenium, pp. 20–21; Castells, Rise of Network Society pp. 206–309; Dore, ‘Where we are now’.

    66 Michael W. Howard, Self-Management and the Crisis of Socialism: The Rose in the Fist of the Present. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2000. pp. 188–193.

    67 Masahiko Aoki and Ronald Dore(eds) The Japanese Firm: Sources of Competitive Strength. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1994; Christian Berggren,Alternatives to Lean Production: Work Organization in the Swedish Auto Industry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell International Industrial Labour Institute, 1993.

    68 Yahia Said and Meghnad Desai, ‘Trade and global civil society’, in M. Kaldor et al. (eds) Global Civil Society2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 54–85.

    ‘Localization’ Explored

    1 Colin Leys, ‘Colin Leys Replies’. Southern African Report 12(4)(1997).

    2 Alex Callinicos, An Anti-Capitalist Manifesto. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003. pp. 67–105.

    3 W. Brus and K. Laski, From Marx to the Market. Oxford: Clarendon Press,1946; J. Kornai, Contradictions and Dilemmas. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986; Harold Lydall, Yugoslav Socialism: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1984; Alec Nove, Economics of Feasible Socialism. London: Unwin Hyman, 1983; Sik, The Third Way; P. Sutela, Economic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991;

    4 Howard, Self-Management; Sharyn Kasmir, The Myth of Mondragon: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working Class Life in a Basque Town. Albany: SUNY Press, 1996; William Foot Whyte and Kathleen King Whyte, Making Mondragon: The Growth and Dynamics of the Worker Cooperative Complex. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988.

    5 John Roemer, A Future for Socialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,1994; D. Schweickart, Against Capitalism. Boulder,CO: Westview Press, 1996.

    6 John Cavanagh (ed.)Alternatives to Economic Globalization: A Better World Is Possible. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002. p.9.

    7 Nove, Economics of Feasible Socialism; Sutela, Economic Thought; Peter C. Caldwell, ‘Revisionism and orthodoxy: Stalinism and political thought in the German Democratic Republic's founding decade’, in J.P. McCormick (ed.) Confronting Mass Democracy and Industrial Technology:Political and Social Theory from Nietzsche to Habermas. Durham, NC:Duke University Press, 2002.

    8 Franz L. Neumann, The change in the function of law in modern society’, in W.E. Scheuerman (ed.) The Rule of Law under Siege. Selected Essays of Franz L. Neumann and Otto Kircheimer. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996. pp. 101–141; Otto Kircheimer, ‘Legality and legitimacy’, in ibid. pp. 44–63.

    9 Colin Hines, Localization: A Global Manifesto. London: Earthscan, 2001. p.7.

    10 Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976; G.W.F. Hegel, Philosophy of Right. New York: Oxford University Press. 1967; Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, The German Ideology. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1968.

    11 John Cavanagh (ed.) Alternatives to Economic Globalization. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2002. p. 5.

    12 Ibid. p. 8.

    13 Martin Khor, ‘Commentary: conflicting paradigms’, in Alternatives to Economic Globalization: A Better World Is Possible, edited by John Cavanagh, Box A. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., 2002.

    14 Cavanagh, Alternatives. pp. 104–120.

    15 Ingeborg Maus, ‘Sinn und Bedeutung der Volkssouveranität in der modernen Gesellschaft’, Kritische Justiz 24(2)(1991).

    16 Cavanagh, Alternatives. p. 6.

    17 Bennett Harrison, Lean and Mean. New York: Guilford Press, 1994.

    18 Cavanagh, Alternatives.

    19 Saskia Sassen, Cities in a World Economy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 2000.

    20 Richard Pares, ‘Merchants and planters’, Economic History Review, Supplement 4 (1960), pp. 60–76.

    21 David Graeber, Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value: The False Coin of Our Own Dreams. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

    22 Hegel, Philosophy of Right.

    23 Ibid. p. 123.

    24 Michel Foucault, The Order of Things. New York: Vintage Books, 1994; Reinhart Koselleck, Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press, 1994.

    25 Inga Markovits, Imperfect Justice: An East-West German Diary. Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1995.

    26 Zigurdis L. Zile (ed.) Ideas and Forces in Soviet Legal History: A Reader in the Soviet State and Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992; W.K. Scheuerman. Between the Norm and Exception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.

