Cultural Studies: The Basics
Publication Year: 2011
Subject: Cultural Studies (general)
This fully revised edition of the best selling introduction to cultural studies offers students an authoritative, comprehensive guide to Cultural Studies. Clearly written and accessibly organized the book provides a major resource for lecturers and students. Each chapter has been extensively revised and new material covers globalization, the post 9/11 world and the new language wars. The emphasis upon demonstrating the philosophical and sociological roots of Cultural Studies has been retained along with boxed entries on key concepts and issues. Particular attention is paid to demonstrating how Cultural Studies clarifies issues in Media and Communication Studies. There are chapters on the global mediasphere and new media cultures.
This is a tried and tested book which has been widely used wherever Cultural Studies is taught. The new ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part One: Forming Culture/Informing Cultural Theory
- Chapter 1: Contemporary Culture, Cultural Studies and the Global Mediasphere
- Introduction: The Contemporary Setting
- Case Study 1: Defining Di
- Culture and Cultural Studies
- Case Study 2: Terrorism: A Postmodern Attack on America
- Methodologies and Methods
- Advantages of the Cultural Studies Approach
- Chapter 2: Social Theory and the Foundations of Cultural Studies
- Introduction: Foundations of ‘Culture’
- Culture and Society
- Phenomenology and Cultural Studies
- Cultural Anthropology
- Chapter 3: Marxism and the Formation of Cultural Ideology
- Marx and Hegel
- Symbolic Control
- Criticisms of Marx and Marxist Assumptions
- The Frankfurt School
- Walter Benjamin and Mechanical Reproduction
- Louis Althusser and Structuralist Marxism
- Antonio Gramsci
- Science, Language and Critical Theory
- Chapter 4: From British Cultural Studies to International Cultural Studies
- Literary Foundations of Cultural Studies
- Culturalism and the Formation of a New Cultural Studies
- The Internationalization of British Cultural Studies
- Chapter 5: Language and Culture: From Structuralism to Poststructuralism
- Structuralist Language Theory
- Early Roland Barthes and the Semiological Moment
- The Poststructuralist Critique of Structuralism
- The Later Barthes
- Deconstruction: Jacques Derrida
- Michel Foucault
- Psychoanalytic Theory: Jacques Lacan
- Politics and Difference: Deleuze and Guattari
Part Two: Cultural Locations
- Chapter 6: Feminism: From Femininity to Fragmentation
- Feminism and Modernism
- Sexual and Political Emancipation
- Poststructuralism and Feminism
- Magazines and Cultural Feminism
- Feminism in Contemporary Politics
- Contemporary Feminist Cultural Politics
- The Imagining of the Female Body
- Chapter 7: Postmodernism and beyond
- Literary and Aesthetic Derivations of Postmodernism
- Jean-François Lyotard: From French Poststructuralism to French Postmodernism
- Frederic Jameson
- Jean Baudrillard
- Postmodern Architecture
- Postmodern Politics, New Democracy and the Invisible Ethic
- Chapter 8: Popular Consumption and Youth Culture
- Early Audience Theories
- David Morley's Audience Ethnography
- Pierre Bourdieu and Symbolic Consumption
- Michel de Certeau
- Transgressive Pleasures: Popular Media Consumption
- Youth Culture
- Popular Politics
- Chapter 9: The Body
- Modernism and the Body
- The Body as Discourse
- Sex and Sexuality
- Alternative Sexualities
- Beautiful and Healthy Bodies
- Commodification and Sport
- Shaping Masculinities
- Posthuman Bodies
- Chapter 10: Globalization and Global Spaces: Local Transformations
- Locating Globalization
- Globalization, Race and Historical Imperialism
- Global Imperialism - US Media Hegemony
- Global Spaces
- Uneven Global Distributions
- Chapter 11: New Media Cultures
- Communication and Technology
- Electronic Democracy
- Digital Democracy
- Postmodern Computer Politics
- Cyber-Sex and Electronic Eros
- Chapter 12: Global Terror and the New Language Wars
- The Meaning of Terrorism and Acts of Terror
- America and the War on Terror
- Media and Political Violence in Iraq
- Freedom of Expression and the Imagining of Domestic Security
© Jeff Lewis 2008
First Published 2008
Reprinted 2011 twice
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2007935998
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-2230-2 (pbk)
Typeset by CEPHA Imaging Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India
Printed in Great Britain by the MPG Book Group
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
[Page v]To Jay and Sian[Page vi]
List of Tables, Figures and Plates[Page x]Plates
- 1.1 Six Months after the Tsunami in Arugambay, Sri Lanka 13
- 1.2 The 2006 World Cup Football, Germany 25
- 1.3 Cremation Ritual on Nusa Lembongan 25
- 3.1 Slum Tourism in India 74
- 4.1 The Beauty Economy 105
- 6.1 The Slums of Mumbai in India where Women and Children are the Poorest of the Poor 170
- 7.1 Terry Batt, Forthcoming Attractions (oil and wax on canvas, 6′ × 7′) 206
- 8.1 Girl Power for Sale 244
- 9.1 Busting Air 283
- 10.1 Gugenheim Art Museum at Bilbao 313
- 10.2 Real-estate sale on Nusa Lembongan 318
- 10.3 The Shot Tower 318
- 10.4 The Harbourfront, Montreal 318
- 10.5 The London Eye 321
- 12.1 Abu Ghraib 384
Together, we weave what we can from the warp and woof of one another's experience. For the scholar, I suspect that he had unburdened himself … He left here knowing that he had contributed important information to the map I had in mind. (James Cowan, A Mapmaker's Dream)
I introduced the first edition of this book through a reference to James Cowan's novel, A Mapmaker's Dream. The mapmaker is attempting to conceptualize his vastly expanding horizons; his cartography, however, is perpetually frustrated by the exquisite, even miraculous, vitality and detail of the world. Even so, the frustration of the cartographer, as with his servant scholars, is ennobled by the splendour of the journey - that expedition of knowing which is both transient and endless, and which is ultimately the expression of our singular and collective dreaming.
My aim in writing the first edition of Cultural Studies was to make a similar contribution to this journey of knowing. I attempted to create a textual cartography which drew together the rich and complex intellectual genealogy that marks the formation of the cultural studies discipline and our understandings of contemporary culture. Since completing the first edition, however, I have found my own horizons expanding, eliciting new insights into the nature of meaning-making in a globalizing cultural setting. Internationally significant events like 9/11, along with the seemingly intractable momentum of globalization, have contributed to a distinct shift in the consciousness and formative modes of cultural meaning-making. This second edition of Cultural Studies, therefore, is once again attempting to map the dynamic state of the world, bringing forward my own dynamic understandings and apprehensions of this miraculous cultural sphere.
As in the first edition, I have sought in this new edition to present and critique the major modes of cultural analysis; I have used this critique to develop a specific theory of culture which is then applied to the study of specific cultural sites and spaces. However, I have attempted in this new edition to account for changes in the discipline itself, as well as in the significance of the sites being analyzed. I have added an entirely new chapter on the culture of terrorism. This has proved an essential addition, not only because of the preoccupations of contemporary global cultures, but because these changes have stimulated some compelling revisions within the discipline itself. In particular, events like 9/11, the ‘war on terror’, the oil wars and conditions of global warming, are all stimulating a revival of cultural studies' deep roots in cultural politics.
To some extent, the interest in political violence and global terrorism is part of a broader cultural and disciplinary development, most particularly associated with globalization. As I outline in Chapter 1 of this new edition, globalization has numerous effects, and [Page xii]cultural studies is extremely well-placed among the social sciences and humanities to account for these ‘expanding horizons’. To this end, this new edition of Cultural Studies is projecting a more globally focused interrogation of culture(s). This broader focus on globalism and the conditions of global insecurity is a critical part of my own scholarly journey.
This new edition of Cultural Studies represents another dimension of this expedition and of our shared project of contemporary cultural mapping.
My particular thanks are due to the School of Applied Communication, the Globalism Institute and the office of the Pro-Vice Chancellor Research at RMIT University. All these bodies have provided resources for the completion of this text.
I would also like to thank the following people - Belinda Lewis, Jay Lewis, Sian Lewis, Sonya DeMasi, Kirsty Best, Alice Sherlock, Diana Bossio, Jessica Raschke, Kristen Sharp and Louise Refalo. These people have made an absolutely invaluable contribution to the Cultural Studies genealogy and to my own personal and intellectual life.
Thanks to a range of colleagues who have supported my work - John Handmer, Paul James, Damian Grenfell, Jack Clancy, Sheldon Harsel, Christine Hudson, Alan Cumming, Tony Dalton and Brian Henderson.
My thanks to Terry Batt for allowing me to use Forthcoming Attractions (Cover and Plate 7.1). Thanks to Thea Linke (Plate 1.2), Pia Interlandi and Devika Bilmoria (Plate 4.1), Pia Interlandi and Optic Photography (Plate 8.1), and Michael Cresswell (Plate 1.1).
