Culture and Organizational Behaviour


Jai B. P. Sinha

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: The Backdrop

    Part 2: Individuals

    Part 3: Groups

    Part 4: Organizations

  • Copyright

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    Dedicated to Gita, my wife

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Time (in seconds) Taken for Each of the Motions in Performing a Task 9
    • 2.1 Coexistence of Opposites 44
    • 4.1 Profiles of Type A and Type B Personalities 102
    • 5.1 Indicators of the Need for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power 117
    • 5.2 Hygiene Factors and Motivators 119
    • 5.3 Value Dimensions and a Sample of Activity for Each Dimension 126
    • 6.1 Members Giving (Rows) and Receiving (Columns) Ratings of Liking 150
    • 7.1 Years in Prison for Confessing/Not Confessing 173
    • 9.1 Contingency Model of Power Dynamics 226
    • 9.2 Power Strategies as a Function of Power Distance and Perceptual Frame 230
    • 10.1 Leader's Shift from Normal to Fundamental State 253
    • 10.2 Profile of Managers and Leaders 255
    • 11.1 Michigan Typology of Leadership Styles 271
    • 11.2 Performance Maintenance Styles of Leadership 272
    • 11.3 Fiedler' Contingency Model 282
    • 11.4 Leadership Styles and Maturity of Subordinates 283
    • 12.1 Perspectives on Organizational Culture 307
    • 12.2 A Summary of Dimensional Typologies of Organizational Cultures 308
    • 12.3 Leading Features of Organizational Cultures 312
    • 13.1 Three Levels of Knowledge 338
    • 14.1 Two-dimensional View of Organizational Change 352
    • 14.2 Characteristics of Mechanical and Organic Organizations 354
    • 14.3 Organization Development Techniques 357

    List of Figures

    • 3.1 Growth in Foreign Investment 60
    • 4.1 Structure of Self-image 84
    • 4.2 Operant Conditioning 87
    • 4.3 Perception of Lines 91
    • 4.4 Johari Window 94
    • 4.5 Indians' Approach to Goals 103
    • 5.1 The Motivation Process 114
    • 5.2 Hackman and Oldham Model 120
    • 8.1 Japanese Team Structure 198
    • 8.2 Indian Group Structure 200
    • 9.1 Four Modes of Expressing Power 222
    • 9.2 Control Graph of Ideal and Actual Power Distribution 232
    • 9.3 Direct and Indirect Power Relationships 233
    • 10.1 Organizational Culture-Leadership-Environment Fit 246
    • 11.1 The Model of NT-P Styles of Leadership 284
    • 11.2 Dyadic Leader-Subordinates' Relationships 286
    • 12.1 Organizational Culture Nested in Societal and Global Management Culture 300
    • 12.2 Work and Family Centrality in Life Space 303
    • 13.1 Single-loop Learning 333
    • 13.2 Double-loop Learning 335
    • 13.3 Stages in the Knowledge Cycle 341
    • 14.1 Energizing On-going Large Organizations 366
    • 14.2 HRM Strategy 367
    • 14.3 Growth after Modernization (Rs Crore) 375

    List of Boxes

    • 1.1 Organizational Behaviour 4
    • 1.2 Contributors to Organizational Behaviour 5
    • 1.3 Early Milestones 7
    • 1.4 Human Relations Approach 11
    • 1.5 European Contributions 14
    • 1.6 Evolution in Indian Organizational Behaviour 17
    • 1.7 Five Trends in Indian Organizational Behaviour 18
    • 1.8 Drivers of Glocal Organizational Behaviour 21
    • 2.1 The Inclusive Indian Mindset 31
    • 2.2 Facets of the Primordial Hindu World View 31
    • 2.3 Analytical Approach of the Upanishads 33
    • 2.4 The Colonial Experience 35
    • 2.5 The Global Face of Indians 36
    • 2.6 How are You? 38
    • 2.7 Shifting Modes of Behaviour 47
    • 2.8 How Could They Change Their Mind? 48
    • 3.1 Larger Milieu and Culture 54
    • 3.2 The Wonder that is India! 54
    • 3.3 Phases in Economic Growth 56
    • 3.4 Factors of Economic Transformation 60
    • 3.5 Unemployability of Indian Youth 62
    • 3.6 The Bottom of the Pyramid 65
    • 3.7 Religious Mosaic of India (2007) 73
    • 4.1 Culture, Self, and Personality 83
    • 4.2 Formation of Self: An Evolutionary Process 84
    • 4.3 Types of Self 85
    • 4.4 Your Self-Efficacy 86
    • 4.5 Perceive Your Organization 89
    • 4.6 Hindu Conceptualization of Layers of Self 97
    • 5.1 Three Perspectives on Well-being 111
    • 5.2 Maslow's Needs Hierarchy 116
    • 5.3Nishkaam Karm123
    • 5.4Daan (Giving Away) 124
    • 6.1 Types of Groups 141
    • 6.2 Who is Responsible? 145
    • 6.3 Factors of Norm Formation 147
    • 6.4 Five Facets of Effective Decision-making 157
    • 7.1 Co-opetition Involves 172
    • 7.2 Strategies for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts 178
    • 7.3 Tata Steel's Acquisition of Corus: A Case in Negotiation 182
    • 7.4 Some Factors of Effective Negotiation 183
    • 7.5 Negotiation between a Brazilian and an American Company 184
    • 7.6 Functional and Dysfunctional Tactics 185
    • 8.1 Genesis of Teamwork 192
    • 8.2 Factors Facilitating Teamwork 194
    • 8.3 Conflicts are Not Always Bad for Teams 196
    • 8.4 Whom Do People Prefer: Competent Jerks or Lovable Fools? 200
    • 9.1 Power, Influence, and Control 216
    • 9.2 Asocial Power 217
    • 9.3 Complex Power Relationships in the Indian Setting 220
    • 9.4 The Sitapur Dairy 226
    • 9.5 An Ingratiation Scale 229
    • 10.1 Home Depot's New Leadership 245
    • 10.2 Transformation of Tata Steel 245
    • 10.3 Contextual Demands and Leadership 246
    • 10.4 Great Leaders 249
    • 10.5 A Model of Persistence 252
    • 10.6 Leadership Roles 255
    • 10.7 Narayana Murthy on Effective Leadership 258
    • 10.8 Self-efforts to Develop as a Leader 259
    • 11.1 Culture's Impact on Leadership 269
    • 11.2 Collectivism, Power Distance, and Leadership Styles 275
    • 12.1 The Core of Organizational Culture 298
    • 12.2 Organizational, Societal, and Work Cultures, and Organizational Climate 299
    • 12.3 A Work-centric Multinational 302
    • 12.4 Four Profiles of Organizational Culture 310
    • 12.5 Leadership and Culture-Building 313
    • 12.6 Organizational Rites Reflecting Its Culture 315
    • 13.1 Learning and Knowledge 329
    • 13.2 Five Perspectives on Knowledge Organizations 329
    • 13.3 Assembly Line of a Hong Kong-based Company 339
    • 13.4 Knowledge Communities in Tata Steel 343
    • 13.5 Transfer of Knowledge from Multinationals to Subsidiaries 344
    • 14.1 Survival and Change Proneness 352
    • 14.2 Organizational Development Techniques Employed in India 360
    • 14.3 Changing Emphasis in the Measures for Agentic Capabilities 363
    • 14.4 Five Dilemmas Faced by Indian HRM Managers 369

