Cultural Policy

Books

Toby Miller & George Yúdice

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgements

    We wish to thank the following for their assistance: Ian Antcliff, Kay Bridger, John Caldwell, Briankle Chang, Stuart Cunningham, Talitha Espiritu, John Hill, Mariana Johnson, Linda Lai, Marie Leger, Andrew Lockett, Anna McCarthy, Eric Kit-Wai Ma, Robert Murphy, Robert Nixon, Chris Rojek, Sohnya Sayres, and an anonymous reviewer for Sage. This project derived in part from a doctoral seminar we taught together in the Fall semesters of 1998 and 2000, and our thanks are due to students in the class. We also wish to thank colleagues at Social Text over the years for their interest in cultural policy questions, along with a number of fellow-travelers: Tony Bennett, Andrea Frazer, Néstor García Canclini, May Joseph, Randy Martin, Ana Maria Ochoa, Tom O'Regan, and Vera Zolberg. Finally, our appreciation to all the workers who made this book.

    Parts of what follows have appeared in different forms in Emergences, Continuum, Global Hollywood, American Behavioral Scientist, Social Text, Culture and Policy, Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, Film Policy, Communication, Citizenship and Social Policy, Oxford Guide to Film Studies, and British Cinema of the 90s.

  • Conclusion

    It was envisioned as a feel-good patriotic festival like the American Bicentennial. But the Brazilian government should have known that its plans to mark the 500th anniversary of the landing of the Portuguese were doomed when an irate Indian chief marched into Congress … drew his bow and arrow and threatened to kill the Senate president. – Larry Rohter (‘500’)

    How can you expect to govern a country that has 246 kinds of cheese? – Charles de Gaulle (quoted in ‘How’)

    I'm aware that it's a lot more glamorous to be on the barricade with a handkerchief around your nose than it is to be at the meeting with a briefcase and a bowler hat, but I think that we're getting more done this way. – Bono of U2 (quoted in Dominus)

    Brazil's 300,000 Indians and their leaders vowed to struggle against the commemoration of invasion throughout 2000. They were joined in this desire by many Afro-Brazilians, who deemed themselves excluded from the ‘celebration’, and activists from the Movement of the Landless, who called for agrarian reform. Pelé said he was ‘ashamed of Brazil’ because of the event. Meanwhile, across the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, a six-week experiment by the New South Wales railway service saw the rate of vandalism on trains cut by 75% – seats were no longer slashed and walls were not painted. Why? The usual suspects were apparently driven away by a relentless onslaught of Western European Enlightenment-era sonatas and concertos played on loudspeakers. Further north, the NEA was continuing to struggle. The newest tactic was to cast itself as standing in loco parentis to the US population. The Endowment used the terms ‘nurturing’, ‘supporting’ and ‘fostering’ to describe its goals for the coming century – a kind of non-pharmacological, pre-managed care, non-directive, client-centered Rogerian therapy (‘Learn’). In responding to the shocks and doubts of the 1980s and 1990s from critics speaking in the name of family values, US cultural policy had literally become a family.

    For all that this book was born in a neoliberal era, when global élites and policymakers deride old-style politics, the state remains with us as the locus classicus of politics, as exemplified by popular Brazilian revolt and middle-class Australian policing. This is the Janus face to the state, that it subjectifies citizens and residents in a way that makes them its own and it theirs, as well as ushering out those whom it would rather forget or deny. The state monopolizes both violence and national representation, even as its legitimacy depends on a space for its subjects to appeal to it for redress on both these scores.

    Nevertheless, the state is seen in much global elite and media discourse as standing in the way of democracy. Rather than politics, the market is said to epitomize freedom. And yet these graceless antinomies, as recent as they are avowedly timeless, are not so far apart as this binary suggests. Just as governments have always facilitated forms of accumulation, so markets have always played a part in allocating political preferences. Just as entrepreneurs have loudly proclaimed the inefficiency of political intervention, so the public routinely calls on parliaments to protect it from untrammeled private investment. And the very notions of limited liability, public education and tax writeoffs for research are crucial to successful business innovation. Instead of an uplift model, whereby welfarist doctrines saw governments give money to the arts in order to ‘improve’ their citizenry, the 1990s model was a cultural-industry one – the state underwrote new market infrastructures, such as art fairs, within which consumer preferences ‘determined’ the canon (Ardenne 101–02). At the same time, however, as this neoliberal/industry policy rapprochement was underway, there were dirigiste pressures as well. The US saw repeated assaults on migrants, from the denial of benefits to legal residents, to crackdowns on employed workers without immigration papers. And Europe saw a renewed nationalism that merged anti-immigration rhetoric on the right with the left's call for demographically inclusive national cultural policies (Ingram).

    Rather than propose an end to the big state, capital works for the redeployment of state resources in keeping with its own interests. And the global spread of neoliberalism has uneven consequences, diverging as it does between commercial and non-commercial aims, then reconnecting them in aberrant ways. The international art market, valued in late 1999 at US$17 billion a year, is slowly being reorganized, in keeping with norms of monetary valuation via indices that compare art with other investments (especially important given the market's relative autonomy from share fluctuations) (‘The Colour’). This represents an attempt to make art calculable according to the norms of the fully-knowledgeable consumer, in the face of a history that cordoned off high culture from mainstream economic indicators. On the other hand, the model of the US philanthropist as a neoliberal benefactor is on export as an alternative to the big state and the unwieldy cultocracy. But it cannot be expected to operate exactly as it has in the US in those countries where wealth is held by traditional families rather than early-generation migrants. In any event, the 1960s US model, whereby Foundations would demonstrate the value of an intervention, then wait for governmental action to come into play, has been succeeded by ‘venture philanthropy’. This irksome oxymoron is in a sense an old model of thrift, Victorian improvement by giving, such that angelic high-tech ‘venture philanthropists’ hand over money without the desire for a financial return – simply that those receiving it will start a business that becomes self-supporting (Cook). The demonstration-effect has shifted from Foundation-state to Foundation-firm, with the individual subject of civil society supposedly empowered by the process.

    Through all this, it often seems as though the globalizing force of neoliberalism is a codeword for the extension of the ‘American Century’, in both temporal and spatial terms, along with that tortured and torturing nation's strange, reluctant notion of statehood. The remainder of our Conclusion will demonstrate the limitation of any approach that stringently separates corporation from state, and either from culture, or hews to an individualist model of socio-cultural theory.

    Consider US doctrine over the role played in the Internet by individual North American ‘visionaries’. Who invented the Internet? When he's not busy claiming the status of a role model for Love Story or working on his post-2000 impersonation of Sebastian Cabot, Al Gore sometimes includes this achievement on his CV. He is not alone – chain bookstores feature memoirs by all manner of men making similar assertions. The truth is out there, though, and it's about government policy, not ‘individual initiative’. For while Al, his girlfriend Tipper, and his roommate Tommy Lee Jones were padding around Ivy-League dorms during late-night ice-cream feasts, the RAND Corporation was busily devising means of waging the Vietnam War. Its consultancy services didn't end there, of course. Our friends over at the Corporation also addressed the question: what if the Soviet Union managed to strike at the heart of the domestic US communications system? A successful attack would leave the country disabled, unless a devolved network could be introduced. The packet system of today originated with that desire to decentralize computing through nodal, semi-autonomous sites. In keeping with those origins – state-driven Cold War consultancies – the Internet grew up nested within public institutions of government and education, and the associated warfare-welfare para-bureaucracy of publicly-funded, but ostensibly independent, research by private universities and firms. How, then, did the myth of individual freedom as the source of the Internet (we call this cybertarianism) emerge? And what is it?

    Think back to the early days of radio for some clues. In the US, as in several other countries, the 1920s saw struggles waged between the repressive state apparatus and commerce over radio. The navy and the police asserted the need for exclusive use of the spectrum, while businesses wanted it for themselves. Government ultimately stepped in as an umpire. For listeners, those early days were a challenge – how clearly could a signal be heard, and from how far away? Stations offered prizes to those who reported the greatest reception distances. Meanwhile, Germany and Australia saw union-owned stations pioneering choral response, two-way radio, a Brechtian dream of worker-actor collaboration across the ether. And speaking of the ether, this mystical substance was given all kinds of bizarre properties by early practitioners, such as contact with the dead and a cure for cancer. Then the system became comprehensively corporatized. Two-way dreams were dispatched to the margins, as the radio set was sealed and the airwaves zoned. Theosophists and oncologists found other sites to ply their trades.

    Contemporary radio hams continue the fond memory of a system that broke down the gap between producers and consumers. They are bearers of a largely forgotten myth, if one that resonates in another, contemporary sphere. Libertarian individualists of the US Electronic Frontier Foundation and many other sites, both corporate and not (libertarians need to organize?) today view the Internet as a technologically entrepreneurial zone. It is said to permit human ventriloquism, autonomous subjectivity and a break-up of state power – all thanks to the ‘innate’ properties of cyberspace. Hence our coining the term ‘cybertarian’. Cybertarian mythology rests not only on a flawed, albeit touching, account of the person as a ratiocinative, atomistic individual who can exist outside politics and society. It equally assumes that what was born of warfare consultancies and ‘big science’, was spread through large institutions, was commodified for a tiny fraction of computer users, and is now moving towards comprehensive corporate control, can be claimed, now or ever, for the wild boys of geekdom. A touching foundation myth, typical of US fantasies about the autonomous subject breathing life into the world.

    Of course there is a role for the geek in the electronic domain. But today even hackers happily turn up at FBI conventions on Internet security, aiding the state and business to uncover errors and openness in operating systems. The expansion of entertainment conglomerates into the Internet will not, of course, end the technical capacity of web users to make their own sites. But it will minimize their significance. Crucial portals take up the traditional corporate role of policing zones and charging tolls. The fastest, easiest, most accessible search systems linked to browsers will direct folks to the ‘best’ sites – which will not be those of cybertarians. But a far older subject is lurking here – older than the cybertarian, older even than the libertarian. This is, of course, the citizen, who has been a stuttering but persistent presence throughout our investigations.

    Whereas the cybertarian is a monad, happily sitting at the controls of his or her life like an idealized consumer, the citizen is intersubjective, keen to link with others in solidarity as well as conflict. As we have seen, citizenship takes three forms: political, economic and cultural. In cyber terms, political citizenship has major implications for the regulation of speech, systems and policing of encryption, privacy, voting and the expression of public opinion. Economic citizenship's Internet significance lies in the push by the IMF and the World Bank for Third World states to get out of telecommunications, leaving the field to private investment. This has dramatically affected the pace and breadth of telephone and Internet access in many countries. Where development comes, it will be driven by corporate targets among the wealthy. Cultural citizenship encompasses discussion groups, ventriloquism, physical space, hardware and access to and for non-citizens, such as temporary workers and refugees.

    The NICL and the Internet will interact in ways we can only imagine, as cultural labor is internationalized on an uneven basis that will favor North over South and capital over labor. Yet we are seeing signs in the US of a new drive towards unionization. Lapsing cybertarians find an end to vested shares, salaries and health care if they got on board too late, or experience global competition for their jobs. As film and television production go global in search of locations, skills and docile labor, post-production and distribution centralize, thanks to armchair management by computer. Meanwhile, away from the salariat, those affected by the division of labor in manufacturing and agriculture need rights to communication in the new media.

    What should be done? First, we need to reconceptualize the three forms of citizenship as interlocking zones, interdependent and equally important. Second, we need to theorize the Internet in terms not just of individual access, but political rights, economic development, cultural norms and tastes. Third, the NICL must be centered in deliberations that look to those who are disenfranchised from citizenship and consumption, via a global statement of worker and citizen rights.

    Many other cultural institutions owe their lives, however secretly, to the work of US policy. The chaotic, piecemeal, but discernible outline of US cultural policy and its relationship to the culture industries is beautifully captured in the Hollywood sign. Overlooking LA from Mount Lee in Griffith Park, and visible from Burbank to Santa Monica, the site we now understand as a monument to the cinema started out as a promotion for home sales in a canyon subdivision in 1923 that read ‘Hollywoodland’. When the company went bankrupt twenty years later, it handed over both the land and the sign to the City. In 1949 a wind gust destroyed the H letter, encouraging TV executives to metonymize the event as the end of the film industry. Repairs were financed by a blend of governmental and private funds, with the quid pro quo that ‘Hollywood’ stand alone. There was no ongoing maintenance however. In the 1960s, it was declared an historic monument by the City's Cultural Heritage Board, but it seemed done for by the mid-1970s. Then the local Chamber of Commerce patched together funds from Hugh Hefner, Gene Autry, Andy Williams and Alice Cooper in 1978 (an unholy quartet for an unholy decade) to build a new sign, with each man paying for a letter or two (Abramian). Twenty years on, it is one of the most famous signs in the world, its history a quixotic, but in some respects typical, patchwork of public and private interests, their mutuality and contradictoriness hidden, along with years of disrepair, in a historicity of celebration.

    Such contradictions are the stuff of cultural policy. In 1994, the French cultural theorist Jean Baudrillard traveled to Australia for a symposium entitled ‘The Art of Theory: Baudrillard in the 90s’, in order to display fifty of his photographs at various galleries. Now Baudrillard claims that simulation has pervaded the social and artistic world, to the point where originality and authorial signature are no longer noteworthy or even credible, given the culture of the copy. Like reality, art is overrun by signification, such that truth and deception are no longer distinct. But on entering the country, Baudrillard discovered that institutions know the difference: he encountered the Australian Customs Service's Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System. It did not count photographs as works of art, so ‘his’ visual texts were liable to import duty (A$16000). This drew the ire of the exhibiting galleries, and much mirth from the Australian media at the way in which Baudrillard's own intellectual position had been instantiated to cost him money (Peter Anderson ‘On the Legal’). It also indicated the absence in Baudrillard's atmospheric, impressionistic critique of any sense that concrete institutions and practices determine what counts as art, not some abstract Zeitgeist. These mundane knowledges have formed the basis to this book.

