Culture and Organizational Behaviour

Books

Jai B. P. Sinha

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: The Backdrop

    Part 2: Individuals

    Part 3: Groups

    Part 4: Organizations

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    Dedicated to Gita, my wife

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Time (in seconds) Taken for Each of the Motions in Performing a Task 9
    • 2.1 Coexistence of Opposites 44
    • 4.1 Profiles of Type A and Type B Personalities 102
    • 5.1 Indicators of the Need for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power 117
    • 5.2 Hygiene Factors and Motivators 119
    • 5.3 Value Dimensions and a Sample of Activity for Each Dimension 126
    • 6.1 Members Giving (Rows) and Receiving (Columns) Ratings of Liking 150
    • 7.1 Years in Prison for Confessing/Not Confessing 173
    • 9.1 Contingency Model of Power Dynamics 226
    • 9.2 Power Strategies as a Function of Power Distance and Perceptual Frame 230
    • 10.1 Leader's Shift from Normal to Fundamental State 253
    • 10.2 Profile of Managers and Leaders 255
    • 11.1 Michigan Typology of Leadership Styles 271
    • 11.2 Performance Maintenance Styles of Leadership 272
    • 11.3 Fiedler' Contingency Model 282
    • 11.4 Leadership Styles and Maturity of Subordinates 283
    • 12.1 Perspectives on Organizational Culture 307
    • 12.2 A Summary of Dimensional Typologies of Organizational Cultures 308
    • 12.3 Leading Features of Organizational Cultures 312
    • 13.1 Three Levels of Knowledge 338
    • 14.1 Two-dimensional View of Organizational Change 352
    • 14.2 Characteristics of Mechanical and Organic Organizations 354
    • 14.3 Organization Development Techniques 357

    List of Figures

    • 3.1 Growth in Foreign Investment 60
    • 4.1 Structure of Self-image 84
    • 4.2 Operant Conditioning 87
    • 4.3 Perception of Lines 91
    • 4.4 Johari Window 94
    • 4.5 Indians' Approach to Goals 103
    • 5.1 The Motivation Process 114
    • 5.2 Hackman and Oldham Model 120
    • 8.1 Japanese Team Structure 198
    • 8.2 Indian Group Structure 200
    • 9.1 Four Modes of Expressing Power 222
    • 9.2 Control Graph of Ideal and Actual Power Distribution 232
    • 9.3 Direct and Indirect Power Relationships 233
    • 10.1 Organizational Culture-Leadership-Environment Fit 246
    • 11.1 The Model of NT-P Styles of Leadership 284
    • 11.2 Dyadic Leader-Subordinates' Relationships 286
    • 12.1 Organizational Culture Nested in Societal and Global Management Culture 300
    • 12.2 Work and Family Centrality in Life Space 303
    • 13.1 Single-loop Learning 333
    • 13.2 Double-loop Learning 335
    • 13.3 Stages in the Knowledge Cycle 341
    • 14.1 Energizing On-going Large Organizations 366
    • 14.2 HRM Strategy 367
    • 14.3 Growth after Modernization (Rs Crore) 375

    List of Boxes

    • 1.1 Organizational Behaviour 4
    • 1.2 Contributors to Organizational Behaviour 5
    • 1.3 Early Milestones 7
    • 1.4 Human Relations Approach 11
    • 1.5 European Contributions 14
    • 1.6 Evolution in Indian Organizational Behaviour 17
    • 1.7 Five Trends in Indian Organizational Behaviour 18
    • 1.8 Drivers of Glocal Organizational Behaviour 21
    • 2.1 The Inclusive Indian Mindset 31
    • 2.2 Facets of the Primordial Hindu World View 31
    • 2.3 Analytical Approach of the Upanishads 33
    • 2.4 The Colonial Experience 35
    • 2.5 The Global Face of Indians 36
    • 2.6 How are You? 38
    • 2.7 Shifting Modes of Behaviour 47
    • 2.8 How Could They Change Their Mind? 48
    • 3.1 Larger Milieu and Culture 54
    • 3.2 The Wonder that is India! 54
    • 3.3 Phases in Economic Growth 56
    • 3.4 Factors of Economic Transformation 60
    • 3.5 Unemployability of Indian Youth 62
    • 3.6 The Bottom of the Pyramid 65
    • 3.7 Religious Mosaic of India (2007) 73
    • 4.1 Culture, Self, and Personality 83
    • 4.2 Formation of Self: An Evolutionary Process 84
    • 4.3 Types of Self 85
    • 4.4 Your Self-Efficacy 86
    • 4.5 Perceive Your Organization 89
    • 4.6 Hindu Conceptualization of Layers of Self 97
    • 5.1 Three Perspectives on Well-being 111
    • 5.2 Maslow's Needs Hierarchy 116
    • 5.3Nishkaam Karm123
    • 5.4Daan (Giving Away) 124
    • 6.1 Types of Groups 141
    • 6.2 Who is Responsible? 145
    • 6.3 Factors of Norm Formation 147
    • 6.4 Five Facets of Effective Decision-making 157
    • 7.1 Co-opetition Involves 172
    • 7.2 Strategies for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts 178
    • 7.3 Tata Steel's Acquisition of Corus: A Case in Negotiation 182
    • 7.4 Some Factors of Effective Negotiation 183
    • 7.5 Negotiation between a Brazilian and an American Company 184
    • 7.6 Functional and Dysfunctional Tactics 185
    • 8.1 Genesis of Teamwork 192
    • 8.2 Factors Facilitating Teamwork 194
    • 8.3 Conflicts are Not Always Bad for Teams 196
    • 8.4 Whom Do People Prefer: Competent Jerks or Lovable Fools? 200
    • 9.1 Power, Influence, and Control 216
    • 9.2 Asocial Power 217
    • 9.3 Complex Power Relationships in the Indian Setting 220
    • 9.4 The Sitapur Dairy 226
    • 9.5 An Ingratiation Scale 229
    • 10.1 Home Depot's New Leadership 245
    • 10.2 Transformation of Tata Steel 245
    • 10.3 Contextual Demands and Leadership 246
    • 10.4 Great Leaders 249
    • 10.5 A Model of Persistence 252
    • 10.6 Leadership Roles 255
    • 10.7 Narayana Murthy on Effective Leadership 258
    • 10.8 Self-efforts to Develop as a Leader 259
    • 11.1 Culture's Impact on Leadership 269
    • 11.2 Collectivism, Power Distance, and Leadership Styles 275
    • 12.1 The Core of Organizational Culture 298
    • 12.2 Organizational, Societal, and Work Cultures, and Organizational Climate 299
    • 12.3 A Work-centric Multinational 302
    • 12.4 Four Profiles of Organizational Culture 310
    • 12.5 Leadership and Culture-Building 313
    • 12.6 Organizational Rites Reflecting Its Culture 315
    • 13.1 Learning and Knowledge 329
    • 13.2 Five Perspectives on Knowledge Organizations 329
    • 13.3 Assembly Line of a Hong Kong-based Company 339
    • 13.4 Knowledge Communities in Tata Steel 343
    • 13.5 Transfer of Knowledge from Multinationals to Subsidiaries 344
    • 14.1 Survival and Change Proneness 352
    • 14.2 Organizational Development Techniques Employed in India 360
    • 14.3 Changing Emphasis in the Measures for Agentic Capabilities 363
    • 14.4 Five Dilemmas Faced by Indian HRM Managers 369

    List of Abbreviations

    AIADMKAll India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
    AMBAAssociation of MB As
    BJPBharatiya Janata Party
    BHELBharat Heavy Electricals Limited
    BKOBusiness Knowledge Outsourcing
    BPOBusiness Process Outsourcing
    BSPBahujan Samaj Party
    CIPsContinuous Improvement Projects
    CMDChairman and Managing Director
    CPICommunist Party of India
    CPMCommunist Party Marxist
    DMKDravida Munnetra Kazhagam
    EQUISEuropean Quality Improvement System
    FDIForeign Direct Investment
    GDPGross Domestic Product
    GLOBEGlobal Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness
    HRHuman Resources
    HRDHuman Resource Development
    HRMHuman Resource Management
    HLLHindustan Levers Limited
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    ITInformation Technology
    ITESInformation Technology Enabled Services
    JMDJoint Managing Director
    LPCLeast Preferred Co-worker
    LMXLeader-Member-Exchange
    M&AMergers and Acquisitions
    MBOManagement by Objectives
    MDManaging Director
    MISManagement Information System
    NASSCOMNational Association of Software and Services Companies
    NTPCNational Thermal Power Corporation
    OBCsOther Backward Castes
    ONGCOil and Natural Gas Corporation
    PIPioneering-Innovative
    QCCsQuality Control Circles
    R&DResearch and Development
    RJDRashtriya Janata Dal
    RSSRashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
    SAILSteel Authority of India Limited
    SAQSSouth Asian Quality System
    SCScheduled Caste
    SIETSmall Industries Extension Training Institute
    SPSamajwadi Party
    STScheduled Tribe
    TCSTata Consultancy Service
    TQMTotal Quality Management
    UPUttar Pradesh
    VHPVishwa Hindu Parishad
    VDLVertical Dyad Linkage

    Preface

    There is a near consensus that culture influences a whole range of human behaviour including organizational behaviour. However, books on organizational behaviour from Western countries, which dominate the Indian market, do not elucidate adequately how non-Western cultures affect specific theories and practices in organizational behaviour. One of the reasons for this is that the cultures and organizations in the West have co-evolved in response to the Industrial Revolution. Their overlap was so gradual, spontaneous, and pervasive that organizational behaviour scientists did not notice it. Culture is like the air we breathe; we cannot survive without it, and yet we do not see it directly. Organizations, on the other hand, are tangible in terms of their technology, structures, systems, and routines. Their impact on organizational behaviour naturally concerns organizational behaviour scientists. However, as Western theories and practices were transported to non-Western cultures, including Indian culture, their limitations were clearly exposed. This has required investigating the existing body of organizational behaviour afresh in the context of Indian culture, which in many respects is strikingly different from Western culture. There are, however, two considerations that necessitate retaining parts of Western organizational behaviour. First, culture is not the sole determinant of organizational behaviour. The nature of technology, products, and services affect organizational structures and processes that are proximate factors impacting on organizational behaviour overtly, while cultural influences, although pervasive, are implicit and have to be inferred from organizational structures and processes. Second, Indian culture is highly inclusive and pluralistic. It subsumes a major part of Western culture. Thus, Indian organizational behaviour manifests a confluence of both Western and Indian cultural influences.

    This book aims to capture this confluence. It presents basic knowledge about organizational behaviour as it has developed in the West, adds the latest research findings from other parts of the world, and situates them in the Indian cultural perspective. It covers topics that form part of organizational behaviour courses in major universities and management institutes in India. However, instead of following their syllabi, this book covers all the topics by elaborating on key concepts (for example, motivation as a means to realize well-being, the idea that self is related to personality, and so on). Further, it describes only briefly those parts of organizational behaviour that are routinely included in most textbooks and where the cultural influences are relatively insignificant, highlights those where Indian culture plays a significant role, glosses over statistical details of specific studies that are constrained by sampling limitations, and raises new issues that emanate from the interface of Indian culture and organizational behaviour for further deliberations.

    The chapters are organized into four parts. Part 1 presents a vantage point to view the rest of the chapters. The chapters in Part 1 trace the history of organizational behaviour that is embedded in Indian culture, which influences and is influenced by the surrounding economic, social, and political milieu of the country. The key concepts of organizational behaviour are discussed in Part 2, which deals with individual-level processes. The chapters in this section emphasize the fact that, though processes are generally universal, cultural influences do seep in. It discusses how various processes are performed and what contents are involved in them. Part 3 focuses on group-level processes where relationships assume centre stage. Relationships are very important in Indian culture. Therefore, culture plays a significantly greater role at the group level than at the individual level in India. Part 4 shows how global culture, which is primarily Western in origin, and Indian culture jointly shape organizational-level functions.