    List of Abbreviations

    AIADMKAll India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
    AMBAAssociation of MB As
    BJPBharatiya Janata Party
    BHELBharat Heavy Electricals Limited
    BKOBusiness Knowledge Outsourcing
    BPOBusiness Process Outsourcing
    BSPBahujan Samaj Party
    CIPsContinuous Improvement Projects
    CMDChairman and Managing Director
    CPICommunist Party of India
    CPMCommunist Party Marxist
    DMKDravida Munnetra Kazhagam
    EQUISEuropean Quality Improvement System
    FDIForeign Direct Investment
    GDPGross Domestic Product
    GLOBEGlobal Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness
    HRHuman Resources
    HRDHuman Resource Development
    HRMHuman Resource Management
    HLLHindustan Levers Limited
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    ITInformation Technology
    ITESInformation Technology Enabled Services
    JMDJoint Managing Director
    LPCLeast Preferred Co-worker
    M&AMergers and Acquisitions
    MBOManagement by Objectives
    MDManaging Director
    MISManagement Information System
    NASSCOMNational Association of Software and Services Companies
    NTPCNational Thermal Power Corporation
    OBCsOther Backward Castes
    ONGCOil and Natural Gas Corporation
    QCCsQuality Control Circles
    R&DResearch and Development
    RJDRashtriya Janata Dal
    RSSRashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
    SAILSteel Authority of India Limited
    SAQSSouth Asian Quality System
    SCScheduled Caste
    SIETSmall Industries Extension Training Institute
    SPSamajwadi Party
    STScheduled Tribe
    TCSTata Consultancy Service
    TQMTotal Quality Management
    UPUttar Pradesh
    VHPVishwa Hindu Parishad
    VDLVertical Dyad Linkage


    There is a near consensus that culture influences a whole range of human behaviour including organizational behaviour. However, books on organizational behaviour from Western countries, which dominate the Indian market, do not elucidate adequately how non-Western cultures affect specific theories and practices in organizational behaviour. One of the reasons for this is that the cultures and organizations in the West have co-evolved in response to the Industrial Revolution. Their overlap was so gradual, spontaneous, and pervasive that organizational behaviour scientists did not notice it. Culture is like the air we breathe; we cannot survive without it, and yet we do not see it directly. Organizations, on the other hand, are tangible in terms of their technology, structures, systems, and routines. Their impact on organizational behaviour naturally concerns organizational behaviour scientists. However, as Western theories and practices were transported to non-Western cultures, including Indian culture, their limitations were clearly exposed. This has required investigating the existing body of organizational behaviour afresh in the context of Indian culture, which in many respects is strikingly different from Western culture. There are, however, two considerations that necessitate retaining parts of Western organizational behaviour. First, culture is not the sole determinant of organizational behaviour. The nature of technology, products, and services affect organizational structures and processes that are proximate factors impacting on organizational behaviour overtly, while cultural influences, although pervasive, are implicit and have to be inferred from organizational structures and processes. Second, Indian culture is highly inclusive and pluralistic. It subsumes a major part of Western culture. Thus, Indian organizational behaviour manifests a confluence of both Western and Indian cultural influences.

    This book aims to capture this confluence. It presents basic knowledge about organizational behaviour as it has developed in the West, adds the latest research findings from other parts of the world, and situates them in the Indian cultural perspective. It covers topics that form part of organizational behaviour courses in major universities and management institutes in India. However, instead of following their syllabi, this book covers all the topics by elaborating on key concepts (for example, motivation as a means to realize well-being, the idea that self is related to personality, and so on). Further, it describes only briefly those parts of organizational behaviour that are routinely included in most textbooks and where the cultural influences are relatively insignificant, highlights those where Indian culture plays a significant role, glosses over statistical details of specific studies that are constrained by sampling limitations, and raises new issues that emanate from the interface of Indian culture and organizational behaviour for further deliberations.

    The chapters are organized into four parts. Part 1 presents a vantage point to view the rest of the chapters. The chapters in Part 1 trace the history of organizational behaviour that is embedded in Indian culture, which influences and is influenced by the surrounding economic, social, and political milieu of the country. The key concepts of organizational behaviour are discussed in Part 2, which deals with individual-level processes. The chapters in this section emphasize the fact that, though processes are generally universal, cultural influences do seep in. It discusses how various processes are performed and what contents are involved in them. Part 3 focuses on group-level processes where relationships assume centre stage. Relationships are very important in Indian culture. Therefore, culture plays a significantly greater role at the group level than at the individual level in India. Part 4 shows how global culture, which is primarily Western in origin, and Indian culture jointly shape organizational-level functions.