I'd also like to acknowledge the support and guidance provided by the Sage team, most particularly Chris Rojek, Jai Seaman and Mila Steele.[Page xiv]
Glossary of Key Terms[Page 395]
- Agency (individual agency): Studies of society and culture often debate the degree to which individuals have control of their own destiny. This capacity for self-determination is called ‘agency’. It is contrasted to the power of society to control the actions, attitudes and free thinking of individuals.
- Bricolage: The rearrangement of cultural elements and styles in order to produce new meanings and styles. For example, the reassignment of denim cloth, originally used in the US prison system, into a teenage fashion style; the reworking of African rhythms, Caribbean music, rhyming couplet poetry and talking blues to form rap music (rhythm and poetry).
- Capitalism: The economic system based on trade and private ownership that begins in Europe in the Middle Ages and flourishes during the modern period (from the seventeenth century).
- Class (social class): Capitalism inevitably produces differentials in power and financial success. Karl Marx argued that there are two principal classes of people in a modern, industrial society: the bourgeoisie (middle class who own capital and property); and the proletariat (who have nothing to sell except their labour). While Marx was describing the developed societies of the nineteenth century, recent commentators argue that class is more diffuse and complex. Even so, in most modern societies there exists a very small group of people who are extremely wealthy, and a much larger group who are quite poor. Between these extremes is a broad social group often called the middle class.
- Codes: A code is a meaning system which may be based on language, images, colour, sounds, music, etc. Coded meanings may be clear, broadly shared and understood, and literal (e.g. an English language statement such as ‘I am hungry’, or the red light in a traffic signal). A code may also be subtle, restricted and abstruse (e.g. the metaphoric coding in Jim Jarmusch's film Dead Man).
- Commodification: The idea that capitalism is taking over all aspects of social life, converting everything into a form of commercial product or commodity. Thus, we can talk about the commodification of love, women or ‘the body’ inasmuch as advertising and other commercial codes present human experience as a sellable commodity. [Page 396]
- Cultural imperialism: Powerful social groups have historically invaded and occupied the territory of other social groups. In the modern period this form of territorial expansion by one nation over another has been called ‘colonialism’ and ‘imperialism’ (the creation of empires). Colonial administration was supported by a symbolic conquest through which the invaders imposed their culture over the invaded group. While the direct colonization of other national territories is no longer regarded as politically legitimate (with some exceptions), the symbolic ‘control’ of other national groups' cultural consumption practices is regarded as a legitimate part of capitalism and cultural trade. The concept of cultural imperialism suggests that powerful nations like the US are able to dominate global cultural markets with their information, news, media, fashion and styles. Through these products, cultural imperialists are able to influence disproportionately the ideas, ideology, belief systems and overall culture of other nations.
- Cultural materialism: A theory of culture that draws on Marxism and anthropology to explain social inequality. In particular, cultural materialism suggests that the uneven distribution of cultural materials (products and artefacts) in a society is directly linked to differences in social power and access to the resources of meaning-making. Cultural materialists seek to understand the mechanisms used by powerful groups in a society (e.g. media owners and governments) to exploit and control more vulnerable groups. This theory is often associated with Raymond Williams and his followers.
- Culture: An assemblage of meanings which are generated and consumed by a given social group.
- Deconstruction: An analytical strategy pioneered by French philosopher Jacques Derrida which focuses on the historical and cultural assumptions that inform a belief system and its discourses (language). For Derrida and his disciples, the core of every belief system is ultimately constructed around these assumptions. In Western civilization such assumptions are formed in a language that is fundamentally binary in structure(e.g. present/absent, truth/untruth, culture/nature). Deconstruction exposes and deconstructs these binaries and their correlative assumptions in order to present a new mode of thinking which liberates a broader spectrum of social ‘difference’.
- Diaspora: Originally referring to the dispersal of Jews across Europe, diaspora now refers to any human group that has no clearly defined homeland. Many of today's refugees, for example, may be seen as part of a new global diaspora.
- Digitopia: A utopia formed around digital technology. Digitopians are those individuals and communities who believe that digital, computer based technologies will provide the answer to the world's political and social problems. [Page 397]
- Discourse (discursive): This term was popularized by Michel Foucault, who used it to describe the interdependence of meaning systems (such as language), social power and knowledge. Foucault argues that meaning systems or ‘discourse’ shape knowledge and vice-versa. Both knowledge and the meaning system are formed through relationships of power. Therefore, the term discourse is usually deployed in order to indicate that meanings are always shaped in relation to what Foucault calls power/knowledge.
- Emancipatory Politics (liberational politics): Since its inception, cultural studies has been interested in issues of power, hierarchy and social inequality. In its recent incarnations, some areas of cultural studies have been focusing on individual subject's potential for personal emancipation through new expressive modes of pleasure, creativity and self-actualization. This approach to emancipation believes that freedom is only possible through the liberation of subjects from all fixed structural forms. Thus, a ‘collective’ freedom is only possible through the liberation of each individual, rather than by replacing one oppressive system with another (as in the communist revolutions of the twentieth century).
- Epistemology: The study of knowledge - what it is and how we acquire it. This was a central focus of philosophy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. From this period, however, epistemology has been supplemented by an interest in the way knowledge is shaped by language.
- Essentialism (see ontology below)
- Globalization: Process of increasing contact between people from different nations and cultural backgrounds. It is usually identified as a modern process which has been accelerating over the past fifty years as a result of increased volumes of trade and new forms of global communication.
- Governmentality: A concept established by Michel Foucault and used by a number of more recent cultural analysts. Governmentality describes the broadly distributed strategies and techniques that modern societies employ to manage complex relationships and material conditions. While recent analysts often use the term in relation to government and policy processes, Foucault refers to a much broader expanse of bureaucratic processes, material management and hierarchical systems in a society.
- Hegemony: This term was popularized by Antonio Gramsci. It refers to the forms of ‘leadership’ which are infused in significant social institutions - political, economic, educational and religious. As it has been more broadly applied in cultural studies, hegemony refers to an authority which is expressed through institutionally sanctioned meaning systems. This authority is not entirely closed, and people have the opportunity to [Page 398]influence their leaders and their authority in a modern society. Thus, meanings may be generated by powerful groups (governments and mass media corporations), but individuals are able to rework or ‘negotiate’ how these meanings are to be deployed in terms of their own personal life circumstances.
- Hybridization (hybridity): Globalization has brought different peoples and cultural elements into greater interaction and contiguity. Some theorists argue that this process is leading to greater global homogeneity, particularly as it is dominated by cultural superpowers like the United States. However, others believe that this contiguity transforms older cultural elements, creating new and hybrid forms of culture. At the ‘local’ level individuals and communities absorb and transform dominant cultural modes (music, film, clothing styles, food chains), adapting them to their own customs and practices: the mix of the internal and external creates a ‘hybrid’ cultural form (e.g. Bollywood, Asian Rap, vegetarian McDonalds).
- Hyperreality: A concept popularized by Umberto Eco and Jean Baudrillard, ‘hyperreality’ suggests that contemporary culture is shaped around a new form of mediated reality. That is, contemporary culture is so dense with media texts and competing meanings that reality itself has been utterly transformed. For Baudrillard, in particular, a hyperreality is characterized by meaninglessness, or at least an agitated and dynamic process whereby everything is merely an imitation (simulacrum) of everything else.
- Identity: The way an individual sees him- or her-self, and projects that self into the world. This concept marks a key debate in contemporary cultural studies. An individual's ‘identity’ is shaped by biological, social and personal factors. Some theorists believe that identity is rooted in deep history, culture and ethnicity; others believe that identity is almost entirely constructed in culture and discourse. The first of these positions is essentialist in that ‘identity’ is seen as something fixed and largely immutable. The second suggests that individuals have a degree of choice about who they are and which cultural elements they wish to mobilize in order to express their identity. In effect, our individual identity is both conditioned by external forces, and by our own choices and sense of expressive agency. Identity has become a critical part of contemporary cultural politics - for example, in the notional ‘war on terror’ a great deal of popular, governmental and academic debate surrounds the condition of ‘being Muslim’ and the ways in which identity is being mobilized in cultural agonisms.
- Ideology: This is an extremely complex term which is frequently debated in cultural studies. At the simplest level it is a system of beliefs and attitudes which are formed politically by a given social group. Adapting the ideas of Karl Marx, however, Louis Althusser argues that ideology is really the mechanism by which powerful elites impose their own interests and beliefs over the masses in a given society. It is the difference between [Page 399]the things people believe about themselves and the real conditions of their lives. These powerful groups infuse their self-interest over the masses through the manipulation of a symbolic order. Media texts, government discourses, laws, education, information - all contribute to the formation of a dominant ideology.