    Such a complex latticework of forces also applies elsewhere. The meeting of the modern with the colonial, of the traditional and the postcolonial, attains sharp relief in the case of Ghanaian cinema. The Ghana Film Industry Corporation, a state-owned enterprise, has suffered years of inactivity, due to lack of funds. Renowned directors such as King Ampaw and Kwaw Ansah look to former colonial sites for finance, and the cinemas have been dominated by Hong Kong, Indian and Hollywood texts. In the late 1980s, low-budget films, shot on video, started filling local theatres. Instead of addressing officially endorsed themes, such as the emancipation of black thinkers and a return to precolonial custom, these ‘guerrilla’ genres fixed on the contemporary city, modernization, and the occult, to the alarm of conventional culture-brokers (Birgit Meyer). While in the People's Republic of China, the fiftieth anniversary of the September 1949 socialist revolution saw 100,000 dancers and singers in action as a festival of worker, disabled, regional, and military theatre and opera troupes from around the nation performed local and Western texts, alongside eleven companies run by the Ministry of Culture. This intrication of labor, state and culture went back to Confucianism. The blend of tradition with socialism and Western capitalism was new, however (Melvin).

    Clearly, these stories represent historic renegotiations of the citizen-consumer couplet that has exercised us so much here. They signify both new problems and renewed tasks. The problems lie in the push towards commodification by agencies, movements and artists whose defining characteristic has hitherto been their attempt to innovate beyond the borders of market domination. The renewal lies in the fact that the task of binding people to a polity remains, alongside a stubborn faith on the part of both private and public bureaucrats that this can be achieved at the intersection of the aesthetic and anthropological accounts of culture with which we began. The goal must be to avoid the separation of aesthetic awareness from awareness of the history to social division, as García Canclini avows:

    In the presence of the magnificence of a Maya or Inca pyramid, of colonial palaces, indigenous ceramics from three centuries ago, or the work of an internationally recognized national painter, it occurs to almost no one to think about the social contradictions they express. The perennial character of these goods makes us imagine that their value is beyond question and turns them into a source of collective consensus, beyond the divisions among classes, ethnic groups, and other groups that fracture society and differentiate ways of appropriating that patrimony. (108)

    This consensual talent derives from fetishising art objects as having their own properties of quality, which become available to the properly schooled observer. The properties of the object, rather than its history of creation and dissemination, then become the proper domain of appreciation, as per our Introduction. But there are other options.

    Foucault suggests that pop art offered new ways of appreciating images by its pleasurable commentary on ‘the endless circulation of images’, rather than through any striking contribution to new aesthetic forms. The newness lay not in innovative ways of painting objects, but innovative ways of painting images of those objects (‘Photogenic’ 90). Twisting that insight a few degrees, with thanks to the Australian Customs Service's Baudrillardian watchdogs, we believe that studying cultural policy can also renew our appreciation of art, albeit not always thanks to pleasurable commentary. Looking at cultural policy through the lens of cultural studies encourages us towards innovative ways of understanding the circulation of texts, how certain forms of cultural expression are privileged and with what effect, such that the systematic inequalities of a society can be both highlighted and countered. Ideally, citizenship can be more than a collection of rights (that are routinely denied to many subjects). Citizenship can be a site for empowering a critique-in-principle of social arrangements, for transcending existing structures of economy and polity by connecting to social movements. Culture has clearly been a key site of critique by those excluded from the bounty of modernity, and its policy seeds need tending by those hopeful for a progressive future.