  • Glossary

    • Accommodation implies yielding to the interests of others to the extent that individuals, groups, or organizations can undermine or suppress their own interests.
    • Acquisitive versus protective style involves an active and manipulative effort versus highly modest self-portrayals and reluctance to behave contrary to social norms to enhance one's impressions on others.
    • Adhocracy emphasizes haphazardly improving ways and means for facilitating development of products and services.
    • Agentic capability of human beings is the ability to acquire new skills, expand one's roles, function effectively, and keep improving their effectiveness.
    • Altruism signifies an intention or a willingness to sacrifice one's own interests and welfare for the sake of others and the resultant helping behaviour.
    • Amae is a positive view of dependency that signifies emotional support and security.
    • Amoral work-centric culture is one in which work is central in importance, but this centrality serves narrow selfish interests without any concern for others or for being right or wrong.
    • Anthropology is the science that seeks knowledge about of the patterns of living in societies and cultures.
    • Applied science aims to generate knowledge that can be used for practical purposes.
    • Approach-approach conflict means that a person wants to achieve two mutually exclusive goals or satisfy two opposite needs.
    • Approach-avoidance conflict arises when a person strives to realize a goal, but also feel an aversion to it.
    • Aram as a value is a preference for rest and relaxation without putting in hard work.
    • Arthshastra of Kaurilya highlights the salience of a secular administration based on merit, and proper codes of conduct in different situations, with different persons, and in different points in time.
    • Artefacts are material objects made by people to facilitate culturally expressive activities.
    • Asocial power is the influence attempt directed to an object or situation (not to a person).
    • Atman is the psychic organizing principle of mind that observes and regulates the functioning of the other layers of self; but is not dependent on them.
    • Atomistic culture is a permissive culture whereby members improvise their own course of action.
    • Authoritarian leader centralizes all power, takes all decisions, keeps all information to himself, maintains distance from subordinates, controls them tightly, and praises or rebukes them whimsically.
    • Authority is the power of a person vested in the position that he occupies in an organization.
    • Autonomous group functions on its own terms and conditions, makes and implements decisions, and so on.
    • Avoidance of conflict means ignoring it as if it does not exists or is unimportant.
    • Avoidance-avoidance conflicts involve two aversive goals that a person wants to avoid, but has to choose one of them.
    • Barbarian culture is ego-driven and anti-bureaucratic.
    • Bases of power are the resources and characteristics possessed by individuals enabling them to influence others.
    • Basic science is primarily concerned with generating knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
    • Belief is an awareness of how things, persons, and ideas are interrelated.
    • Bhagavad Gita of Vyas is the most revered Hindu text that primarily advocates one's duty and karm (appropriate behaviour).
    • Bonded rational approach implies that one has to make decisions or interact with others that are not totally based on rational ground.
    • Bottom of the pyramid of Indian people consists of the vast majority of Indians who are poor, illiterate, located in the rural areas, and have limited purchasing power.
    • BPO (business process outsourcing) involves sending jobs overseas, particularly from the developed countries of the Euro-American sector, to India where it is less expensive.
    • Brainstorming is a process through which the members of a group interact freely expressing far-fetched ideas and solutions, stimulating others to share any idea that crosses their mind without criticizing them in order to come up with a variety of ideas.
    • Bureaucracy is a structure in which organizational behaviour is decided by rules and precedence.
    • Bureaucracy bashing means getting rid of dysfunctional practices of asking for unnecessary reports, wasting time in unproductive lengthy meetings, going through proper channels that delays decisionmaking, and too much of formalization.
    • Career planning means putting in place future-oriented schemes to match individuals and organizational goals, skills, and responsibilities.
    • Centralization means that decisions are made at the higher, and mostly at the top positions.
    • Chaebols were large South Korean private business groups generally under the control of a single powerful family. They maintained close connections with the government and were involved in a variety of commercial activities ranging from farming to ship building.
    • Charismatic leader is the one who has character, will power, drive, and skills to enthuse and inspire others, salvage his followers from a crisis, solve insoluble problems, and instill in followers blind faith in him.
    • Citizenship behaviour means the behaviour that safeguards the interests of the society at large as a function of citizen's conscientious orientation.
    • Clan culture is the one which emphasizes internal focus, flexibility, and consensus.
    • Classical conditioning is incidental learning in which a behaviour gets associated with a rewarding experience a number of times resulting in an orientation to repeat the same behaviour with the implicit expectation of experiencing the same reward.
    • Coaching is non-evaluative feedback to individuals often provided by a superior for improving their performance.
    • Coalition government is composed of more than two independent political parties generally on the basis of a common minimum programme.
    • Cognitive styles mean individual members' ways and preferences for receiving information of a certain nature and amount, processing, and using them.
    • Cohesiveness in a group is the degree to which the members of the group perceive and feel to be the unalienable parts of the group.
    • Collaboration is a process through which individuals, groups, or organizations work together to bridge their differences, explore ways to cooperate, and find solutions of mutual interests.
    • Collectivism refers to societies in which people are integrated into strong, cohesive, and ascribed in-groups.
    • Communication is the process by which a person, group, or organization transmits information to another person, group, or organization.
    • Competency motive is the disposition to have mastery over surrounding objects and persons.
    • Competition means that individuals, groups, or organizations are vying to realize the same goal, and if one of them reaches the goal, others will be left out.
    • Complex knowledge consists of a larger amount of information.
    • Compromise is a process of negotiating by give and take so that individuals, groups, or organizations win a bit and lose a bit.
    • Configuration of organizations reveals the extent to which organizations are tall (having many layers) or flat (having fewer layers).
    • Conscious mind consists of all those perceptions, memories, thoughts, needs and impulses, habits, attitudes, emotions, and so on, of which we are aware.
    • Conservatism is a cluster of values that include family security, social order, respect for tradition, honouring parents and elders, security, and politeness.
    • Consideration style of a leader is expressed in the nature of job relationships that are characterized by trust, respect for subordinates' ideas, and consideration for their feelings.
    • Consultative leader takes into account his subordinates' ideas and needs while making decisions.
    • Context sensitivity signifies sensitivity to the cues of the surrounding environment that guide a person about how to behave.
    • Contingency model of power shows that the power process is a joint function of the bases of power, target's orientations, and the situational imperatives.
