‘In the twentieth century’, wrote T.H. Marshall (1973: 84), ‘citizenship and the class system have been at war.’ The advancement of the democratic potential of modernity, according to Marshall's classic analysis, has occurred as a complex, negotiated trade-off between the evolution of capitalism (and the oppressive effects of class inequalities) on the one hand, and the integrative effects of an extension of citizenship to social rights and social equality on the other. ‘The expansion of social rights’, Marshall says, ‘is no longer merely an attempt to abate the obvious nuisance of destitution in the lowest ranks of society…It is no longer content to raise the floor-level in the basement of the social edifice, leaving the superstructure as it ...
The Reinvention of Citizenship
The reinvention of citizenship