  • Glossary

    • Accommodation implies yielding to the interests of others to the extent that individuals, groups, or organizations can undermine or suppress their own interests.
    • Acquisitive versus protective style involves an active and manipulative effort versus highly modest self-portrayals and reluctance to behave contrary to social norms to enhance one's impressions on others.
    • Adhocracy emphasizes haphazardly improving ways and means for facilitating development of products and services.
    • Agentic capability of human beings is the ability to acquire new skills, expand one's roles, function effectively, and keep improving their effectiveness.
    • Altruism signifies an intention or a willingness to sacrifice one's own interests and welfare for the sake of others and the resultant helping behaviour.
    • Amae is a positive view of dependency that signifies emotional support and security.
    • Amoral work-centric culture is one in which work is central in importance, but this centrality serves narrow selfish interests without any concern for others or for being right or wrong.
    • Anthropology is the science that seeks knowledge about of the patterns of living in societies and cultures.
    • Applied science aims to generate knowledge that can be used for practical purposes.
    • Approach-approach conflict means that a person wants to achieve two mutually exclusive goals or satisfy two opposite needs.
    • Approach-avoidance conflict arises when a person strives to realize a goal, but also feel an aversion to it.
    • Aram as a value is a preference for rest and relaxation without putting in hard work.
    • Arthshastra of Kaurilya highlights the salience of a secular administration based on merit, and proper codes of conduct in different situations, with different persons, and in different points in time.
    • Artefacts are material objects made by people to facilitate culturally expressive activities.
    • Asocial power is the influence attempt directed to an object or situation (not to a person).
    • Atman is the psychic organizing principle of mind that observes and regulates the functioning of the other layers of self; but is not dependent on them.
    • Atomistic culture is a permissive culture whereby members improvise their own course of action.
    • Authoritarian leader centralizes all power, takes all decisions, keeps all information to himself, maintains distance from subordinates, controls them tightly, and praises or rebukes them whimsically.
    • Authority is the power of a person vested in the position that he occupies in an organization.
    • Autonomous group functions on its own terms and conditions, makes and implements decisions, and so on.
    • Avoidance of conflict means ignoring it as if it does not exists or is unimportant.
    • Avoidance-avoidance conflicts involve two aversive goals that a person wants to avoid, but has to choose one of them.
    • Barbarian culture is ego-driven and anti-bureaucratic.
    • Bases of power are the resources and characteristics possessed by individuals enabling them to influence others.
    • Basic science is primarily concerned with generating knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
    • Belief is an awareness of how things, persons, and ideas are interrelated.
    • Bhagavad Gita of Vyas is the most revered Hindu text that primarily advocates one's duty and karm (appropriate behaviour).
    • Bonded rational approach implies that one has to make decisions or interact with others that are not totally based on rational ground.
    • Bottom of the pyramid of Indian people consists of the vast majority of Indians who are poor, illiterate, located in the rural areas, and have limited purchasing power.
    • BPO (business process outsourcing) involves sending jobs overseas, particularly from the developed countries of the Euro-American sector, to India where it is less expensive.
    • Brainstorming is a process through which the members of a group interact freely expressing far-fetched ideas and solutions, stimulating others to share any idea that crosses their mind without criticizing them in order to come up with a variety of ideas.
    • Bureaucracy is a structure in which organizational behaviour is decided by rules and precedence.
    • Bureaucracy bashing means getting rid of dysfunctional practices of asking for unnecessary reports, wasting time in unproductive lengthy meetings, going through proper channels that delays decisionmaking, and too much of formalization.
    • Career planning means putting in place future-oriented schemes to match individuals and organizational goals, skills, and responsibilities.
    • Centralization means that decisions are made at the higher, and mostly at the top positions.
    • Chaebols were large South Korean private business groups generally under the control of a single powerful family. They maintained close connections with the government and were involved in a variety of commercial activities ranging from farming to ship building.
    • Charismatic leader is the one who has character, will power, drive, and skills to enthuse and inspire others, salvage his followers from a crisis, solve insoluble problems, and instill in followers blind faith in him.
    • Citizenship behaviour means the behaviour that safeguards the interests of the society at large as a function of citizen's conscientious orientation.
    • Clan culture is the one which emphasizes internal focus, flexibility, and consensus.
    • Classical conditioning is incidental learning in which a behaviour gets associated with a rewarding experience a number of times resulting in an orientation to repeat the same behaviour with the implicit expectation of experiencing the same reward.
    • Coaching is non-evaluative feedback to individuals often provided by a superior for improving their performance.
    • Coalition government is composed of more than two independent political parties generally on the basis of a common minimum programme.
    • Cognitive styles mean individual members' ways and preferences for receiving information of a certain nature and amount, processing, and using them.
    • Cohesiveness in a group is the degree to which the members of the group perceive and feel to be the unalienable parts of the group.
    • Collaboration is a process through which individuals, groups, or organizations work together to bridge their differences, explore ways to cooperate, and find solutions of mutual interests.
    • Collectivism refers to societies in which people are integrated into strong, cohesive, and ascribed in-groups.
    • Communication is the process by which a person, group, or organization transmits information to another person, group, or organization.
    • Competency motive is the disposition to have mastery over surrounding objects and persons.
    • Competition means that individuals, groups, or organizations are vying to realize the same goal, and if one of them reaches the goal, others will be left out.
    • Complex knowledge consists of a larger amount of information.
    • Compromise is a process of negotiating by give and take so that individuals, groups, or organizations win a bit and lose a bit.
    • Configuration of organizations reveals the extent to which organizations are tall (having many layers) or flat (having fewer layers).
    • Conscious mind consists of all those perceptions, memories, thoughts, needs and impulses, habits, attitudes, emotions, and so on, of which we are aware.
    • Conservatism is a cluster of values that include family security, social order, respect for tradition, honouring parents and elders, security, and politeness.
    • Consideration style of a leader is expressed in the nature of job relationships that are characterized by trust, respect for subordinates' ideas, and consideration for their feelings.
    • Consultative leader takes into account his subordinates' ideas and needs while making decisions.
    • Context sensitivity signifies sensitivity to the cues of the surrounding environment that guide a person about how to behave.
    • Contingency model of power shows that the power process is a joint function of the bases of power, target's orientations, and the situational imperatives.
    • Contingency theory of leadership shows that the effectiveness of a leader depends on a number of factors regarding task, relationships, and situational demands.
    • Control graph provides a visual display of how power of the different groups within an organization is distributed.
    • Cooperation involves two or more individuals, groups, or organizations acting together to achieve a common goal so that the achievement of one amounts to the achievement by the other.
    • Co-opetition is a blend of cooperation and competition when the competing persons, groups, or organizations collaborate or form an alliance to add value to their products and services.
    • Cosmic collectivism posits that the universe consists of diverse forms and elements that are interrelated in a whole.
    • Culture is the totality of values, norms, and practices of the people of a geographical area that enable them to maintain continuity as well as to adapt to changing situations.
    • Dalits are Scheduled Castes people who were historically exploited.
    • Decision-making is a process through which the alternative solutions to a problem are explored and chosen.
    • Defence mechanisms are mental processes that defend the conscious mind against the onslaught of the ever-pressing socially undesirable unconscious impulses.
    • Democratic leader encourages subordinates to participate in group activities, shares information, explains his actions, and rewards or punishes group members on objective criteria.
    • Dependence proneness is a propensity to seek help, attention, support, etc., in situations where a person can decide and act on his own.
    • Depth of knowledge ranges from ‘know-whaf, through ‘know-how’ to ‘know-why’ knowledge meaning what to do, how to do it correctly without making mistakes, and understanding the underlying principles for doing what a person does.
    • Differentiating organizational culture is characterized by overlapping sub-organizational cultures that coexist with each other.
    • Diffusion of responsibility means that people in a collective feel that others too are responsible for the outcome and hence they do not have to exert as much as they have to if they were alone.
    • Directive leader closely supervises subordinates to get work done as he is production oriented.
    • Diversity-consensus dilemma in a team signifies that the team can take advantage of the diversity in the resources of its members in order to come up with better ideas and more effective solutions. Diversity, however, makes consensus, which is essential for teams, difficult. So, teams face the dilemma of how to balance the two.
    • Dominant organization culture reflects the values, norms, and practices of the majority of the members of an organization.
    • Double-loop learning is learning ‘how’ to learn, questioning the learning process at every stage, asking why certain pieces of information must be collected, are there other ways of interpreting them, and are there other ways of acting upon them.
    • Downsizing is reducing the size of the workforce by organizations in order to remain cost-effective and efficient.
    • Dravid movement was an anti-Brahmin movement led by the ‘Non-Brahmin’ unity (periyar) in what is now Tamil Nadu.
    • Dual concern model suggests that conflict resolution depends on the relative concern for either self or others' interests.
    • e-choupal are information technology-enabled services established in the rural areas by the Indian Tobacco Company (ITC) for involving local people in marketing its products.
    • Ego is a sense of reality that reminds a person of the consequences of his behaviour.
    • Elephant syndrome stands for a slow moving economy.
    • Emotional intelligence of a person reflects his ability to recognize and understand his own emotions, control them, empathize with others' feeling and thoughts, build and nurture social networks, and make it serve collective interests.
    • Entrepreneurship is a set of orientations and actions to take calculated risk for larger gains, expanding business, creating assets, claiming market share, etc.
    • Equity theory is about a fair distribution of rewards in proportion to the employees' contributions, as a result of which they remain motivated.
    • Ethnocentric expatriate managers are those who have a poor impression of their Indian counterparts, as a result of which they manifest discriminatory behaviour towards the latter.
    • Eudaimonia is the assumption that long lasting happiness flows from realizing human behaviour that produces a sense of well-being.
    • Expectancy theory of motivation contends that employees remain motivated in the conditions in which they expect that their good performance will fetch them the rewards that they value.
    • Explicit knowledge is expressed through organizational rules, formal and informal procedures and policies, work manuals, directions, training modules, newsletters, communications through e-mails and Intranet and other documents.
    • Extended family is the one where other relatives or relative-like persons live together.
    • Extraverted versus introverted persons—extraverted people are sociable, talkative, assertive, and active while introverted people, on the contrary, are shy, retiring, sober, reserved, and cautious.
    • Femininity indicates softness, politeness, and an accommodating orientation.
    • Formal groups in organizations are those that the management creates.
    • Formalization in organizations means that instructions, rules, and procedures are written (not verbal).
    • Fragmenting organizational culture is characterized by the presence of sub-organizational cultures that function at cross-purposes with each other.
    • Frames in negotiation signify goal orientations of the parties, what they want to achieve according to their interests.
    • Fundamental attribution error occurs when a perceiver wrongly blames a person for his failure or poor performance without considering the external causes and constraints.
    • Generative learning is the one that involves exploring many more information and interpreting them in different ways to create many more options for action.
    • Gesture is the movement of parts of the body expressing certain meanings.
    • Global management culture consists of globally accepted management practices and norms and underlying, values and assumptions.
    • Global management practices are the practices that are generally adopted internationally and are recognized to be effective for organizational behaviour.
    • Globalization is the process through which products, services, cultural influences, and so on, move across national boundaries.
    • Glocal means an approach that is global in perspective, but local in applications.
    • Goal setting theory postulates that goal setting by employees motivates them to realize goals.
    • Great and small traditions signify whether subcultures are dominant and pervasive or restricted to small groups and are less pervasive in influence.
    • Great man theory postulates that leaders are endowed with superhuman qualities through which they can cause major events in the world.
    • Group dynamics is the interplay of forces within a group or at its interface with the environment that causes changes in the structure and function of the group.
    • Group is a collection of two or more persons who interact and form relationships to realize common as well as their individual needs and goals and perceive themselves as parts of the group.
    • Group polarization means that the members in a group make either more risky or more conservative decisions than they do when they are alone.
    • Group structure is the pattern of stable relationships and interactions within a group.
    • Groupthink reflects overwhelming influence of a group on individual members in making decisions to the extent that the members agree without exploring alternatives or questioning the decisions.
    • Gunas are the temperamental make up of a person having three types: Satwa (signifying purity and enlightenment), raj (emotion, action, attachment, etc.), and tarn (inaction, darkness, stale, etc.).
    • Harijans are Scheduled Castes people who were called the people of God.
    • Hedonism means that one's well-being amounts to the extent of pleasure and happiness that he enjoys.
    • Heuristics mean the simple rule of thumb that decision-makers follow.
    • Hierarchical order signifies that the whole cosmos and everything within it—animate as well as inanimate—are so arranged that they are superior to some and inferior to others.
    • High LPC leader is one who does not dislike poor performing subordinates to the extent that a low LPC leader does.
    • Hindu rate of growth implies a very low rate of economic growth.
    • Hinduism is defined as the religious thoughts that originated on Indian soil.
    • Human capital comprises the abilities, skills, experiences, attitudes, motivation, commitment, and other characteristics of human beings that are resources for their organizations.
    • Human knowledge is an individuals' knowledge consisting of information, skills, experiences, intuitions, perspectives, vision, and whatever else that they have learnt either for solving their problems or sharing them with others.
    • Human resources management (HRM) is the management of human beings from recruitment to retirement with the purposes of realizing organizational objectives and employees' well-being.
    • Hybrid forms of organizations are those that are partly differentiated on the basis of products, partly on functions, and partly on geographical spread.
    • Id consists of mental forces that consist of animal impulses, desires, and strivings.
    • Implicit theory of leadership is a subjective construction of leadership having the qualities that subordinates value and want to see in their leader.
    • Incidental learning (classical conditioning) happens when a behaviour gets associated with a rewarding experience a number of times resulting in an orientation to repeat the same behaviour with an implicit expectation to experience the same reward.
    • Inclusionary dimension of teams signifies the process of granting out-group members the affinity of an in-group.
    • Individualism refers to societies in which people are conceptualized as autonomous individuals doing what they want to do to serve their own needs and interests.
    • Influence is a process to change other's thought, feelings or/and actions.
    • Informal groups are those that individuals create by way of interacting with each other for the purposes that are of interest or importance to them.
    • Ingratiation consists of the behaviour that is intended to make the target person feel good so that he will bestow some favour to the person who is being ingratiating.
    • In-group (apane log) is a group in which the members share psychological affinity.
    • Initiating structure of leadership style manifests in a leader's concern to structure his and his subordinates' roles in order to realize the group goals.
    • Integrative organization culture is the one in which the subcultures as well as the components within them tend to remain integrated.
    • Intellectual and affective autonomy is a cluster of values consisting of the importance of being curious, broadminded, and creative as well as having a free, exciting, and varied life full of pleasure.
    • Intrinsic motivation is based on the assumption that the fewer or the more insignificant are the external rewards, the greater is the probability that the person will invent an inner reason to do well, because there is no external justification for his efforts.
    • Jatis are castes.
    • Johari window is a 4-cell (2 × 2) perceptual window in which two persons in the dual roles of being the perceiver and the perceived share their perceptions of themselves as well as each other in order to expand their understanding of self and the other person.
    • Joint family is a family where parents, their children and grand children live together.
    • Judicial activism is the tendency of judges to examine and pass judgement on petitions of public interests that generally fall within legislative or executive domains.
    • Kartaas are the heads of households.
    • Knowledge is an understanding of persons, objects, events, and the underlying principles that explain their relationships.
    • Knowledge cycle signifies how a new knowledge is acquired, documented, transferred to others, and becomes common knowledge for all.
    • Kutumbization is the process of creating a familial ambience in an organization.
    • Leader's theory-in-use means that a leader does what he thinks is necessary.
    • Leader-centred theories are those that postulate that the effectiveness of a leader is determined only by leadership characteristics.
    • Leadership is the processes through which individuals influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of their organizations.
    • Learning is the process through which new information is acquired, interpreted, rejected, and integrated into the existing body of knowledge.
    • Legend is a handed down narrative of some wonderful historical event with functional details.
    • Liberalizing phase of the Indian economy started by the 1980s and gained momentum after 1991, accelerating the growth rate of the Indian economy.
    • Life cycle or situational approach to leadership postulates that an effective leader gives commands to his subordinates, argues with them, participates with them, or delegates responsibility to them depending on their task and emotional readiness to assume the responsibility.
    • Locus of control signifies one's belief that the events of life are either shaped by one's efforts and abilities (internal control) or by fate or powerful others (external control).
    • Lokayat is a philosophy propounded by Charvaka that advocates a materialistic approach to life. It calls for people to enjoy all the pleasures of life by building a strong body through hath-yoga (a strenuous system of yoga).
    • Loose culture has divergent, inconsistent, and varied values, norms, and beliefs allowing people to evoke them selectively according to their needs.
    • Low LPC leader manifests a stronger dislike for poor performing subordinates than does a high LPC leader.
    • Machiavellianism is the manipulative orientation of a person.
    • Macho organizational culture manifests in the high risk taking organizations that are likely to get quick feedback about the outcome of their risky ventures.
    • Maintenance-style leader is primarily concerned about maintaining harmony in the group by being receptive to the ideas, opinion, and preferences of subordinates. He consults subordinates in assigning work to them, does not make changes in job content without consulting subordinates, and if he has to do so, he informs them in advance.
    • Management is the science of using capital, technology, materials, physical attributes of an organization, and people working within it for creating products and services for a market.
    • Management by objectives (MBO) involves setting measurable and attainable goals that serve organizational objectives, formulating action plans to attain them, implementing action plans, monitoring, evaluating, and then setting goals again to keep the cycle going.
    • Masculinity refers to potency, rough and tough orientation.
    • Maslow's need hierarchy, in ascending order, comprises physiological, safety and security, affiliation, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs.