    • Contingency theory of leadership shows that the effectiveness of a leader depends on a number of factors regarding task, relationships, and situational demands.
    • Control graph provides a visual display of how power of the different groups within an organization is distributed.
    • Cooperation involves two or more individuals, groups, or organizations acting together to achieve a common goal so that the achievement of one amounts to the achievement by the other.
    • Co-opetition is a blend of cooperation and competition when the competing persons, groups, or organizations collaborate or form an alliance to add value to their products and services.
    • Cosmic collectivism posits that the universe consists of diverse forms and elements that are interrelated in a whole.
    • Culture is the totality of values, norms, and practices of the people of a geographical area that enable them to maintain continuity as well as to adapt to changing situations.
    • Dalits are Scheduled Castes people who were historically exploited.
    • Decision-making is a process through which the alternative solutions to a problem are explored and chosen.
    • Defence mechanisms are mental processes that defend the conscious mind against the onslaught of the ever-pressing socially undesirable unconscious impulses.
    • Democratic leader encourages subordinates to participate in group activities, shares information, explains his actions, and rewards or punishes group members on objective criteria.
    • Dependence proneness is a propensity to seek help, attention, support, etc., in situations where a person can decide and act on his own.
    • Depth of knowledge ranges from ‘know-whaf, through ‘know-how’ to ‘know-why’ knowledge meaning what to do, how to do it correctly without making mistakes, and understanding the underlying principles for doing what a person does.
    • Differentiating organizational culture is characterized by overlapping sub-organizational cultures that coexist with each other.
    • Diffusion of responsibility means that people in a collective feel that others too are responsible for the outcome and hence they do not have to exert as much as they have to if they were alone.
    • Directive leader closely supervises subordinates to get work done as he is production oriented.
    • Diversity-consensus dilemma in a team signifies that the team can take advantage of the diversity in the resources of its members in order to come up with better ideas and more effective solutions. Diversity, however, makes consensus, which is essential for teams, difficult. So, teams face the dilemma of how to balance the two.
    • Dominant organization culture reflects the values, norms, and practices of the majority of the members of an organization.
    • Double-loop learning is learning ‘how’ to learn, questioning the learning process at every stage, asking why certain pieces of information must be collected, are there other ways of interpreting them, and are there other ways of acting upon them.
    • Downsizing is reducing the size of the workforce by organizations in order to remain cost-effective and efficient.
    • Dravid movement was an anti-Brahmin movement led by the ‘Non-Brahmin’ unity (periyar) in what is now Tamil Nadu.
    • Dual concern model suggests that conflict resolution depends on the relative concern for either self or others' interests.
    • e-choupal are information technology-enabled services established in the rural areas by the Indian Tobacco Company (ITC) for involving local people in marketing its products.
    • Ego is a sense of reality that reminds a person of the consequences of his behaviour.
    • Elephant syndrome stands for a slow moving economy.
    • Emotional intelligence of a person reflects his ability to recognize and understand his own emotions, control them, empathize with others' feeling and thoughts, build and nurture social networks, and make it serve collective interests.
    • Entrepreneurship is a set of orientations and actions to take calculated risk for larger gains, expanding business, creating assets, claiming market share, etc.
    • Equity theory is about a fair distribution of rewards in proportion to the employees' contributions, as a result of which they remain motivated.
    • Ethnocentric expatriate managers are those who have a poor impression of their Indian counterparts, as a result of which they manifest discriminatory behaviour towards the latter.
    • Eudaimonia is the assumption that long lasting happiness flows from realizing human behaviour that produces a sense of well-being.
    • Expectancy theory of motivation contends that employees remain motivated in the conditions in which they expect that their good performance will fetch them the rewards that they value.
    • Explicit knowledge is expressed through organizational rules, formal and informal procedures and policies, work manuals, directions, training modules, newsletters, communications through e-mails and Intranet and other documents.
    • Extended family is the one where other relatives or relative-like persons live together.
    • Extraverted versus introverted persons—extraverted people are sociable, talkative, assertive, and active while introverted people, on the contrary, are shy, retiring, sober, reserved, and cautious.
    • Femininity indicates softness, politeness, and an accommodating orientation.
    • Formal groups in organizations are those that the management creates.
    • Formalization in organizations means that instructions, rules, and procedures are written (not verbal).
    • Fragmenting organizational culture is characterized by the presence of sub-organizational cultures that function at cross-purposes with each other.
    • Frames in negotiation signify goal orientations of the parties, what they want to achieve according to their interests.
    • Fundamental attribution error occurs when a perceiver wrongly blames a person for his failure or poor performance without considering the external causes and constraints.
    • Generative learning is the one that involves exploring many more information and interpreting them in different ways to create many more options for action.
    • Gesture is the movement of parts of the body expressing certain meanings.
    • Global management culture consists of globally accepted management practices and norms and underlying, values and assumptions.
    • Global management practices are the practices that are generally adopted internationally and are recognized to be effective for organizational behaviour.
    • Globalization is the process through which products, services, cultural influences, and so on, move across national boundaries.
    • Glocal means an approach that is global in perspective, but local in applications.
    • Goal setting theory postulates that goal setting by employees motivates them to realize goals.
    • Great and small traditions signify whether subcultures are dominant and pervasive or restricted to small groups and are less pervasive in influence.
    • Great man theory postulates that leaders are endowed with superhuman qualities through which they can cause major events in the world.
    • Group dynamics is the interplay of forces within a group or at its interface with the environment that causes changes in the structure and function of the group.
    • Group is a collection of two or more persons who interact and form relationships to realize common as well as their individual needs and goals and perceive themselves as parts of the group.
    • Group polarization means that the members in a group make either more risky or more conservative decisions than they do when they are alone.
    • Group structure is the pattern of stable relationships and interactions within a group.
    • Groupthink reflects overwhelming influence of a group on individual members in making decisions to the extent that the members agree without exploring alternatives or questioning the decisions.
    • Gunas are the temperamental make up of a person having three types: Satwa (signifying purity and enlightenment), raj (emotion, action, attachment, etc.), and tarn (inaction, darkness, stale, etc.).