    27 Scheuerman, Between the Norm and Exception.

    28 Roberto Unger, The Critical Legal Studies Movement. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1975.

    29 Maus, ‘Sinn und Bedeutung’.

    Alternatives: A Global Approach to Anti-Globalization

    1 W. Brus and K. Laski, From Marx to the Market. Oxford: Clarendon Press,1996; J. Kornai, Contradictions and Dilemmas. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986, J. Roemer, A Future for Socialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994; David Schweickart, ‘Market socialism: a defense’, in B. Ollman(ed.), Market Socialism: The Debate among Socialists. New York: Routledge, 1998, pp. 7–22; O. Sik, The Third Way. London: Wildwood House, 1976.

    2 G. W. F. Hegel, Philosophy of Right. Trans. T. M. Knox. New York:Oxford University Press, 1967.

    3 Mark Rupert and Hazel Smith(eds) ‘Historical Materialism and Globalization’, in Richard Higgott, Warwick Studies in Globalisation. New York: Routledge, 2002.

    4 A. Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism. London: Unwin Hyman, 1983.

    5 Paul Davidson, ‘The future of the international financial system’, paper presented at the Conference of the Future of Economics at Cambridge University, Cambridge,2003.

    6 M. Howard, Self-Management and the Crisis of Socialism. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000; D. Schweickart, After Capitalism. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.

    7 Davidson, ‘The future’.

    8 J. Fritsche, Historical Destiny and National Socialism. Berkeley, CA:University of California Press, 1999. p. 153.

    9 Nove, Economics of Feasible Socialism.

    10 Bertell Ollman, ‘Market mystification in capitalist and market socialist societies’, in B. Ollman (ed.) Market Socialism: The Debate among Socialists. New York: Routledge, 1998, pp. 81–121; David Lawler, ‘Marx as market socialist’, in ibid., pp.23–52. Schweickart, After Capitalism; Against Capitalism; ‘Market socialism’; H. Ticktin, ‘The problem is market socialism’, in B. Ollman (ed.) Market Socialism, pp. 55–80.

    11 Brus and Laski, From Marx to the Market; Kornai, Contradictions.

    12 Jagdish Bagwati, ‘The capital myth: the difference between trade in widgets and dollars’,Foreign Affairs 77(3) (1998): pp.7–12.

    13 A. Callinicos, An Anti-Capitalist Manifesto. Cambridge: Polity,2003.

    14 Paul Davidson, ‘Are grains of sand in the wheels of international finance sufficient to do the job when boulders are often required?’ Economic Journal 107(442) (1997): 671–86.

    15 Ibid.

    16 Phillipe Van Parijs, Real Freedom for All: What (If Anything) Can Justify Capitalism? Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

    17 Howard, Self-Management. pp. 171–173 & 179–180.

    18 André Gorz, ‘On the difference between society and community, and why basic income cannot by itself confer full membership of either’, in P. Van Parijs (ed.) Arguing for Basic Income. London: Verso, 1992: p.184.

    19 Nove, Economics of Feasible Socialism. pp. 133–141.

    20 Howard, Self-Management; S. Kasmir, Myth of Mondragon. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1996.

    21 Schweickart, After Capitalism.

    Conclusion: The Noisy Sphere and the Hidden Abode

    1 Karl Marx, Capital. Trans. D. Fernbach. Vol. 1, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books,1978. p. 167.

    2 Stuart Hall, The problem of ideology’, in D. Morley and K.H. Chen (eds) Stuart Hall, New York: Routledge, 1997. p. 35.

    3 P.G. Lauren, Power and Prejudice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988; Laura Tabili, We Ask for British Justice: Workers and Racial Difference in Late Imperial Britain. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

    4 Nancy Fraser, ‘From redistribution to recognition? Dilemmas of justice in a “post-socialist” age’, in C. Willett (ed.) Theorizing Multiculturalism: A Guide to the Current Debate, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998, pp. 19–49; ‘Rethinking Recognition’, New Left Review 3, May-June (2000): 107–120; Charles Taylor, Multiculturalism and ‘the Politics of Recognition’, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    5 Gilroy, Against Race.

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