    • Matrix organizational structure is one where employees report to their functional as well as the administrative heads.
    • McKinsey model is the design of McKinsey & Company for organizational transformation by downsizing, discarding loss making activities and units, and tightening the organization for effective performance.
    • Mechanical model takes individuals for cogs in a machine that is regulated through specific design and proper handling.
    • Mechanical organizations are characterized by rigid and hierarchical structure, well defined and stable tasks, use of authority for control, and downward direction of communication for passing decisions or giving instructions.
    • Membership-reference group is a person where one either belongs and looks to for guidance respectively.
    • Modelling effect is learning by observing others who get rewarded for their behaviour.
    • Monarchical culture is managerial and anti-bureaucratic ethos in an organization.
    • Motivation is the set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behaviour towards attaining a goal.
    • Multinational organizations are those which function in a number of countries as decentralized federations that respond to local needs and imperatives but are managed by the strategic framework of the head office.
    • Myth is a dramatic narrative of imagined events accompanied by unquestioned beliefs that are not supported by evidence.
    • Navratna (public sector undertakings) are the nine leading public enterprises that have been consistently making profits.
    • Need for power is the desire to feel powerful or striving to influence others.
    • Negotiation involves the process of conferring with a view to come to, hopefully, an agreement.
    • Network organizations are interrelated entities that cash in on each other's competency and minimize costs for leveraging the quality of products, services, profit, etc. Hence, they are flat, flexible, and guided by market mechanisms rather than administrative procedures.
    • Nirdwandwa means that the mind is neither blurred by anger or lust nor fractured by doubts and dilemmas.
    • Nishkam karm is working diligently without getting preoccupied about the outcome of one's efforts.
    • Nominal group is one in which members do not interact but feel that the presence of others is affecting their thoughts and behaviour.
    • Norms are the standards based on what most people judge what is an appropriate behaviour.
    • Normative theory of decision-making shows that a leader decides by himself, seeks information from subordinates, consults them or lets them decide depending on the quality requirements of decisions, sufficiency of information available, and the chances of subordinates accepting or not accepting decisions.
    • Nuclear family is one where a husband, his wife, and their children live under one roof.
    • Nurturant leader is one who cares for his subordinates and their well-being, allows them to depend on him for guidance and direction, establishes emotional bonds with them, guides and directs them in work as well as personal matters, helps them grow and mature, and if necessary reprimands them to bring them back on track.
    • Nurturing superior is a warm and caring person who grooms subordinates for their development.
    • Open minded people are those who entertain new ideas, tolerate disagreements, and are flexible.
    • Open system view of organizations means that outside influences flow in and organizational influences flow out to the surrounding milieu.
    • Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which a learner behaves in manner so as to receive a coveted reward, and if rewarded, repeats the behaviour again, thus making it a habit.
    • Organic organizations are flexible having loosely defined tasks, receptivity to new ideas that cause change, expertise and knowledge as the source of authority, and consultative mode for sharing information and advice with peers.
    • Organization politics are the actions, not officially sanctioned (approved) by an organization, but taken to influence others to meet one's personal goals.
    • Organizational behaviour is the social science of how individuals, groups, and organizations function with a view to suggest ways of improving organizational effectiveness and employees' performance and well-being.
    • Organizational citizenship behaviour means feeling responsible for one's organization and doing whatever one can do to help create a better organization.
    • Organizational climate is the subjective perception of an organization or parts of it.
    • Organizational culture is the totality of the assumptions, values, norms, and behaviour of employees that create physical and social artefacts of an organization.
    • Organizational development is planned changes in an organization in order to improve its performance and employees' well-being.
    • Organizational transactional changes start from changing individuals' motivations, attitudes, and skills, and then moving up to build people-friendly structures, systems, practices, and finally developing the organization's mission and vision.
    • Organizational transformation means major planned changes in the organization that start at the organizational level and percolate down to the employees in order to renew the organization.
    • OSHA model depicts employees rising above animalistic impulses by being humanistic, spiritual, and thereby integrated into oceanic experience of being inclusive of others.
    • Out-group (paraye log) is one in which members do not feel psychological affinity.
    • Pareto-optimal postulated that it is everyone's individual interest not to cooperate in collective efforts though everyone would be better off if they all cooperated.
    • Participative leader is people oriented. He encourages employees to share ideas and opinions and come up with joint decisions that the leader implements.
    • Paternalistic leader is a father figure who builds systems, procures resources, manages group's boundaries, and is of high integrity, vision, dedication, and warmth for subordinates.
    • Perceptual figure and ground indicate the point of focus (figure) and the surround area (ground) of a perceptual field.
    • Performance-style leader makes subordinates work to their maximum, sets a clear time frame for completing work, and is strict about subordinates completing the work within the time limit as well observing all rules and regulation regarding work. He monitors their progress at work closely by asking them to report the progress regularly, and reprimands those who fail to perform well.
    • Personal causation is the belief that one is the master of his fate and can determine his behaviour.
    • Personality is the totality of all characteristics that others perceive in a person, as a result of which the person is considered to be unique.
    • Pharaoic culture is bureaucratic and ego-driven.
    • Physical setting comprise physical things surrounding a person that reflect some meaning.
    • Pioneering-innovative leaders are essentially entrepreneurs with a blend of professionalism.
    • Political science seeks knowledge about power and politics in societies.
    • Politics refers to the use of power to serve one's own or group's interests.
    • Poverty syndrome is a constellation of beliefs, dispositions, and action orientations arising from extreme and pervasive poverty and manifests itself in a sense of insecurity, the belief that resources are scarce, and that one has to resort to any means to acquire, hoard, and monopolize them in order to hedge against the possibility of becoming poor.
    • Power distance is the extent to which both more and less powerful members of societies expect and accept the unequal distribution of power.
    • Power is a capacity to influence.
    • Power strategies are plans that a person chalks out to influence others.
    • Power tactics are specific ways of influencing others.
    • Presidential culture is highly bureaucratic and highly managerial.
    • Prisoner's dilemma game is a tool to study two persons cooperating, competing, or coopering with each other.
    • Process consultation is observation of groups in action with immediate feedback on processes being observed in order to help the group improve its performance and relationships among the members.
    • Pro-social behaviours are the ones that manifest people's orientation to help others, their organization, and society at large by placing their interests, needs, and goals before their own.
    • Psychology is the science of human behaviour and experiences.
    • Quality control circles (QCCs) comprise groups of employees at work stations who collective and continuously tend to improve the quality of products and procedures.
    • Receptive phase of the Indian economy, from 1947 to the mid-1960s, signified a welcoming stance to foreign capital and technology to establish public sector industries of basic and strategic importance.
    • Restrictive phase of the Indian economy, 1968 to 1979, was marked by restrictions on foreign direct investment as well as on the outflow of foreign exchange in order to stimulate the growth of Indian companies with a view to bolster self-reliance in the economy.
    • Rite is a relatively elaborate, dramatic, planned set of activities having practical and expressive consequences.
    • Ritual is a standardized, detailed set of techniques and behaviours that manage anxiety without having consequences of importance.
    • Role means a set of rights and duties attached to positions in a group, organization, or society.
    • Role ambiguity means that the rights and duties of a role are not clear or are incompatible.
    • Role conflict is the tension arising out of incompatible roles that a person holds.
    • Role expectation is the expected set of rights and duties attached to a role.
    • Role differentiation means allocation of different roles to the members of a group or differences between the roles that a member of a group holds.
    • Role performance is the extent to which a person behaves according to the role.
    • Role underload means very few roles given to a person or there are very weak expectations within a role.
    • Role redundancy means the useless roles in a group.
    • Role overload means too many roles given to a person or too many expectations within a role.
    • Rorschach test is a projective test in which respondents project their feelings and thoughts by seeing objects, figures, colours, and movements in inkblots.
    • Saga is a historical narrative highlighting the unique accomplishments of a group or a leader.
    • Samkhya is the philosophy propounded by Kapil. It suggests how to regulate sensory and motor functions and expand self-awareness through yog in order to get over the sorrows of life.
    • Sanatan dharmi were the followers of Vedic tradition who were later called Hindus.
    • Satyagrah (Passive resistance) for resolving conflict involves three successive steps: reasoning with the opponent to make him realize the need to reduce conflict; failing which, to resort to self-suffering (for example, fasting, etc.) to arouse moral responsibility in the opponent; failing which, to start non-cooperation, polite disobedience, and break up with the opponent.
    • Schemas in negotiation are knowledge structures consisting of information that helps the negotiating parties understand their own and other's perspective, strategies for negotiation, meanings of their actions, aspirations, etc.
    • Scripts in negotiation are ways and habits of behaving for arriving (or failing to arrive) at an agreement.
    • Self is the totality of an individual's perception of himself that distinguishes him from others and orients him to relate with them.
    • Self-actualization means a full realization of one's potential by transcending one's limitations.
    • Self-confidence is a generalized self-efficacy that one can handle any difficult job, nothing is impossible if one tries hard enough, or that one can live the life that one wants to live.
    • Self-efficacy is a belief that one can get things done, solve problems, make friends, and influence others.
    • Self-identity is a constellation of psychological elements that evolve together as a person grows in his life-roles, but still maintains continuity of his being the same person.
    • Self-regard is a positive feeling about one's worth.
    • Semantic differential scale consists of bipolar adjectives at the two extremes having a scale in between. Respondents are required to place the target object, person, or idea on the scale according to their proximity to the applicable adjectives. The responses reveal the evaluative, affective, and potency meanings that the respondents attribute to them.
    • Sensitivity group is one that enhances its members' sensitivity to each other's feelings, needs, and thoughts.
    • Sensitivity training aims to sensitize participants of a group to each others' feelings and thoughts with a view to establishing team spirit in them.
    • Signature skills in knowledge management manifests in selectively attending, collecting, and passing on information to others in ways that worked successfully for solving problems in the past.
    • Single-loop learning includes the processes of perceiving new pieces of information and analyzing them in the light of past experience to lead to certain actions.
    • Sneh-shradhha (affection-deference) relationship is one in which a superior remains warm, caring, and mentors subordinates who reciprocate by being loyal, respectful, and obedient.
    • Social capital is the resources that arise due to the prevalence of trust among the members of a group, which is based on the rational calculation that cooperation is in their long-term self-interest as well as in the interests of the organization.
    • Social facilitation is the process signifying that the presence of others in a group mobilizes a person to perform better.
    • Social knowledge resides in the understanding of relationships among individuals or within groups that are based on certain cultural norms, trust, team spirit, and sense of belonging.
    • Social loafing is a tendency among the members to exert less in a group than what they do individually.
    • Social power is the attempt to influence directed to a person or persons.
    • Social-emotional leader maintains harmony and cohesiveness among the group members.
    • Sociology is the science that seeks knowledge of societies, their structures, and functions.
    • Sociometry is a technique to assess the degree of cohesiveness in the structure of a group.
    • Socio-technical analysis involves integration of technology, group structure, and people's characteristics in order to improve performance and enhance quality of work life.
    • Soft organizational culture is one in which organizational objectives are compromised to appease the employees, work suffers, but employees get generous welfare benefits.
    • Special economic zones (SEZs) are areas that are demarked for giving incentive for promoting economic activities, allowing tax relief, and producing goods for exports or providing specialized services.
    • Specialization in an organization means the extent to which employees have specialized roles and positions.
    • Spirituality is a cluster of beliefs (such as continuity of human and divine existence, composed state of mind), preferences (such as inner peace), and practices (including religious activities, efforts to rise on moral scale and improve one's merit, etc.).
    • Standardization signifies that standard rules and procedures are available for guiding work.
    • Status differentiation involves allocation of superior and inferior positions on the basis of certain indicators.
    • Stereotyping is the process of placing a person in a collective or category and attributing the shared characteristics of the collective to him.
    • Sthitaprajn signifies ‘steady wisdom’ of a composed mind that is not carried away by emotions.
    • Strategic learning plays an instrumental role for not only enabling organizations to adjust, adapt, or innovate, but also to transform them.
    • Subconscious mind lies in between the unconscious and conscious mind, witnessing the drama of unconscious impulses trying to enter into consciousness and the ego regulating them with or without super-ego's assistance.
    • Subculture is a part of a larger societal culture.
    • Subculture of an organization is the values, norms, and practices of specific groups within an organization.
    • Sufi tradition, similar to the bhakti tradition of Hindus, is a devotional tradition within Islam.
    • Super-conscious (turiya avastha) means the fourth state of mind in which, according to Hindu philosophy, the distinction between the subject and the object, knower and known, disappears.
    • Super-ego is the conscience of a person that distinguishes right from wrong and moral from immoral.
    • Symbol is an object, act, or event that serves as a vehicle for conveying meaning by representing another thing.
    • Systemic knowledge manifests in organizational systems, procedures, norms, and standards for working and relating with each other.
    • Tacit knowledge is an insight that employees acquire through learning and doing. It is sensed and experienced rather than documented and handed over.
    • Task force is a small group formed for a specific purpose.
    • Task leader is concerned primarily with getting tasks accomplished.
    • Team informity means the extent to which a team shares information relevant to the task and gets that information to the person who needs it to make well-informed decisions.
    • Team mental model highlights a common view of the task and the problems shared by all members of a team.
    • Teams are special groups having clearly focused task orientation as well as cooperative relationships among the members.
    • Technocratic organizational culture develops in organizations that prioritize technological considerations over human needs, expectations, and attitudes.
    • Theory X is based on the assumption that human beings have to be forced to make them work.
    • Theory Y is based on the assumption that human beings have an internal disposition to perform their best.
    • Third-party mediation for resolving conflict involves approaching someone who is not party to the conflict.
    • Tight culture has clear norms that are consistently imposed on people with very little freedom to deviate, and the deviants are severely sanctioned.
    • Time and motion study attempts to combine minimum number of motions with minimum amount of time taken in each motion for performing a task most efficiently.
    • Tolerance for ambiguity means individuals' capacity to attend and process the pieces of information that are not consistent with each other without feeling uncomfortable or stressed.
    • Total quality management (TQM) is a Japanese philosophy that attempts to improve all organizational processes in order to get the best possible outcomes.
    • Two factor theory argues that the causes of satisfaction are different from those for dissatisfaction; hygiene (external causes) if taken care of reduces dissatisfaction and motivators (internal causes) increase satisfaction.
    • Trait is communality among a cluster of similar behaviours that orients a person to behave in a specific way across a number of situations.
    • Transactional analysis conceptualizes the mind having three sets of forces—the child, who signifies spontaneous desires, joyfulness, and playfulness; the parent, who is a restrictive and moralizing agent; and the adult, who balances the two.
    • Transactional leader follows an exchange principle to expend his efforts and time influencing subordinates as well as rewarding them for performance because he anticipates some gains in terms of work getting completed, his sense of self-efficacy being validated, satisfaction in the process of influencing, and so on.
    • Transformational leader enthuses and inspires his subordinates to rise above their concerns for rewards and work for goals that are higher than their individual concerns and goals.
    • Transnational organizations are those that operate at different national locations, are inter-linked with each other as well with the head office, and leverage local as well as central capabilities.
    • Trigunatita signifies that the mind has transcended the limitations of gunas.
    • Trishanku complex is the mindset of those Indian managers who are torn between behaving according to Western management practices that they learnt during their management education and retaining the traditional Indian values that they acquired during their childhood.
    • Type A personality shows a distinct pattern of working fast, being deadline driven, impatient, hard driving while a Type B personality is relaxed, easy going, patient, and tolerant.
    • Types of personality are the clusters of traits.
    • Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which people in a society tend to avoid uncertainty by establishing and observing formal systems, structures, and rules in their behaviour.
    • Unconscious mind is a reservoir of bio-genetically generated animal impulses, desires, and strivings. We are not aware of them, unless they are brought into our conscious mind.
    • Universalism-particularism: Universalism refers to the orientation to follow universally applicable rules while particularism signifies being highly context oriented, employing different rules, for example, for in-group and out-group members.
    • Upanishads are the ancient texts that dwell on basic issues of life and death, sorrows and happiness through a highly logical and analytical approach.
    • Value is a preferences for and importance attached to objects, things, persons, or ideas, and a desirable state.
    • Varnas was the basis for occupational classification of Hindus during ancient time.
    • Vedas are the most ancient Hindu texts that advanced a collectivist, hierarchical, and spiritual worldview and advocated a devotional approach.
    • Vertical collectivism refers to hierarchically structured collectivistic values.
    • Vertical dyad linkage model shows that a leader selectively interacts with his subordinates to identify the one or a few whom he starts preferring, and together they spearhead the efforts to get tasks performed.
    • Vertical solidarity is the emotional bond between a superior and his subordinate who accept the hierarchal difference.
    • Virtual organizations are a specific type of network organizations that are temporarily inter-connected to exploit fast changing opportunities by getting associated with resource partners rather than creating permanent assets, realizing forward and backward integration, or maintaining a stable hierarchical structure.
    • Vision of an organization is a scenario of its possibilities for the future.
    • Well-being at the most basic level means an absence of any physical, social, or psychological malfunctioning. At the highest level, it means self-actualization and self-realization.
    • Whistle blowing means that an employee leaks information to outsiders about the wrongdoings within his organization in order to safeguard the interests of the larger community.
    • Wipro's string of pearls are the companies that Wipro acquired to enhance its synergy and international spread.
    • Work-centric nurturant culture is one in which organizations attach high priority to getting quality work accomplished by maintaining caring and helping subordinates, and grooming them for their personal growth as well as high performance.
    • Work culture is the importance attached to work compared to other life roles.
    • Yoga Sutra of Patanjali is a text that details the theory and practices of yoga.

