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Chapter 6: Feminine and Feminist Ethics and Counselor Decision-Making
Until recently, ethical discourse in the United States was dominated by males and reflected an exclusively masculine perspective. With the rise of the women's liberation movement during the 1960s, feminism challenged Western ethical thinking that neglected or depreciated women (Friedan, 1963, 1981; Jaggar, 1992) and was applied to other misrepresented, oppressed, or minority populations as well (Brabeck & Ting, 2000).
The idea that morality is gender-based (i.e., there are different virtues for males and females) emerges in the ethical thinking of many philosophers, and, in particular, is central to the philosophy of Rousseau. In Emile (1763/1979), Rousseau contended that what are virtues for women are faults for men. He thought that women could ...