- Intertextuality: According to Jacques Derrida, all texts are necessarily related to all other texts through the process of meaning deferral. This simply means that the words that comprise a text are dependent upon prior (and future) meanings that are contained in other words. In order to understand the meaning of a statement like ‘the dog is black’, a reader will be tracking back to prior readings of each of these words and their formulation in grammar. If the reader goes to the dictionary, s/he will find a whole new set of words whose meanings must also be tracked to other texts and meanings. Thus, all meanings are subject to a process of ‘supplementarity’, where any given word supplements the meaning of any other.
- Marxism (neo-Marxism): This is a set of ideas derived from the nineteenth century German philosopher and social theorist Karl Marx. Marxist theory focuses on the means of production, historical materialism, political economy and various forms of social inequality. Marxian studies focus on the man himself, as opposed to his theories.
- Mediasphere: The notion of a ‘public sphere’ refers to citizenship (belonging to a nation state) and participation in democratic institutional processes. In its original form, the public sphere was seen as the physical and cultural spaces in which citizens engage in political discussion, information sharing, decision making and electoral processes. It is not about private profit or pleasure, but public duty and democratic participation. With the emergence of mass media, the public sphere has been transformed through a new merging of private and public cultural spaces. Political participation is now formed in relation to mediated texts, entertainments and information. The mediasphere represents the convergence of the public sphere with new forms of mass mediation.
- Myth: According to Claude Lévi-Strauss, myths are stories and legends developed by cultures in order to resolve underlying community tensions. While Lévi-Strauss focuses on traditional and tribal societies, the same process of myth-making (as meaning-making) is evident in modern societies. Roland Barthes argues that myths are ‘naturalised’ (formed as a natural or inevitable truth) by a modern society in order to make sense of things and provide an historical density to their meaning-making. At this level, myths are not necessarily ‘untruths’ or fallacious narratives; they are an essential part of a social group's identity and sense of belonging.
- Ontology (essentialism): This is a philosophical idea about the true and essential nature of things. Often the concept is applied to explain the essence of human nature, human spirit, [Page 400]the cosmos, nature, identity or history. Cultural studies is often seen as ‘anti-essentialist’ as it treats culture as constructed meanings, rather than as some mysterious or nefarious essence.
- Patriarchy: Feminists argue that social history is marked by a significant gender hierarchy by which males have dominated females. This patriarchal system is shaped by material divisions, law and cultural meanings which insist that women are inferior to men; the world has been shaped by this fundamental belief system and the interests and ideology of males.
- Performativity: The focus on social performance (action) which has been determined by culturally embedded discourses and laws. For example, men will perform as men because they are obeying specific social rules and expectations that are continually confirmed through repetition in movies, sports programmes, television and social interactions, etc.
- Phallocentrism: A phallus is a symbolic penis. It represents the belief system that surrounds patriarchy and male political and cultural power. Phallocentricism refers to the subconscious male ego.
- Political economy: This concept is drawn from Karl Marx and usually refers to a critical framework for studying society. This framework focuses on the interdependence of politics and economics as the core of social relationships and inequality.
- Polysemy: This concept was developed through semiotics (see below). It is the idea that a sign (unit of meaning) may carry many potential meanings. However, the selection of a dominant meaning is generally shaped by dominant social groups. For example, the word ‘democracy’ is politically charged and subject to considerable debate between national, ethnic and religious groups across the globe. This potential for multiple meanings is nevertheless subject to the dominant interests of, for example, the United States government and its cultural power.
- Position (to): A number of cultural studies scholars argue that a text and its ideology ‘position’ readers and their meaning-making. Thus, some feminists might argue that fashion magazines position teenage female readers, creating the urge to imitate thin, heavily made up, high consuming models. The text positions or situates the reader in terms of specific identities and ideologies (capitalism, patriarchy) and behaviours (consuming, wearing make-up, dieting).
- Postcolonialism: An analytical framework designed to explain the cultural and political experiences of peoples in formerly colonized territories. Such analyses usually point to the evolution of complex power relationships in countries that were once directly [Page 401]administered by colonialists such as Britain, the US, France, Spain and Germany. They will study, for example, the contemporary experiences of indigenous people in countries like Australia and Canada. The ethnic, racial and political disharmonies associated with colonization, foreign settlement and de-colonization in Africa, India and the Middle East are also common sites for postcolonial analysis.
- Post-Fordism: Henry Ford perfected the system of mass, assembly-line, industrial production (Ford motor cars). Many historians believe that we have entered a new economic phase in which mass production has been replaced by flexible, low scale and creative industry (typified by tourism, hospitality, media and information industries). It is argued that this post-industrial society is characterized by flat management styles and a flexible, highly trained workforce. The major OECD countries are seen as post-Fordist, while emerging economies like China remain in a typically Fordist phase.
- Postmodernism (Postmodernity): Usually refers to a set of texts and ideas that are characterized by multiplicity of meanings and forms that are self-challenging and self-reflexive. In particular, postmodernism challenges the notion of an integrated, modernist, unified and absolute truth. To this end, we might think of ‘postmodern’ films like David Lynch's Mulholland Drive, literature such as Joseph Heller's Catch-22, paintings like Andy Warhol's Green Coca Cola Bottles, and architecture such as the Sydney Opera House. Postmodernity describes the historical phase in which postmodern ideas and texts are pre-eminent. A number of scholars argue that we have entered such a phase, claiming that time and space have been compressed and there is no overriding truth or reality in a globalized cultural context.
- Poststructuralism: A philosophical idea which focuses on the way language shapes knowledge and power. It is ‘post’ structuralism because it challenges the idea that language, society and history are constructed around durable, fixed and powerful ‘structures’. Poststructuralism claims that meanings are dynamic, elusive and often unstable. Power is treated as a contingency of relationships, rather than as something that is historically fixed, as Marx claims.
- Reflexive (reflexivity): This concept is associated with postmodernism. It refers generally to a social or aesthetic perspective which reflects upon and challenges itself. Thus, in a multiple irony, reflexive text such as Mulholland Drive, the storytelling reflects on the processes of storytelling, narrative and creating film.
- Representation: The re-presentation of experience or phenomena in discourse and text. In cultural studies ‘representation’ is not merely the reproduction or mirror reflection of reality in text; rather, the process of representation is ultimately one of engagement between the self and all other cultural elements. Reality (or more precisely meaning) is [Page 402]created through representation. This is why many cultural studies scholars treat everything as a potential text, including lived experience, bodies and nature as well as recognizable media texts in film, literature and television.
- Semiotics (semiology): The study of ‘signs’ as meaning systems. Semiology has a more scientific demeanour and is centred in French scholarship.
- Signification (signifiers, signifieds): Signification is the process of making meaning through sign systems. Signs are formed in any meaning system such as language, colour schemes like traffic lights and so on. A sign is divided into the signifier (the material sign such as a word or traffic light), and signifieds (the mental concept or potential meaning to the signifier). Thus, in a sign such as red light on a traffic signal, the signifier is the bulb and colour red, while the signified is linked to the meaning of stop.
- Simulacra: Literally refers to simulations or imitations. Jean Baudrillard uses the concept to explain his hyperreality in which everything is an imitation of everything else; thus, there is no distinct or valid meaning within a hyperreal cultural context.
- Society (social formation): Society is the assemblage of people into a mass organizational unit, most often constituted in modern history around the nation-state. A ‘social formation’ is also an assemblage of people with a distinct organizational and/or ideological purpose (not necessarily the nation-state). Thus, the workers in a multi-national corporation, global Islam, or an intra-state ethnic community may be seen as a specific social formation.
- Structuralism: This concept most often refers to the idea that invisible social structures provide the essential framework of a society. Such structures are carried through history by durable institutions and their belief systems, ideology and fixed meanings. Karl Marx, most famously, refers to social class as the primary and defining social structure of modern society. Many other social theorists have also seen society as being based upon social structures (such as patriarchy) and related institutions (such as the family). A number of language theorists (e.g. C.S. Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure) believe that society is largely determined by the structures and recurring patterns that are inherent in all language.
- Subculture: For theorists who believed that culture was a relatively fixed system of meanings attached to a relatively fixed and stable social group, ‘subculture’ denotes a social sub-section which deviates from the majority or dominant group and its ‘norms’ (sense of normality and values). Subcultures are usually seen as a distinctive and separate group with their own norms, beliefs, rules, clothing styles and cultural practices. Thus, analysts might append the notion of subculture to drug-user groups, motor cycle gangs, [Page 403]criminals and so on. Scholars who believe that the concept of ‘culture’ implicates difference and multi-forming constituencies are less inclined to use the concept of subculture because it suggests that there is a fixed main culture and deviant appendices.