    References

    Abelson, R.P. and A.Levi. 1985. ‘Decision Making and Decision Theory’, in G.Lindzey and E.Aronson (eds), Handbook of Social Psychology (
    3rd edn
    ), pp. 231–309. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Acton, L.1987. A Letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton.
    Adams, J.S.1965. ‘Inequality in Social Exchange’, in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2, pp. 267–99. New York: Academic Press.
    Adler, A.1956. ‘The Psychology of Power’, Journal of Individual Psychology, 22: 166–72.
    Adler, N.1991. International Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing House.
    Adler, R., B.Rosen and E.Silverstein. 1996. ‘Thrust and Parry: The Art of Tough Negotiating’, Training and Development Journal, March: 44–48.
    Administrative Reforms Commission. 1967. Report of the Administrative Reforms Commission. New Delhi: Government of India.
    Adorno, T.W., E.Frenkel-Brunwik, D.J.Levinson and R.N.Sanford. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper.
    Agarwal, R. and G.Misra. 1989. ‘Variations in Achievement Cognitions: Role of Ecology, Age, and Gender’, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13: 93–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767%2889%2990037-0
    Ahlstrom, D. and A.Nair. 2000. ‘The Role of Know-Why in Knowledge Development within Biomedicine: Lessons for Organizations’, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 17: 331–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015817810935
    Aiyar, S.S.A.2006. ‘Doing Business is Still Very Tough’, The Times of India, Patna, 10 September, p. 17.
    Akhilananda, S.1952. Mental Health and Hindu Psychology. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    Alderfer, C.P.1972. Existence, Relatedness, and Growth: Human Needs in Organizational Settings. New York: Free Press.
    Allen, D. (ed.). 1993. Religion and Political Conflict in South Asia: India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Andersen, W.K. and S.D.Damle. 1987. The Brotherhood in Saffron. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications.
    Ansari, M.A.1986. ‘Need for Nurturant-Task Leader in India: Some Empirical Evidence’, Management and Labour Studies, 11: 26–36.
    Ansari, M.A.1990. Managing People at Work. New Delhi: Sage.
    Argote, L. and J.E.MacGrath. 1993. ‘Group Process in Organizations: Continuity and Change’, in C.L.Cooper and I.T.Robertson (eds), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, pp. 333–89. New York: Wiley.
    Argyris, C. and D.Schon. 1974. Theory in Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Argyris, C. and D.Schon. 1978. Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Argyris, C. and D.Schon. 1996. Organizational Learning II: Theory, Method and Practice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Arkin, R.M.1981. ‘Self-Presentation Style’, in J.T.Tedeschi (ed.), Impression Management Theory and Social Psychology Research, pp. 311–33. New York: Academic Press.
    Asch, S.E.1956. ‘Studies of Independence and Conformity: A Majority of One against a Unanimous Majority’, Psychological Monographs, 70, (Whole Number 416).
    Atkinson, J.W.1964. An Introduction to Motivation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Azuma, H.1984. ‘Secondary Control as a Heterogenous Category’, American Psychologist, 39: 970–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.9.970
    Bachrach, P. and M.A.Barata. 1962. ‘Two Faces of Power’, American Political Science Review, 57: 641–51.
    Bahl, V.1995. The Making of the Indian Working Class: The Case of Tata Iron and Steel Company, 1880–1946. New Delhi: Sage.
    Bales, R.F. and F.L.Strodbeck. 1951. ‘Phases in Group Problem Solving’, Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 46: 485–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0059886
    Bandura, A.1997. Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
    Bandyopadhyay, S.1992. ‘Construction of Social Categories: The Role of Colonial Census’, in K.S.Singh (ed.), Ethnicity, Caste, and People. Anthropological Survey of India. New Delhi: Manohar.
    Banfield, E.C.1958. The Moral Basis of a Backward Society. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
    Barrick, M.R. and M.K.Mount. 1991. ‘The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance’, Personnel Psychology, 44: 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x
    Bartlett, C.A. and S.Ghoshal. 1988. ‘Organizing for Worldwide Effectiveness: Transnational Solutions’, California Management Review, Fall: 54–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41166538
    Basham, A.L.1971. The Wonder that was India. Calcutta: Rupa.
    Bass, B.M.1990. ‘From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share Vision’, Organizational Dynamics, Winter: 22.
    Bass, B.M. and F.J.Yammariso. 1991. ‘Congruence of Self and Other's Leadership Ratings of Naval Officers for Understanding Successful Performance’, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 40: 437–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1991.tb01002.x
    Bayly, S.1999. Caste, Society and Politics in India: From the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264341
    Beatty, R.W. and D.O.Ulrich. 1997. ‘Re-energizing the Matured Organization’, Analyzing and Managing Corporate Culture: Special Report from Organizational Dynamics, pp. 136–48. New York: American Management Association.
    Bellah, R.N., R.M.Madsen, W.M.Sullivan, A.Swidler, and S.M.Tipton. 1985. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. New Delhi: Tata-McGraw Hill.
    Bern, D.J.1967. ‘Self-Perception: The Dependent Variable of Human Performance’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 2: 105–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2867%2990025-6
    Bennis, W.1989. ‘Managing the Dream: Leadership in the 21st Century’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 2: 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534818910134040
    Berman, J. J., V.Murphy-Berman, and P.Singh. 1985. ‘Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences in Perceptions of Fairness’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16: 55–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002185016001005
    Beyer, J.M. and H.M.Trice. 1997. ‘How Organizational Rites Reveal its Culture’, Analyzing and Managing Corporate Culture: A Special Report from Organizational Dynamics, pp. 61–77. New York: American Management Association.
    Bhagat, R., B.Kedia, P.Hareston, and H.C.Triandis. 2002. ‘Cultural Variations in Cross-Border Transfer of Organisational Knowledge: An Integrative Framework’, Academy of Management Review, 27: 204–21.
    Bhal, K.T. and M.A.Ansari. 2000. Managing Dyadic Interactions in Organizational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bharati, A.1985. ‘The Self in Hindu Thought and Action’, in A.J.Marsella, G.DeVos and F.L.K.Hsu (eds), Culture and Self: Asian and Western Perspectives, pp. 185–230. London: Tavistock.
    Bhawuk, D.P.S.2003. ‘Science of Culture and Culture of Science: Worldview and Choice of Conceptual Models and Methodology’. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii (mimeo).
    Birkinshaw, J.M. and N.Hood. 1998. ‘Multinational Subsidiary Evolution: Capability and Charter Change in Foreign-owned Subsidiary Companies’, Academy of Management Review, 23: 773–95.
    Black, R.R. and J.Mouton. 1964. The Managerial Grid. Houston: Gulf.
    Blau, P.M.1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley.
    Board. R.D. 1978. Psychoanalysis of Organizations: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Behaviour in Groups and Organizations. London: Tavistock.
    Braasch, S. Unpublished. ‘Expatriates in India: Culture-Specific Leadership and its Potential. Ph. D. dissertation, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland’, 1998.
    Bradford, L.P., J.R.Gibb, and K.D.Benne (eds). 1964. T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method: Innovation in Re-education. New York: Wiley.
    Brett, J.M.2000. ‘Culture and Negotiation’, International Journal of Psychology, 35: 97–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002075900399385
    Briscoe, D.R.1995. International Human Resource Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Brown, J.D.1998. The Self. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Brown, D.R. and D.Harvey. 2006. Experiential Approach to Organizational Development (
    7th edn
    ). New Delhi: Pearson Education.
    Buckingham, M.2005. ‘What Great Managers Do’, Harvard Business Review, 83: 70–79.
    Burke, W.W. and G.H.Litwin. 1992. ‘A Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change’, Journal of Management, 18: 523–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639201800306
    Burns, T. and G.Stalker. 1961. The Management of Innovations. London: Tavistock.
    Byrne, D.1971. The Attraction Paradigm. New York: Academic Press.
    Caldwell, D.F. and C.A.O'Reilly, III. 1990. ‘Ensuring Person-Job Fit with a Profile Comparison Process’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 648–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.648
    Carr, N.G.1999. ‘Being Virtual: Character and the New Economy’, Harvard Business Review, May-June: 181–83, 186.
    Carstairs, G.M.1971. The Twice Born. Bombay: Asia Publishers.
    Cartwright, D. and A.Zander. 1968. Group Dynamics: Research and Theory. New York: Harper.
    Cassciaro, T. and M.S.Lobo. 2005. ‘Whom People Prefer: Competent Jerks or Lovable Fools’, Harvard Business Review, June 2005: 94.
    Cattell, R.B.1951. ‘The New Concepts for Measuring Leadership in Terms of Group Syntality’, Human Relations, 4: 161–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675100400203
    Chakraborty, S.K.1987. Managerial Effectiveness and Quality of Work Life: Indian Insights. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
    Chakraborty, S.K.1993. Managerial Transformation by Values: A Corporate Pilgrimage. New Delhi: Sage.
    Chandra, B.1992. Communalism in Modern India. New Delhi: Vikas.
    Chang, E. and S.M.Taylor. 1999. ‘Control in Multinational Corporations: The Case of Korean Manufacturing Subsidiaries’, Journal of Management, 25: 541–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639902500404
    Chao, G.T., A.M.O'Leary-Kelly, S.Wolf, H.J.Klein and P.B.Garderner. 1994. ‘Organizational Socialization: Its Content and Consequences’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 730–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.5.730
    Charan, R.2006. ‘Home Depot's Blueprint for Culture Change’, Harvard Business Review, April: 61–70.
    Chatterjee, A.1995. ‘Quality as Marketing’, Business Today, 7 January, pp. 224–31.
    Chattopadhyaya, D.P.1973. Lokayata: A Study in Ancient Indian Materialism. New Delhi: People's Publishing House.
    Chattopadhyaya, G.P.1975. ‘Dependence in Indian Culture: From Mud Huts to Company Board Rooms’, Economic and Political Weekly, 19: M30-M38.
    Chaudron, D.1995. ‘How to Improve Cross-Functional Teams’, HR Focus, 72: 4.
    Chen, M.1995. Asian Management System: Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Styles of Business. London: Routledge.
    Chie, N.1964. ‘Logic and the Smile: When Japanese meet Indians’, Japan Quarterly, 11: 434–38.
    Chua, E. and W.B.Gudykunst. 1987. ‘Conflict Resolution Styles in Low and High Context Cultures’, Communication Research Reports, 4: 32–37.
    Cole, R.E.1980. Work, Morality, and Participation: A Comparative Study of American and Japanese Industry. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Collins, J.2005. ‘Level 5 Leadership: The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve’, Harvard Business Review, July-August: 136.
    Conger, J.A. and R.N.Kanungo. 1987. ‘Toward a Behavioral Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Settings’, Academy of Management Review, 12: 637–47.
    Cottrell, N.B.1972. ‘Social Facilitation’, in C.G.McClintock (ed.), Experimental Social Psychology, pp. 214–41. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
    Cushman, D.P. and S.S.King. 1985. ‘National and Organizational Culture in Conflict Resolution: Japan, the United States, and Yugoslavia’, in W.B.Gudykunst, L.P.Stewart, and S.Ting-Toomey (eds), Communication, Culture, and Organizational Processes, pp. 114–144. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Dansereau, F., G.Graen, and W.Haga. 1975. ‘A Vertical Dyad Approach to Leadership within Formal Organizations’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13: 46–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2875%2990005-7
    Das, G.2006. ‘India's Mystifying Rise’, The Times of India, Patna, 8 October, p. 10.
    Davenport, T.H. and L.Prusak. 1998. Working Knowledge. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Davidow, W.H. and M.S.Malone. 1992. The Virtual Corporation. New York: Harper Business.
    Davis, L.E. and J.C.Taylor. 1972. Design of Jobs. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Dayal, 1.1976. ‘Cultural Factors in Designing Performance Appraisal System’. SRC Industrial Relations & Human Resources, New Delhi.
    Dayal, 1999. Can Organizations Develop Leaders: A Study of Effective Leaders. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.
    Dayal, I., P.Sahagal, R.Jain, P.Gupta, and A.K.Sen. 1996. Successful Applications of HRD: Case Studies in Indian Organizations. New Delhi: New Concepts.
    De Long, D.W. and L.Fahey. 2000. ‘Diagnosing Cultural Barriers to Knowledge Management’, The Academy of Management Executive, 14: 113–27.
    De, N.1984. Alternative Design of Human Organization. New Delhi: Sage.
    Deal, T.E. and A.K.Kennedy. 1982. Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    deCharms, R.1968. Personal Causation: The Internal Affective Determinants of Behaviour. New York: Academic Press.
    Deci, E.L.1975. Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4446-9
    Denhartog, D.N., R.J.House, P.J.Hanges, S.A.Rui-Quitanilla, and P.W.Dorfman. 1999. ‘Culture-Specific and Cross-Culturally GeneraKzable Implicit Leadership Theories: Are Attributes of Charismatic/Transformational Leadership Universally Endorsed?’, Leadership Quarterly, 10: 219–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2899%2900018-1
    Department of Economics and Statistics, TataServices. 2004. Statistical Outlineof India, 2003–2004 (2004). Bombay: Department of Economics & Statistics, Tata Services.
    Dirks, N.B.2002. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dodgson, M.1991. The Management of Technological Learning. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Doi, T.1973. The Anatomy of Dependence. Tokyo: Kodansha International.
    Dowling, P., D.E.Welch, and R.S.Schuler. 1999. International Human Resource Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publications.
    Drucker, P.F.1988. ‘The Coming of the New Organization’, Harvard Business Review, January-February: 45–53.
    Drucker, P.F.1995. Managing in a Time of Great Change. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
    Drucker, P.F.1999. Management Challenges for the 21st Century. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Dumont, L.1970. Homo Hierarchicus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dyer, W.G.1987. Team Building: Issues and Alternatives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Earley, P.C. and E.Mosakowski. 2004. ‘Cultural Intelligence’, Harvard Business Review: 2004 Reader's Guidance: 51.
    Eastman, R. A.2000. ‘The Cultural Dimension in Transactions with Japanese Companies’, The Metropolitan Corporate Counsel, June,
    North-east Edition
    .
    Edelman, G.M.1992. Brilliant Air, Bright Fire: On the Matter of the Mind. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
    Eisenhardt, K.M.1989. ‘Agency Theory: An Assessment and Review’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 57–74.
    Eisenstadt, S.N.1968. Max Weber: On Charisma and Institution Building. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    El-Hayek, T. Unpublished. The Effects of Culture and Contextual Factors in Perceptions of Leadership Characteristics and Motivation, Ph.D. thesis, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, 1999.
    Emery, F.E.1959. Characteristics of Socio-Technical Systems. London: Tavistock.
    Emery, F.E. and F.Thorsrud. 1969. Form and Content in Industrial Democracy. London: Tavistock.
    Erez, M.1997. ‘A Culture Based Model of Work Motivation’, in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 13–54. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.
    Erikson, E.1963. Childhood and Society (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Norton.
    Falbo, T.1977. ‘Multidimensional Scaling of Power Strategies’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31: 537–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.35.8.537
    Falbo, T. and L.A.Peplau. 1980. ‘Power Strategies in Intimate Relationships’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38: 618–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.38.4.618
    Fayol, H.1916. General and Industrial Management (Translated by ConstanceStorrs). London: Pit Man.
    Feldman, D.C.1976. ‘A Contingency Theory of Socialization’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21: 433–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391853
    Feldman, S.M.1990. Understanding Psychology (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Fernandez-Ballesteros, R., JuanDiez-Nicolas, G.V.Capara, C.Barbaranelli, and A.Bandura. 2002. ‘Determinants and Structural Relation of Personal Efficacy to Collective Efficacy’, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51: 107–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00081
    Ferris, G.R. and K.M.Kacmar. 1992. ‘Perception of Organizational Polities’, Journal of Management, 18: 93http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639201800107
    Festinger, L.A.1954. ‘A Theory of Social Comparison Process’, Human Relations, 7: 117–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675400700202