    References

    ‘A Disquieting New Agenda for Trade’Economist332, no. 7872 (1994): 55–56.
    ‘A Panel Discussion: Measuring Changes in National Cultural Behavior Patterns’Journal of Cultural Economics14, no. 1 (1990): 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02268194
    ‘After GATT Pique, Pix Pax Promoted’Daily Variety (8 June 1994): 1, 16.
    ‘Art Agency Needs Cleaning Up, Not Scrapping’New York Times (13 June 1990): A30.
    ‘Arts, Culture and Condiments’New York Times (23 June 1996): 12.
    ‘Australia as a Film Location. Wallaby-wood.’Economist (30 May 1998).
    ‘“Baywatch” Goes Out with the Tide.’Economist (6 March 1999): 39.
    ‘Boogie Woogie’Latin Trade (July 1997). http://www.latintrade.com/archives/july97/tradetalk.html.
    ‘Circulation of Audiovisual Works and Training of Professionals: Commission Adopts its Proposals for the MEDIA PLUS Programme (2001–2005)’ Commission of the European Communities RAPID (14 December 1999).
    ‘Collaboration of the Press in the Organisation of Peace’The Global Media Debate: Its Rise, Fall, and Renewal. Eds GeorgeGerbner, HamidMowlana and KaarleNordenstreng. Norwood: Ablex (1994): 183.
    ‘The Colour of Money’Economist (9 October 1999): 94.
    ‘Comparing Cultural Policies in Various Countries’Cultures no. 33 (1983): 67–89.
    ‘Comras Betting on Entertainment Industry’, Miami Herald 11 August 1998.
    ‘Corporations and the Arts’ARTnews78, no. 5 (1979): 40–68.
    ‘Cultural Export: Re-Orienting Australia’Media Information Australia no. 76 (May 1995): 1–81.
    ‘Cultural Policy and Political Philosophy’Journal of Arts Management and Law13, no. 1 (1983): 24–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1983.9942069
    ‘Cultural Policy in the European Union’http://www.europa.eu.int/pol/cult/en/info.htm.
    ‘Cultural Policy: State of the Art’Culture and Policy7, no. 1 (1996).
    ‘Culture and the State’ICA Documents no. 7 (1984).
    ‘Culture Wars’Economist (12 September 1998): n. p.
    ‘Culture/Audiovisual Council: Outcome of June 28 Session’European Report (30 June 1999).
    ‘Culture/audiovisual Council: Should Culture be Excluded from WTO Millennium Round?’European Report (24 July 1999).
    ‘Declaration of Fundamental Principles Concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racism, Apartheid and Incitement to War’The Global Media Debate. Its Rise, Fall, and Renewal. Eds GeorgeGerbner, HamidMowlana and KaarleNordenstreng. Norwood: Ablex (1994): 173–78.
    ‘Deja Vu’Film Journal97, no. 6 (1994). 3.
    ‘The Disappearing Czech Intellectual’Economist (21 August 1999): 41.
    ‘The Environment for Policy Making’Journal of Arts Management and Law13, no. 1 (1983): 40–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1983.9942075
    ‘European Commissioner Wants More Film Exchange Within EU’Agene France Presse (16 December 1999).
    ‘European Community Action in Support of Culture’http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg10/culture/en/support/support.html.
    ‘European Film Industry: Worrying Statistix’Economist (6 February 1999).
    ‘Final Act of the United Nations Conference on Freedom of Information’The Global Media Debate: Its Rise, Fall, and Renewal. Eds. GeorgeGerbner, HamidMowlana and KaarleNordenstreng. Norwood: Ablex (1994): 179–82.
    ‘The First Amendment and Public Support for the Arts: A Symposium’Journal of Arts Management and Law21. no. 4 (1992): 328–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1992.9943149
    ‘First Peoples: Cultures, Policies, Politics’Cultural Studies9, no. 1 (1995).
    ‘Foreign Bums on Seats’Economist (15 August 1998): n. p.
    ‘Foundation on the Arts and Humanities’Congressional Quarterly Almanac no. 21 (1966).
    ‘French Lessons’Economist (26 June 1999): 38.
    ‘From Cultural Studies to Cultural Policy’Culture and Policy6, no. 2 (1994).
    ‘GATT Quota Row Puts Muzzle on White Fang’On Film no. 11 (1993): 1.
    ‘George Papadopoulos’Economist (3 July 1999): 77.
    ‘Giving Something Back’Economist (16 June 2001): 15–17.
    ‘The G-Word’Financial Times (30 July 1997): 15.
    ‘The Helms Process’New York Times (28 July 1989): A26.
    ‘Hollywood Cashes Runaway Checks in Czech Republic.’ International Cinematographers Guild (n.d.)http://cameraguild.com/news/global/czech.htm.
    ‘Hollywood on the Vltava.’Economist (3 February 2001): 65.
    ‘H'wood Buries Overseas Pix’Variety (25–31 January 1999): 1, 90–91.
    ‘How Multilingual is France?’Economist (29 April 2000): 46.
    ‘Indian Government Pulls Nude Painting from National Exhibition’Agence France Presse (4 September 2000).
    ‘Language on Obscene Art Hangs up Interior Bill’Congressional Quarterly Almanac no. 45 (1990).
    ‘Learning About the NEA’http://www.nea.gov/Iearn/.
    ‘Let's Have Our Treasures Back, Please’Economist (10 July 1999): 41.
    ‘Linguistic Human Rights from a Sociolinguistic Perspective’International Journal of the Sociology of Language no. 127 (1997).
    ‘The Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies’Cultures no. 33 (1983): 189–96.
    ‘Monumental Histories’Representations no. 35 (Summer 1991).
    ‘Monumental’Economist (6 March 1999): 77–78.
    ‘Moving Mummy's Attic’Economist (19 February 2000): 83.
    ‘Museums Galore’Economist (19 February 2000): 82–85.
    ‘National Endowment for the Arts Question & Answer’http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~ope/nea.html.
    ‘National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965’
    ‘New Thai Museum Uses Waxworks to Show Horrors of Drugs’Agence France Presse (7 September 2000).
    ‘Northern Ireland Film Commission Received Skillset Training Kitemark from Lord Puttnam’ M2Press WIRE (22 February 1999).
    ‘Our Lingo, by Jingo’Economist (3 July 1999): 40–41.
    ‘Panel Discussion’Journal of Arts Management and Law21, no. 4 (1992): 349–54.
    ‘Paying for Culture’Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science no. 471 (1984).
    ‘Philanthropy, Patronage, Politics’Daedalus116, no. 1 (1987).
    ‘The Policy Moment’Media Information Australia no. 73 (August 1994): 3–54.
    ‘The Politics of Culture’Southern Review28, no. 3 (1995).
    ‘The PolyGram Test’Economist (15 August 1998): n. p.
    ‘The Poor Give the Hardest’Time (24 July 2000): 55.
    ‘Post-Colonial Formations’Culture and Policy no. 6 (1994).
    ‘Post-Modern Art and the Death of Obscenity Law’Yale Law Journal99 (1990).
    ‘Power, Objects, and a Voice for Anthropology’Current Anthropology no. 37 Supplement (February 1996): S1–S22.
    ‘Protecting Mali's Cultural Heritage’African Arts28, no. 4 (1995): 22–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3337288
    ‘Public Support for Art: Viewpoints Presented at the Ottawa Meetings’Journal of Cultural Economics13, no. 2 (1989): 1–19.
    ‘Q&A With Gabriel Abaroa’Latin Music Quarterly (24 January 1998): LMQ-1 & LMQ-12.
    ‘Research’Journal of Arts Management and Law13, no. 1 (1983): 184–212.
    ‘Shall We, Yawn, Go to a Film?’Economist (1 February 1997): n. p.
    ‘Sicilian Town to Open Mafia Museum’Agence France Presse (7 September 2000).
    ‘Space*Meaning*Politics’Continuum3, no. 1 (1990).
    ‘Spanish-language Web Sites Specialize.’Miami Herald 14 Sep. (1999): 2C
    ‘Studio City: a $100 Million Development Debate Complex Proposed at Washington Ave.’Miami Herald 9 August (1998).
    ‘Suite and Sour’Economist (13 February 1999): 56–57.
    ‘Superhighway Summit’Emmy16, no. 2 (1994): A1–69.
    ‘Symposium on the Public Benefits of the Arts and Humanities’Art and the Law9, no. 1 (1985).
    ‘Theme: Culture and Urban Regeneration: Some European Examples’Built Environment18, no. 2 (1992).
    Top 100 All-Time Domestic Grossers'Variety (17–23 October 1994): M60.
    ‘Two Live Crew, Decoded’New York Times (19 June 1990): A23.
    ‘USA: Art Unleashed’Index on Censorship3 (1996): 3–168.
    ‘Where the Gifts Go’Time (24 July 2000): 59.
    ‘Who Decides What History Museums Present: Managers, Front-Line Interpreters, Audiences? A Round Table’Journal of American History81, no. 1 (1994): 119–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2080995
    Abbe-Decarroux, François. ‘The Perception of Quality and the Demand for Services: Empirical Application to the Peforming Arts’Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization23, no. 1 (1994): 99–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-2681%2894%2990100-7
    Adams, Phillip. ‘Response’Cinema Papers nos. 44–45 (1984): 70–71.
    Ades, Dawn. Art in Latin America: The Modern Era, 1820–1980. New Haven: Yale UP (1989).
    Adler, Amy M.‘What's Left?: Hate Speech, Pornography and the Problem for Artistic Expression’California Law Review84 (1996). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3481093
    Adler, Amy M.‘Why Art is on Trial’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society22, no. 4 (1993): 322–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1993.9944414
    Adler, Tim. ‘A New Script to Save British Film’Daily Telegraph (26 February 1999).
    Adorno, Rolena. Guaman Poma: Writing and Resistance in Colonial Peru. Austin: U of Texas Press (1986).
    Agresto, John. ‘Legitimate Restrictions on Federal Arts Funding’Journal of Arts Management and Law21, no. 4 (1992): 333–37.
    Akerman, Susan and RaymondL.M.Lee. ‘Theory, National Policy and the Management of Minority Cultures’Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science16, no. 2 (1988): 132–42.
    Akinnaso, F. Niyi. ‘Linguistic Unification and Language Rights’Applied Linguistics15, no. 2 (1994): 139–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/15.2.139
    Alberdi, Juan Bautista. Bases y puntos de partida para la organización politica de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires: La Cultura Argentina (1915).
    Alderson, Evan, RobinBlaser and HaroldCoward, Eds Reflections on Cultural Policy: Past, Present and Future. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier UP (1993).
    Alexander, Jane. Command Performance: An Actress in the Theater of Politics. New York: Public Affairs (2000).
    Alexander, Jane. ‘Our Investment in Culture: Art Perfects the Essence of our Common Humanity’Vital Speeches of the Day62, no. 7 (1996): 210–12.
    Alexander, N.Language Policy and National Unity in South Africa/Azania. Cape Town: Buchu (1989).
    Alexander, Victoria D.‘Pictures at an Exhibition: Conflicting Pressures in Museums and the Display of Art’American Journal of Sociology101, no. 4 (1996): 797–839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/230781
    Alexander, Victoria D.Museums and Money: The Impact of Funding on Exhibtions, Scholarship, and Management. Bloomington: Indiana UP (1996).
    Allan. Blaine. ‘The State of the State of the Art on TV’Queen's Quarterly95, no. 2 (1988): 318–29.
    Allor, Martin and MichelleGagnon. LÉtat de Culture: Généalogie Discursive des Politiques Culturelles Québécoises. Montréal: Concordia U/U de Montréal (1994).
    Althusser, Louis. For Marx. Trans. BenBrewster. Harmondsworth: Penguin (1969).
    Alvarez, Sonia E., EvelinaDagnino and ArturoEscobar, Eds Cultures of Politics, Politics of Cultures. Revisioning Latin American Social Movements. Boulder: Westview (1998).
    American Arts Alliance. ‘Economic Impact of Arts and Cultural Institutions in Their Communities’http://www.tmn.com/Oh/Artswire/www/aaa/fact.html.
    American Arts Alliance. ‘Myths & Facts about National Support of the Arts & Culture’http://www.tmn.com/Oh/Artswire/www/aaa/myth.html.
    American Association of Museums. Code of Ethics for Museums. Washington (1991).
    American Council for the Arts. The Arts and Humanities Under Fire: New Arguments for Government Support. New York: American Council for the Arts (1990).
    Ames, Michael. Cannibal Tours and Glass Boxes: The Anthropology of Museums. Vancouver: U of British Columbia P (1992).
    Ames, Michael. Museums, the Public, and Anthropology: A Study in the Anthropology of Anthropology. Vancouver: U of British Columbia P (1986).
    Amis, Kingsley. ‘An Arts Policy’?Policy Review14 (1980): 83–94.
    Anderson, Peter. ‘On the Legal Limits of Art’Arts and Entertainment Law Review5 (October 1994): 70–76.
    Anderson, Peter. ‘What the People Want: Government, Arts Funding and the Australia Council’Australian-Canadian Studies7, nos. 1–2 (1989): 127–43.
    Anderson, Susan Heller. ‘Ever Pragmatic Singapore is Making Art its Business’New York Times (25 July 1999): AR6, 23.
    Ardenne, P.‘The Art Market in the 1980s’ Trans. M.Vale. International Journal of Political Economy25, no. 2 (1995): 100–28.
    Arian, Edward A.Brahms, Beethoven and Bureaucracy. U of Alabama P (1971).
    Arian, Edward A.The Unfulfilled Promise: Public Subsidy of the Arts in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple UP (1989).
    Arieff, Allison. ‘A Different Sort of (P)Reservation: Some Thoughts on the National Museum of the American Indian’Museum Anthropology19, no. 2 (1995): 78–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/mua.1995.19.issue-2
    Arnold, Matthew. Culture & Anarchy, ed. J. DoverWilson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1971).
    Arnoldi, Mary Jo. ‘Overcoming a Colonial Legacy: The New National Museum in Mali: 1976 to the Present’Museum Anthropology22, no. 3 (1999): 28–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/mua.1999.22.issue-3
    Arts-alert-usa. Association for Theatre in Higher Education. http://www2.hawaii.edu/athe/ATHEWelcome.html, n. d.
    Attali, Jacques. ‘Hollywood vs. Europe: The Next Round’New Perspectives Quarterly11, no. 1 (1994): 46–47.
    Austen-Smith, David. ‘On Justifying Subsidies to the Performing Arts’Journal of Cultural Economics18, no. 3 (1994): 239–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01080229
    Australian Labor Party. Platform, Resolutions and Rules. Canberra: Australian Labor Party (1986).
    Axtmann, Roland. ‘Society, Globalization and the Comparative Method’History of the Human Sciences6, no. 2 (1993): 53–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269519300600203
    Bale, M.‘Bad Art, Bad Politics’New York Times Book Review (28 May 1995): 9.
    Balfe, Judith Huggins. ‘Artworks as Symbols in International Politics’International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society1 (1987): 195–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01388239
    Balfe, Judith Huggins and Margaret JaneWyszomirski, Eds. Art, Ideology, and Politics. New York: Praeger (1985).
    Balfe, Judith Huggins and MargaretJane Wyszomirski. ‘Public Art and Public Policy’Journal of Arts Management and Law15, no. 4 (1986). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1986.9942166
    Balfe, Judith Huggins, ed. Paying the Piper: Cases and Consequences of Art Patronage. Urbana: U of Illinois P (1993).
    Balfe, Judith Huggins. ‘The Arts and Arts Policy: Issues of Work, Money, and Power’Contemporary Sociology19, no. 4 (1992): 518–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2072778
    Balibar, Etienne. ‘What Makes a People a People? Rousseau and Kant’Masses, Classes and the Public Sphere. ed. MikeHill and WarrenMontag. London; New York: Verso, (2000): 105–131.
    Banfield, Edward C., ed. The Democratic Muse: Visual Arts and the Public Interest. New York: Basic (1984).