- Subject (subjectivity): An individual member of a social group is called a ‘subject’. Subjects pertain to a culturally formed ‘identity’ or ‘subjectivity’ (sense of self) over which they have a degree of control or choice. Subjectivity is thus formed in discourse and culture. It is the new focus of an emancipatory politics which encourages choice and the liberation of subjectivity from socially determined rules and prescribed beliefs and practices.
- Televisualization (televisual culture): As meaning production, dissemination and consumption are the central processes of culture, different cultures may thus be characterized in terms of their dominant communications technologies. The notion of a televisual culture refers to the pre-eminence of image-based mass mediation. Televisualization clearly affects the consciousness of individuals and hence their shared meaning-making and sense of reality.
- Text: In cultural studies ‘text’ refers to any organized set of discourses (and meanings). A text may be related to particular media forms or publications as in film, television and literature. However, we might also refer to ‘the body’ as a text which has meanings inscribed on it and which may be ‘read’ or interpreted. Thus, a body can be decorated and clothed according to a given meaning system (punk, businessman, prostitute, etc); it may also be read according to biologically determined tags such as age, ‘colour’, gender, etc. Landscapes, social practices and built environments may also be read and interpreted as texts.
References[Page 404]2005) Internationalizing Cultural Studies: An Anthology, Blackwell, Malden, MA.and (1996) Online Friendship, Chat Room Romance and Cybersex, Health Communications Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL.and (1994) ‘On popular music’ in J.Storey, ed., Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader, Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.(2005) Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of Islamicism, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226007878.001.0001, , (Alexander, J., ed. (1988) Durkheimian Sociology: Cultural Studies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO97805115982582002) The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity, Verso, London.(1969) For Marx, Allen Lane, London.(1971a) ‘Ideology and ideological state apparatuses’ in L.Althusser, Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, New Left Books, London.(1971b) ‘Letter on art’ in L.Althusser, Lenin and Philosophy, trans. B.Brewster, New Left Books, London.(1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism,(rev. edn, Verso, London.1985) Watching Dallas: Soap Opera and the Melodramatic Imagination, Methuen, London.(1996) Living Room Wars: Rethinking Media Audiences for a Postmodern World, Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203289549(1996) ‘Asianing Australia: notes toward a critical transnationalism in cultural studies’, Cultural Studies, 10 (1).and (1990) ‘Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy’ in M.Featherstone, ed., Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, Sage, London.(1996) Modernity at Large: The Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.(2006) ‘Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy’ in M.Durham and D.Kellner, eds, Media and Cultural Studies: Keywords, Blackwell Publishing, London.(Arac, J., ed. (1988) After Foucault: Humanistic Knowledge, Postmodern Challenges, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.[Page 405]1949) Culture and Anarchy, Everyman's Library, London.(Attive, Z., ed. (2002) The New Generation of International Architecture, Skira, Milan.1996) The Politics of Affirmative Action: Women, Equality and the Politics of Category, Sage, London.(Background Briefing (1999) ‘Culture jamming: how to make trouble and influence people’, ABC National Radio, 18 October.1984) Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, trans. C.Emerson, Manchester University Press, Manchester.(2000) Prometheus Wired: The Hope for Democracy in the Age of Network Technology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.(2003) Citizen Sex: The Girl Next Door on the Adult Internet, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC.(1967) Elements of Semiology, trans. A.Lavers and C.Smith, Jonathan Cape, London.(1973) Mythologies, trans. A.Lavers, Paladin, St Albans.(1975) The Pleasure of the Text, trans. R.Miller, Hill and Wang, New York.(1977) Image-Music-Text, trans. S.Heath, Fontana, London.(1990) The Fashion System, trans. M.Ward and R.Howard, University of California Press, Berkeley.(1975) The Mirror of Production, trans. M.Poster, Telos Press, St Louis.(1981) For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, trans. C.Levin, Telos Press, St Louis.(1983a) In the Shadow of the Silent Majorities, trans. P.Foss, S.Johnson and P.Pallon, Semiotext(e), New York.(1983b) ‘The ecstasy of communication’ in H.Foster, ed., The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, Bay Press, Seattle.(1984a) Simulations, trans. P.Foss, Semiotext(e), New York.(1984b) ‘The procession of simulacra’ in H.Wallis, ed., Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation, Museum of Modern Art, New York.(1987) Forget Foucault, Semiotext(e), New York.(1988) The Ecstasy of Communication, trans. B.Schütze and C.Schütze, Semiotext(e), New York.(1990) Seduction, trans. B.Singer, Culturetext, New York.(1993) Symbolic Exchange and Death, trans. I.Hamilton, Sage, London.(1994) The Illusion of the End, trans. C.Turner, Polity, Cambridge.(1995) The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, trans. P.Paron, Power Publications, New South Wales.(1996) The System of Objects, trans. J.Benedict, Verso, London.(1998) The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, trans. C.Turner, Sage, London.([Page 406]2002) The Spirit of Terrorism and Requiem for the Twin Towers, trans. C.Turner, Verso, London.(2004) Identity, Polity, Oxford.(1990) Symbolic Interaction and Cultural Studies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226041056.001.0001and (1973) The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, Basic Books, New York.(1976) The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism, Basic Books, New York.(1977) ‘The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction’ in Illuminations, trans. M.Zohn, Fontana, London.(1985) ‘The politics of the popular’ in V.Beechey and J.Donald, eds, Subjectivity and Social Relations, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.(1986) ‘Hegemony, ideology, pleasure: Blackpool’ in T.Bennett, C.Mercer and J.Woollacott, eds, Popular Culture and Social Relations, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.(1997) ‘Towards a pragmatics of cultural studies’ in J.McGuigan, ed., Cultural Methodologies, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250396(1999) ‘Putting policy into cultural studies’ in S.During, ed., The Cultural Studies Reader,(2nd edn, Routledge, London.Bennett, T., Mercer, C. and Woollacott, J., eds (1986) Popular Culture and Social Relations, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.Bennett, T., Frith, S., Grossberg, L., Shepherd, J. and Turner, G., eds (1993) Rock and Popular Music: Politics, Policies, Institutions, Routledge, London.1967) The Sacred Canopy, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.(1966) The Social Construction of Reality, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.and (2004) ‘Digital media futures’ in D.Gauntlett and R.Horsley, eds, Web.Studies.(2000) ‘Hacking the democratic mainframe: (Dis)Organising transgressive computing’, Media International Australia, 95, May.and (1997) The Postmodern Turn, Guilford Press, New York.and (1987) ‘Interrogating identity’ in H.Bhabha, ed., Identity: The Real Me, ICA, London.(1990) Nation and Narration, Routledge, London.(1994) The Location of Culture, Routledge, London.(1999) ‘Liberalism's sacred cow’ in S.Okin and J.Cohen, eds, Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?, Princeton University Press, Princeton.(1978) Subjective Criticism, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.(1996) Representing Black Men, Routledge, New York.and (1933) The Movies and Conduct, Macmillan, New York.(1999) Mayhem: Violence as Public Entertainment, Perseus, New York.(1992) ‘Literature in the electronic writing space’ in M.Tuman, ed., Literacy Online, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.([Page 407]1993) ‘The information superhighway: roadmap for renewed public purpose’, Tikkum, 8 (4).(1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice, trans. R.Nice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812507(1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, Routledge, London.(1990) Language and Symbolic Power, Polity, Cambridge.(1991) ‘Sport and social class’ in C.Mukerji and M.Schudson, eds, Rethinking Popular Culture, University of California Press, Berkeley.(Bradbury, M. and McFarlane, J., eds (1978) Modernism, Penguin, Harmondsworth.2004) ‘Sites of public (home) sex and the carnivalesque spaces of reclaim the streets’ in L.Lees, ed., The Emancipatory City?, Sage, London; Thousand Oaks, CA. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221365(1995) Disney and His Worlds, Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203204870(1998) Performance Anxieties: Reproducing Masculinity, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.(Burchell, G., Gordon, C. and Miller, P., eds (1991) The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226028811.001.00011966) Exterminator, Viking, New York.(1995) ‘Melancholy gender/refused identification’ in M.Berger, B.Wallis and S.Watson, eds, Constructing Masculinity, Routledge, London.(1989) Communication as Culture, Unwin Hyman, Boston.(1967) Essays: English and Other Critical Essays, Everyman's Library, London.(1997) The Power of Identity, Blackwell, London.(1990) ‘Architectural postmodernism: the retreat of an avant-garde?’ in R.Boyne and A.Rattasnsi, eds, Postmodernism and Society, St Martin's Press, New York.(1988) Popular Culture: The Metropolitan Experience, Routledge, London.(1991) ‘Daimaru man defends his vision of the future’, The Age, 28 October.