    Fiedler, F.E.1967. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill
    Fieldler, F.E. and J.E.Garcia. 1987. New Approaches to Effective Leadership: Cognitive Resources and Organizational Performance. New York: John Wiley.
    Fiol, CM. and M.A.Lyles. 1985. ‘Organizational Learning’, Academy of Management Review, 10: 803–13.
    Fisher, R. and W.Ury. 1981. Getting to Yes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Foa, U.G. and E.B.Foa. 1974. Social Structure of Mind. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
    Foy, N.1996. Empowering People at Work. Bombay: Jaico Books
    Fraser, L.1919. Iron and Steel in India: A Chapter from the Life ofjamsetji Tata. Bombay: The Times Press.
    Freedman, D.G.1979. Human Sociobiology. New York: Free Press.
    French, J.R.P. and B.H.Raven. 1959. ‘The Bases of Power’, in D.Cartwright (ed.), Studies in Social Power, pp. 118–49. Michigan: Institute of Social Studies, Michigan.
    French, W.L. and C.H.Bell, Jr. 1978. Organizational Development: Behavioural Science Interventions for Organizational Improvement (
    2nd edn
    ). Englewood, Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Freud, S.1917/1949. A General Introduction to Psycholoanalysis. NewYork: Perma Giants.
    Friedman, M. and R.H.Rosenman. 1974. Type A Behaviour and your Heart. New York: Knopf.
    Fukuyama, F.1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.
    Galbraith, J.R.1995. Designing Organizations: An Executive Briefing on Strategy, Structure, and Process. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ganesh, S.R.1982. ‘Quality of Life in Indian Organizations’, Working Paper No. 407. Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
    Ganesh, S.R.1990. ‘Organizational Behaviour’, in B.L.Maheshwari (ed.), Research in Management: 1970–1979, pp. 83–168. NewDelhi: Indian Council of Social Science Research.
    Garg, M.2001. ‘Creating “Belonging through Clarity” at Aplion Networks—The Seven “P's” approach’, in B.Varkkey, P.Parasher, and G.Brahma (eds), Human Resource Management: Changing Roles, Changing Goals, pp. 277–301. New Delhi: Excel Books.
    Garg, P. and I.Parikh. 1993. Young Managers at the Cross-Roads: The Trishanku Complex. New Delhi: Sage.
    Garud, R. and P.Nayyar. 1994. ‘Transformative Capacity: Continual Structuring by Inter-Temporal Technology Transfer’, Strategic Management Journal, 15: 365–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250150504
    Geertz, C.2000. ‘Imbalancing Act: Jerome Bruner's Cultural Psychology’, in C.Geertz (ed.), Available Light, pp. 187–202. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Geissbauer, R. and PLSiememsen. 1995. Strategies for the Indian Market: Experiences of Indo-German Joint Venture. New Delhi: Indo-German Chamber of Commerce.
    GhosalS. and C.Bartlett. 1990. ‘The Multinational Corporation as an International Network’, Academy of Management Review, 15: 603–25.
    Gibson, C.B.1997. ‘Do You Hear What I Hear? A Framework for Reconciling Inter-Cultural Communication Difficulties Arising from Cognitive Styles and Cultural Values’, in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 335–362. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.
    Goel, M.L.2002. ‘Religious Tolerance and Hinduism’, Speech delivered at the Asian Values Conference, Florida Atlantic University, Florida, 30 March 2002.
    Goffee, R. and G.Jones. 2005. ‘Managing Authenticity’, Harvard Business Review, December: 87, 94.
    Goleman, D.1995. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
    Gould, J. and W.L.Kolb. 1964. A Dictionary of Social Sciences. UNESCO, New York: Free Press.
    Gouldner, A.W.1960. ‘The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement’, American Sociological Review, 25: 161–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2092623
    Graen, G.B., R.Liden, and W.Hoel. 1982a. ‘Role of Leadership in the Employee Withdrawal Process’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 67: 868–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.67.6.868
    Graen, G.W., M.A.Novak, and P.Sommerkamp. 1982b. ‘The Effects of Leader-Member Exchange and Job Design on Productivity and Satisfaction: Testing a Dual Attachment Model’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30: 109–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2882%2990236-7
    GrantR.M.2000. ‘Shifts in the World Economy: The Drivers of Knowledge Management’, in C.Despres and D.Chauvel (eds), Knowledge Horizons: The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management, pp. 27–53. Boston: Butterworth & Heinemann. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-7247-4.50005-7
    Graud, R.1997. ‘On the Distinction between Know-How, Know-Why, and Know-What in Technological Systems’, in J.Walsh and A.Huff (eds), Advances in Strategic Management, pp. 81–101. New York: JAI Press.
    Graves, D.1986. Corporate Culture: Diagnosis and Change. London: Frances Pinter Publishers.
    Greenberg, J. and R.A.Baron. 1993. Behaviour in Organizations (
    4th edn
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Greene, C.N.1975. ‘The Reciprocal Nature of Influence between Leader and Subordinate’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60: 187–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076552
    Greenfield, S.A.1995. Journey to the Centers of the Mind: Toward a Science of Consciousness. New York: WH Freeman.
    Gregory, K.L.1983. ‘Native View Paradigms: Multiple Cultures and Culture Conflicts in Organisations’, Administrative Science Quarterly, September: 359–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392247
    GuptaA.K. and V.Govindarajan. 2000. ‘Knowledge Flows within Multinational Corporations’, Strategic Management Journal, 21: 473–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0266%28200004%2921:4%3C473::AID-SMJ84%3E3.0.CO;2-I
    Gupta, D.2000. Interrogating Caste: Understanding Hierarchy and Difference in Indian Society. New Delhi: Penguin.
    Gupta, R.K.1999. ‘The Truly Familial Work-Organization: Extending the Organizational Boundary to Include Employees’ Families in Indian Context’, in H.R.S.Kao, D.Sinha and B.Wilpert (eds), Management and Cultural Values, pp. 102–120. New Delhi: Sage.
    Gupta, R.K.2002. ‘Prospects of Effective Teamwork in India: Some Cautionary Conjectures from a Cross-Cultural Perspective’, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 38: 211–29.
    Hackman, J.R. and G.R.Oldham. 1975. ‘Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60: 159–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076546
    Hall, E.T.1981. Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday.
    Hamel, G., and C.K.Prahalad. 1994. Competing for the Future. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Handy, C.1990. The Age of Unreason. New York: Arrow Books.
    Harris, P.1958. Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata: A Chronicle of His Life (
    2nd edn
    ). London & Bombay: Oxford University Press.
    Harris, T.A.1969. I'm OK—You Are OK: A Practical Guide to Transactional Analysis. New York: Harper.
    Harrison, L.E.2006. The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics can Change a Culture and Save It from Itself. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Harrison, R.1972. ‘Understanding your Organization's Character’, Harvard Business Review, May-June: 119–28.
    Hart, E.1996. ‘Top Teams’, Management Review, February: 43–47.
    Hassan, A.1989. Dynamics of Leadership Effectiveness in Indian Work Organizations. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers.
    Hedlund, G.1993. ‘Models of Knowledge Management in the West and Japan’, in P.Lorange et al. (eds), Implementing Strategic Process: Change, Learning, and Cooperation, pp. 117–144. Oxford: Blackwell Business.
    Heller, F.A.1973. ‘Leadership decision Making and Contingency Theory’, Industrial Relations, 12: 183–99.
    Herbst, P.G.1974. Socio-Technical Design: Strategies for Multidisciplinary Research. London: Tavistock.
    Herbst, P.G.1975. ‘The Product of Work is People’, National Labour Institute Bulletin, 1: 3–6.
    Herbst, P.G.1976. Alternatives to Hierarchies. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, Social Science Division. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6945-5
    Hersey, P., K.H.Blanchard, and W.E.Natemeyer. 1979. Situational Leadership: Perceptions and the Impact of Power. Escondido: Centre for Leadership Studies.
    Herskovits, M.J.1955. Cultural Anthropology. New York: Knopf.
    Herzberg, F.1966. Work and the Nature of Man. Cleveland: World Publishing.
    Hickson, D.J., C.R.Hinings, C.J.McMillan, and J.P.Schwitter. 1974. ‘The Culture-Free Context of Organizational Structure’, Sociology, 8: 59–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803857400800104
    Hitchock, J. and L.Minturn. 1963. ‘The Rajputs of Khalapur’, in B.Whitting (ed.), Six Cultures. New York: Wiley.
    Hobbes, T.1651. Leviathan (Edited with an introduction by C.B.Macpherson 1968). Middlesex: Penguin.
    Hofstede, G.1980. Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G.1983. ‘The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories’, Journal of International Business Studies, 14: 75–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490867
    Hofstede, G.1988. ‘McGregor in South East Asia’, in D.Sinha and H.R.S.Kao (eds), Social Values and Development: Asian Perspectives, pp. 304–14. New Delhi: Sage.
    Hofstede, G.1991. Culture and Organizations. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G.2001. Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations (
    2nd edn
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G. and M.H.Bond. 1988. ‘The Confucian Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth’, Organizational Dynamics, 16: 4–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2888%2990009-5
    Hollenbeck, J.R., D.R.Ilgen, D.J.Sego, J.Hedlund, D.A.Major, and J.Phillips. 1995. ‘Multilevel Theory of Team Decision Making: Decision Performance in Teams Incorporating Distributed Expertise’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 80: 292–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.2.292
    Holmes, D.S., B.M.McGilley, and B.K.Houston. 1984. ‘Task-Related Arousal of Type A and Type B Persons: Levels of Challenge and Response Specificity’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46: 1322–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.6.1322
    Holmes, D.S. and M.J.Will. 1985. ‘Expression of Interpersonal Aggressionby Angered and Non-angered Persons with Type A and Type B Behaviour Patterns’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48: 723–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.3.723
    Hong, Y., M.Morris, C.Chiu, and V.Bennet-Martinez. 2000. ‘Multicultural Minds: A Dynamic ConstructionaKst Approach to Culture and Cognition’, American Psychologist, 35: 709–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.7.709
    House, R.J.1971. ‘A Path Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 16: 321–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391905
    House, R.J. and M.L.Baetz. 1979. ‘Leadership: Some Empirical Generalizations and New Research Directions’, In B.M.Staw (ed.), Research in Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 1, pp. 399–410. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.
    House, R.J., P.W.Hanges, M.Javidan, P.Dorfman, and V.Gupta (eds). 2004. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The Globe Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    House, R.J., N.S.Wright, and R.N.Aditya. 1997. ‘Cross-Cultural Research on Organizational Leadership: A Critical Analysis and a Proposed Theory’, in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 535–625. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.
    Hu, H.C.1944. ‘The Chinese Concept of Face’, American Anthropologists, 46 (January-March): 45–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1944.46.1.02a00040
    Hudson, D.W.1996. Happiness and the Limits of Satisfaction. Lahnam, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Hughes, M.L. Unpublished. ‘A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Chinese and Indian Negotiating Behavior’, masters thesis, The Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus, 2002.
    Hunt, J.G. and R.N.Osborn. 1982. ‘Towards a Macro Oriented Model of Leadership: An Odyssey’, In J.G.Hunt, U.Sekaran, and C.Schrieshein (eds), Leadership: Beyond Establishment Views, pp. 196–221. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press.
    Ilgen, D.R., J.A.LePine, and J.R.Hollenbeck. 1997. ‘Effective Decision Making in Multinational Teams’, in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives in International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 377–09. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Inkpen, A.C.1996. ‘Creating Knowledge through Collaboration’, California Management Review, 38: 123–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41165879
    Itami, H.1987. Mobilizing Invisible Resources. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Jackson, S.E., K.E.May, and K.Whitney. 1995. ‘Understanding the Dynamics of Diversity in Decision Making Teams’, in R.A.Guzzo, E.Salas, and associates (eds), Team Effectiveness and Decision Making in Organizations, pp. 204–61. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Jaffrelot, C.2003. India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Low Castes in North Indian Politics. Delhi: Permanent Black.
    Jain, U.1987. Psychological Consequences of Crowding. New Delhi: Sage.
    Janis, I.L.1982. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes (
    2nd edn
    ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Jennings, E.E.1960. An Anatomy of Leadership: Princes, Heroes, and Supermen. New York: Harper.
    JensenM. and W.MeckKng. 1976. ‘Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behaviour, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure’, Journal of Financial Economics, 3: 303–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X%2876%2990025-8
    Johnson, R.1996. ‘Effective Team Building’, HR Focus, April: 18.
    Joshi, A.P., M.D.Srinivas, and J.K.Bajaj. 2003. Religious Geography of India. New Delhi: Centre for Policy Studies.
    Joyce, W.F. and J.W.Slocum Jr. 1984. ‘Collective Climate: Agreement as a Basis for Defining Aggregate Climates in Organizations’, Academy of Management Journal, 27: 721–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255875
    Kahneman, D., E.Diener, and N.Schwartz. 1999. Well Being: The Foundation of Hedonic Psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Kakar, S.1971. ‘Authority Patterns of Subordinates Behaviour in Indian Organizations’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 16: 298–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391902
    Kakar, S.1978. The Inner World: A Psychoanalytic Study of Childhood and Society in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Kakar, S.1982. Shamans, Mystics, and Doctors. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Kangle, R.P.1986. Kautilya's Arthshastra. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas.
    Kanungo, R.N. and A.M.Jaeger. 1990. ‘Introduction: The Need for Indigenous Management in Developing Countries’, in R.N.Kanungo and A.M.Jaeger (eds), Management in Developing Countries, pp. 1–22. London and New York: Routledge.
    Kanungo, R.N. and M.Mendonca. 1996. Ethical Dimensions of Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452220536
    Kashima, E.S. and Y.Kashima. 1998. ‘Culture and Language: The Case of Cultural Dimensions and Personal Pronoun Use’, Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 29: 461–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022198293005
    Katz, D. and R.L.Kahn. 1978. The Social Psychology of Organizations (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Katzenbach, J.R. and D.K.Smith. 1993. The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High Performance Organization. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Kaur, P. and A.K.Sinha. 1992. ‘Dimensions of Gunas in Organizational Setting’, Vikalpa, 17: 27–32.
    KediaB.I. and R.S.Bhagat. 1988. ‘Cultural Constraints on Transfer of Technology across Nations: Implications for Research in International and Comparative Management’, Academy of Management Review, 13: 559–71.
    Keis, S.1995. ‘The Health of Munitions Workers’ Committee, 1915–1920’, Journal of Management History, 1(2): 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552529510088330
    Keller, H., A.Scholmerich, and I.Eibl-Eibesfeldt. 1998. ‘Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 19(4): 427–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022188194003
    Keller, J.J.1989. ‘Bob Allen is Turning AT&T into a Live Wire’, Business Week, 6 November, p. 140.
    Kelman, H.C.1958. ‘Compliance, Identification, and Internalization: Three Processes of Attitude Change’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, March: 51–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002200275800200106
    Kerr, S. and J.M.Jermier. 1978. ‘Substitutes of Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, December: 375–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2878%2990023-5
    Kerr, S., C.A.Schrieseim, C.J.Murphy, and R.M.Stogdill. 1974. ‘Toward a Contingency Theory of Leadership Based on Consideration and Initiating Structure’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 12: 62–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2874%2990037-3
    Khan, J. A.2001. ‘Indian Islam Shares our Common Heritage’, The Times of India, Patna, 15 May 2001, p. 8.
    Khandwalla, P.N.1988. ‘Organizational Effectiveness’, in J.Pandey (ed.), Psychology in India: The State of the Art, Vol. 3, pp. 97–216. New Delhi: Sage.
    Khandwalla, P.N.2001. ‘“McKinsey” versus “Movement” Management: Two Models of Major Change’, in A.K.Singh, R.K.Gupta, and A.Ahmad (eds), Designing and Developing Organizations for Tomorrow, pp. 79–101. New Delhi: Response Books.
