Culture is ubiquitous, and so, it sometimes seems, is cultural studies. The visual turn now replaces the cultural or linguistic turn of the post-war period in Western intellectual life. Ours is a visual age, an age, apparently, of image, sign, symbol. The emergence of popular culture as an intellectual concern, posited by Antonio Gramsci, and developed through the work of the Birmingham School has led to a process where textuality rules, whether in written or especially in visual form. Whether or not film or video replaces the book, or essay, these are nevertheless cultural forms which have material frameworks and constraints. Modes of information are still, in some senses, modes of production or creation. Culture needs ...
Zygmunt Bauman, Culture and Sociology
Zygmunt bauman, culture and sociology