    • Harijans are Scheduled Castes people who were called the people of God.
    • Hedonism means that one's well-being amounts to the extent of pleasure and happiness that he enjoys.
    • Heuristics mean the simple rule of thumb that decision-makers follow.
    • Hierarchical order signifies that the whole cosmos and everything within it—animate as well as inanimate—are so arranged that they are superior to some and inferior to others.
    • High LPC leader is one who does not dislike poor performing subordinates to the extent that a low LPC leader does.
    • Hindu rate of growth implies a very low rate of economic growth.
    • Hinduism is defined as the religious thoughts that originated on Indian soil.
    • Human capital comprises the abilities, skills, experiences, attitudes, motivation, commitment, and other characteristics of human beings that are resources for their organizations.
    • Human knowledge is an individuals' knowledge consisting of information, skills, experiences, intuitions, perspectives, vision, and whatever else that they have learnt either for solving their problems or sharing them with others.
    • Human resources management (HRM) is the management of human beings from recruitment to retirement with the purposes of realizing organizational objectives and employees' well-being.
    • Hybrid forms of organizations are those that are partly differentiated on the basis of products, partly on functions, and partly on geographical spread.
    • Id consists of mental forces that consist of animal impulses, desires, and strivings.
    • Implicit theory of leadership is a subjective construction of leadership having the qualities that subordinates value and want to see in their leader.
    • Incidental learning (classical conditioning) happens when a behaviour gets associated with a rewarding experience a number of times resulting in an orientation to repeat the same behaviour with an implicit expectation to experience the same reward.
    • Inclusionary dimension of teams signifies the process of granting out-group members the affinity of an in-group.
    • Individualism refers to societies in which people are conceptualized as autonomous individuals doing what they want to do to serve their own needs and interests.
    • Influence is a process to change other's thought, feelings or/and actions.
    • Informal groups are those that individuals create by way of interacting with each other for the purposes that are of interest or importance to them.
    • Ingratiation consists of the behaviour that is intended to make the target person feel good so that he will bestow some favour to the person who is being ingratiating.
    • In-group (apane log) is a group in which the members share psychological affinity.
    • Initiating structure of leadership style manifests in a leader's concern to structure his and his subordinates' roles in order to realize the group goals.
    • Integrative organization culture is the one in which the subcultures as well as the components within them tend to remain integrated.
    • Intellectual and affective autonomy is a cluster of values consisting of the importance of being curious, broadminded, and creative as well as having a free, exciting, and varied life full of pleasure.
    • Intrinsic motivation is based on the assumption that the fewer or the more insignificant are the external rewards, the greater is the probability that the person will invent an inner reason to do well, because there is no external justification for his efforts.
    • Jatis are castes.
    • Johari window is a 4-cell (2 × 2) perceptual window in which two persons in the dual roles of being the perceiver and the perceived share their perceptions of themselves as well as each other in order to expand their understanding of self and the other person.
    • Joint family is a family where parents, their children and grand children live together.
    • Judicial activism is the tendency of judges to examine and pass judgement on petitions of public interests that generally fall within legislative or executive domains.
    • Kartaas are the heads of households.
    • Knowledge is an understanding of persons, objects, events, and the underlying principles that explain their relationships.
    • Knowledge cycle signifies how a new knowledge is acquired, documented, transferred to others, and becomes common knowledge for all.
    • Kutumbization is the process of creating a familial ambience in an organization.
    • Leader's theory-in-use means that a leader does what he thinks is necessary.
    • Leader-centred theories are those that postulate that the effectiveness of a leader is determined only by leadership characteristics.
    • Leadership is the processes through which individuals influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of their organizations.
    • Learning is the process through which new information is acquired, interpreted, rejected, and integrated into the existing body of knowledge.
    • Legend is a handed down narrative of some wonderful historical event with functional details.
    • Liberalizing phase of the Indian economy started by the 1980s and gained momentum after 1991, accelerating the growth rate of the Indian economy.
    • Life cycle or situational approach to leadership postulates that an effective leader gives commands to his subordinates, argues with them, participates with them, or delegates responsibility to them depending on their task and emotional readiness to assume the responsibility.
    • Locus of control signifies one's belief that the events of life are either shaped by one's efforts and abilities (internal control) or by fate or powerful others (external control).
    • Lokayat is a philosophy propounded by Charvaka that advocates a materialistic approach to life. It calls for people to enjoy all the pleasures of life by building a strong body through hath-yoga (a strenuous system of yoga).
    • Loose culture has divergent, inconsistent, and varied values, norms, and beliefs allowing people to evoke them selectively according to their needs.
    • Low LPC leader manifests a stronger dislike for poor performing subordinates than does a high LPC leader.
    • Machiavellianism is the manipulative orientation of a person.
    • Macho organizational culture manifests in the high risk taking organizations that are likely to get quick feedback about the outcome of their risky ventures.
    • Maintenance-style leader is primarily concerned about maintaining harmony in the group by being receptive to the ideas, opinion, and preferences of subordinates. He consults subordinates in assigning work to them, does not make changes in job content without consulting subordinates, and if he has to do so, he informs them in advance.
    • Management is the science of using capital, technology, materials, physical attributes of an organization, and people working within it for creating products and services for a market.
    • Management by objectives (MBO) involves setting measurable and attainable goals that serve organizational objectives, formulating action plans to attain them, implementing action plans, monitoring, evaluating, and then setting goals again to keep the cycle going.
    • Masculinity refers to potency, rough and tough orientation.
    • Maslow's need hierarchy, in ascending order, comprises physiological, safety and security, affiliation, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs.
    • Matrix organizational structure is one where employees report to their functional as well as the administrative heads.
    • McKinsey model is the design of McKinsey & Company for organizational transformation by downsizing, discarding loss making activities and units, and tightening the organization for effective performance.
    • Mechanical model takes individuals for cogs in a machine that is regulated through specific design and proper handling.
    • Mechanical organizations are characterized by rigid and hierarchical structure, well defined and stable tasks, use of authority for control, and downward direction of communication for passing decisions or giving instructions.