    Khanna, A.2006. ‘India Inc. is on a Global Shopping Spree’, The Indian Express, 13 July 2006. Available online at: http://www.ibef.org/artdisplay.aspx?cat_id=561&art_id=12947.
    Kipling, R.1920. The White Man's Burden (Verse 371–372). New York: Doubleday.
    Kirkpatrick, S.A. and E.A.Locke. 1991. ‘Leadership: Do Traits Matter?’Academic of Management Executive, 5: 48–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1991.4274679
    Kirman, B.L. and D.L.Shapiro. 1997. ‘The Impact of Cultural Values on Employee Resistance to Teams: Toward a Model of Globalized Self-Managing Work Team Effectiveness’, Academy of Management Review, 22: 730–57.
    Koestler, A.1960. The Lotus and the Robot. New York: Harper & Row.
    Kotter, J.P.2003. ‘What Leaders Really Do’, in ‘Fifteen Unique Perspectives on Effective Leadership’, Harvard Business Review, p. 3.
    Kramer, R.M.2006. ‘The Great Intimidators’, Harvard Business Review, February: 88–96.
    Krishnan, L.1997. ‘Distributive Justice in the Indian Perspective’, in H.S.R.Kao and D.Sinha (eds), Asian Perspectives on Psychology, pp. 25–39. New Delhi: Sage.
    Krueger, A.O. and S.Chinoy. 2001. ‘The Indian Economy in Global Context’, in A.O.Krueger (ed.), Economic Policy Reforms and the Indian Economy, pp. 10–45. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kumar, D.S. Unpublished. ‘Work Values and Organizational Commitment: A Study of Managers in Public and Private Sector Organizations’, Ph.D. thesis, Osmania University, Hyderabad, 1996.
    Kumar, K.1994. Multinational Enterprises and Industrial Organization: The Case of India. New Delhi: Sage.
    Kumar, R.2004. ‘Brahmanical Idealism, Anarchical Individualism, and Dynamics of Indian Negotiating Behaviour’, International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 4: 39–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1470595804038867
    Kumar, R. and A.Sethi. 2005. Doing Business in India. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Kurman, J.2003. ‘Why is Self-Enhancement Low in Certain Collectivist Cultures? An Investigation of Two Competing Explanations’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34: 496–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022103256474
    Lam, A.1996. ‘Engineers, Management, and Work Organization: A Comparative Analysis of Engineers’ Work Roles in British and Japanese Electronic Forms’, Journal of Management Studies, 33: 183–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1996.tb00157.x
    Lambert, R.D.1963. Workers, Factories, and Social Change in India. Poona: Asia Publishing House.
    Lamm, H. and D.G.Myers. 1978. ‘Group-Induced Polarization of Attitudes and Behaviour’, in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 11, pp. 145–95. New York: Academic Press.
    Lannoy, R.1971. The Speaking Tree: A Study of Indian Society and Culture. London: Oxford University Press.
    Lapierre, D.1986. The City of Joy. London: Arrow Books.
    Lassem, R. and F.Neubauer. 1994. European Management Systems: Towards Unity and Diversity. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Latane, B. and S.Naidu. 1980. ‘Social Impact Theory and Group Influence. A Social Engineering Perspective’, in P.B.Paulus (ed.), Psychology of Group Influence, pp. 3–34. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Latane, B., K.Williams, and S.Harkins. 1979. ‘Many Hands make Light the Work: The Causes and Consequences of Social Loafing’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37: 822–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.6.822
    Laurent, A.1986. ‘The Cross-Cultural Puzzle of International Human Resource Management’, Human Resource Management, 25: 91–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930250107
    Lawler, E. III, S.Mohrman, and G.Ledford Jr. 1992. Employee Involvement and Total Quality Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lawrence, P.1982. Swedish Management: Context and Character. London: Social Science Research Council.
    Lawrence, P.R.1987. ‘Historical Development of Organizational Behaviour’, in J.W.Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behaviour, pp. 1–9. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Leana, C.R.1996. ‘Why Downsizing is Bad for Business’, The Philadelphia Inquirer, 5 January, commendatory page.
    Leung, K.1987. ‘Some Determinants of Reaction to Procedural Models for Conflict Resolution: A Cross-National Study’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 898–908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.5.898
    Leung, K.1997. ‘Negotiation and Reward Allocations across Cultures’, in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives onInternational Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 640–75. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Levine, R.V., A.Norenzayan, and K.Philbrick. 2001. ‘Cross-Cultural Differences in Helping Strangers’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32: 543–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032005002
    Lewin, K.1935. A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lewin, K.1947. ‘Frontiers in Group Dynamics; Concepts, Method, and Reality in Social Sciences, Social Equilibria, and SocialChange’, Human Relations, 1: 5–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872674700100103
    Lewin, K. and R.Lippitt. 1938. ‘An Experimental Approach to the Study of Autocracy and Democracy: A Preliminary Report’, Sociometry, 1: 292–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2785585
    Lewis, O.1962. Village Life in Northern India. New York: Vintage Publishers.
    Liden, R.C. and J.M.Maslyn. 1998. ‘Multidimensionality of Leader-Member Exchange: An Empirical Assessment through Scale Development’, Journal of Management, 24: 43–73.
    Liden, R.C., R.T.Sparrowe, and S.J.Wayne. 1997. ‘Leader-Member Exchange Theory: The Past and Potential for the Future’, in G.R.Ferris (ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, Vol. 15, pp. 47–119. Greenwich, CA: Jai Press.
    Liebowitz, J. (ed.). 1999. Knowledge Management Handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
    Likert, R.1961. The New Patterns of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Likert, R.1967. The Human Organization. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lin, X. and R.Germain. 1998. ‘Sustaining Satisfactory Joint Venture Relationships: The Role of Conflict Resolution Strategy’, Journal of International Business Studies, 29: 179–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490031
    Lin, Z.1997. ‘Ambiguity with a Purpose: The Shadow of Power in Communication’, in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 363–76. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.
    Lippitt, R. and R.K.White. 1943. ‘The Social Climate in Children's Groups’, in R.G.Baker, J.S.Koumin, and H.F.Wright (eds), Child Behaviour and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Litwin, G.H. and R.A.Stringer. 1968. Motivational Organizational Climate. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Locke, E.A. and G.P.Latham. 1990. A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance. New York: Prentice Hall.
    Lord, R.G. and K.J.Mahler. 1991. Leadership and Information Processing: Liking Perceptions and Performance. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Lorsch, J.W. and J.J.Morse. 1974. Organizations and their Members: A Contingency Approach. New York: Harper
    Lukes, S.1974. Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillan.
    Luthans, F.1998. Organizational Behaviour (
    8th edn
    ). Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
    Machiavelli, N.1965. The Prince (translated by A.Gilbert, Machiavelli: The Chief “Works and Others), Vol. 1, pp. 10–96. Durham: Duke University Press.
    Machlup, F.1980. Knowledge: Its Creation, Distribution, and Economic Significance, Vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Madhok, A. Unpublished. ‘Motivational Patterns and Leadership Studies of Managers and Subordinates Interpersonal Perception’, Ph.D. thesis, Punjab University, Chandigarh, 1990.
    Maheshwari, B.L.1980. Management by Objectives: Concepts, Methods, and Experiences. New Delhi: Tata-McGraw Hill.
    Maheshwari, B.L. and D.P.Sinha. 1991. Managing Change through Human Resource Development. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
    Mann, F.C.1964. ‘Towards an Understanding of Leadership Role in Formal Organizations’, in R.Dubin, G.C.Homans, F.C.Mann, and D.C.Miller (eds), Leadership and Productivity. San Francisco: Chandler.
    March, J.G.1955. ‘Group Autonomy and Internal Group Control’, Social Forces, 33: 322–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2573001
    March, J.G. and H.A.Simon. 1958. Organizations. New York: Wiley.
    Markus, H.R. and S.Kitayama. 1991. ‘Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation’, Psychological Review, 98: 224–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224
    Markus, H.R. and S.Kitayama. 1998. The Cultural Psychology of Personality’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(1): 63–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022198291004
    Marriott, K. (ed.). 1990. India through Hindu Categories. New Delhi: Sage.
    Martin, J.1992. Cultures in Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Maslow, A.H.1943. ‘A Theory of Motivation’, Psychological Review, 50: 370–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0054346
    Maslow, A.H.1954. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper.
    Maslow, A.H.1962. Towards a Psychology of Being. New York: Harper & Row. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10793-000
    Maslow, A.H.1968. Toward a psychology of being (
    2nd edn
    ). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
    Maslow, A.H.1971. The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (posthumously edited by B.G.Maslow). New York: Viking Press.
    Mayers, B.T. and R.T.Allen. 1977. Towards a Definition of Organizational Polities’, Academy of Management Review, 2: 672–78.
    Mayo, A.J. and N.Nohria. 2005. ‘Zeitgeist Leadership’, Harvard Business Review, 5 October: 45–60.
    McClelland, D.C.1961. The Achieving Society. New York: Van Nostrand.
    McClelland, D.C.1970. The Two Faces of Power’, Journal of International Affairs, 24: 36.
    McClelland, D.C.1975. Power: The Inner Experience. New York: Free Press
    McClelland, D.C.1985. Human Motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    McClelland, D.C. and S.C.Wilsnack. 1972. ‘The Effects of Drinking on Thoughts about Power and Restraint’, in D.C.McClelland, W.N.Davis, R.Kahu, and E.Winner (eds), The Drinking Man, pp. 123–41. New York: Free Press.
    McClelland, D.C. and D.G.Winter. 1969. Motivating Economic Development. New York: Free Press.
    McDonald, P. and J.Gandz. 1992. ‘Getting Value from Shared Values’, Organisational Dynamics, Winter: 64—77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2892%2990025-I
    McGregor, D.1960. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    McLuhan, M. and B.R.Powers. 1989. The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mead, G.H.1934. Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Meade, R.D.1967. ‘An Experimental Study of Leadership in India’, Journal of Social Psychology, 72: 35–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1967.9922297
    Mehta, P.1991. People's Development, Motivation, and Work Organization. New Delhi: Participation and Development Centre.
    Mehta, V.1967. Portrait of India. New York: Penguin.
    Mendonca, M. and R.N.Kanungo. 1994. ‘Motivation through Effective Reward Management in Developing Countries’, in R.N.Kanungo and M.Mendonca (eds), Work Motivation: Models for Developing Countries, pp. 49–83. New Delhi: Sage.
    Miles, R.E. and C.C.Snow. 1992. ‘Causes of Failures in Network Organizations’, California Management Review, Summer: 53–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41166703
    Miles, R.H.1980. Organizational Behaviour. Santa Barbara, CA: Goodyear.
    Miller, E.J.1975. ‘Socio-Technical Systems in Weaving, 1953–1970: A Follow-Up Study’, Human Relations, 28: 349–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677502800403
    Minton, H.L.1967. ‘Power as a Personality Construct’, in B.A.Maher (ed.), Progress in Experimental Personality Research, Vol. 4, pp. 229–67. New York: Academic Press.
    Mintzberg, H.1983. Power in and around Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Mintzberg, H.2003. The Manager's Job: Folklore and Fact’, in ‘Fifteen Unique Perspectives on Effective Leadership’, Harvard Business Review: 3–16.
    Mishra, B., R.Mahalakshmi, and M.Mohan. 2001. ‘Capitalizing on Human Capital—Seeking Alignment with Business’, in B.Varkkey, P.Parasher, and G.Brahma (eds), Human Resource Management: Changing Roles, Changing Goals, pp. 101–26. New Delhi: Excel Books.
    Misra, G.2003. ‘Implications of Culture for Psychological Knowledge’, in J.W.Berry, R.C.Mishra, and R.C.Tripathi (eds), Psychology in Human and Social Development: Lessons from Different Cultures, pp. 31–67. New Delhi: Sage.
    Misra, G. and R.Agarwal. 1985. The Meaning of Achievement: Implication for a Cross-Cultural Theory of Achievement Motivation’, in I.R.Lagunes and Y.H.Poortinga (eds), From a Different Perspective: Studies of Behaviour across Cultures, pp. 250–66. Lisse: Swets & Zetlinger.
    Misumi, J.1985. The Behavioural Science of Leadership: An Interdisciplinary Research. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Mitroff, I.I.1983. Stakeholders of Organizational Mind: Toward a New View of Organizational Policy Making. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Moghni, S.M.1987. ‘Development of Modern Psychology in Pakistan’, in G.H.Blowers and A.M.Turtle (eds), Psychology Moving East: The Status of Western Psychology in Asia and Oceania, pp. 23–37. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Mohan Babu, K.2007. ‘Indian Management Thinking Goes Global’. Available online at http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/manager/2007/05/21/stories/2007052100051100.htm.
    Moore, B.1967. Social Origin of Dictatorship and Democracy. London: Allen Lane & Penguin.
    Moreno, J.L.1934. Who Shall Survive?Washington: NMD Publications.
    Morgan, E. and J.F.Volkwein. 1992. ‘The Cultural Approach to the Formation of Organizational Climate’, Human Relations, 45(1): 19–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679204500102
    Morris, M.W., K.Y.Williams, K.Leung, R.Larrick, M.T.Mendoza, D.Bhatnagar, J.Li, M.Kondo, J.Luo, and J.Hu. 1998. ‘Conflict Management Style: Accounting for Cross-National Differences’, Journal of International Business Studies, 29(4): 729–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490050
    MOW International Team. 1987. The Meaning of Working. London: Academic Press.
    Mulder, M.1977. The Daily Power Game. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, Social Sciences Division. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6951-6
    Mullen, B. and C.A.Riordam. 1988. ‘Self-Serving Attributions for Performance in Naturalistic Settings: A Meta-Analytic Review’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18: 3–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb00001.x
    Myers, C.A.1960. Industrial Relations in India. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.
    Myrdal, G.1968. Asian Drama. New York: Twentieth Century.
    Nadler, D.A.1987. ‘The Effective Management of Organizational Change’, in J.W.Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behaviour, pp. 358–9. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Nagandhi, A.R.1986. ‘Three Decades of Cross-Cultural Management Research’, in S.R.Clegg, D.C.Dunphy, and S.G.Redding (eds), The Enterprise and Management in East Asia, pp. 35–66. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong.
    Nahavandi, A. and E.Aranda. 1994. ‘Restructuring Teams for the Reengineered Organizations’, Academy of Management Executive, 13: 15–27.
    Nakane, C.1970. Japanese Society. Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.
    Nalebuff, B.J. and A.M.Brandenburger. 1996. Co-opetition. London: HarperCollins Business.
    Nandy, A.1975. ‘The Master Builders’, The Statesman, 12 September, p. 7.
    Nandy, A.1983. The Intimate Enemy. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Nandy, A. and S.Kakar. 1980. ‘Culture and Personality’, in U.Pareek (ed.), A Survey of Research in Psychology, 1971–1976, Part 1, pp. 141–81. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
    Newman, K.L. and S.D.Nollen. 1996. ‘Královopolská: The Search for Strategy’, Case Research Journal, 16: 54–73.
    Nietzsche, F. (1883–8). The Will to Power (translated by W.Kaufmann and R.T.Hollingdale and edited, with commentary, by W.Kaufman). New York: Vintage Books.
    Nigam, A.2007. ‘Caste Politics in India’. Available online at http://www.southasianmedia.net/Magazine/Journal/castepolitics_india.htm
    Nisbett, R.E. and L.Ross. 1984. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Nonaka, I.1994. ‘A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation’, Organization Science, 5: 14—23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.5.1.14
    Nonaka, I. and N.Konno. 1998. ‘The Concept of “Ba”: Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation’, California Management Review, 40: 40–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41165942
    Nord, W.1978. ‘Dreams of Humanization and the Realities of Power’, Academy of Management Review, July: 675–77.
    O'Donnell, S.W.2000. ‘Managing Foreign Subsidiaries: Agents of Headquarters or an Interdependent Network?’Strategic Management Journal, 21: 525–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0266%28200005%2921:5%3C525::AID-SMJ104%3E3.0.CO;2-Q
    Olson, M.1982. ‘The Logic of Collective Action’, in B.Barry and R.Hardin (eds), Rational Man and Irrational Society, pp. 39–50. Beverly Hills: Sage.
    Onglatco, M.L.U.1988. Japanese Quality Control Circles: Features, Effectiveness, and Problems. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization.