    Bann, Stephen. ‘On Living in a New Country’ The New Museology, ed. PeterVergo. London: Reaktion, 1991. 99–118.
    Barbosa, Luiz Carlos. ‘Lastro cultural na Bienal do Mercosul’Extra Classe Ano 4, núm. 33 (julho) (1999). http://www.sinpro-rs.org.br/extra/jul99/cultura_1.htm.
    Barker, Adele Marie. ‘The Culture Factory: Theorizing the Popular in the Old and New Russia’Consuming Russia: Popular Culture, Sex, and Society since Gorbachev. ed. Adele MarieBarker. Durham: Duke UP (1999): 12–45.
    Barker, Martin‘Sex, violence and videotape’Sight and Sound3, no. 5 (1993) 96–103.
    Barr, Alfred H.‘Foreword’ Lincoln Kirstein, The Latin American Collection of the Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, (1943): 3.
    Barr, Malcolm. ‘The Labor Party's Policy for the Arts: Is it Socialist?’Red Letters no. 19 (1986).
    Barreda, Gabino. ‘Algunas ideas respecto a instrucción pública’ [1875]. Opúsculos, discusiones y discursos. Mexico: Imprenta del Comercio de Dublán y Chávez (1877).
    Barrera Bassols, Marco and RamónVera Herrera. ‘Todo rincón es un centro: Hacia una expansión de la idea del museo’ Unpublished manuscript (1996).
    Barrett, Wayne. ‘Papal Pandering: Rudy Dons Miter in Search of Upstate Colonization’Village Voice (12 October 1999): 44–47.
    Barshefsky Charlene. Testimony of the United States Trade Representative Before the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies (31 March 1988).
    Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. Trans. AnnetteLavers. London: Paladin (1973).
    Bashevkin, Sylvia. ‘Does Public Opinion Matter? The Adoption of Federal Royal Commission and Task Force Recommendations on the National Question, 1951–1987’Canadian Public Administration31 no. 1 (1988).
    Bator, P. M.The International Trade in Art. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1982).
    Baumol, William J. and William G.Bowen. Performing Arts – The Economic Dilemma. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P (1966).
    Beale, Alison. ‘Development and ‘Désétatisation’ in European Cultural Policy’ Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy no. 90 (February 1999): 91–105.
    Beaverstock, J.V.‘Subcontracting the Accountant! Professional Labor Markets, Migration, and Organisational Networks in the Global Accountancy Industry’and PlanningA 28, no. 2 (1996): 303–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a280303
    Becker, Carol, ed. The Subversive Imagination: Artists, Society, and Social Responsibility. New York: Routledge (1994).
    Becker, Gary. ‘Nobel Lecture: The Economic Way of Looking at Behavior’ Journal of Political Economy101, no. 3 (1993): 385–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jpe.1993.101.issue-3
    Becker, Howard S.Art Worlds. Berkeley: U of California P (1982).
    Bell, W.J., Jr. et al. A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P (1967).
    Bello, Andrés. Selected Writings of Andrés Bello. Trans. FrancesM.López-Morillas. Ed. and Intro. IvánJaksić. New York: Oxford University Press (1997).
    Bello, Andrés. ‘Address Delivered at the Inauguration of the University of Chile’ (1843). In Selected Writings, (1997): 124–37.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘Commentary on ‘Historical Sketch of the Constitution of the Govermnent of Chile during the First Period of the Revolution, 1810 to 1814’ by José Victorino Lastarria’ (1848). In Selected Writings, (1997) 169–74.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘The Craft of History.’Selected Writings of Andres Bello. Trans. Frances M.Lopez-Morillas. New York and Oxford: Oxford UP (1997): 173–184.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘Government and Society’ (1843). In Selected Writings, (1997): 287–90.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘On the Aims of Education and the Means of Promoting It’ (1836). In Selected Writings, (1997): 109–16.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘Prologue: Grammar of the Spanish Language’ (1847). In Selected Writings, (1997): 96–103.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘Prologue: Ideological Analysis of the Tenses of the Spanish Conjugation’ (1841). In Selected Writings, (1997): 85–87.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘El Repertorio Americano: Prospectus’ (1826). Selected Writings, (1997): 3–6.
    Bello, Andrés. ‘Report on the Progress of Public Instruction for the Five-Year Period, 1844–1848’ (1848). In Selected Writings, (1997): 143–53.
    Bello, Andres. 'Las republicas hispanoamericanas: autonomía cultural.; Obras completas. Caracas: La Casa de Bello (1981). Facsimile of edition of Ministerio de Educación de (1951).
    Benamou's account in 'Orson Welles's Transcultural Cinema: An Historical/Textual Reconstruction of the Suspended Film, It's All True, 1941–1993 Ph.D. Diss, New York University (1997).
    Bendizen, Petr. ‘Cultural Policy and the Aesthetics of Industrialism’European Journal of Cultural Policy1 (1995).
    Benedict, Stephen, ed. Public Money and the Muse: Essays on Government Funding for the Arts. New York: Norton (1991).
    Benjamin, Walter. ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’Illuminations. Trans. HarryZohn. London: Fontana, (1992): 211–44.
    Bennett, Oliver. ‘Cultural Policy in the United Kingdom: Collapsing Rationales and the End of a Tradition’European Journal of Cultural Policy1, no. 2 (1995): 199–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639509357982
    Bennett, Tony, GillianSwanson,TobyMiller, and GordonTait. ‘Youth Cultures and Arts Policies’Culture and Policy2, no. 2–3, no. 1 (1990–91): 135–56.
    Bennett, Tony. ‘Culture: Theory and Policy’Culture and Policy1, no. 1 (1989): 5–8.
    Bennett, Tony. ‘Being ‘In the True’ of Cultural Studies’Southern Review26, no. 2 (1993): 217–38.
    Bennett, Tony. ‘Culture, Government and the Social’Culture and Policy8, no. 3 (1997): 169–76.
    Bennett, Tony. ‘Putting Policy into Cultural Studies’Cultural Studies. LawrenceGrossberg, CaryNelson and Paula A.Treichler. New York: Routledge (1992): 23–37.
    Bennett, Tony. ‘Regulated Restlessness: Museums, Liberal Government and the Historical Sciences’Economy and Society26, no. 2 (1997): 161–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149700000010
    Bennett, Tony. ‘Useful Culture’Cultural Studies6, no. 3 (1992): 395–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389200490251
    Bennett, Tony. Outside Literature. London: Routledge (1990).
    Bennett, Tony. The Birth of the Museum: History, Theory, and Politics. London: Routledge (1995).
    Berezin, Mabel. ‘Political Belonging: Emotion, Nation, and Identity in Fascist Italy’ State/Culture: State-Formation after the Cultural Turn. Ed. GeorgeSteinmetz. Ithaca: Cornell UP (1999): 355–77.
    Berger, Mark T.Under Northern Eyes. Latin American Studies and U.S. Hegemony in the Americas, 1898–1990. Bloomington: Indiana University Press (1995).
    Berland, Jody and S.Hornstein, Eds. Capital Culture: A Reader on Modernist Legacies, State Institutions and the Value(s) of Art. Montreal: McGill-Queens UP (1996).
    Berman, Nathaniel. ‘Nationalism Legal and Linguistic: The Teachings of European Jurisprudence’New York University Journal of International Law and Politics24, no. 4 (1992): 1515–78.
    Berman, Ronald. ‘Lobbying for Entitlements: Advocacy and Political Action in the Arts’Journal of Arts Management and Law21, no. 3 (1991). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1991.9943142
    Bernstein, Richard. ‘Arts Endowment's Opponents Are Fighting Fire With Fire’New York Times (30 May 1990): C13, C15.
    Bethell, Leslie, ed. Latin America. Economy and Society Since 1930. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1998).
    Bethell, Leslie. A Cultural History of Latin America. Literature, Music and the Visual Arts in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1998).
    Bianchini, Franco and MichaelParkinson, Eds Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration: The West European Experience. Manchester: Manchester UP (1993).
    Bianchini, Franco. ‘Cultural Policy and Urban Social Movements: The Response of the ‘New Left’ in Rome (1976–85) and London (1981–86)’Leisure and Urban Processes. Critical Studies of Leisure Policy in West European Cities, ed. PeterBramham et al. London: Routledge (1989).
    Bianchini, Franco. ‘GLC R.I.P.: Cultural Policies in London 1981–1986’New Formations no. 1 (1987).
    Binns, Vivienne, ed. Community and the Arts. Leichardt: Pluto P (1991).
    Birch, David. ‘An ‘Open’ Environment: Asian Case Studies in the Regulation of Public Culture’Continuum12, no. 3 (1998): 335–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10304319809365776
    Birch, David. ‘Constructing Asian Values: National Identities and ‘Responsible’ Citizenship’Social Semiotics8, nos. 2–3 (1998): 177–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10350339809360407
    Black, Samuel. ‘Revisionist Liberalism and the Decline of Culture’Ethics102, no. 2 (1992): 244–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/mua.1999.22.issue-3
    Blair, Bowen. ‘American Indians vs. American Museums’American Indian Journal5, no. 5 (1979): 13–21.
    Blau, Judith R.The Shape of Culture: A Study of Contemporary Cultural Patterns in the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1992).
    Blaug, Mark and K.King, ed. The Economics of the Arts. London: Martin Robertson (1976).
    Blaug, Mark and K.King. ‘Does the Arts Council Know What it's Doing?’Encounter (1973): 6–16.
    Bloch-Lainé, Amaya. ‘Philanthropic Anglo-Saxonne’Libération (3 July 2000): 7.
    Blum, Albert A., ed. The Arts: Years of Development, Time of Decision. Austin: U of Texas P (1976).
    Boaz, David. ‘The Separation of Art and State’Vital Speeches of the Day61, no. 17 (1995): 541–43.
    Boehm, Eric. ‘Mixed Reviews on Brit Pic Fund Revise’Variety (15 December 1998): 5, 24.
    Boeira, Nelson. Prefáce. 1 Bienal de Artes Visuais do Mercosul, Porto Alegre: Fundação Bienal do Mercosul, 19979.
    Boime, Albert. ‘The Cultural Politics of the Art Academy’The Eighteenth Century35, no. 3 (1994): 203–22.
    Boli, John and George M.Thomas. ‘World Culture in the World Polity: A Century of International Non-Governmental Organization’American Sociological Review62, no. 2 (1997): 171–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657298
    Bolton, Kingsley and ChristopherHutton. ‘Bad and Banned Language: Triad Secret Societies, the Censorship of the Cantonese Vernacular, and Colonial Language Policy in Hong Kong’Language in Society24, no. 2 (1995): 159–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500018571
    Bolton, Richard, ed. Culture Wars: Documents from the Recent Controversies in the Arts. New York: The New P (1992).
    Bonetti, Shane and ChrisMadden. ‘Utilising a Broad Definition of Cultural Economics’European Joumal of Cultural Policy2, no. 2 (1996): 255–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639609358018
    Boniface, Priscilla and Peter J.Fowler. Heritage and Tourism in ‘the Global Village’. London: Routledge (1993).
    Bordowitz, Gregg. Presentation for Conference on Cultural Capital/Cultural Labor, Privatization of Culture Project for Research on Cultural Policy, New York University and New School University, New York City, (1–2 December 2000).
    Borneman, John and NickFowler. ‘Europeanization’Annual Review of Anthropology no. 26 (1997): 487–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.487
    Boulding, Kenneth. ‘Toward the Development of a Cultural Economics’Social Science Quarterly53 (September 1977): 267–84.
    Bourdieu, Pierre, A.Darbel, and D.Schnapper. The Love of Art. European Art Museums and Their Public. Stanford: Stanford UP (1991).
    Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Trans. RichardNice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP (1984).
    Bowen, W.G., Nyren, T.I., Turner, S.E., and Duffy, E.A.The Charitable Nonprofits. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (1994).
    Boyd, Don. ‘Cowards, Liars, Cultural Despots and Subsidized Cronies: A Portrait of Britain's Film Industry – From the Inside, Naturally…’New Statesman (31 October 1997): 34.
    Boyle, Mark and GeorgeHughes. ‘The Politics of the Representation of ‘the real’: Discourses from the Left on Glasgow's Role as European City of Culture, 1990’Area23, no. 3 (1991): 217–28.
    Brademas, John. ‘The Arts and Politics: A Commentary’Mediterranean Quarterly1, no. 2 (1990): 93–105.
    Braman, Sandra. ‘Trade and Information Policy’Media, Culture & Society12, no. 3 (1990): 361–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344390012003006
    Bray, Tamara L. and Thomas W.Killion, Eds. Reckoning with the Dead: The Larson Bay Repatriation and the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P (1994).
    Breton, A.‘Nationalism and Language Policies’Canadian Joumal of Economics9, no. 4 (1978): 656–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/134371
    Brett, G.‘Earth and Museum – Local and Global?’Third Text (1989): 89–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09528828908576220
    Brighouse, Harry. ‘Neutrality, Publicity, and State Funding of the Arts’Philosophy & Public Affairs24, no. 1 (1995): 35–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/papa.1995.24.issue-1
    Brighton, Andrew. ‘Towards a Command Culture: New Labour's Cultural Policy and Soviet Socialist Realism’Critical Quarterly41, no. 3 (1999): 24–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/criq.1999.41.issue-3
    Briller, B.R.‘The Globalization of American TV’Television Quarterly24, no. 3 (1990): 71–79.
    British Council. Making the Connection. (1999).
    Britto, Antônio. (1997) Prefáce. IBienal de Artes Visuais do Mercosul. Porto Alegre: Fundação Bienal do Mercosul, 8.
    Bronner, Simon J., ed. Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America 1880–1920. New York: WW Norton (1989).
    Brooks, Arthur C.‘Toward a Demand-Side Cure for Cost Disease in the Performing Arts’Journal of Economic Issues31, no. 1 (1997): 197–207.
    Brooks, David. ‘Never for GATT’American Spectator27, no. 1 (1994): 34–37.
    Browett, John and Richard, Leaver. ‘Shifts in the Global Capitalist Economy and the National Economic Domain’Australian Geographical Studies27, no. 1 (1989): 31–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8470.1989.tb00590.x
    Brown, Chris‘Cultural Diversity and International Political Theory.’Review of International Studies26, no. 2 (2000): 199–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500001996
    Bruce, David. Scotland the Movie. Edinburgh: Polygon (1996).
    Buchwalter, Andrew, ed. Culture and Democracy: Social and Ethical Issues in Public Support for the Arts and Humanities. Boulder: Westview P (1992).
    Buck, Elizabeth B.‘Asia and the Global Film Industry’East-West Film Journal6, no. 2 (1992): 116–33.
    Buckingham, David. ‘News Media, Political Socialization and Popular Citizenship: Towards a New Agenda’Critical Studies in Mass Communication14, no. 4 (1997): 344–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039709367023