(2003) ‘Introduction: subjects of terrorism and media’ in N.Chitty, R.Rush, and M.Semeti, Studies in Terrorism: Media Scholarship and the Enigma of Terror, Southbound, Penang.(2000) Femininity and the Physically Active Woman, Routledge, London.(2001) September 11, Unwin, Crows Nest.(2003a) Middle East Illusions, Rowman and Littlefield, London.(2003b) Hegemony or Survival, Metropolitan Books, New York.(1986) The Newly Born Woman, trans. B.Wing, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.and (1993) ‘“With my body, I thee worship”: the social construction of marital sexual problems’ in S.Scott and D.Morgan, eds, Body Matters: Essays on the Sociology of the Body, Falmer PressLondon.(1989) Uncommon Cultures: Popular Culture and Post-modernism, Routledge, New York.([Page 408]1989) Postmodernist Culture: An Introduction to Theories of the Contemporary, Blackwell, New York.(Cornell, D., ed. (2000) Feminism and Pornography, Oxford University Press, New York.1990) ‘An iron man: the body and some contradictions of hegemonic masculinity’ in M.Messner and DonaldSabo, eds, Sport, Men and the Gender Order, Human Kinetics Books, Champaign.(1984) ‘Fantasia’, m/f, 9.(2002) ‘Culture and globalization: theoretical models and emerging trends’ in D.Crane, N.Kawashima, and K.Kawasaki, eds, Global Culture: Media, Arts, Policy and Globalization, Routledge, New York.(2006) The Sociology of the Body: Mapping the Abstraction of Embodiment, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446214978(1859) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, John Murray, London.(1999) Diana: Constructing the People's Princess, Macmillan, Melbourne.(1983) God and the New Physics, Penguin, Harmondsworth.(1987) The Cosmic Blueprint, Heinemann, London.(1972) The Second Sex, trans. H.M.Parshley, Penguin, Harmondsworth.(1984) The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. S.Rendall, University of California Press, Berkeley.(1988) The Writing of History, trans. T.Conley, Columbia University Press, New York.(1987) Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film and Fiction, Macmillan, London.(1974) Course in General Linguistics, Fontana, London.(1977) ‘Discussion with Michel Foucault’ in M.Foucault, Language, Counter-Memory and Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews, trans. D.F.Bouchard and S.Simon, Blackwell, Oxford.(1983) Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. R.Hurley, M.Seem and H.Lane, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.and (1987) A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. B.Massumi, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.and (1992) Symbolic Interactionism and Cultural Studies: The Politics of Interpretation, Blackwell, Cambridge, MA.(1970) ‘Discussion’ in The Structuralist Controversy: The Languages of Criticism and the Sciences of Man, R.Macksey and E.Donato, eds, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.(1974) Of Grammatology, trans. G.C.Spivak, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.(1979) Writing and Difference, trans. A.Bass, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.([Page 409]1981) Dissemination, trans. B.Johnson, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.(1980) Modern French Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.(Desmond, C., ed. (1997) Meanings in Motion: The Cultural Studies of Dance, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.1984) Logics of Disintegration: Post-structuralist Thought and the Claims of Critical Theory, Verso, London.(1994) Postmodernism and Popular Culture: A Cultural History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.(1995) ‘Rethinking postcolonialism and multiculturalism in the fin de siècle’, Cultural Studies, 9 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389500490491(2000) Race, Colour and Identity in Australia and New Zealand, UNSW Press, Sydney.and (1978) Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.(1998) ‘Elizabeth Tudor and Diana Spencer: Charming an image; Recovering a life’ in A.Hall, ed., Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media, Praeger, Westport, CT.(1995) ‘Who needs a boyfriend? The homocentric virgin in adolescent women's magazines’ in P.van Toorn and D.English, eds, Speaking Positions: Aboriginality, Gender and Ethnicity in Australian Cultural Studies, Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne.(1998a) ‘When size matters: confusions and concerns over the ideal male body’, Body Image Research Forum (Conference proceedings), Body Image and Health Inc., Melbourne.(1998b) ‘Bodies: an emerging issue for boys and young men’, Everybody, 2, August.(Duberman, M., ed. (1997) A Queer World, New York University Press, New York.1960) ‘Preface to L'Année sociologique 2’ in K.Wolff, ed., émile Durkheim et al. on Sociology and Philosophy, Free Press, New York.(1977) The Evolution of Educational Thought, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.(Duvall, J. and Dworkin, J., eds (2001) Productive Postmodernism: Consuming Histories and Cultural Studies, Suny Press, New York.1985) Heavenly Bodies: Filmstars and Society, Macmillan, Basingstoke.(1978) Criticism and Ideology, Verso, London.(1984) ‘Postmodernism, irony and the enjoyable’ in Postscript to The Name of the Rose, trans. W.Weapon, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.(2006) The Thrill of the Chaste: Finding Fulfilment while Keeping Your Clothes on, Nelson, New York.(2006) Cultures of Masculinity, Routledge, London.(2002) ‘Masculinity and American militarism’, Tikkim, 17 (6).([Page 410]1994) Louis Althusser: A Critical Reader, Blackwell, Oxford.(1994) ‘Letter to Joseph Bloch’ in J.Storey, ed., Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader, Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.(1994) ‘The political computer: hypertext, democracy and Habermas’ in G.Landow, ed., Hyper/Text/Theory, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.(Everett, A. and Caldwell, J., eds (2003) New Media: Theories and Practices of Digitextuality, Routledge, New York.1990) Consumer Culture and Postmodernism, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212424(1996) ‘Globalism, localism and cultural identity’ in R.Wilson and W.Dissanayake, eds, Global Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary, Duke University Press, London.(1991) ‘The mask of ageing and the postmodern life course’ in M.Featherstone, M.Hepworth and B.Turner, eds, The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory, Sage, London.and (Featherstone, M., Hepworth, M. and Turner, B., eds (1991) The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory, Sage, London.Fischilin, D., ed. (1994) Negation, Critical Theory, and Postmodern Textuality, Kluwer Academic, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8291-92002) ‘Don't blame relativism’, The Responsive Community, The Communications Network Symposium, Published papers, University of Illinois, Chicago.(2003) ‘Does the US military want to kill journalists?’The Independent, April 8.(1987) Television Culture, Methuen, London.(1989a) Reading the Popular, Unwin Hyman, Boston.(1989b) Understanding Popular Culture, Unwin Hyman, Boston.(1987) Myths of Oz: Reading Australian Popular Culture, Allen & Unwin, Sydney., and (2000) ‘“Represent”: race, space and place in rap music’, Popular Music, 19 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0261143000000015(1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language, trans. A.M.Sheridan, Pantheon, New York.(1974) The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, Tavistock, London.(1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. A.M.Sheridan, Penguin, New York.(1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, Pantheon, New York.(1981) The History of Sexuality, Volume One: An Introduction, trans. R.Hurley, Penguin, New York.(1984) ‘What is Enlightenment?’ trans. C.Porter in P.Rabinow, ed., The Foucault Reader, Penguin, London.(1988) ‘Technologies of the self’ in L.Martin, H.Gutman and P.Hutton, eds, Technologies of the Self, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.([Page 411]1991) ‘Governmentality’ in G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller, eds, The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.. (1985) ‘Towards a critical regionalism’ in H.Foster, ed., Postmodern Culture, Pluto Press, London.. (1996) Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.. (1987) Art into Pop, Methuen, London.and . (1991) ‘Michel de Certeau: the practice of representation’, Cultural Studies, 5 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389100490041. (1992) The End of History and the Last Man, Free Press, Toronto.. (1973) Popular Culture and High Culture, Basic Books, New York.. (2006) Liberating Shahrazad: Feminism and Postcolonialism, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.. (Gauntlett, D. and Horsley, R., eds (2004) Web.Studies,2nd edn, Arnold, London.1973) The Interpretation of Cultures, Basic Books, New York.. (1976) ‘Art as a cultural system’, MLN, 91.. (1988) Works and Lives: Anthropologist as Author, Stanford University Press, Stanford.. (1991) ‘Deep play: notes on the Balinese cockfight’ in C.Mukerji and M.Schudson, eds, Rethinking Popular Culture: Contemporary Perspectives in Cultural Studies, University of California Press, Berkeley.. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity, Polity, Cambridge.. (1994) Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics, Polity, Cambridge.. (1988) No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century, Volume 1, Yale University Press, New Haven.and . (1999) Studying Culture: A Practical Introduction, Blackwell, Oxford.and . (1998) The Black Atlantic, Verso, London.. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Doubleday, New York.. (2001) War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. (1976) The Dialectic of Ideology and Technology, Macmillan, London.. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks, trans. Q.Hoare and G.Nowell-Smith, Lawrence and Wishart, London.. (2004) Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism, DVD.. (1997) Bringing it All Back Home: Essays on Cultural Studies, Duke University Press, Durham and London.. (1988) It's a Sin: Essays on Postmodernism, Politics and Culture, Power Publications, Sydney., and . (1992) ‘Regimes, pathways, subjects’, trans. B.Masumi in J.Crary and S.Kwinter, eds, Incorporations, Zone Books, New York.. ([Page 412]1993) ‘Multicultural multiplicities: US, Canada, Australia’, Meanjin, 32 (3).. (1975) ‘Towards a reconstruction of historical materialism’, Theory and Society, 1 (3).. (1981) ‘Modernity versus postmodernity’, New German Critique, 22, Winter.. (1983) ‘Modernity - an incomplete project’ in H.Foster, ed., The Anti-aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, Bay Press, Seattle.. (1984a) The Theory of Communicative Action, Volume One, trans. T.McCarthy, Beacon, Boston.. (1984b) ‘The French path to postmodernity: Bataille between eroticism and general economics’, New German Critique, 33.. (1987a) The Theory of Communicative Action, Volume Two, trans. T.McCarthy, Beacon, Boston.. (1987b) The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, trans. F.Lawrence, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.. (1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.. (1998) Female Masculinity, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.. (1995) Posthuman Bodies, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.and . (1980) ‘Encoding/decoding’ in S.Hall, D.Hobson, A.Lowe and P.Willis, eds, Culture, Media, Language, Hutchinson, London.. (1982) ‘The rediscovery of ideology: the return of the repressed in media studies’ in M.Gurevitch, T.Bennett, J.Curran and J.Woollocat, eds, Culture, Society and the Media, Methuen, London.. (1988) ‘Recent developments in theories of language and ideology: a critical note’ in S.Hall, D.Hobson, A.Lowe and P.Willis, eds, Culture, Media, Language, Hutchinson, London.. (1991a) ‘The local and the global: globalization and ethnicity’ in A.King, ed., Culture, Globalization and the World-System, State University of New York at Binghampton, Binghampton.. (1991b) ‘Old and new identities, old and new ethnicities’ in A.King, ed., Culture, Globalization and the World-System, State University of New York at Binghampton, Binghampton.. (1996) ‘Cultural studies and its theoretical legacies’ in D.Morley and K.H.Chen, eds, Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, Routledge, London.. (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order, Macmillan, London., , , and . (1992) Modernity and its Futures, Open University Press, Milton Keynes., and . (2004) Queer Social Philosophy: Readings from Kant to Adorno, University of Illinois Press, Illinois.. ([Page 413]1991) Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, Free Association Books, London.. (1997) Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium.FemaleMan_Meets_Onco-Mouse: Feminism and Technoscience, Routledge, New York.. (2000) Empire, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.and . (2004) Multitudes, Penguin, New York.and . (1992) Tele-ology: Studies in Television, Routledge, London.. (1996) Popular Reality: Journalism, Modernity, Popular Culture, Arnold, London.. (1989) The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origin of Cultural Change, Blackwell, Oxford.. (1982) The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Towards a Postmodern Literature, Oxford University Press, New York.. (1985) ‘The culture of post modernism’, Theory, Culture and Society, 2 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276485002003010. (1987) The Postmodern Turn: Essays in Postmodern Theory and Culture, Ohio State University Press, Columbus.. (2005) 20 Something, 20 Everything, New World Library, New York.. (1979) Sub-culture: The Meaning of Style, Methuen, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203139943. (1988) Hiding in the Light: On Images and Things, Comedia, London.. (1952) Being and Time, trans. J.Macquarie and E.Robinson, Harper, New York.. (1977) ‘The age of the world picture’ in The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, trans. WilliamLovitt, Garland Publishing, New York.. (Hekman, S., ed. (1996) Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault, Pennsylvania University Press, University Park.1987) Prospects for Democracy, Polity, Cambridge.. (1992) ‘Democracy: from a city state to a cosmopolitan order?’ in D.Held, ed., Prospects for Democracy, Political Studies Special Issue, 40.. (1999) Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture, Polity, Cambridge., , and . (1999) Stop: Think, Chimo Media, Toronto.. (2004) ‘Torture at Abu Ghraib’, The New Yorker Fact, May 10, <http://www.newyorker.com/fact>.. (2006) ‘Internet infidelity: a review of the literature’, Journal of Family Studies, 14 (4).. (Hess, S. and Kalb, N., eds (2003) The Media and the War on Terrorism, Brookings Institution Press, New York.1998) Bodymakers: A Cultural Anatomy of Women's Body Building, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.. (Heywood, L. and Drake, J., eds (1997) Third Wave Agenda: Being Feminist, Doing Feminism, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.[Page 414]1958) The Uses of Literacy, Penguin, London.. (1972) ‘The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception’ in Dialectic of Enlightenment, Seabury Press, New York.and . (Hoy, D.C., ed. (1986) Foucault: A Critical Reader, Blackwell, Oxford.1988) ‘Foucault: modern or post-modern?’ in J.Arac, ed., After Foucault: Postmodern Challenges, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.. (2001) ‘There is no Gomorrah: narrative ethics in feminist and queer theory’, Differences: Feminist Cultural Studies, 12 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/10407391-12-3-1. (1998) Televictims: Emotional Correctness in the Media AD (After Diana), Informinc, London.. (1988) A Politics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction, Routledge, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203358856. (1995) Metafiction, Longman, New York.. (1986) After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism, Indiana University Press, Minneapolis.. (1978) The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.. (1994) ‘Researching audiences: a dialogue between cultural studies and social science’, Media International Australia, 73, August.. (1996) ‘Ignorance is bliss: when you are Just Seventeen’, Trouble and Strife, 33.. (2005) Modernism and the Culture of Celebrity, Cambridge University Press, London.. (1981) The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act, Methuen, London.. (1983) ‘Postmodernism and consumer society’ in H.Foster, ed., The Anti-aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, Bay Press, Seattle.. (1984) ‘Postmodernism, or, the cultural logic of late capitalism’, New Left Review, 46.. (1991) Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Verso, London.. (1998) The Cultural Turn, Verso, London.. (1997) Stripping in Time: A History of Erotic Dancing, HarperCollins, London.. (2004) Unpacking Queer Politics: A Lesbian Feminist Perspective, Polity Press, Cambridge.. (2005) Beauty and Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices in the West, Routledge, London.. (1986) What is Postmodernism?Academy Editions, London.. (1987a) Post-Modernism: The New Classicism in Art and Architecture, Academy Editions, London.. (1987b) The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, Academy Editions, London.. (1995) The Architecture of the Jumping Universe, Academy Editions, London.. (2005) The Iconic Building, Frances Lincoln, London.. ([Page 415]1992) Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, Routledge, New York.(Jenkins, H. and Thorburn, D., eds (2003) Democracy and New Media, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.2003) The Hop and Pop: The Politics and Pleasure of Popular Culture, Duke University Press, Durham, NC., and (2001) Beyond tolerance: Child Pornography and the Internet, NYI Press, New York.(1979) ‘Elements of a theory of a theory of working class culture’ in J.Clarke, ed., Working Class Culture's Studies in History and Theory, Hutchinson, London.(1959) ‘Mass communication research and the study of popular culture’, Studies in Public Communication, 2.(1989) Jean Baudrillard: From Marx-ism to Postmodernism and Beyond, Polity, Cambridge.(1995) Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Media and Politics between the Modern and the Postmodern, Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203205808(2005) Media Spectacle and the Crisis of Democracy, Paradigm Publishing, New York.(1997) ‘Babes on the web: sex, identity and the home page’, Media International Australia, 84 May.(2006) China Shakes the World: The Rise of a Hungry Nation, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.(2004) ‘Living the paradox: female athletes negotiate femininity and muscularity’, Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 50 (5/6)., , , and (1980) Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art, trans. T.Gora, Columbia University Press, New York.(2004) The Will to Technology and the Culture of Nihilism: Heidegger, Nietzsche and Marx, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.(1997) ‘Code warriors’ in C.Theory <http://www.ctheory.com/a36-code_warriors.html>, 19 September.and (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago University Press, Chicago.(1977) Ecrits: A Selection, Tavistock, London.(1996) Emancipation(s), Verso, London.(1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, Verso, London.and (1986) Representations of Working-class Life, Macmillan, London.(1992) Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.(1997) The Lusty Lady, Scalo Zurich, New York.(1993) The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology and the Arts, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226469126.001.0001([Page 416]1987) The Age of Terrorism, George Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.(2003) No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty First Century, Continuum, New York.(2004) ‘The internet and democracy’ in H.Jenkins and D.Thorburn, eds, http://Web.Studies.(1991) The Production of Space, trans. D.Nicholson-Smith, Blackwell, Oxford.