    Orasanu, J. and E.Salas. 1993. ‘Team Decision Making in Complex Environment’, in G.Klein, J.Orasanu, R.Calderwood, and C.E.Ssambok (eds), Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, pp. 327–46. Norwoood, NJ: Ablex.
    Organ, D.W.1988. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Orme-Johnson, D.W., E.Zimmerman, and M.Hawkins. 1997. ‘Maharshi's Vedic Psychology: The Science of the Cosmic Psyche’, in H.S.R.Kao and D.Sinha (eds), Asian Perspectives on Psychology, pp. 282–308. New Delhi: Sage.
    Osborn, A.F.1957. Applied Imagination. New York: Scriber's.
    O'Toole, J.1974. Work and Quality of Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Osgood, C.E.1962. ‘Studies of the Generality of Affective Meaning Systems’, American Psychologist, 17: 10–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045146
    Ouchi, W.G.1981. TheoryZ. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Owens, H.1990. ‘The Business of Business is Learning’, Mithya Newletter, Summer.
    Padaki, R.1988. ‘Job Attitudes’, in J.Pandey (ed.), Psychology in India: The State of the Art, Vol. 3, pp. 19–96. New Delhi: Sage.
    Pande, N. and R.K.Naidu. 1992. ‘Anasakti and Health: A Study of Non-Attachment’, Psychology and Developing Societies, 4: 89–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097133369200400106
    Pandey, J.1981. Tngratiation as a Social Behaviour’, in J.Pandey (ed.), Perspectives on Experimental Social Psychology, pp. 157–85. New Delhi: Concept.
    Pandey, J.1988. ‘Social Influence Processes’, in J.Pandey (ed.), Psychology in India: The State-of-the-Art, Vol. 2, pp. 55–94. New Delhi: Sage.
    Pandey, J.1999. ‘Socio-Psychological Dimensions of Experience and Consequences of Crowding’, in J.C.Lasry, J.Adair, and K.Dion (ed.), Latest Contributions to Cross-Cultural Psychology. Lisse: Swets & Zetìinger.
    Pandey, S.N.1989. Human Side of Tata Steel. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
    Paranjpe, A.C.1988. ‘A Personality Theory According to Vedanta’, in A.C.Paranjpe, D.X.E.Ho, and R.W.Ribber (eds), Asian Contributions to Psychology, pp. 185–213. New York: Praeger.
    Paranjpe, A.C.1998. Self and Identity in Modern Psychology and Indian Thought. New York: Plenum Press.
    Pareek, U.1968. ‘A Motivational Paradigm for Development’, Journal of Social Issues, 24: 112–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1968.tb02658.x
    Pareek, U.1988. Organizational Behaviour Process. Jaipur: Rawat.
    Pareek, U.2004. Understanding Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Pareek, U. and T.V.Rao. 1981. Designing and Managing Human Resource Systems. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH.
    Pareek, U. and T.V.Rao. 1982, Developing Motivation through Experiencing. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH.
    Parikh, I.J. and P.K.Garg. 1990. ‘Indian Organizations: Value Dilemma in Managerial Roles’, in A.M.Jaeger and R.N.Kanungo (eds), Management in Developing Countries, pp. 175–90. London: Routledge.
    Pascale, R.T.1985. ‘The Paradox of Corporate Culture: Reconciling Ourselves to Socialization’, California Manangement Review, 27: 38.
    Peace, W.H.2003. ‘The Hard Work of Being a Soft Manager’, in ‘Fifteen Unique Perspectives on Effective Leadership’, Harvard Business Review: 5.
    Pelto, P.J.1968. ‘The Difference between “Tight” and “Loose” Societies’, Transaction, April: 37–40.
    Pelz, D.C.1951. ‘Leadership within Hierarchical Organization’, Journal of Social Issues, 7: 49–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1951.tb02240.x
    Peters, J.W.1997. ‘A Future Vision of Human Resources’, In D.Ulrich, M.Losey, and G.Lake (eds), Tomorrow's HRManagement: 48 Thought Leaders Call for Change, pp. 84–95. New York: Wiley.
    Peters, T. and R.H.Waterman. 1982. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from American's Best-Run Companies. New York: Harper & Row.
    Pfeffer, J.1992. Managing with Power. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Pfeffer, J. and G.Salancik. 1978. The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper & Row.
    Phan, P.H. and T.Perridis. 2000. ‘Knowledge Creation in Strategic Alliances: Another Look at Organizational Learning. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 17: 201–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015857525048
    Podsakoff, P.M., M.Ahearne, and S.B.MacKenzie. 1997. ‘Organizational Citizenship and the Quantity and Quality of Work Performance’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 82: 262–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.262
    Polanyi, M.1966. The Tacit Dimension. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Porras, J.I., P.J.Robetson, and L.Goldman. 1992. Organizational Development: Theory, Practice, and Research’, in M.D.Dunnette (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organizational Psychology (
    2nd edn
    ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Porter, L.W. and E.E.Lawler. 1968. Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Prahalad, C. and G.Hamel. 1990. ‘The Core Competence of the Corporation’, Harvard Business Review, May-June: 79–91.
    Pruitt, D.G.1971. ‘Choice Shifts in Group Discussion: An Introductory Review’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 20: 339–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031922
    Pruitt, D.M. and J.Z.Rubin. 1986. Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Pugh, D.S.1976. ‘The Aston Approach to the Study of Organizations’, in M.S.Kassem (eds), European Contributions to Organizational Theory, pp. 62–78. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Goreum.
    Pugh, D.S. and D.J.Hickson. 1976. Organizational Structure in its Context: The Aston Programme. London: Saxon House.
    Pugh, D.S., D.J.Hickson, and C.R.Hinings. 1983. Writers on Organizations (
    3rd edn
    ). London: Penguin Books.
    Pye, L.W.1985. Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Quinn, J.B.1992. Intelligent Enterprise. New York: Free Press.
    Quinn, R.E.2005. ‘Moments of Greatness: Entering the Fundamental State of Leadership’, Harvard Business Review, July–August: 74.
    Quinn, R.E. and M.R.McGrawth. 1985. ‘The Transformation of Organizational Culture: A Competing Value Perspective’, in P.J.Frost, L.F.Moore, M.R.Louis, C.C.Lundberg, and J.Martin (eds), Organisational Culture, pp. 315–34. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Radhakrishnan, S.1948. The Bhagavad-Gita. London: George Allen & Unwin.
    Radhakrishnan, S. and C.A.Moore. 1954. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Rahim, M. A. and N.R.Magner. 1996. ‘Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Bases of Leader Power: First-Order Factor Model and its Invariance across Groups’, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1996, 31: 495–516http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3104_5
    Rajagopalan, S.2004. ‘Study Affirms India's BPO Leadership’, The Hindustan Times, Patna, 1 April, p. 13.
    Ramachandran, S.2004. ‘India: The Crimes of Politics’. Available online at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/FB28Df04.html
    Ramanujan, A.K.1989. ‘Is There an Indian Way of Thinking? An Informal Essay’, Contributions to Indian Sociology, 25: 41–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/006996689023001004
    Rangarajan, L.N.1992. Kautilya's Arthshastra. New Delhi: Penguin Books.
    Rao, A., K.Hashimoto, and A.Rao. 1997. ‘Universal and Culture Specific Aspects of Managerial Influence: A Study of Japanese Managers’, Leadership Quarterly, 8: 295–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2897%2990005-9
    Rebello, K.1996. ‘Inside Microsoft’, Business Week, 5 July, p. 56.
    Redding, S.G.2002. ‘The Capitalist Business System of China and its Rationale’, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19: 221–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016239718644
    Redding, S.G. and G.Y.Wong. 1986. ‘The Psychology of Chinese Organizational Behavior’, in M.H.Bond (ed.), The Psychology of the Chinese People, pp. 267–95. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Reddy, K.P. and D.Nagbrahmam. 1992. ‘The Culture in the Making at Sitapur Dairy’, Paper presented during a national seminar on Rural Cooperatives, Anand, December.
    Reserve Bank of India. 2007. ‘Macroeconomic and Monetary Developments in 2006–07’, Mumbai, 26 April. Mumbai: Reserve Bank of India.
    Rice, A.K.1958. Productivity and Social Organization: The Ahmedabad Experiment. London: Tavistock.
    Robins, A.1986. Unlimited Power: The New Science of Personal Achievement. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Robins, N.2006. The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational. Hyderabad: Orient Longman.
    Roethlisberger, F.J. and W.J.Dickson. 1939. Management and Worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rokeach, M.1960. The Open and Closed Mind. New York: Basic Books.
    Rokeach, M.1973. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.
    Roland, A.1988. In Search of Self in India and Japan: Towards a Cross-Cultural Psychology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Roland, A.2005. ‘Understanding Indians’, Paper presented at the International Conference on Understanding Indians, Aarhus, Denmark, 3–5 November.
    Rosenthal, R.1966. Experimental Effects in Behavioural Research: New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Roth, K. and S.O'Donnell. 1996. ‘Foreign Subsidiary Compensation Strategy: An Agency Theory Perspective’, Academy of Management Journal, 39: 678–703. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256659
    Rotter, J.B.1966. ‘Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Locus of Reinforcement’, Psychological Monograph, 80, No. 609.
    Rotter, J.B.1982. The Development and Applications of Social Learning Theory: Selected Papers. New York: Praeger.
    RugmanA. and A.Verbeke. 2001. ‘Subsidiary Specific Advantages in Multinational Enterprises’, Strategic Management Journal, 22: 237–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.153
    Ryan, R.N. and E.L.Deci. 2001. ‘On Happiness and Human Potential: A Review of Research on Hedonic and Eudemonic Well Being’, Annual Review of Psychology, 52: 141–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141
    Ryff, CD.1989. ‘Happiness is Everything, or is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well Being’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57: 1069–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069
    Savarkar, V.D.1923. Hindutva. New Delhi: Bharti Sahitya Sadan.
    Scarborough, J.1998. Origin of Cultural Differences and their Impact on Management. Westport: Quorum Books.
    Schein, E.H.1987. Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schlenker, B.R. and M.R.Leary. 1982. ‘Audiences’ Reactions to Self-Enhancing, Self-Denigrating, and Accurate Self-Presentations’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18: 89–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2882%2990083-X
    Schler, S.R. and E.S.Jackson. 1995. ‘Understanding HRM in the Context of Organizations and Their Environment’, Annual Review of Psychology, 46: 237–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.001321
    Schramm-Nielsen, J. and P.Lawrence. 1998. ‘Scandinavian Management: A Cultural Homogeneity Beyond the Nation State’, Enterprises et Histoire, 10: 7–21, ESKA.
    Schriesheim, C.A. and S.Kerr. 1977. ‘Theories and Measures of Leadership: A Critical Appraisal of Current and Future Directions’, in J.G.Hunt and L.L.Larson (eds), Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Schulberg, L.1968. Historic India, Great Ages of Man: A History of the World Culture Series. Amsterdam: Time-Life International.
    Schwartz, S.H.1992. ‘Universale in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries’, in M.P.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 25, pp. 1–65. Orlando: Academic Press.
    Schwarzer, R.1993. Measurement of Perceived Self-Efficacy: Psychometric Scale for Cross Cultural Research. Berlin, Germany: Freie Universitat Berlin.
    Segall, M.H., W.J.Lonner, and W.J.Berry. 1998. ‘Cross-Cultural Psychology as a Scholarly Discipline: On the Flowering of Culture in Behavioural Research’, American Psychologist, 53: 1101–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.10.1101
    Selye, H.1976. Stress in Health and Disease. Boston: Butterworths.
    Sen, A.2006. The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Senge, P.M.1990. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday.
    Serenko, A. and N.Bontis. 2004. ‘Meta-Review of Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital Literature: Citation Impact and Research Productivity Rankings’, Knowledge and Process Management, 11: 185–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/kpm.203
    Shah, G. (ed.). 2002. Caste and Democratic Politics in India. New Delhi: Permanent Black.
    Shah, T.1991. The Dynamism of India's Village Cooperatives: A Survey of Issues and a New Agenda for Research. Anand, Gujarat: Institute of Rural Management.
    Sharma, B.R.1973. ‘A Survey of Research on Organization and Administration’, in I.Dayal (ed.), A Survey of Research in Management, pp. 129–283. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
    Sharma, S.2007. New Mantras in Corporate Corridors: From Ancient Roots to Global Routes. New Delhi: New Age International.
    Sharma, S.K. and R.Arora. 2003. ‘Knowledge Management: A Key to Successful Business’, R&D Management Conference, Jamshedpur, pp. 106–12.
    Sharma, U.2007. Stress Management through Ancient Wisdom and Modern Science. New Delhi: Excel Books.
    Shartle, C.L.1956. Executive Performance and Leadership. Englewood, Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Shukla, M.1997. Competing through Knowledge: Building a Learning Organization. New Delhi: Response.
    Shukla, R.2007. ‘Disturbing Trend in HR Use in India’, The Economic Times, 17 January, p. 20.
    Shweder, R.A., R.A.Mahapatra, and J.G.Miller. 1990. ‘Culture and Moral Development’, in J.Singer, R.A.Shweder, and G.Herdt (eds), Cultural Psychology: Essays in Comparative Human Development, pp. 136–204. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173728
    Simon, H.A.1977. The New Science of Management Decisions (
    2nd edn
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Singelis, T.M., M.H.Bond, W.F.Sharkey, and C.S.Y.Lai. 1999. ‘Unpacking Cultural Influences on Self-esteem and Embarrassability’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(3): 315–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022199030003003
    Singh, A.K.1998. ‘Developing Leadership through Self-Empowerment’, Management Review, July-September: 47–56.
    Singh, A.K.2001. ‘Organizational Development in India: Past Trends and Current Challenges’, in A.K.Singh, R.K.Gupta, and A.Ahmad (eds), Designing and Developing Organizations for Tomorrow, pp. 27–45. New Delhi: Response.
    Singh, C.B.P. Unpublished. ‘Behavioural Strategies in Power Relationships’, Ph. D. thesis, Patna University, Patna, 1985.
    Singh, M.P. and A.Mishra (eds). 2004. Coalition Politics in India: Problems and Prospects. New Delhi: Manohar Books.
    Singh, N.K. and O.Paul. 1985. Corporate Soul: Dynamics of Effective Management. New Delhi: FORE Publications.
    Singh, P. and A.Bhandarker. 1990. The Corporate Success and Transformational Leadership. New Delhi: Wiley.
    Singh, R.B.P. and J.B.P.Sinha. 1992. ‘Darker Side of Manager-Worker Relationship in a Coal Area in India’, in R.DeRidder and R.C.Tripathi (eds), Norm Violation and Inter-Group Relations, pp. 90–115. London: Oxford University Press.
    Singh-SenGupta, S.1990. Emerging Patterns of Power Distribution. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers.
    Sinha, D.1972. ‘Industrial Psychology’, in S.K.Mitra (ed.), A Survey of Research in Psychology, pp. 175–237. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
    Sinha, D.1987. ‘Ahinsa [non-violence] as Conflict Resolution Technique and an Instrument of Peace: A Psychological Appraisal’, Paper presented during a seminar on Peace and Conflict Resolution in the World Community, New Delhi.
    Sinha, D.1990. ‘Concept of Psycho-Social Well Being: Western and Indian Perspectives’, NIMANS Journal, 8: 1–11.
    Sinha, D. and R.C.Tripathi. 1994. ‘Individualism in a Collectivist Culture: A Case of Coexistence of Opposites’, in U.Kim, H.C.Triandis, C.Kagitcibasi, S.C.Choi, and G.Yoon (eds), Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method, and Application, pp. 123–36. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
    Sinha, D.P.1985. T-group, Team Building, and Organizational Development. New Delhi: ISABAS.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1968. The nAch/nCooperation under limited/unlimited resource conditions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 4: 233–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2868%2990044-9
    Sinha, J.B.P.1970. Development through Behaviour Modification. Bombay: Allied Publishers.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1973. Some Problems of Public Sector Organizations. New Delhi: National.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1980. The Nurturant Task Leader. New Delhi: Concept.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1981. ‘Organizational Dynamics’, in U.Pareek (ed.), A Survey of Research in Psychology: 1971–1976, Part 2, pp. 417–77. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1982. ‘Power Structure, Perceptual Frame, and Behavioral Strategies in Dyadic Relationship’, in R.Rath, H.S.Asthana, D.Sinha, and J.B.P.Sinha (eds), Diversity and Unity in Cross-Cultural Research, pp. 308–15. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zetlinger.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1985. ‘Psychic Relevance of Work in Indian Culture’, Dynamic Psychiatry, 18: 134–41.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1990. Work Culture in the Indian Context. New Delhi: Sage.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1994. ‘Cultural Embededness and Developmental Role of Industrial Organizations in India’, in H.C.Triandis, M.D.Dunnette, and L.M.Hough (eds), Handbook of Industrial Organizational Psychology (