    Buntinx, Gustavo. (Forthcoming) ‘Another Goddamned Gringo Trick’: MoMA's Curatorial Construction of ‘Latin American Art’ (And Some Inverted Mirrors).’Representing Latinamerican/Latino Art in the New Millennium: Curatorial Issues and Propositions. ed. Mari CarmenRamírez. Austin: U of Texas P.
    Burgelman, Jean-Claude and CarolinePauwels. ‘Audiovisual Policy and Cultural Identity in Small European States: The Challenge of a Unified Market’Media, Culture & Society14, no. 2 (1992): 169–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344392014002002
    Burges, Sean W.‘Strength in Numbers: Latin American Trade Blocs, a Free Trade Area of the Americas and the Problem of Economic Development’Council on Hemispheric Affairs Occasional Paper no. 2 (April 1998).
    Burkholder, Mark A. and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America.
    3rd ed.
    New York: Oxford UP (1998).
    Burt, Richard. ‘“Degenerate ‘Art”’: Public Aesthetics and the Simulation of Censorship in Postliberal Los Angeles and Berlin’The Administration of Aesthetics: Censorship, Political Criticism, and the Public Sphere. ed. RichardBurt. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1994): 216–59.
    Burton, Benedict. The Anthropology of World's Fairs. Berkeley (1983).
    Burton-Carvajal, Julianne. ‘South American Cinema’World Cinema: Critical Approaches. ed. JohnHill and Pamela ChurchGibson. Oxford: Oxford UP (2000): 194–210.
    Busch, Noel F.‘Nelson A. Rockefeller’Life (27 April 1942): 80–90.
    Caivano, Joan M.‘Cuba's Deal with the Dollar’Dollars, Darkness, and Diplomacy: Three Perspectives on Cuba. Caribe 6 (July 1994). http://www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/clas/Caribe/bp6.htm.
    Calder, Angus. ‘Review of Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration’Political Quarterly65, no. 4 (1994): 453–55.
    Campbell, David. Writing Security. United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1992).
    Camnitzer, Luis. ‘The Biennial of Utopias: The Bienal de la Habana’ In BEYOND IDENTITY: Globalization and Latin American Art. Eds. LuisCamnitzer and Mari CarmenRamirez. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press (Forthcoming).
    Canadian Commission for UNESCO. ‘A Working Definition of “Culture”’Cultures4, no. 4 (1977): 78–85.
    Canagarajah, A. Suresh. ‘The Political Economy of Code Choice in a ‘Revolutionary Society’: Tamil-English Bilingualism in Jaffna, Sri Lanka’Language in Society24, no. 2 (1995): 187–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500018583
    Cargo, Russell A.‘Cultural Policy in the Era of Shrinking Government’Policy Studies Review14, nos. 1–2 (1995): 215–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ropr.1995.14.issue-1-2
    Carmen, Raff. ‘A Cultural Reappraisal of Development: Some Reflections in the Margins of the UN Cultural Development Decennium’Development4 (1995): 32–37.
    Carmody, Chi. ‘When ‘Cultural Identity was not an Issue’: Thinking About Canada – Certain Measures Concerning Periodicals’Law and Policy in International Business30, no. 2 (1999): 231–320.
    Carr, C.‘The Bad Apple Defense and Other Symptoms of Spinelessness in the Art World’Village Voice (12 October 1999): 60.
    Carr, C.‘War on Art: The Sexual Politics of Censorship’Village Voice (5 June 1990): 25–30.
    Carvajal, Doreen with Andrew Ross Sorkin, ‘Lycos to Combine With Terra Networks in a $12 Billion Deal.’New York Times (online edition) 16 May 2000.
    Casonu, Néstor, Regional Managing Director for EMI Music Publishing. (2000) Interview with George Yúdice. Miami Beach, 14 March.
    Castel, Robert. ‘From Dangerousness to Risk’The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. ed. GrahamBurchell et al. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1991).
    Castillo, Jose del and Martin F.Murphy. ‘Migration, National Identity and Cultural Policy in the Dominican Republic’Journal of Ethnic Studies15, no. 3 (1987): 49–69.
    Castro, Fidel. ‘Palabras a los intellectuales’ (1961). In Política cultural de la Revolución Cubana. Documentos. Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales (1977): 16–17.
    Catani, Afra nio Mendes. ‘Politica Cenematografica nos anos Collor 1990–1992: um arremedo neoliberal’Imagens, 3 (December) (1994).
    Catlin, Stanton L.‘Traveller-Reporter Artists and the Empirical Tradition in Post-Independence Latin American Art.’ In Ades, Art in Latin America41–61 (1989).
    Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party. ‘Decree on the Reconstruction of Literary and Artistic Organizations’Art in Theory 1900–1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, ed. CharlesHarrison and PaulWood. Oxford: Blackwell (1996): 400.
    Chandler, Henry P.‘The Attitude of the Law Toward Beauty’American Bar Association Journal8 (1922): 470–74.
    Chartrand, Harry Hillman. ‘International Cultural Affairs: A Fourteen Country Survey’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society22, no. 2 (1992): 134–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1992.9944400
    Chartrand, Harry Hillman. ‘Subjectivity in an Era of Scientific Imperialism: Shadows in an Age of Reason’Journal of Arts Management and Law18, no. 3 (1988): 5–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1988.9942431
    Chavez, Fermín. (1973) La cultura en la época de Rosas. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Theoría.
    Cherbo, Joni M. and Margaret J.Wyszomirski. ‘Mapping the Public Life of the Arts in America’The Public Life of the Arts in America. ed. Joni M.Cherbo and Margaret J.Wyszomirski. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP (2000): 3–21.
    Childers, Erskine. ‘Old-Boying’London Review of Books16, no. 16 (1994): 3, 5.
    Childs, Elizabeth C.‘Museums and the American Indian: Legal Aspects of Repatriation’Council for Museum Anthropology Newsletter4, no. 4 (1980): 4–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/mua.1980.4.issue-4
    Chong, Derrick. ‘Institutional Identities and National Museums in the United Kingdom’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society29, no. 4 (2000): 271–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632920009597306
    Christie, Ian. ‘Will Lottery Money Assure the British Film Industry? Or Should Chris Smith be Rediscovering the Virtues of State Intervention?’New Statesman (20 June 1997): 38.
    Christopherson, Susan and MichaelStorper. ‘The City as Studio; the World as Back Lot: The Impact of Vertical Disintegration on the Location of the Motion Picture Industry’Environment and Planning D: Society and Space4, no. 3 (1986): 305–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d040305
    Christopherson, Susan. ‘Flexibility and Adaptation in Industrial Relations: The Exceptional Case of the U.S. Media Entertainment Industries’Under the Stars: Essays on Labor Relations in Arts and Entertainment. ed. L.S.Gray and R.L.Seeber. Ithaca: Cornell UP (1996): 86–112.
    Chun, Allen. ‘The Culture Industry as National Enterprise: The Politics of Heritage in Contemporary Taiwan’Culture and Policy 6. no. 1 (1994): 69–89.
    City of South Miami Beach. ‘Economic Development Division.’http://www.ci.miami-beach.fl.us/
    Clark, David E. and James R.Kahn. ‘The Social Benefits of Urban Cultural Amenities’Journal of Regional Science28, no. 3 (1988): 363–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jors.1988.28.issue-3
    Clarke, Hilary. ‘Hidden Tax Rises: The Making of the Movies’Independent on Sunday (7 March 1999): 3.
    Clarke, Tom. ‘Made with Passion, Fuelled by Cash’New Statesman (17 April 1998): 23.
    Clifford, James. ‘Four Northwest Coast Museums: Travel Reflections’ In Karp & LavineExhibiting CulturesWashington: Smithsonian Institution P (1991).
    Clotfelter, Charles T, ed. Who Benefits from the Nonprofit Sector?Chicago: U of Chicago P (1992).
    Clotfelter, Charles T.Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1985).
    Cobo, Leila. ‘Midem Will Be Here in 2000, If Anywhere’Miami Herald 6 Oct. 1999: 1E (1999).
    Coelho, Teixeira. (1999) ‘From Cultural Policy to Political Culture – Proposals for a Continental Cultural Policy’Atre Sem Fronteiras: First Forum for Cultural Integration, ed. Mõnica AllendeSerra. Saã Paulo: Arte Sem Fronteiras/UNESCO, (1999) 7–34.
    Coffey, Mary. ‘What Puts the “Culture” in “Multiculturalism”?: An Analysis of Culture, Government, and the Politics of Mexican Identity’Multicultural Curriculum: New Directions for Social Theory, Practice, and Policy. Ed. RamMahalingam and CameronMcCarthy. New York: Routledge (2001): 37–55.
    Cohen, Robin. Contested Domains: Debates in International Labor Studies. London: Zed (1991).
    Cohen, Roger. ‘Aux Armes! France Rallies to Battle Sly and T. Rex’New York Times (2 January 1994): HI, 22–3.
    Cohen, Roger. ‘Exhibiting the Art of History's Dustbin’New York Times (17 August 1999): E1, E3.
    Cohen, Roger. ‘The Sorrows of Goethe: A Creepy East German Tale’New York Times (19 March 1999): A3.
    Cohen, Roger. ‘Trade Pact Still Eludes Negotiators: U.S. Demands Open Technology Market’The New York Times (Dec. 7): D1 & D6 (1993).
    Coleman, Lawrence Vail. The Museum in America: A Critical Study. Washington: American Association of Museums (1979).
    Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts.
    ‘Comras Betting on Entertainment Industry’, Miami Herald11 August 1998.
    Congressional Record. (10 March 1965). 4594.
    Congressional Record. (13 September 1965): 23619.
    Congressional Record. (18 May 1989): 85594.
    Coombe, Rosemary. The Cultural Life of Intellectual Properties: Authorship, Approrpiation, and the Law. Durham: Duke UP (1998).
    Coombes, Annie E.Reinventing Africa: Museums, Material Culture and Popular Imagination in Late Victorian and Edwardian England. New Haven. Yale UP (1994).
    Coombs, PH.The Fourth Dimension of Foreign Policy: Educational and Cultural Affairs. New York: Harper and Row (1964).
    Corner, John and SylviaHarvey, Eds. Enterprise and Heritage: Crosscurrents of National Culture in the 1980s. London: Routledge, (1991).
    Cornford, lames and KevinRobins. ‘Beyond the Last Bastion: Industrial Restructuring and the Labor Force in the British Television Industry’Global Productions: Labor in the Making of the ‘Information Society’, ed. GeraldSussman and John A.Lent. Cresskill: Hampton P (1998). 191–212.
    Council of Australian Museum Associations. Previous Possessions, New Obligations: Policies for Museums in Australia and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Melbourne (1993).
    Cowan, Matt and LindaWertheimer. ‘Northern Ireland Film Commission’All Things Considered, National Public Radio (18 May 1998).
    Craik, Jennifer. ‘Mapping the Links Between Cultural Studies and Cultural Policy’Southern Review28, no. 2 (1995): 190–207.
    Crane, David. ‘Real Test of WTO will be Cultural Agreement’Toronto Star (2 December 1999).
    Crane, Diane. The Production of Culture: Media and the Urban Arts. Thousand Oaks: Sage (1992).
    Crane, Crane, Nobuko Kawashima, KenichiKawasaki, and RosanneMartorella, eds Cultural Policies in a global Context: Globalization, and Global Cities. New York: Routledge (Forthcoming).
    Crane, Diane. The Transformation of the Avant-Garde: The New York Art World, 1940–1985. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1987).
    Crimp, Douglas. On the Museum's Ruins. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P (1993).
    Culver, Stuart. ‘Whistler v. Ruskin: The Courts, the Public, and Modern Art’ The Administration of Aesthetics: Censorship, Political Criticism, and the Public Sphere. ed. RichardBurt. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1994): 149–67.
    Cummings, Milton C. Jr., ‘Government and the Arts: An Overview’Public Money and the Muse: Essays on Government Funding for the Arts. Ed. StephenBenedict. New York: Norton (1991): 49.
    Cummings, Milton C. Jr., ‘Government and the Arts: Policy Problems in the Fields of Art, Literature and Music’Policy Studies Journal5 (Fall 1976): 114–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.1976.tb01073.x
    Cummings, Milton C. Jr., and J. Mark DavidsonSchuster, eds Who's to Pay for the Arts? The International Search for Models of Support. New York: American Council for the Arts (1989).
    Cummings, Milton C. Jr., and Richard S.Katz, eds The Patron State: Government and the Arts in Europe, North America, and Japan. New York: Oxford UP (1987).
    Cunningham, Stuart and TerryFlew. ‘De-Westernizing Australia? Media Systems and Cultural Coordinates’De-Westernizing Media Studies. ed. JamesCurran and Myung-JinPark. London: Routledge (2000): 237–48.
    Cunningham, Stuart and TerryFlew. ‘Media Policy’ Government, Politics, Power, & Policy in Australia,
    6th edition
    . ed. DennisWoodward, AndrewParkin, and JohnSummers. Melbourne: Longman, (1997): 468–85.
    Cunnignham, Stuart and TerryFlew. ‘Policy’ The Media & Communications in Australia. ed. StuartCunningham and GraemeTurner. Sydney: Allen & Unwin (2002): 48–61.
    Cunningham, Stuart and ElizabethJacka. Australian Television and International Mediascapes. Melbourne: Cambridge UP (1996).
    Cunningham, Stuart. ‘Cultural Criticism and Policy’Arena Magazine no. 7 (October-November 1993): 33–35.
    Cunningham, Stuart. Framing Culture: Criticism and Policy in Australia. Sydney: Allen and Unwin (1992).
    Curtin, Michael. ‘Beyond the Vast Wasteland: The Policy of Global Television and the Politics of the American Empire’Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media37, no. 2 (1993): 127–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838159309364211
    Cwi, David. ‘Public Support of the Arts: Three Arguments Examined’Journal of Behavioral Economics8 (Summer 1979): 39–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-5720%2879%2990023-8
    DaCosta, Carolina. ‘Behind Brazil's Internet Boom’http://InfoBrazil.com II, 55 28 July – August 3 (2000). http://www.InfoBrazil.com
    Dahl, Gustavo. “Embrafilme: Present Problems and Future Possibilities.” In Johnson and Stam eds, Brazilian Cinema expanded edition. New York: Columbia UP104–108.
    Deleuze, Gilles. (1984) Kant's Critial Philosophy: the Doctrine of the Faculties. Trans. HughTomlinson and BarbaraHabberjam. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P.
    D'Emilio, John and Estelle B.Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. New York: Harper & Row (1988).
    Danan, Martine. ‘Marketing the Hollywood Blockbuster in France’Journal of Popular Film and Television23, no. 3 (1995): 131–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01956051.1995.9943698
    Danto, Arthur C.‘Elitism' and the N.E.A’The Nation (17 November 1997): 6–7.
    Danziger, Marie. ‘Policy Analysis Postmodernized: Some Political and Pedagogical Ramifications’Policy Studies Journal23, no. 3 (1995): 435–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psj.1995.23.issue-3
    Darnton, Robert. ‘Censorship, a Comparative View: France, 1789 – East Germany, 1989’Representations no. 49 (Winter 1995): 40–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/rep.1995.49.1.99p0261p
    Dawtrey, Adam and BenedictCarver. ‘Power Trio Ink Int'l Deal’Daily Variety Gotham (1 March 1999): 1, 34.
    Dawtrey, Adam. ‘New Strategy Comes to the 4’Variety (8–14 February 1999): 33, 40.
    Dawtrey. Adam. ‘Parker Tops U.K. Film Council’Variety (9–15 August 1999): 16.