(1992) Critique of Everyday Life, trans. J.Moore, Verso, London.(1997) ‘“Rebel girl you are the queen of my world”: feminism, subculture and grrrl power’ in S.Whitely, ed., Sexing the Groove: Popular Music and Gender, Routledge, London.(2003) The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror, The Modern Library, New York.(1997a) ‘The inhuman state: nature, media, government’, Media International Australia, 83, February.(1997b) ‘Shot in the dark: Australia's industrial culture’, Cultural Studies, 11 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095023897335709(1998) ‘Between the lines: surf texts, prosthetics and everyday theory’, Social Semiotics, 8 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10350339809360397(2002a) ‘From Culturalism to Transculturalism’, Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies, 1 (1).(2002b) Cultural Studies: The Basics,(1st edn, Sage, London.2002c) ‘Propagating terror: 9/11 and the mediation of war’, Media International Australia, August, 104.(2005) Language Wars: The Role of Media and Culture in Global Terror and Political Violence, Pluto Press, London.(2006) ‘Trial by ordeal: Abu Ghraib and the global mediasphere’, Topia: The Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies, Spring, 15.and (2007) ‘Transforming the Bhuta Kala: the Bali bombings and Indonesian civil society’ in D.Staines, ed., Interrogating the War on Terror, Cambridge Scholars Press, Cambridge.and (2002) Critical Cultural Policy Studies: A Reader, Blackwell, Malden, MA., and (1980) ‘The social uses of television’, Human Communication Research, 6 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1980.tb00140.x(2003) Surveillance after September 11, Polity, London.(1984a) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, trans. G.Bennington and B.Massumi, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.(1984b) ‘Answering the question: what is postmodernity?’ in The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, trans. G.Bennington and B.Massumi, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.(1991) The Inhuman: Reflections on Time, trans. G.Bennington and R.Bowlby, Polity, Cambridge.([Page 417]1974) ‘Realism and the cinema: notes on some Brechtian theses’, Screen, 15 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/15.2.7(2004) The Problem of the Media: US Communications Policy in the 21st Century, Monthly Review Press, New York.(2005) The Future of the Media: Resistance and Reform in the 21st Century, Seven Stones Press, New York., and (McClintock, A., Mufti, A. and Shohat, E., eds (1997) Dangerous Liaisons: Gender, Nation and Postcolonial Perspectives, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.2001) The Graffiti Subculture: Masculinity, Youth, and Identity, Palgrave, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230511743(2003) ‘Iraq War may kill feminism as we know it’, Online essay, July 23, <http://www.wendymcelroy.com>.(1992) Cultural Populism, Routledge, London.(1996) Culture and the Public Sphere, Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203203330(McGuigan, J., ed. (1997) Cultural Methodologies, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462503961987) Postmodernist Fiction, Methuen, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203393321(1978) A Theory of Literary Production, trans. G.Wall, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.(1964) Understanding Media, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.(1969) Counterblast, Rapp and Whiting, London.(2002) Striptease Culture: Sex, Media and Democratization of Desire, Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203469378(1982) ‘Jackie: an ideology of adolescent femininity’ in B.Waites, T.Bennet and G.Martin, eds, Popular Culture: Past and Present, Croom Helm. London.(1989) Zoot Suits and Second-hand Dresses, Macmillan, London.(1991) Feminism and Youth Culture: from Jackie to Just Seventeen, Macmillan, London.(1994) Postmodernism and Popular Culture, Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203168332(1997) ‘More: new sexualities in girl's and women's magazines’ in A.McRobbie, ed., Back to Reality: Social Experience and Cultural Studies, University of Manchester Press, Manchester.(1991) ‘Girls and subcultures’ in A.McRobbie, Feminism and Youth Culture, Macmillan, London.and (1989) Gender and Generation, Macmillan, London., and (2003) Why Are We at War?Random House, New York.(1964) One Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society, Beacon Press, Boston.(1997) Celebrity and Power: Fame in Contemporary Culture, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.(1988) When Old Technologies were New, Oxford University Press, New York.([Page 418]1963) Early Writings, trans. T.B.Bottomore, McGraw-Hill, New York.(1970) Critique of Hegel's ‘Philosophy of Right‘, trans. A.J. and J.O'Malley, Cambridge University Press, London.(1976) A Contribution to a Critique of the Political Economy, Foreign Language Press, Peking.(1970) The German Ideology, Lawrence and Wishart, London.and (Matthews, J., ed. (1997) Sex in Public, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.Meem, D. and Gibson, M., eds (2002) Femme/Butch: New Considerations in the Way We Want to Go, Haworth Press, New York.1990) Sport, Men and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives, Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, IL.and (1985) No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behaviour, Oxford University Press, New York.(2002) How Sex Changed: A History of Transexuality in the United States, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.(1985) ‘Constraints on knowledge in the economy of oral information’, Current Anthropology, 26 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/203312(1970) Essays on Sex Equality, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.and (2000) ‘Sexual identity development: A base for same-sex couple partner abuse’, Contemporary Family Therapy, 22 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007729819595, and (2006) Family Abuse and Violence: A Social Problems Perspective, Altamira Press, Lanham, MD.and (1971) Sexual Politics, Rupert Hart-Davis, London.(2002) Re-imagining Cultural Studies, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218709(1984) Women: The Longest Revolution. Essays in Feminism, Literature and Psychoanalysis, Virago, London.(2006) Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach, Routledge, London., and (Moe, K. ed. (2003) Women Family, and Work: Writings on the Economics of Gender, Blackwell, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/97804707556481991) What is a Woman? and Other Essays, Oxford University Press, Oxford.(1993) Interpreting Audiences: The Ethnography of Media Consumption, Sage, London.(1980a) The Nationwide Audience, British Film Institute, London.(1980b) ‘Texts, readers, subjects’ in S.Hall, D.Hobson, A.Lowe and P.Willis, eds, Culture, Media, Language, Hutchinson, London.(1986) Family Television: Cultural Power and Domestic Leisure, Comedia, London.(1990) ‘Domestic communication - technologies and meanings’, Media, Culture and Society, 12 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344390012001003and ([Page 419]1993) ‘Panorama: The live, the dead, the living’ in G.Turner, ed., Nation, Culture, Text: Australian Cultural and Media Studies, Routledge, London.(1998) Too Soon, Too Late: History in Popular Culture, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.(2002) Inside Subculture: The Postmodern Meaning of Style, Berg Publishing, Oxford.(1975) ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’, Screen, 16 (3), Autumn. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/16.3.6(2002) Mass Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counter Terrorism, Rowman and Littlefield, London.(2005) Global Matrix: Nationalism, Globalism and State Terrorism, Pluto Press, London.and (1987) ‘E.P. Thompson: a history of culture and culturalist history’ in D.A.Broos, ed., Creating Culture, Allen & Unwin, London.(1995) Being Digital, Hodder and Stoughton, Rydalmere, New South Wales(1956) The Birth of Tragedy and the Genealogy of Morals, trans. F.Golffing, Doubleday, Garden City, New York.(1987) Derrida, Fontana, London.(1990) ‘Lost in the funhouse: Baudrillard and the politics of postmodernism’ in R.Boyne and A.Rattansi, eds, Postmodernism and Society, St Martin's Press, New York.(Norris, P., Kern, N. and Just, M., eds (2003) Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government and the Public, Routledge, New York.1996) ‘Farewell to the information age’ in G.Numberg, ed., The Future of the Book, University of California Press, Berkeley.(1998) The State of Terror, State University of New York Press, Albany.(2004) Andy Warhol's Blow Job: toward the recognition of an avant-garde pornography’ in L.Williams, ed., Porn Studies, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.(1998) Pornocopia: Porn, Sex, Technology and Desire, Serpent's Tail, London.(1961) ‘An outline of the social system’ in T.Parsons, E.Shils, K.Naegele and J.Pitts, eds, Theories of Society, Volume 1, Free Press, Glencoe, IL.(1967) Essays in Sociological Theory, Free Press, New York.(1998) ‘Do men get eating disorders?’, Everybody, 2, August.(2000) Recreating Men: Postmodern Masculinity Politics, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218860(2002) Eroticabiz: How Sex Shaped the Internet, Universe, Lincoln, NE.(2004) ‘Inventing new games: unitary urbanism and the politics of space’ in L.Lees, ed., The Emancipatory City?, Sage, London; Thousand Oaks, CA. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221365(1989) Critical Theory and Poststructuralism, Cornell University Press, New York.(1995) The Second Media Age, Polity, Cambridge.(1997) ‘Cyberdemocracy: internet and the public sphere’ in D.Porter, ed., Internet Cultures, Routledge, New York.([Page 420]2006) Information Please: Culture and Politics in the Age of Digital Machines, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.(1993) Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, Vintage Books, New York.