    • Membership-reference group is a person where one either belongs and looks to for guidance respectively.
    • Modelling effect is learning by observing others who get rewarded for their behaviour.
    • Monarchical culture is managerial and anti-bureaucratic ethos in an organization.
    • Motivation is the set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behaviour towards attaining a goal.
    • Multinational organizations are those which function in a number of countries as decentralized federations that respond to local needs and imperatives but are managed by the strategic framework of the head office.
    • Myth is a dramatic narrative of imagined events accompanied by unquestioned beliefs that are not supported by evidence.
    • Navratna (public sector undertakings) are the nine leading public enterprises that have been consistently making profits.
    • Need for power is the desire to feel powerful or striving to influence others.
    • Negotiation involves the process of conferring with a view to come to, hopefully, an agreement.
    • Network organizations are interrelated entities that cash in on each other's competency and minimize costs for leveraging the quality of products, services, profit, etc. Hence, they are flat, flexible, and guided by market mechanisms rather than administrative procedures.
    • Nirdwandwa means that the mind is neither blurred by anger or lust nor fractured by doubts and dilemmas.
    • Nishkam karm is working diligently without getting preoccupied about the outcome of one's efforts.
    • Nominal group is one in which members do not interact but feel that the presence of others is affecting their thoughts and behaviour.
    • Norms are the standards based on what most people judge what is an appropriate behaviour.
    • Normative theory of decision-making shows that a leader decides by himself, seeks information from subordinates, consults them or lets them decide depending on the quality requirements of decisions, sufficiency of information available, and the chances of subordinates accepting or not accepting decisions.
    • Nuclear family is one where a husband, his wife, and their children live under one roof.
    • Nurturant leader is one who cares for his subordinates and their well-being, allows them to depend on him for guidance and direction, establishes emotional bonds with them, guides and directs them in work as well as personal matters, helps them grow and mature, and if necessary reprimands them to bring them back on track.
    • Nurturing superior is a warm and caring person who grooms subordinates for their development.
    • Open minded people are those who entertain new ideas, tolerate disagreements, and are flexible.
    • Open system view of organizations means that outside influences flow in and organizational influences flow out to the surrounding milieu.
    • Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which a learner behaves in manner so as to receive a coveted reward, and if rewarded, repeats the behaviour again, thus making it a habit.
    • Organic organizations are flexible having loosely defined tasks, receptivity to new ideas that cause change, expertise and knowledge as the source of authority, and consultative mode for sharing information and advice with peers.
    • Organization politics are the actions, not officially sanctioned (approved) by an organization, but taken to influence others to meet one's personal goals.
    • Organizational behaviour is the social science of how individuals, groups, and organizations function with a view to suggest ways of improving organizational effectiveness and employees' performance and well-being.
    • Organizational citizenship behaviour means feeling responsible for one's organization and doing whatever one can do to help create a better organization.
    • Organizational climate is the subjective perception of an organization or parts of it.
    • Organizational culture is the totality of the assumptions, values, norms, and behaviour of employees that create physical and social artefacts of an organization.
    • Organizational development is planned changes in an organization in order to improve its performance and employees' well-being.
    • Organizational transactional changes start from changing individuals' motivations, attitudes, and skills, and then moving up to build people-friendly structures, systems, practices, and finally developing the organization's mission and vision.
    • Organizational transformation means major planned changes in the organization that start at the organizational level and percolate down to the employees in order to renew the organization.
    • OSHA model depicts employees rising above animalistic impulses by being humanistic, spiritual, and thereby integrated into oceanic experience of being inclusive of others.
    • Out-group (paraye log) is one in which members do not feel psychological affinity.
    • Pareto-optimal postulated that it is everyone's individual interest not to cooperate in collective efforts though everyone would be better off if they all cooperated.
    • Participative leader is people oriented. He encourages employees to share ideas and opinions and come up with joint decisions that the leader implements.
    • Paternalistic leader is a father figure who builds systems, procures resources, manages group's boundaries, and is of high integrity, vision, dedication, and warmth for subordinates.
    • Perceptual figure and ground indicate the point of focus (figure) and the surround area (ground) of a perceptual field.
    • Performance-style leader makes subordinates work to their maximum, sets a clear time frame for completing work, and is strict about subordinates completing the work within the time limit as well observing all rules and regulation regarding work. He monitors their progress at work closely by asking them to report the progress regularly, and reprimands those who fail to perform well.
    • Personal causation is the belief that one is the master of his fate and can determine his behaviour.
    • Personality is the totality of all characteristics that others perceive in a person, as a result of which the person is considered to be unique.
    • Pharaoic culture is bureaucratic and ego-driven.
    • Physical setting comprise physical things surrounding a person that reflect some meaning.
    • Pioneering-innovative leaders are essentially entrepreneurs with a blend of professionalism.
    • Political science seeks knowledge about power and politics in societies.
    • Politics refers to the use of power to serve one's own or group's interests.
    • Poverty syndrome is a constellation of beliefs, dispositions, and action orientations arising from extreme and pervasive poverty and manifests itself in a sense of insecurity, the belief that resources are scarce, and that one has to resort to any means to acquire, hoard, and monopolize them in order to hedge against the possibility of becoming poor.
    • Power distance is the extent to which both more and less powerful members of societies expect and accept the unequal distribution of power.
    • Power is a capacity to influence.
    • Power strategies are plans that a person chalks out to influence others.
    • Power tactics are specific ways of influencing others.
    • Presidential culture is highly bureaucratic and highly managerial.
    • Prisoner's dilemma game is a tool to study two persons cooperating, competing, or coopering with each other.
    • Process consultation is observation of groups in action with immediate feedback on processes being observed in order to help the group improve its performance and relationships among the members.
    • Pro-social behaviours are the ones that manifest people's orientation to help others, their organization, and society at large by placing their interests, needs, and goals before their own.
    • Psychology is the science of human behaviour and experiences.
    • Quality control circles (QCCs) comprise groups of employees at work stations who collective and continuously tend to improve the quality of products and procedures.