    Dawtrey, Adam. ‘Playing Hollywood's Game: Eurobucks Back Megabiz’Variety (7–13 March 1994): 1, 75.
    Dawtrey, Adam. ‘U.K. Pols Give up Plan for Film Levy’Daily Variety Gotham (1 December 1998): 10.
    Dawtrey, Adam. ‘Woodward to Top U.K. Film Council’Variety (4–10 October 1999): 29.
    de Grazia, Victoria. ‘Mass Culture and Sovereignty: The American Challenge to European Cinemas, 1920–1960’Journal of Modern History61 no. 1 (1989).
    deGrazia, Edward. Girls Lean Back Everywhere: The Law of Obscenity and the Assault on Genius. New York: Random House (1992).
    Department of Commerce. The Migration of U.S. Film and Television Production, Washington, D.C. (2001).
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport. ‘Chris Smith Goes to Hollywood’ M2 PressWIRE (27 October 1997).
    Dermody, Susan and ElizabethJacka. The Screening of Australia Volume 2: Anatomy of a National Cinema. Sydney: Currency P (1988).
    Derrida, Jacques. ‘“To Do Justice to Freud”: The History of Madness in the Age of Psychoanalysis’ Trans. Pascale-AnneBrault and MichaelNaas. Critical Inquiry20, no. 2 (1994): 227–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/448710
    Deutsche, Rosalyn. ‘Art and Public Space: Questions of Democracy’Social Text no. 33 (1992): 34–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466433
    Deutsche, Rosalyn. ‘Uneven Development: Public Art in New York City’October no. 47 (Winter 1988): 3–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/778979
    Dicks, Bella. ‘Encoding and Decoding the People: Circuits of Communication at a Local Heritage Museum’European Journal of Communication15, no. 1 (2000): 61–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323100015001003
    Di Girólamo, Claudio. 'Ciudadania cultural: una carta de navegacion hacia el futuro (intervencion en la plenaria). Stockholm, Sweden, 30 March – 2 April (1998). http://www.mineduc.cl/cultura/ciudadania.html.
    Dillon, C. Douglas. ‘Cross-Cultural Communication Through the Arts’Columbia Journal of World Business6, no. 5 (1971): 31–38.
    DiMaggio. Paul J.‘Can Culture Survive the Marketplace?’Journal of Arts Management and Law13, no. 1 (1983): 61–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1983.9942078
    DiMaggio, Paul J.‘Cultural Entrepreneurship in Nineteenth-Century Boston: The Creation of an Organizational Base for High Culture in America’Media, Culture & Society4 (1982): 33–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344378200400104
    DiMaggio, Paul J.‘Cultural Entrepreneurship in Nineteenth-Century Boston, Part. 11: The Classification and Framing of American Art’Media, Culture & Society4 (1982): 303–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344378200400104
    DiMaggio, Paul I.‘Cultural Policy Studies: What They are and Why We Need Them’Journal of Arts Management and Law13, no. 1 (1983): 241–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1983.9942100
    DiMaggio, Paul I.‘State Expansion and Organizational Fields’Organizational Theory and Public Policy. ed. Richard H.Hall and Robert E.Quinn. Beverly Hills: Sage (1983): 147–62.
    DiMaggio, Paul J., ed. Nonprofit Enterprise in the Arts: Studies in Mission and Constraint. New York: Oxford UP (1986).
    DiMaggio, Paul J. and FrancieOstrower. ‘Participation in the Arts by Black and White Americans’Social Forces68, no. 3 (1990): 753–78.
    DiMaggio, Paul J. and MichaelUseem. ‘Cultural Democracy in a Period of Cultural Expansion’Performers and Performances. ed. Jack B.Kamerman and RosanneMartarella. South Hadley: Bergin and Garvey, (1983).
    DiMaggio, Paul J. and MichaelUseem. ‘Cultural Property and Public Policy: Emerging Tensions in Government Support for the Arts’Social Research45 (1978): 356–89.
    DiMaggio. Paul J. and MichaelUseem. ‘Social Class and Arts Consumption: The Origin and Consequences of Class Differences in Exposure to the Arts in America’Theory and Society5 (1978): 141–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01702159
    DiMaggio, Paul J. and Walter W. Powell. ‘The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Ratinality in Organizationl Fields’American Sociological Review48, no. 2 (1983): 147–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095101
    DiMaggio, Paul J. and Walter W.Powell, eds The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1991).
    DiMaggio. Paul I., MichaelUseem, and PaulaBrown. Audience Studies of the Performing Arts and Museums: A Critical Review. National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division Report No. 9. (1978).
    Dittgen, H.‘The American Debate about Immigration in the 1990s: A New Nationalism After the End of the Cold War?’Stanford Humanities Review5, no. 2 (1997): 256–86.
    Dobson, John. ‘TNCs and the Corruption of GATT: Free Trade Versus Fair Trade’Journal of Business Ethics12, no. 7 (1993): 573–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00872381
    Dominguez. Virginia R.‘Invoking Culture: The Messy Side of “Cultural Politics”’South Atlantic Quarterly91. no. 1 (1992): 19–42.
    Dominus, Susan. ‘Relief Pitcher’New York Times Magazine (8 October 2000).
    Donzelot, Jacques. The Policing of Families. Trans. RobertHurley. New York: Pantheon (1979).
    Dorland. Michael, ed. The Cultural Industries in Canada. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. (1996).
    Dorland. Michael. ‘Policying Culture: Canada, State Rationality, and the Governmentalization of Communication’Capital Culture: A Reader on Modernist Legacies, State Institutions and the Value(s) of Art. ed. JodyBerland and S.Hornstein. Montreal: McGill-Queens UP (1996).
    Dowd. Maureen. ‘Jesse Helms Takes No-Lose Position on Art’New York Times (28 July 1989): A1, B6.
    Dowler, K.‘The Cultural Industry Policy Apparatus’Capital Culture: A Reader on Modernist Legacies, State Institutions and the Value(s) of Art. ed. MichaelDorland. Montréal: McGill-Queens UP (1996).
    Drake, William J. and KalypsoNicolaïdis. ‘Ideas, Interests, and Institutionalization: Trade in Services and the Uruguay Round’International Organization46, no. 1 (1992): 37–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300001454
    Draper, Lee. Museum Audiences Today: Building Constituencies for the Future. Los Angeles: Museum Educators of Southern California (1987).
    Dressayre. P. and N.Garbownik. ‘The Imaginary Manager or Illusions in the Public Management of Culture in France’European Journal of Cultural Policy1 (1995): 187–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639509357981
    Dubin, Steven C.Bureaucratising the Muse: Public Funds and the Cultural Worker. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1987).
    Dukeminier, J.J., Jr. ‘Zoning for Aesthetic Objectives: A Reappraisal’Law and Contemporary Problems20 (1955): 218–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1190326
    Duncan, Carol. Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums. London: Routledge (1995).
    Durand, Jos Carlos. ‘Towards Professionalization of the Administration of Culture: A South American Perspective’European Journal of Cultural Policy2, no. 2 (1996): 281–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639609358020
    Dworkin, Ronald. A Matter of Principle. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP (1985).
    Eco, Umberto. ‘Towards a Semiotic Inquiry into the Television Message’ Trans. PaolaSplendore. Working Papers in Cultural Studies no. 3 (1972): 103–21.
    Echo-Hawk, Walter. ‘Museum Rights vs. Indian Rights: Guidelines for Assessing Competing Legal Interests in Native Cultural Resources’Review of Law and Social Change14 (1986): 437–53.
    Economist: 2000. Sins of the Secular Missionaries. Economist (29 January 2000): 25–27.
    Ellison, Sarah. ‘New Tate Museum's Name Pops Up in Some Unlikely Places as Free Plug’Wall Street Journal (17 May 2000): B13C.
    Elmer, Greg. ‘US Cultural Policy and the (De)regulation of the Self’Continuum9, no. 1 (1996): 9–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10304319609365688
    Eisner, John and RogerCardinal, Eds. The Cultures of Collecting. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP (1994).
    Evans, Peter. Dependent Development: The Alliance of Local Capital in Brazil. Princeton: Princeton UP (1979).
    Faber, J.P. and ReeseEwing. ‘Cisneros Goes Online’, LatinCEO (December): (1999) 46–53.
    Falicov, Tamara L.‘Argentina's Blockbuster Movies and the Politics of Culture Under Neoliberalism’Media Culture & Society22, no. 3 (2000): 327–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344300022003005
    Farias, Roberto. Pra frente Brasil: historia, roteiro e dialogos. Rio de Janeiro: Alhambra (1983).
    Feld, Alan L., MichaelO'Hare and J. Mark DavidsonSchuster, eds Patrons Despite Themselves: Taxpayers and Arts Policy. New York: New York UP (1983).
    Feldblum, M.‘“Citizenship matters”: Contemporary Trends in Europe and the United States’Stanford Humanities Review5, no. 2 (1997): 96–113.
    Feldstein, Martin, ed. The Economics of Art Museums. Chicago: Chicago UP (1991).
    Ferguson, Marjorie. ‘The Mythology About Globalization’European Journal of Communication7, no. 1 (1992): 69–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323192007001004
    Ferme, Valerio C.‘Redefining the Aesthetics of Fascism: The Battle Between the Ancients and the Moderns Revisited’Symposium52 (1998): 67–85.
    Field, Heather. ‘European Media Regulation: The Increasing Importance of the Supranational’Media International Australia no. 95 (2000): 91–105.
    Fierlbeck, K.‘The Ambivalent Potential of Cultural Identity’Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique29, no. 1 (1996): 3–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900007228
    Filer, Randall K.‘The “Starving Artist”-Myth or Reality? Earnings of Artists in the United States’Journal of Political Economy94 (1986): 56–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/261363
    Filicko, Therese. ‘In What Spirit do Americans Cultivate the Arts? A Review of Survey Questions in the Arts’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society26, no. 3 (1996): 221–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1996.9942963
    Finlayson, Bruce. ‘EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF GRADUATE STUDENTS.’ Meeting of the Council for Chemical Research (CCR). January (1996). http://www.chem.purdue.edu/ccr/news/jan96/news2.html.
    Finney, Angus. The State of European Cinema: A New Dose of Reality. London: Cassell (1996).
    Fisher, David H.‘Public Art and Public Space’Soundings79, nos. 1–2 (1996): 40–57.
    Fisher, John H.‘A Language Policy for Lancastrian England’PMLA107, no. 5 (1992): 1168–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/462872
    Fitzgerald, Michael. ‘Inside Sydney: Harboring Hollywood.’Time International (31 July 2000): 48.
    Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Cultural Front: Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia. Ithaca: Cornell UP (1992).
    Fogel, Aaron. ‘The Prose of Populations and the Magic of Demography’Western Humanities Review47, no. 4 (1993): 312–37.
    Forbes, Jill. ‘Cultural Policy: The Soul of Man Under Socialism’Mitterand's France. ed. SoniaMazey and MichaelNewman. London: Croom Helm (1987): 131–65.
    Foster, Arnold W. and Judith R.Blau, Eds. Art and Society: Readings in the Sociology of the Arts. Albany: State U of New York P (1989).
    Foucault, Michel. ‘Conversation with Michel Foucault’The Threepenny Review Winter/Spring (1980): 4–5.
    Foucault, Michel. ‘Governmentality’ Trans. PasqualePasquino. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. ed. GrahamBurchell, ColinGordon, and PeterMiller. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf (1991): 87–104.
    Foucault, Michel. ‘Photogenic Painting’ Trans. DafyddRoberts. Gérard Fromanger. Photogenic Painting. ed. SarahWilson. London: Black Dog (1999): 83–104.
    Foucault, Michel. ‘Politics and the Study of Discourse’ Trans. A.M.Nazzaro. Rev. C.Gordon. Ideology and Consciousness no. 3 (1978): 7–26.
    Foucault, Michel. ‘Problematics: Excerpts from Conversations’Crash: Nostalgia for the Absence of Cyberspace, ed. RobertReynolds and ThomasZummer. New York: Third Waxing Space (1994). 121–27.
    Foucault, Michel. Lecture, Collège de France. (4 April 1979).
    Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. Trans. RobertHurley. Harmondsworth: Penguin (1984).
    Fox, Daniel M.Engines of Culture: Philanthropy and Art Museums. New Brunswick: Transaction (1995).
    Fox, Elizabeth. ‘Media and Culture in Latin America’International Media Research: A Critical Survey. ed. JohnCorner, PhilipSchlesinger, and RogerSilverstone. London: Routledge (1997): 184–205.
    Franco, Jean. Plotting Women: Gender and Representation in Mexico. New York: Colombia UP (1989).
    Fraser, Andrea. ‘Museum Highlights: A Gallery Talk’A Companion to Cultural Studies. ed. TobyMiller. Oxford: Blackwell (2001): 391–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470998809.ch23
    Freedman, Samuel G.‘Where the Arts Still Sustain the Social Compact’New York Times (3 September 2000): 1, 18–19.
    French, S.‘Letter to the Editor’Policy Review: The Journal of American Citizenship84 (1997): 4–5.
    Frey, Bruno S. and Werner W. Pommerehne. ‘Art Investment: An Empirical Inquiry’Southern Economic Journal56, no. 2 (1989): 396–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1059218
    Frey, Bruno S. and Werner W. Pommerehne. Muses and Markets: Explorations in the Economics of the Arts. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (1989).
    Friedman, Sandra. ‘Racing With Catastrophe: Representations of the Holocaust and American Jewish Anxiety’ Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, March (2001).
    Frith, Simon. ‘Knowing One's Place: The Culture of Cultural Industries’Cultural Studies Birmingham no. 1 (1991): 134–55.
    Fröbel, Folker, Jürgen, Heinrichs, and Otto, Kreye. The New International Division of Labor: Structural Unemployment in Industrialised Countries and Industrialisation in Developing Countries. Trans. P.Burgess. Cambridge: Cambridge UP; Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme (1980).
    Frow, John. ‘Class and Culture: Funding the Arts’Meanjin45, no. 1 (1986): 118–28.
    Fullerton, Don. ‘On Justifications for Public Support of the Arts’Journal of Cultural Economics15, no. 2 (1991): 67–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00208447
    Gabler, Neal. ‘Win Now. or Lose Forever’The New York Times 3 May (2000).
    Galperin, Hernan. ‘Cultural Industries Policy in Regional Trade Agreements: The Cases of NAFTA, the European Union and MERCOSUR’Media Culture & Society21, no. 5 (1999): 627–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344399021005003
    Gamarekian, Barbara. ‘White House Opposes Restrictions on Arts Grants’New York Times (22 March 1990): A1, B4.
    Gamson, Zelda F.‘The Stratification of the Academy’Social Text51 (Summer 1997): 68.
    Gans, Herbert J.Popular Culture and High Culture: An Analysis and Evaluation of Taste. New York: Basic, 1974.
    Gapinski, lames H.‘The Economic Right Triangle of Nonprofit Theatre’Social Science Quarterly69 (September 1988): 756–63.