    2nd edn
    ), Vol. 4, pp. 727–64. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychology Press.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1995. The Cultural Context of Leadership and Power. New Delhi: Sage.
    Sinha, J.B.P.1999. ‘Confluence of Cultural and Multinational Influences’, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 35(1): 27–42.
    Sinha, J.B.P.2000a. Patterns of Work Culture: Cases and Strategies for Culture Building. New Delhi: Sage.
    Sinha, J.B.P.2000b. ‘Interface of Foreign and Indian Values in Productive Organizations’, in J.B.P.Sinha (ed.), Asian Perspectives on Cross-Cultural Management, pp. 94–126. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization.
    Sinha, J.B.P.2004. Multinationals in India: Managing the Interface of Cultures. New Delhi: Sage
    Sinha, J.B.P.2005. ‘Understanding the Indian Mindset: Evidence and Speculations’, Paper presented during an international conference on Understanding India, Aarhus, Denmark, 3–5 November.
    Sinha, J.B.P., C.N.Daftuar, R.K.Gupta, R.C.Mishra, R.Jayseetha, S.S.Jha, J.Verma, and V.S.R.Vijayakumar. 1994. ‘Regional Similarities and Differences in People's Beliefs, Practices, and Preferences’, Psychology and Developing Societies, 6: 131–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097133369400600204
    Sinha, J.B.P., P.Gupta, S.Singh, E.S.Srinivas, and V.S.R.Vijaykumar. 2001. ‘Societal Beliefs, Organizational Climate, and Managers’ Self-perception’, Vikalpa, 26(1): 33–47.
    Sinha, J.B.P., H.Jha, and R.Mishra. 1993. ‘Cultural Context of Health and Healing’, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), New Delhi, unpublished report.
    Sinha, J.B.P. and R.N.Kanungo. 1997. ‘Context Sensitivity and Balancing in Organizational Behaviour’, International Journal of Psychology, 32: 93–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002075997400890
    Sinha, J.B.P. and S.Mohanty. (2004). Tata Steel: Becoming World Class. New Delhi: Sri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources.
    Sinha, J.B.P. and A.Pandey. 2007. ‘Indians’ Mindsets and the Conditions that Evoke Them’, Psychological Studies, 52: 1–13.
    Sinha, J.B.P. and J.Pandey. 1970. ‘Strategies of High aAch Persons’, Psychologia, 13: 210–16.
    Sinha, J.B.P. and S.Singh-Sengupta. 1991. ‘Relationship between Managers’ Power and the Perception of their Non-Managers’ Behaviour’, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 26: 341–56.
    Sinha, J.B.P., R.B.N.Sinha, A.P.Bhupatkar, Anand, P.Gupta, R.Gupta, A.Panda, S.Singh, S.Singh-SenGupta, and E.S.Srinivas. 2004. ‘Facets of Societal and Organizational Cultures and Managers’ Work Related Thoughts and Feelings’, Psychology & Developing Society, 16(1): 1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097133360401600101
    Sinha, J.B.P., T.N.Sinha, J.Verma, and R.B.N.Sinha. 2001. ‘Collectivism Coexisting with Individualism: An Indian Scenario’, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 4: 133–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-839X.2001.00081.x
    Sinha, J.B.P. and J.Verma. 1987. ‘Structure of Collectivism’, in C.Kagitcibasi (ed.), Growth and Progress in Cross-Cultural Psychology, pp. 123–29. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
    Sinha, J.B.P., N.Vohra, S.Singhal, R.B.N.Sinha, and S.Ushashree. 2002. ‘Normative Predictions of Collectivist-IndividuaKst Intentions and Behaviour of Indians’, Intematioinal Journal of Psychology, 37: 309–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590244000124
    Sinha, P.1987. The Gita as it Was: Rediscovering the Original Bhagavadgita. La Salle, IL: Open Court.
    Sinha, R.B.N.2004. ‘Choice of the Combinations of Collectivist and Individualist Behaviour and Intention as a Function of Generation Gap’, National Academy of Psychology, 49: 14–19.
    Smith, P.B.1997. ‘Cross-Cultural Leadership: A Path to Goal?’ in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 626–639. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.
    Smith, P.B. and M.Tayeb. 1988. ‘Organizational Structure and Process’, in M.H.Bond (ed.), The Cross-Cultural Challenge to Social Psychology, pp. 153–64. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Smith, P.B., M.H.Tayeb, J.B.P.Sinha, and B.Bennet. 1990. ‘Leadership Style and Leader Behaviour across Cultures: The Case of the 9–9 Manager’, in A.Nedd (ed.), International Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Spencer-Oatey, H.1997. ‘Unequal Relationships in High and Low Power Distance Societies: A Comparative Study of Tutor-Student Role Relations in Britain and China’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28: 284–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022197283005
    SpenderJ.C.1996. ‘Making Knowledge the Basis of a Theory of the Firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 17 Winter (Special Issue): 45–62.
    Srinivas, K.M.2000. Pilgrimage to Indian Ethos Management: A Look at Indigenous Approaches to Organizational Development. Calcutta: Management Centre for Human Values, Indian Institute of Management.
    Srinivas, N.1994. ‘Management Education and Work Motivation in Developing Societies’, in R.N.Kanungo and M.Mendonca (eds), Work Motivation: Models for Developing Countries, pp. 230–47. New Delhi: Sage.
    StewartT.A.1997. Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    Stogdill, R.M.1948. ‘Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of Literature’, Journal of Psychology, 25: 35–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1948.9917362
    Stogdill, R.M.1974. Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research. New York: Free Press.
    Stoner, J.A.F. Unpublished. ‘A Comparison of Individual and Group Decisions Involving Risk’, unpublished master's thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 1961.
    Stoner, J.A.F.1968. ‘Risky and Cautious Shifts in Group Decisions: The Influence of Widely Held Values’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 4: 442–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2868%2990069-3
    Strube, M.J. and J.E.Garcia. 1981. ‘A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness’, Psychological Bulletin, September: 307–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.90.2.307
    Sullivan, P.H.1999. ‘Profiting from Intellectual Capital’, Journal of Knowledge Management, 3: 132–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673279910275585
    Super, D.E.1982. ‘The Relative Importance of Work: Models and Measures for Meaningful Data’, The Counselling Psychologists, 10: 95–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000082104018
    Super, D.E. and D.D.Nevill. 1986. The Value Scale: Theory, Application and Research. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Surowiecki, J.2004. The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many are Smarter than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations. New York: Anchor Books.
    Szulanski, G.1996. ‘Exploring Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the Transfer of Best Practice within the Firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 17: 27–44.
    Taeube, F.A.2002. ‘Structural Change and Economic Development in India: The Impact of Culture on the Indian Software Industry’, Working paper, Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, India.
    Tang, S.F. and P.S.Kirkbridge. 1988. ‘Developing Conflict Management Skill in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Some Cross-Cultural Implications’, Management Education and Development, 17: 287–301.
    Tannenbaum, A.1968. Control in Organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Taylor, F.W.1911/1947. Scientific Management. New York: Harper & Row.
    Taylor, G.1994. ‘Vices and the Self, in A. PhillipsGriffiths (ed.), Philosophy, Psychology, and Psychiatry (Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, No. 37). Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Teece, D. and G.Pisano. 1994. ‘The Dynamic Capabilities of Firms: An Introduction’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3: 537–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icc/3.3.537-a
    Transparency International. 2006. The Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index. Berlin: Transparency International.
    Thibaut, J.W. and H.H.Kelley. 1959. The Psychology of Groups. New York: Wiley.
    Thompson, J.D.1967. Organizations in Action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Thorsud, E.1972. ‘Policy Making as a Learning Process’, in A.B.Cherns and J.Sinclair (eds), Social Science, and Government: Policies and Problems. London: Tavistock.
    Ting-Toomey, S.1988. ‘A Face-Negotiation Theory’ in Y.Kim and W.Gudykunst (eds), Theory in Intercultural Communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Tinsley, C.H. and S.E.Brodt. 2004. ‘Conflict Management in Asia’, in K.Leung and S.White (eds), Handbook of Asian Management, pp. 439–58. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-7932-X_16
    Tiwari, A.K.1984. ‘Control and Organizational Performance in the Context of Sick and Non-Sick Industrial Organizations’, Ph. D. thesis, Allahabad University, Allahabad.
    Tjosvold, D., A.Wong, and C.Hui. 1997. ‘Leadership Research in Asia: Developing Relationships’, in K.Leung and S.White (eds), Handbook of Asian Management, pp. 373–96. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Triandis, H.C.1995. Culture and Social Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Triandis, H.C. and P.S.Bhawuk. 1997. ‘Culture Theory and Meaning of Relatedness’, in P.C.Earley and M.Erez (eds), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, pp. 13–54. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.
    Tripathi, R.C.1981. ‘Machiavellianism and Social Manipulation’, in J.Pandey (ed.), Perspectives on Experimental Social Psychology, pp. 137–56. New Delhi: Concept.
    Triplett, N.1898. ‘The Dynamogenic Factor in Pace-Making and Competition’, American Journal of Psychology, 9: 507–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1412188
    Trist, E.L. and K.W.Bamforth. 1951. ‘Some Social and Psychological Consequences of the Long-Wall Method of Coal-Getting’, Human Relations, 4: 1–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675100400101
    Trompenaars, F.1993. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business. London: The Economic Books.
    Trubisky, P., S.Ting-Toomey, and S-LLin. 1991‘The Influence of Individualism-Collectivism and Self-Monitoring on Conflict Styles’, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15: 65–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767%2891%2990074-Q
    Tucker, A.W.1955. ‘Game Theory and Programming. Stillwater: The Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College.
    Udy, S.H.1970. Work in Transnational and Modern Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    United Nations. 2006. Human Development Report. New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) with Oxford University Press.
    Van Alstyne, M.W.2005. ‘Create Colleagues, Not Competitors’, Harvard Business Review, 83(9): 24–28.
    Van Maanen, J. and E.H.Schein. 1979. ‘Towards a Theory of Organizational Socialization’, Research in Organizational Behaviour, 1: 209–64.
    Varma, P.K.2004. Being Indian: The Truth about Why the 21st Century Will be India's. New Delhi: Viking.
    Verghese, A.1978. ‘Involvement of Families in Mental Health Care’, CMC Alumni Journal, 12: 83–87.
    Verma, J.1999. ‘Collectivism in the Cultural Perspective: The Indian Scene’, in J.C.Lasry, J.Adair, and K.Dion (eds), Latest Contributions to Cross-Cultural Psychology, pp. 228–41. Lisse: Swets & Zetlinger.
    Virmani, B.R. and S.V.Guptan. 1991. Indian Management. New Delhi: Vision.
    Viteles, M.1932. Industrial Psychology. New York: Norton.
    Vivekanand, S.1953. The Yogas and Other Works (edited by S.Nikhiland). New York: Ramkrishna-Vivekanand Centre.
    Vohra Committee. 1993. Vohra Committee Report, Ministry Of Home Affairs (Order No.S/7937/SS(ISP)/93, dated 9th July 1993). New Delhi: Government of India.
    Vroom, V.H.1964. Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.
    Vroom, V.H. and P.Yetton. 1973. Leadership and Decision Making. Pittsburg: Pittsburg University Press.
    Walker, T.G. and E.C.Main. 1973. ‘Choice-Shifts in Political Decision Making: Federal Judges and Civil Liberties Cases’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2: 93–98.
    Walkinson, A.1998. ‘Empowering Theory and Practice’, Personnel Review, 27: 40–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483489810368549
    Wallace, M.A., N.Kogan, and D.J.Bern. 1962. ‘Group Influence on Individual Risk Taking’, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65: 75–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044376
    Weber, M.1921. Theory of Social and Economic Organization (translated by A.M.Henderson and T.Parsons). London: Oxford University Press.
    Weber, M.1958. The Religion of India (translated by H.H.Gerth and D.Martindale). New York: Free Press.
    Wellins, R.S., W.G.Byham, and G.R.Dixon. 1994). Inside Teams: How 20 World-Class Organizations are Winning through Teamwork. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Wetlaufer, S.2001. ‘The Business Case Against Revolution: An Interview with Nestle's Peter Brabeck’, Harvard Business Review (in Business Today).
    Whetten, D.A. and K.S.Cameron. 1991. Developing Management Skills (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Harper-Collins.
    White, R.W.1959. ‘Motivation Reconsidered: The Concept of Competence’, Psychological Review, 66: 297–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040934
    Wilkins, A.L.1983. ‘The Culture Audit: A Tool for Understanding Organisations’Organisational Dynamics, 12(2): 24–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2883%2990031-1
    Wilkins, A.L. and W.G.Ouchi. 1983. ‘Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship between Culture and Organisational Performance’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 468–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392253
    Wilkinson, I. and D.C.Kipnis. 1978. ‘Interfirm Use of Power’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 63: 315–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.3.315
    Wong, P.K.1992. ‘Technological Development through Subcontracting Linkages: Evidence from Singapore’, International Business Review, 1: 28–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0962-9262%2892%2990009-U
    Woodward, J.1965. Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice. London: Oxford University Press.
    World Bank. 2003. World Development Indicator DatabaseWashington, DC: World Bank.
    World Bank. 2006. World Development Report (2006). Equity and Development (Document 16086). Washington, DC: World Bank.
    World Economic Forum. 2006. The Global Gender Gap Report 2006. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
    Worm, V.1997. Vikings and Mandarins: Sino-Scandinavian Business Cooperation in Cross-Cultural Settings. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
    Yarborough, M.H.1993. ‘A Team Approach’, HR Focus, 17 August.
    Yarborough, M.H.1968. Japan's Managerial Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Yoshino, M.Y.1976. Japan's Multinational Enterprises. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Young, O.R.1999. ‘Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: Science Plan’, Bonn, IHDP Report No. 9.
    Yukle, G.1990. Skills for Managers and Leaders. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Yukle, G. and CM.Falbe. 1990. ‘Influence Tactics and Objectives in Upward, Downward, and Lateral Influence Attempts’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 132–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.2.132
    Yukle, G. and D.D.Van Fleet. 1992. ‘Theory and Research on Leadership in Organizations’, in M.D.Dunnette and Leaetta M.Hough (eds), Handbook of Industrial Organizational Psychology (
    2nd edn
    ), Vol. 3, pp. 147–98. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychology Press.
    Zaheer, A. and S.Zaheer. 1997. ‘Catching the Wave: Alertness, Responsiveness and Market Influence in Global Electronic Networks’, Management Science, 43: 1493–1509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.43.11.1493
    Zahra, S.A. and G.George. 2002. ‘Absorptive Capacity: A Review, Re-Conceptualization, and Extension’, Academy of Management Review, 27: 185–203.
    Zajonc, R.B.1965. ‘Social Facilitation’, Science, 149: 269–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.149.3681.269
    Ziegler, J.2006. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Right to Food: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food. New York: Economic and Social Council, United Nations Publications. E/CN.4/2006/44/Add.2.

    Author Index

    About the Author

    Jai B.P. Sinha is Professor, Psychology and Management at the ASSERT Institute of Management Studies, Patna. He has a long-standing career of over 40 years in research and teaching. He is an authority on cultural influences on organizational behaviour. He taught psychology in Bihar, Ranchi, and Patna universities. He was a Visiting Professor at Hunter College, New York, and Wake Forest University, NC (USA), where he taught social psychology. He taught cross-cultural management courses during his tenure as a Visiting Professor in the Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal (Canada). In 2005, he was a Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Management at the Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.

    Professor Sinha is also a well-known writer and has authored several books. His latest publications include Patterns of Work Culture: Cases and Strategies for Culture Building (SAGE 2000), Managing Cultural Diversity for Productivity: The Asian Ways (ed.) (Asian Productivity Organization 2000), and Multinationals in India: Managing the Interface of Cultures (SAGE 2004).


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website