    • Receptive phase of the Indian economy, from 1947 to the mid-1960s, signified a welcoming stance to foreign capital and technology to establish public sector industries of basic and strategic importance.
    • Restrictive phase of the Indian economy, 1968 to 1979, was marked by restrictions on foreign direct investment as well as on the outflow of foreign exchange in order to stimulate the growth of Indian companies with a view to bolster self-reliance in the economy.
    • Rite is a relatively elaborate, dramatic, planned set of activities having practical and expressive consequences.
    • Ritual is a standardized, detailed set of techniques and behaviours that manage anxiety without having consequences of importance.
    • Role means a set of rights and duties attached to positions in a group, organization, or society.
    • Role ambiguity means that the rights and duties of a role are not clear or are incompatible.
    • Role conflict is the tension arising out of incompatible roles that a person holds.
    • Role expectation is the expected set of rights and duties attached to a role.
    • Role differentiation means allocation of different roles to the members of a group or differences between the roles that a member of a group holds.
    • Role performance is the extent to which a person behaves according to the role.
    • Role underload means very few roles given to a person or there are very weak expectations within a role.
    • Role redundancy means the useless roles in a group.
    • Role overload means too many roles given to a person or too many expectations within a role.
    • Rorschach test is a projective test in which respondents project their feelings and thoughts by seeing objects, figures, colours, and movements in inkblots.
    • Saga is a historical narrative highlighting the unique accomplishments of a group or a leader.
    • Samkhya is the philosophy propounded by Kapil. It suggests how to regulate sensory and motor functions and expand self-awareness through yog in order to get over the sorrows of life.
    • Sanatan dharmi were the followers of Vedic tradition who were later called Hindus.
    • Satyagrah (Passive resistance) for resolving conflict involves three successive steps: reasoning with the opponent to make him realize the need to reduce conflict; failing which, to resort to self-suffering (for example, fasting, etc.) to arouse moral responsibility in the opponent; failing which, to start non-cooperation, polite disobedience, and break up with the opponent.
    • Schemas in negotiation are knowledge structures consisting of information that helps the negotiating parties understand their own and other's perspective, strategies for negotiation, meanings of their actions, aspirations, etc.
    • Scripts in negotiation are ways and habits of behaving for arriving (or failing to arrive) at an agreement.
    • Self is the totality of an individual's perception of himself that distinguishes him from others and orients him to relate with them.
    • Self-actualization means a full realization of one's potential by transcending one's limitations.
    • Self-confidence is a generalized self-efficacy that one can handle any difficult job, nothing is impossible if one tries hard enough, or that one can live the life that one wants to live.
    • Self-efficacy is a belief that one can get things done, solve problems, make friends, and influence others.
    • Self-identity is a constellation of psychological elements that evolve together as a person grows in his life-roles, but still maintains continuity of his being the same person.
    • Self-regard is a positive feeling about one's worth.
    • Semantic differential scale consists of bipolar adjectives at the two extremes having a scale in between. Respondents are required to place the target object, person, or idea on the scale according to their proximity to the applicable adjectives. The responses reveal the evaluative, affective, and potency meanings that the respondents attribute to them.
    • Sensitivity group is one that enhances its members' sensitivity to each other's feelings, needs, and thoughts.
    • Sensitivity training aims to sensitize participants of a group to each others' feelings and thoughts with a view to establishing team spirit in them.
    • Signature skills in knowledge management manifests in selectively attending, collecting, and passing on information to others in ways that worked successfully for solving problems in the past.
    • Single-loop learning includes the processes of perceiving new pieces of information and analyzing them in the light of past experience to lead to certain actions.
    • Sneh-shradhha (affection-deference) relationship is one in which a superior remains warm, caring, and mentors subordinates who reciprocate by being loyal, respectful, and obedient.
    • Social capital is the resources that arise due to the prevalence of trust among the members of a group, which is based on the rational calculation that cooperation is in their long-term self-interest as well as in the interests of the organization.
    • Social facilitation is the process signifying that the presence of others in a group mobilizes a person to perform better.
    • Social knowledge resides in the understanding of relationships among individuals or within groups that are based on certain cultural norms, trust, team spirit, and sense of belonging.
    • Social loafing is a tendency among the members to exert less in a group than what they do individually.
    • Social power is the attempt to influence directed to a person or persons.
    • Social-emotional leader maintains harmony and cohesiveness among the group members.
    • Sociology is the science that seeks knowledge of societies, their structures, and functions.
    • Sociometry is a technique to assess the degree of cohesiveness in the structure of a group.
    • Socio-technical analysis involves integration of technology, group structure, and people's characteristics in order to improve performance and enhance quality of work life.
    • Soft organizational culture is one in which organizational objectives are compromised to appease the employees, work suffers, but employees get generous welfare benefits.
    • Special economic zones (SEZs) are areas that are demarked for giving incentive for promoting economic activities, allowing tax relief, and producing goods for exports or providing specialized services.
    • Specialization in an organization means the extent to which employees have specialized roles and positions.
    • Spirituality is a cluster of beliefs (such as continuity of human and divine existence, composed state of mind), preferences (such as inner peace), and practices (including religious activities, efforts to rise on moral scale and improve one's merit, etc.).
    • Standardization signifies that standard rules and procedures are available for guiding work.
    • Status differentiation involves allocation of superior and inferior positions on the basis of certain indicators.
    • Stereotyping is the process of placing a person in a collective or category and attributing the shared characteristics of the collective to him.
    • Sthitaprajn signifies ‘steady wisdom’ of a composed mind that is not carried away by emotions.
    • Strategic learning plays an instrumental role for not only enabling organizations to adjust, adapt, or innovate, but also to transform them.
    • Subconscious mind lies in between the unconscious and conscious mind, witnessing the drama of unconscious impulses trying to enter into consciousness and the ego regulating them with or without super-ego's assistance.
    • Subculture is a part of a larger societal culture.
    • Subculture of an organization is the values, norms, and practices of specific groups within an organization.
    • Sufi tradition, similar to the bhakti tradition of Hindus, is a devotional tradition within Islam.
    • Super-conscious (turiya avastha) means the fourth state of mind in which, according to Hindu philosophy, the distinction between the subject and the object, knower and known, disappears.
    • Super-ego is the conscience of a person that distinguishes right from wrong and moral from immoral.