    Gapinski, James H.‘The Economics of Performing Shakespeare’American Economic Review74 (May 1983): 458–66.
    Granado, Bruno del. Interview with George Yúdice. Miami Beach, 13 March (2000).
    García, Beatrice E.‘Entertainment Industry Survey Is Off the Mark’Miami Herald (online edition) 5 December 1998: IC.
    García Canclini, Néstor. Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity. Trans. Christopher L.Chiappari and Silvia L.López. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1995).
    Garnham, Nicholas. ‘Concepts of Culture: Public Policy and the Cultural Industries’Cultural Studies1, no. 1 (1987): 23–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502388700490021
    Garton-Smith, Jennifer. ‘The Prison Wall: Interpretation Problems for Prison Museums’Open Museum Journal2 (n. d.).
    Graser, Marc. ‘“Silicon Barrio” getting Latin America online’, Variety, 1–7 November (1999): M32–M33.
    Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.. ‘2 Live Crew, Deconded. Rap Music Group's Use of Street Language in Context of Afro-American Cultural Heritage Analyzed’New York Times 19 June: (1990)A15(N), A23(L).
    Gee, Constance Bumgarner. ‘Four More Years-So What?’Arts Education Policy Review98, no. 6 (1997): 8–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632913.1997.9935109
    Gellman, Ernest F.Good Neighbor Policy. United States Policies in Latin America, 1933–1945. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP (1979).
    Gendron, Richard. ‘Arts and Craft: Implementing an Arts-Based Development Strategy in a “Controlled Growth” County’Sociological Perspectives39, no. 4 (1996): 539–55.
    Gerbi, Antonello. (1973) The Dispute of the New World, the History of a Polemic, 1750–1900.
    Rev. ed.
    , trans. JeremyMoyle. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P.
    Gies, D.L.J.S.Ott, and J.M.Shafritz, eds., The Nonprofit Organizations: Essential Readings. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole (1989).
    Gilmore, Samuel. ‘Minorities and Distributional Equity at the National Endowment for the Arts’Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society23, no. 2 (1993): 137–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1993.9942927
    Gingrich, Arnold. Business and the Arts: An Answer to Tomorrow. New York: Eriksson (1969).
    Ginsburg, Faye. ‘Embedded Aesthetics: Creating a Discursive Space for Indigenous Media’Cultural Anthropology9, no. 3 (1994): 365–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/can.1994.9.3.02a00080
    Girard, Augustin. ‘Policy and the Arts: The Forgotten Cultural Industries’Journal of Comparative Economics5, no. 1 (1981): 61–68.
    Girard, Augustin. Cultural Development: Experiences and Policies. Paris: UNESCO (1982).
    Glaser, Jane R. and Artemis A.Zenetou, eds Gender Perspectives: Essays on Women in Museums. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P (1994).
    Glueck, Grace. ‘Senate Vote Prompts Anger, but some Approval, in the Art World’New York Times (28 July 1989): B6.
    Gold, Sonia S.‘Policy and Administative Change in the Arts in Australia’Prometheus5, no. 1 (1987): 146–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08109028708629418
    Goldfarb, Alice Marquis. Art Lessons: Learning from the Rise and Fall of Public Arts Funding. New York: Basic (1995).
    Golodner, Jack. ‘The Downside of Protectionism’New York Times (27 February 1994): H6.
    Goodwin, Philip L.‘Foreword’ Brazil Builds: Architecture New and Old 1652–1942. New York: The Museum of Modern Art (1943).
    Goodwin, Steven. ‘Screen Revival for Scotland's Forgotten Film Collection’Independent (13 August 1998): 6.
    Gorman, Clem. ‘Do the Arts Need Massive Subsidy?’Quadrant38, no. 9 (1994): 51–54.
    Graham, Gordon. ‘The Politics of Culture: Art in a Free Society’History of European Ideas13, no. 6 (1991): 763–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-6599%2891%2990140-T
    Grampp, William D.‘Rent-Seeking in Arts Policy’Public Choice60 (February 1989): 113–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00149239
    Grampp, William D.Pricing the Priceless: Art, Artists, and Economics. London: Basic (1989).
    Gramsci, Antonio. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Ed. and trans. QuintinHoare and Geoffrey NowellSmith. New York: International Publishers.
    GranFury. ‘International AIDS Information’The Art2, no. 1 (1990): 5–9.
    Granado, Bruno del. Interview with George Yúdice, Miami Beach (13 March 2000).
    Graser, Marc. ‘“Silicon Barrio” Getting Latin America Online.’Variety (1–7 November 1999): M32-M33.
    Gray, Clive. ‘Comparing Cultural Policy: A Reformulation’European Journal of Cultural Policy2, no. 2 (1996): 213–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639609358015
    Gray, Clive. ‘The Commodification of Cultural Policy in Britain’Contemporary Political Studies. ed. J.Lovenduski and J.Stanyer. Belfast: Political Studies Association of the United Kingdom (1995): 307–15.
    Gray, Jerry. ‘Cuts to the Arts Would Hit New York Hardest’New York Times (2 October 1997): A14.
    Gray, Jerry. ‘House Approves Measure to Kill Arts Endowment’New York Times (16 July 1997): A15.
    Gray, L. and Seeber, R.‘Introduction’ Under the Stars: Essays on Labor Relations in Arts and Entertainment. ed. L.S.Gray and R.L.Seeber. Ithaca: Cornell UP (1996): 1–13.
    Gray, L. and Seeber, R.‘The Industry and the Unions: An Overview’Under the Stars: Essays on Labor Relations in Arts and Entertainment. ed. L.S.Gray and R.L.Seeber. Ithaca: Cornell UP (1996): 15–49.
    Greenblatt, Stephen. Learning to Curse: Essays in Early Modern Culture. New York: Routledge, 1990.
    Greenblatt, Stephen. ‘Resonance and Wonder’Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display. ed. IvanKarp and Steven C.Lavine. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P, 1991. 42–56.
    Greenfeld, Karl Taro. ‘A New Way of Giving’Time (24 July 2000): 49–51.
    Greenfield, Jeannette. The Return of Cultural Treasures. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1989).
    Greenhalgh, Paul. Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions and World's Fairs, 1851–1939. Manchester: Manchester UP (1988).
    Grey, Rodney de C.Concepts of Trade Diplomacy and Trade in Services. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf (1990).
    Griffiths, Ron. ‘The Politics of Cultural Policy in Urban Regeneration Strategies’Policy and Politics21, no. 1 (1993): 39–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/030557393782453952
    Gritten, David. ‘The Other Ireland Unreels: After Watching the Republic Become a Movie Mecca, the Northern Ireland Film Industry is Growing Under Today's Relatively Tranquil Conditions’Los Angeles Times (1 February 1998): 4.
    Grimson, Alejandro. Comments on the Cultural Policies of MERCOSUL, International Seminar on 'Economic Integration and the Culture Industries in Latin America and the Caribbean, Buenos Aires. 30–31 July (1998).
    Grimson, Alejandro. Relatos de la diferencia y de la igualdad: Los bolivianos en Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires: Eudeba/Felafacs (1999).
    GrosfoguelRomón‘World Cities in the Caribbean: The Rise of Miami and San Juan.’Review17, 3 (Summer): (1994) 351–381.
    Gross, David. ‘Critical Synthesis on Urban Knowledge: Remembering and Forgetting in the Modern City’Social Epistemology4, no. 1 (1990): 3–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02691729008578553
    Grossman, Philip J. and PeterKenyon. ‘Artists' Subsidy of the Arts: A Comment’Australian Economic Papers28, no. 53 (1989): 280–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8454.1989.tb00486.x
    Grosman, Ernesto Livon. (2000) ‘Patagonia: narrativas de viaje y nacion.’ Ph.D. Diss. New York University.
    Groves, Don. ‘A Major Force O'seas’Variety (12–18 April 1999): 9.
    Groves, Don. ‘O'seas B.O. Power Saluted at Confab’Variety356, no. 4 (1994): 18.
    Groys, Boris. ‘The Struggle Against the Museum: Or, the Display of Art in Totaliarian Space’ Trans. ThomasSeifrid. Museum Culture: Histories, Discourses, Spectacles. ed. Daniel I.Sherman and IritRogoff. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P. (1994): 144–62.
    Grueso, Libia, CaralosRosero, and ArturoEscobar. The Pocess of Black Community Organizing in the Southern Pacific Coast Region of Colombia' In Alverez, Dagnino and EscodarCultures of Politics, Politics of Cultures, Boulder: Westview (1998). 196–219.
    Guback, Thomas H.‘Cultural Identity and Film in the European Economic Community’Cinema Journal14, no. 1 (1974): 2–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1224935
    Guback, Thomas H.‘Government Support to the Film Industry in the United States’Current Research in Film: Audiences, Economics and Law vol.
    3. ed.
    Bruce A.Austin. Norwood: Ablex (1987): 88–104.
    Guback, Thomas H.‘International Circulation of U.S. Theatrical Films and Television Programming’World Communications: A Handbook. ed. GeorgeGerbner and MarshaSiefert. New York: Longman (1984): 153–63.
    Gubernick, Lisa and JoelMillman. ‘El Sur is the Promised Land’Forbes153, no. 7 (1994): 94–95.
    Guerra, Rui. ‘Popular Cinema and the State’ In Johnson and Stam Brazilian Cinema.
    Expanded edition
    . New York: Columbia UP (1995). 101–103.
    Guilbaut, Serge. How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1983).
    Gunew, Sneja and FazalRizvi, Eds Culture, Difference and the Arts. Sydney: Allen and Unwin (1994).
    Guttridge, Peter. ‘Our Green and Profitable Land’Independent (11 July 1996): 8–9.
    Habermas, Jurgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Trans. Thomas, Cambridge, MA.: MIT P (1989).
    Habermas, Jürgen. ‘Modern and Postmodern Architecture’The New Conservatism: Cultural Criticism and the Historians' Debate. ed. and Trans. Shierry WeberNicholsen. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P (1989).
    Hall, James B. and BarryUlanov, Eds Modern Culture and the Arts. New York: McGraw-Hill (1967).
    Halperin Donghi, Tulio. The Contemporary History of Latin America. Durham: Duke UP (1993).
    Hamelink, Cees. ‘Information Imbalance: Core and Periphery’Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction, ed. John H.Downing, AliMohammadi, and AnnabelleSreberny-Mohammadi. Newbury Park: Sage (1990).
    Hames, Peter. ‘Czech Cinema: From State Industry to Competition.’Canadian Slavonic Papers42, no. 1 (2000): 63–85.
    Hamilton, Marci A.‘Art Speech’Vanderbilt Law Review49 (1996): 73–122.
    Hammack, David. ‘Think Tanks and the Invention of Policy Studies’Nonprofit and Voluntary Service Quarterly24, no. 2 (1995): 173–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089976409502400207
    Hammer, John. ‘On the Potential Impact of Rust v. Sullivan as a Model for Content-Based Restrictions on Federal Arts and Humanities Funding’ PS:Political Science and Politics25, no. 1 (1992).
    Hanrahan, John. ‘Studios Busy with all Aspects of Production.’Variety (4–10 December 2000): 58.
    Hansen, T.‘Measuring the Value of Culture’European Journal of Cultural Policy1, no. 2 (1995): 309–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639509357988
    Hansmann, Henry B.‘Nonprofit Enterprise in the Performing Arts’Rand Journal of Economics12 (Autumn 1981): 341–61.
    Harkavy, Ward. ‘Statues of Limitations’Village Voice (29 August 2000): 23.
    Harmon, Louise. ‘Law, Art, and the Killing Jar’Iowa Law Review79 (1994).
    Harris, Jonathan. Federal Art and National Culture: The Politics of Identity in New Deal America. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1995).
    Harris, Leo J.‘From the Collector's Perspective: The Legality of Importing Pre-Columbian Art and Artifacts’The Ethics of Collecting: Whose Culture? Whose Property?,
    2nd edition. ed.
    Phyllis MauchMessenger. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P (1999): 155–75.
    Harris, Neil. Cultural Excursions: Marketing Appetites and Cultural Tastes in Modern America. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1990).
    Hartley, John. Popular Reality: Journalism, Modernity, Popular Culture. London: Arnold (1996).
    Harvey, Sylvia. Review of Framing Culture. Media, Culture & Society16, no. 1 (1994): 170–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344394016001016
    Hart Dávalos, Armando. Cambiar las reglas del juego. ed. and interview by LuisBáez. Havana: Letras Cubanas (1983).
    Hawkins, Gay. From Nimbin to Mardi Gras: Constructing Community Arts. Sydney: Allen and Unwin (1993).
    Hayward, Susan. ‘State, Culture and the Cinema: Jack Lang's Strategies for the French Film Industry’Screen34, no. 4 (1993): 382–91.
    Healy, Patrick. ‘In Final Budget, Clinton Tries Again for Big Boost for Cultural Endowments’Chronicle of Higher Education (18 February 2000): A40.
    Heilbrun, James and Charles M.Gray. The Economics of Art and Culture: An American Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1993).
    Heilemann, John. ‘A Survey of Television: Feeling for the Future’Economist330, no. 7850 (1994): SURVEY 1–18.
    Hejma, Ondrej. ‘Quality Filmmakers Turn to Prague When They Can't Afford Hollywood.’Columbian (22 September 2000): Weekend.
    Hendon, William S. and James L.Shanahan, eds Economics of Cultural Decisions. Cambridge, Mass.: Abt (1983).
    Hendon, William S., FrankCosta and Robert A. Rosenberg. ‘The General Public and the Art Museum’American Journal of Economics and Sociology48 (April 1989): 132–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1989.tb02120.x
    Hendon, William S., James L.Shanahan and AliceJ. MacDonald. Economic Policy for the Arts. Cambridge, Mass.: Abt (1980).
    Hendon, William S., NancyK. Grant and Douglas VShaw, Eds The Economics of Cultural Industries. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics (1984).
    Henley, Jon. ‘The Battle for France's History’Guardian (9 May 2001).
    Hennenberger, Melinda. ‘Italy Plans to Have Private Sector Run Museums’New York Times (3 December 2001): E1, E3.
    Herodutus. The Histories. Trans. Aubreyde Sélincourt. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974.
    Herscher, Ellen. ‘International Control Efforts: Are There Any Good Solutions?’The Ethics of Collecting: Whose Culture? Whose Property?,
    2nd edition. ed.
    Phyllis MauchMessenger. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P (1999): 117–28.
    Herscovici, Alain. ‘Globalización, sistema de redes y estructuración del espaio: un análisis económico’ In Mastrini and BolañaGlobalizacióny monopolios en la communicación en Américia Latina. Hacia una economía politica de in communicación. Buenos Aires: Editiorial Biblos. (1999) 49–60.
    Hibbin, Sally. ‘Britain has a New Film Establishment and it is Leading us Towards Disaster’New Statesman, (27 March 1998) p. 40.
    Hill, John. ‘British Film Policy’Film Policy. ed. AlbertMoran. London: Routledge (1996).
    Hill, John. ‘British Television and Film: The Making of a Relationship’Big Picture Small Screen. ed. JohnHill and MartinMcLoone. Luton: U of Luton P (1997).
    Hill, John. ‘Introduction’Border Crossing: Film in Ireland, Britain and Europe. ed. JohnHill, MartinMcLoone, and PaulHainsworth. Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies (1994): 1–7.