(1990) ‘The astructural bias and presuppositional form of symbolic interactionism: a noninteractionist evaluation of the new studies in social organization' in L.Reynolds, ed., Interactionism: Exposition and Critique, General Hall, New York.and (2003) ‘Hip hop and the aesthetics of criminalization’, Souls5 (1).(Rabinow, P., ed. (1991) The Foucault Reader, Penguin, London.1987) Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy and Popular Literature, Verso, London.(2003) Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush's War on Iraq, Hodder, Sydney.and (2001) ‘The fourth wave: September 11 in the history of terrorism’Current History, December.(Redhead, S., Wynne, D. and O'Connor, J., eds (1997) The Clubcultures Reader: Readings in Popular Cultural Studies, Blackwell, Oxford.Reynolds, L., ed. (1990) Interactionism: Exposition and Critique, General Hall, New York.1993) The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, Addison Wesley, Reading, MA.(2004) ‘Missed Signals’, American Journalism Review, August/September.(Richards, J., Wilson, S. and Woodhead, L., eds (1999) Diana: The Making of a Media Saint, I.B. Tauris, London.2002) ‘To the shores of Hollywood: Marine Corps fights to polish image in “Wiindtalkers”’, Washington Post, June 15.(2000) Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, Sage, London.(2003) Stuart Hall, Polity Press, Cambridge.(1988) ‘Architecture to philosophy - the postmodern complicity’, Theory, Culture and Society, 5 (2–3), June. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276488005002008(2003) Distant Proximities: Dynamics Beyond Globalization, Princeton University Press, Princeton.(1991) Strange Weather: Culture, Science and Technology in the Age of Limits, Verso, London.(1978) Orientalism, Pantheon Books, New York.(1986) ‘Foucault and the imagination of power’ in D.C.Hoy, ed., Foucault: A Critical Reader, Blackwell, Oxford.(1993) Culture and Imperialism, Chatto and Windus, London.(1999) Out of Place: A Memoir, Knopf, New York.(1991) Disciplining Foucault: Feminism, Power and the Body, Routledge, London.([Page 421]1981) Hollywood Genres: Formulas, Filmmaking and the Studio System, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.(1983) Political Terrorism: A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Data Bases and Literature, Transaction Press, New Brunswick, NJ.(2005) Fresh Lipstick: Redressing Fashion and Feminism, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.(Seidman, S., ed. (1996) Queer Theory/Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford.2002) ‘Shifting conversations on girls' and women's self-injury: an analysis of the cultural literature in historical context’, Feminism and Psychology, 12 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959353502012002010(2003) Understanding Virtual Reality: Interface, Application and Design, Morgan Kaufmann, New York.and (1993) The Body and Social Theory, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446215470(2005) The Body in Culture, Technology and Society, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220818(2002) War of Words: Language, Politics and 9/11, Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203341421(1990) ‘Television and everyday life: toward an anthropology of the television audience’ in M.Ferguson, ed., Public Communication: The New Imperatives, Sage, London.(Skelton, T. and Valentine, G., eds (1998) Cool Places: Geographies of Youth Culture, Routledge, London.2002) Globalization: Capitalism and its Alternatives, Oxford University Press, Oxford.(2000) The Internet and Society, Polity, Cambridge.(2004) ‘The Gnostic Baudrillard: a philosophy of terrorism seeking pure appearance’, International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, July, 1(2).(1997) ‘The Satanic geographies of globalization: uneven development in the 1990s’, Public Culture, 10 (1), Fall. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-10-1-169(1996) Hypertext: The Electronic Labyrinth, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.(1989) Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory, Verso, London.(1996) ThirdSpace: Journeys to Los Angeles and other Real-and-Imagined Places, Blackwell, Cambridge.(2000) Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions, Blackwell, Oxford.(1966) Against Interpretation, Deli, New York.(1978) ‘The double standard of ageing’ in V.Carver and P.Liddiard, eds, An Ageing Population, Hodder and Stoughton, London.(2001) ‘On the cowardice of the 9/11 attackers’, The New Yorker, September 21.(1995) Nattering on the Net: Women, Power and Cyberspace, Spinifex, Melbourne.(1987) In Other Worlds, Methuen, London.([Page 422]1988) ‘Can the subaltern speak?’ in G.Nelson and L.Grossberg, eds, Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, Macmillan, London.(1992) ‘Teaching for the times’, MMLA Journal for the Mid-West Modern Language Association, 25 (1), Spring.(1984) All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.(2000) Diana, Self-interest and British National Identity, Praeger, Westport, CT.(1992) War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester University Press, Manchester.(1991) ‘Text and the new hermeneutics’ in D.Wood, ed., On Paul Ricoeur: Narrative and Interpretation, Routledge, London.(2003) The Body, Dance and Cultural Theory, Palgrave, London.(1976) ‘Interview’, Radical History Review, 3.(1980) The Making of the English Working Class, Penguin, Harmondsworth.(2001) Islam: Between Culture and Politics, Palgrave, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230514140(1997) ‘Cultural globalisation: placing and displacing the west’ in H.Mackay and T.O'Sullivan, eds, The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, Sage, London.(1999) Globalization and Culture, Polity, Cambridge.(Tompkins, J., ed. (1980) Reader Response Criticism: From Formalism to Poststructuralism, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.2006) One Day in July: Experiencing 7–7, Brown, London.(2003) Communicating Terror: The Rhetorical Dimensions of Terrorism, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.(1999) ‘Identity in the age of the Internet’ in H.Mackay and T.O'Sullivan, eds, The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, Sage, London.(1996) The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory,(2nd edn, Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462143291996) British Cultural Studies: An Introduction,(2nd edn, Routledge, London.2004) Understanding Celebrity, Sage, London.(2000) Interpreting Diana: Television Audiences and the Death of a Princess, British Film Institute, London.(UNICEF (2007) ‘Women and children: the double dividend of gender equality’, The State of the World's Children Annual Report. <http://www.unicef.org/sowc07>. November 2007.United States Department of Defense (1986) DOD directive, 2000.12, ‘Protection of DOD resources against terrorist acts’, June 16.United States Government (2004) The 9/11 Commission Report.2001) Untitled contribution toThe New Yorker, 24 September, p. 28.(2003) Global Complexity, Polity, Cambridge.(1994) Feminist Media Studies, Sage, London.([Page 423]1998) ‘Run, Jane, run: central issues in the current debate about enhancing women's health through exercise’, Women and Health, 27 (4).(1994) The Vision Machine, British Film Institute, London.(2002) Ground Zero, trans. C.Turner, Verso, New York.(2004) ‘Is globalization reducing poverty and inequality?’Journal of Health Services, 34 (3).(1999) In the Net: An Internet Guide for Activists, Zed Books, London.(1999) The New Feminism, Virago, London.(1930) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. T.Parsons, Unwin, London.(1946) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Oxford University Press, New York.(1949) The Methodology of the Social Sciences, Free Press, New York.(2006) Questions of Method in Cultural Studies, Blackwell, Malden, MA. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470775912and (2006) The Puzzle of 7/7: An In-depth Analysis of the London Bombings and Government Sponsored Terrorism, Lulu Press, London.(1989) Hard Core: Power, Pleasure and the Frenzy of the Visible, University of California Press, Berkeley.(1992) ‘When the woman looks’ in G.Mast, M.Cohen and L.Braudy, eds, Film Theory and Criticism, Oxford University Press, New York.(2004) ‘Porn studies: proliferating pornographies on/scene’ in L.Williams, ed., Porn Studies, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.(1958) Culture and Society, Chatto and Windus, London.(1965) The Long Revolution, Penguin, London.(1968) Communications, Penguin, Hammondsworth.(1974) Television, Technology and Cultural Form, Fontana, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426647(1976) Keywords, Fontana, London.(1981) Culture, Fontana, London.(1978) Decoding Advertising, Marion Boyars, London.(1993) Watching Television: Hermeneutics, Reception and Popular Culture, Polity, Cambridge.(1995) ‘Horizons of meaning: the breadth of television narrowcasting’, Media International Australia, 75, February.(2004) The Playful Audiences: From Talk Show Viewers to Internet Users, Hampton Press, New Jersey.(1987) Inside Women's Magazines, Pandora, London.(1922) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, trans. C.K.Ogden, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.(1991) The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty are used against Women, Vintage, London.([Page 424]1990) ‘Feminism and modernism’ in A.Milner and C.Worth, eds, Discourse and Difference, Monash University Press, Clayton.(2003) ‘An interesting day: President Bush's movements and actions on 9/11’, The Center for Co-operative Research, <http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/main/essayaninterestiongday.html>.and (1978) A Room of One's Own, Hogarth Press, London.(1979) ‘Dorothy Richardson’ in M.Barrett, ed., Virginia Woolf: Women and Writing, The Women's Press, London.(World Bank (2001) World Development Indicators 2001, World Bank, New York.1975) Sixguns and Society: A Structural Study of the Western, University of California Press, Berkeley.(1995) ‘What's a straight white man to do?’ in M.Berger, B.Wallis and S.Watson, eds, Constructing Masculinity, Routledge, New York.(2004) Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle, Verso, London.(