    • Symbol is an object, act, or event that serves as a vehicle for conveying meaning by representing another thing.
    • Systemic knowledge manifests in organizational systems, procedures, norms, and standards for working and relating with each other.
    • Tacit knowledge is an insight that employees acquire through learning and doing. It is sensed and experienced rather than documented and handed over.
    • Task force is a small group formed for a specific purpose.
    • Task leader is concerned primarily with getting tasks accomplished.
    • Team informity means the extent to which a team shares information relevant to the task and gets that information to the person who needs it to make well-informed decisions.
    • Team mental model highlights a common view of the task and the problems shared by all members of a team.
    • Teams are special groups having clearly focused task orientation as well as cooperative relationships among the members.
    • Technocratic organizational culture develops in organizations that prioritize technological considerations over human needs, expectations, and attitudes.
    • Theory X is based on the assumption that human beings have to be forced to make them work.
    • Theory Y is based on the assumption that human beings have an internal disposition to perform their best.
    • Third-party mediation for resolving conflict involves approaching someone who is not party to the conflict.
    • Tight culture has clear norms that are consistently imposed on people with very little freedom to deviate, and the deviants are severely sanctioned.
    • Time and motion study attempts to combine minimum number of motions with minimum amount of time taken in each motion for performing a task most efficiently.
    • Tolerance for ambiguity means individuals' capacity to attend and process the pieces of information that are not consistent with each other without feeling uncomfortable or stressed.
    • Total quality management (TQM) is a Japanese philosophy that attempts to improve all organizational processes in order to get the best possible outcomes.
    • Two factor theory argues that the causes of satisfaction are different from those for dissatisfaction; hygiene (external causes) if taken care of reduces dissatisfaction and motivators (internal causes) increase satisfaction.
    • Trait is communality among a cluster of similar behaviours that orients a person to behave in a specific way across a number of situations.
    • Transactional analysis conceptualizes the mind having three sets of forces—the child, who signifies spontaneous desires, joyfulness, and playfulness; the parent, who is a restrictive and moralizing agent; and the adult, who balances the two.
    • Transactional leader follows an exchange principle to expend his efforts and time influencing subordinates as well as rewarding them for performance because he anticipates some gains in terms of work getting completed, his sense of self-efficacy being validated, satisfaction in the process of influencing, and so on.
    • Transformational leader enthuses and inspires his subordinates to rise above their concerns for rewards and work for goals that are higher than their individual concerns and goals.
    • Transnational organizations are those that operate at different national locations, are inter-linked with each other as well with the head office, and leverage local as well as central capabilities.
    • Trigunatita signifies that the mind has transcended the limitations of gunas.
    • Trishanku complex is the mindset of those Indian managers who are torn between behaving according to Western management practices that they learnt during their management education and retaining the traditional Indian values that they acquired during their childhood.
    • Type A personality shows a distinct pattern of working fast, being deadline driven, impatient, hard driving while a Type B personality is relaxed, easy going, patient, and tolerant.
    • Types of personality are the clusters of traits.
    • Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which people in a society tend to avoid uncertainty by establishing and observing formal systems, structures, and rules in their behaviour.
    • Unconscious mind is a reservoir of bio-genetically generated animal impulses, desires, and strivings. We are not aware of them, unless they are brought into our conscious mind.
    • Universalism-particularism: Universalism refers to the orientation to follow universally applicable rules while particularism signifies being highly context oriented, employing different rules, for example, for in-group and out-group members.
    • Upanishads are the ancient texts that dwell on basic issues of life and death, sorrows and happiness through a highly logical and analytical approach.
    • Value is a preferences for and importance attached to objects, things, persons, or ideas, and a desirable state.
    • Varnas was the basis for occupational classification of Hindus during ancient time.
    • Vedas are the most ancient Hindu texts that advanced a collectivist, hierarchical, and spiritual worldview and advocated a devotional approach.
    • Vertical collectivism refers to hierarchically structured collectivistic values.
    • Vertical dyad linkage model shows that a leader selectively interacts with his subordinates to identify the one or a few whom he starts preferring, and together they spearhead the efforts to get tasks performed.
    • Vertical solidarity is the emotional bond between a superior and his subordinate who accept the hierarchal difference.
    • Virtual organizations are a specific type of network organizations that are temporarily inter-connected to exploit fast changing opportunities by getting associated with resource partners rather than creating permanent assets, realizing forward and backward integration, or maintaining a stable hierarchical structure.
    • Vision of an organization is a scenario of its possibilities for the future.
    • Well-being at the most basic level means an absence of any physical, social, or psychological malfunctioning. At the highest level, it means self-actualization and self-realization.
    • Whistle blowing means that an employee leaks information to outsiders about the wrongdoings within his organization in order to safeguard the interests of the larger community.
    • Wipro's string of pearls are the companies that Wipro acquired to enhance its synergy and international spread.
    • Work-centric nurturant culture is one in which organizations attach high priority to getting quality work accomplished by maintaining caring and helping subordinates, and grooming them for their personal growth as well as high performance.
    • Work culture is the importance attached to work compared to other life roles.
    • Yoga Sutra of Patanjali is a text that details the theory and practices of yoga.


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    Author Index

    About the Author

    Jai B.P. Sinha is Professor, Psychology and Management at the ASSERT Institute of Management Studies, Patna. He has a long-standing career of over 40 years in research and teaching. He is an authority on cultural influences on organizational behaviour. He taught psychology in Bihar, Ranchi, and Patna universities. He was a Visiting Professor at Hunter College, New York, and Wake Forest University, NC (USA), where he taught social psychology. He taught cross-cultural management courses during his tenure as a Visiting Professor in the Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal (Canada). In 2005, he was a Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Management at the Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.

    Professor Sinha is also a well-known writer and has authored several books. His latest publications include Patterns of Work Culture: Cases and Strategies for Culture Building (SAGE 2000), Managing Cultural Diversity for Productivity: The Asian Ways (ed.) (Asian Productivity Organization 2000), and Multinationals in India: Managing the Interface of Cultures (SAGE 2004).

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