    Hills, Jill. ‘Dependency Theory and its Relevance Today: International Institutions in Telecommunications and Structural Power’Review of International Studies20, no. 2 (1994): 169–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500117875
    Himmelstein, Jerome L. and MayerZald. American Conservatism and Government Funding of the Social Sciences and Arts'Sociological Inquiry54, no. 2 (1984): 171–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1984.tb00055.x
    Hindess, Barry. ‘Divide and Rule: The International Character of Citizenship’European Journal of Social Theory1, no. 1 (1998): 57–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136843198001001005
    Hingston, Ann Guthrie. ‘U.S. Implementation of the UNESCO Cultural Property Convention’The Ethics of Collecting: Whose Culture? Whose Property?,
    2nd edition.
    ed. Phyllis MauchMessenger. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P (1999): 129–47.
    Hirsch, S.‘Letter to the Editor’Policy Review: The Journal of American Citizenship84 (1997): 4.
    Hiscock, John. ‘Hollywood Backs British Film Drive’Daily Telegraph (24 July 1998): 19.
    Hitchens, Christopher. ‘Who's Sorry Now?’Nation (29 May 2000): 9.
    Hitler, Adolf. ‘Speech Inaugurating the “Great Exhibition of German Art”’Art in Theory 1900–1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. ed. CharlesHarrison and PaulWood. Oxford: Blackwell (1996): 423–26.
    Hoekman, Bernard M. and Michel M.Kostecki. The Political Economy of the World Trading System: From GATT to WTO. Oxford: Oxford UP (1995).
    Hoggart, Richard. Speaking to Each Other. Volume One: About Society. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books (1973).
    Holley, David. ‘Prague: AKA ‘Hollywood East’.’Bergen Record (27 August 2000).
    Home Affairs Bureau. ‘Long Term Culture Policy’http://www.info.gov.hk.
    Home Affairs Bureau. ‘Response of the Administration to Written Submissions to the Legislative Council Panel on Home Affairs’http://www.info.gov.hk.
    Home Affairs Bureau. ‘Structure of Arts and Culture in Overseas Countries’http://www.info.gov.hk. Hong Kong Cultural Policy Study Group. In Search of Cultural Policy '93. Hong Kong: Zuni Icosahedron (1994).
    Honig, Bonnie. ‘Immigrant America? How Foreignness “Solves” Democracy's Problems’Social Text no. 56 (1998): 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466763
    Hooper-Greenhil, Eilean. Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge. New York: Routledge (1992).
    Hooper-Greenhil, Eilean. ‘Museums, Exhibitions, and Communities: Cultural Politics’Semiotica108, nos. 1–2 (1996): 177–87.
    Hoover, Deborah A.‘Developing a Cultural Policy in The Gambia: Problems and Progress’Journal of Arts Management and Law18, no. 3 (1988): 31–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1988.9942432
    Hope, Sam. ‘A Critique: The Continuing Crisis Distills an Old Idea’Journal of Arts Management and Law20, no. 3 (1990). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1990.9942862
    Home, Donald. The Great Museum: The Re-Presentation of History. London: Pluto P (1984).
    Horne, Donald. The Public Culture. Sydney: Pluto P (1986).
    Horyn, Cathy. ‘The Met Cancels Exhibit on Chanel’New York Times (20 May 2000): B3.
    Hoskins, Colin, Stuart McFadyen, and AdamFinn. Global Television and Film: An Introduction to the Economics of the Business. Oxford: Clarendon (1997).
    Hudson, Kenneth. Museums of Influence. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1987).
    Hufford, Mary, ed. Conserving Culture. A New Discourse on Heritage. Champaign: U of Illinois P (1994).
    Hughes. Gordon. ‘Measuring the Economic Value of the Arts’Policy Studies9, no. 3 (1989): 33–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01442878908423524
    Hughes, Robert. The Case for Élitist Do-Gooders'New Yorker (27 May 1996): n. p.
    Hunter, Ian, DavidSaunders and DugaldWilliamson. On Pornography: Literature, Sexuality and Obscenity Law. London: Macmillan (1993).
    Hunter, Ian. ‘Accounting for the Humanities’Meanjin48, no. 3 (1989): 438–48.
    Hunter, Ian. ‘Setting Limits to Culture’New Formations no. 4 (Spring 1988): 103–23.
    Hunter, Ian. ‘The Humanities Without Humanism’Meanjin51, no. 3 (1992): 479–90.
    Hunter, Ian. Culture and Government: The Emergence of Literary Education. London: Macmillan (1988).
    Hunter, Ian. Rethinking the School: Subjectivity, Bureaucracy, Criticism. Sydney: Allen and Unwin (1994).
    Hunter, J.D.Culture Wars. New York: Basic (1989).
    Hurtado, Shannon Hunter. ‘The Promotion of the Visual Arts in Britain, 1835–1860’Canadian Journal of History28, no. 1 (1993): 60–80.
    Hutter, Michael and IldeRizzo, eds Economic Perspectives on Cultural Heritage. London: Macmillan (1997).
    Huyssen, Andreas. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture and Postmodernism. London: Macmillan, 1988.
    I'Anson-Sparks, Justin. ‘Hollywood Goes Even Further East’Independent 3 August (2000).
    Ingram, M.‘A Nationalist Turn in French Cultural Policy’The French Review71, no. 5 (1998): 797–808.
    Interim Report of the Film Committee, Australian Council for the Arts. An Australian Film Reader. ed. AlbertMoran and TomO'Regan. Sydney: Currency P: (1969) 171.
    International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship.
    Ip, D., C.Inglis, and C.T.Wu. ‘Concepts of Citizenship and Identity Among Recent Asian Immigrants to Australia’Asian and Pacific Migration Journal6, nos. 3–4 (1997): 363–84.
    Irvine, Judith. Sound Politics: Speaking, Writing, and Printing in Early Colonial Africa. Unpublished mimeo (1997).
    Ismayr, Wolfgang. ‘Cultural Federalism and Public Support for the Arts in the Federal Republic of Germany’ Trans. J. C.Laursen. The Patron State: Government and the Arts in Europe, North America, and Japan, ed. Milton C.Cummings, Jr. and Richard S.Katz. New York: Oxford UP (1987): 45–67.
    Ivey, Bill. Statement to the House Interior Appropriations Committee Regarding Appropriation of the National Endowment for the Arts (23 March 2000). http://wwws.elibray.com/getdoc.cgi?id=174…@HCS_20001002_04&dtype=0~&dinst=.
    Jacka, Elizabeth. ‘Australian Cinema: An Anachronism in the '80s?’The Imaginary Industry: Australian Film in the Late '80s. ed. SusanDermody and ElizabethJacka. Sydney: Australian Film, Television & Radio School (1988).
    Jacka, Elizabeth. ‘Film’ The Media in Australia: Industries, Texts, Audiences.
    2nd edition.
    ed. StuartCunningham and GraemeTurner. Sydney: Allen & Unwin (1997): 70–89.
    Jäckel. Anne. ‘European Co-Production Strategies: The Case of France and Britain’Film Policy. ed. AlbertMoran. London: Routledge (1996): 85–97.
    Jackson, V., ed. Art Museums of the World. Westport: Greenwood P (1987).
    Jacques, R.‘The Work of the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts’Journal of the Royal Society of Arts (April 1945): 276–84.
    Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. London: Verso (1991).
    Jarvie, Ian. ‘Free Trade as Cultural Threat: American Film and TV Exports in the Post-War Period’Hollywood and Europe: Economics, Culture, National Identity: 1945–95. ed. GeoffreyNowell-Smith and StevenRicci. London: BFI (1998): 34–46.
    Jaszi, Peter and MarthaWoodmansee. ‘The Ethical Reaches of Authorship’South Atlantic Quarterly95, no. 4 (1996): 947–77.
    Jensen, Joli. ‘Democratic Culture and the Arts: Constructing a Usable Past’Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society23, no. 2 (1993): 110–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1993.9942924
    Jensen, Richard. ‘The Culture Wars, 1965–1995: A Historian's Map’Journal of Social History29 (1996): 17–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/29.Supplement.17
    Jobert, Bruno. ‘The Normative Frameworks of Public Policy’Political Studies37, no. 3 (1989): 376–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1989.tb00277.x
    Johnson, Randal and RobertStam, eds Brazilian Cinema.
    Expanded edition
    . New York: Columbia University Press (1995).
    Jordanova, Ludmilla. ‘Objects of Knowledge: A Historical Perspective on Museums’The New Museology. ed. PeterVergo. London: Reaktion, 1991. 22–40.
    Johnson, Randal. ‘Film Policy in Latin America’Film Policy: International, National and Regional Perspectives. ed. AlbertMoran. London: Routledge (1996): 128–47.
    Johnston, Sheila. ‘Was ‘British Invasion’ Boon or Bane for Foreign?’Variety (22–28 February 1999): A10.
    Jones, Anna Laura. ‘Exploding Canons: The Anthropology of Museums’Annual Review of Anthropology no. 22 (1993): 201–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.22.100193.001221
    Jones, Peter. ‘Museums and the Meanings of Their Contents’New Literary History23, no. 4 (1992): 911–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/469177
    Joseph, May. ‘Diaspora, New Hybrid Identities, and the Performance of Citizenship’Women and Performance7, no. 2–8, no. 1 (1995): 3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07407709508571203
    Joyce, Michael S.‘The National Endowments for the Humanities and Arts’Mandate for Leadership. ed. CharlesHeatherly. Washington: Heritage Foundation (1981): 1039–56.
    Julien, Isaac. ‘Burning Rubber's Perfume’Remote Control. Dilemmas of Black Intervention in British Film & TV. ed. JuneGivanni. London: BFI (1995).
    Jury, Louise. ‘Mission Possible: Red Tape Cut to Boost Film Industry’Independent (4 July 1996): 3.
    Kahn, David. ‘Domesticating a Foreign Import: Museums in Asia’Curator41, no. 4 (1998): 226–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2151-6952.1998.tb00838.x
    Kahn Jr., E. J.Jock! The Life and Times of John Hay Whitney. Garden City, NY: Doubleday (1981).
    Kammen, Michael. ‘Culture and the State in America’Journal of American History83, no. 3 (1996): 791–814. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2945640
    Kaplan, Flora E. S., ed. Museums and the Making of ‘Ourselves’: The Role of Objects in National Identity. Leicester: Leicester UP (1994).
    Kant, Immanuel. ‘The Doctrine of Right’ Metaphysics of Morals (1797). ed. RaymondGeuss. Trans. MaryGregor. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1991).
    Kant, Immanuel. ‘The Character of Nations’ In Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View. Trans. Victor L.Dowdell. Illinois: Illinois UP (1978).
    Karlen, Peter H.‘Legal Aesthetics’British Journal of Aesthetics19 (1979): 195–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjaesthetics/19.3.195
    Karlen, Peter H.‘What is Art?: A Sketch or a Legal Definition’Law Quarterly Review94 (1978): 383–407.
    Karnoouh, Claude. ‘The End of National Culture in Eastern Europe’ Trans. WayneHayes and ValerieMarchal. Telos no. 89 (Fall 1991): 132–37.
    Karp, Ivan and Steven C.Lavine. Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P (1991).
    Karp, Ivan, Christine MullenKreamer, and Steven D.Lavine, eds Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P (1992).
    Katel, Peter. ‘El futuro de Miami mira hacia el sur’El Nuevo Herald, 1 January (2000): 1A.
    Katz, Jonathan. ‘Decentralization and the Arts: Principles, Practice, and Policy’Journal of Arts Management and Law13 (Spring 1983): 109–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1983.9942082
    Kavanagh, Gaynor. Museums and the First World War. A Social History. Leicester: Leicester UP (1994).
    Kawashima, N.‘Comparing Cultural Policy: Towards the Development of Comparative Study’European Journal of Cultural Policy1 (1995): 289–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639509357987
    Keane, Michael. ‘Cultural Policy in China: Emerging Research Agendas’Cultural Policy6, no. 2 (2000): 243–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286630009358123
    Keller, Anthony S.‘Cultural Policy and Educational Change in the 1990s’Education and Urban Society22, no. 4 (1990): 413–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013124590022004008
    Kennedy, Maeve. ‘Local Museums Facing a Slow Death by a Thousand Budget Cuts’Guardian (29 August 2000).
    Keppel, F.P.The Foundation: Its Place in American Life. New Brunswick: Transaction (1989).
    Kerr, James Semple. Fremantle Prison: A Policy for its Conservation. Perth: Building Management Authority of Western Australia, 1992.
    Kessler, Kirsten L.‘Protecting Free Trade in Audiovisual Entertainment: A Proposal for Counteracting the European Union's Trade Barriers to the U.S. Entertainment Industry's Exports’Law and Policy in International Business26, no. 2 (1995): 563–611.
    Keynes, J.M.The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money. London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's P (1957).
    Kilborn, Peter. ‘Miami Beach Clubgoers Creating New, Unwanted Image’, New York Times 27 February (2000).
    Kim, Kong Ki. ‘Cultural Diversity in Enjoyment and Cultural Policy in Evaluation: The South Korean State of the Art’Culture and Policy7, no. 2 (1996): 43–60.
    Kimbis, Thomas Peter. ‘Surviving the Storm: How the National Endowment for the Arts Restructured Itself to Serve a New Constituency’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society27, no. 2 (1997): 139–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632929709601559
    Kimmelman, Michael. ‘What D'Ya Call a House of Sex? A Museum. Oh’New York Times (18 January 2000): E1, E9.
    King, John. ‘Cinema.’ In Bethell Latin America. Economy and Society Since 1930. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1998) 455–518.
    Kirstein, Lincoln. The Latin American Collection of the Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art (1943).
    Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. ‘Objects of Ethnography’Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display. ed. IvanKarp and Steven C.Lavine. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P. (1991): 386–443.
    Klamer, A., ed. The Value of Culture. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P (1997). http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789053562192
    KPMG. Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide. Amsterdam: KPMG (1996).
    Kramer, Hilton. ‘Is Art Above the Laws of Decency?’New York Times (2 July 1989): H1.
    Kreidler, John. ‘Leverage Lost: The Nonprofit Arts in the Post-Ford Era’Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society26, no. 2 (1996): 79–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1996.9942956
    Krischke, Paulo J.‘Problems in the Study of Democratization in Latin America: Regime Analysis vs Cultural Studies’International Sociology15, no. 1 (2000): 107–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268580900015001006
    Kristeva, Julia. ‘Postmodernism?’Bucknell Review25 no. 2 (1980): 138.
    Krosnar, Katka, AdamPiore, and StefanTheil. ‘Take One: Prague.’Newsweek International (19 March 2001): 40.
    Kruger, Loren. ‘Attending (to) the National Spectacle: Instituting National (Popular) Theater in England and France’Macropolitics of Nineteenth-Century Literature: Nationalism, Exoticism, Imperialism. ed. JonathanArac and HarrietRitvo. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P (1991).
    Kuhn, Michael. ‘How Can Europe Benefit from the Digital Revolution?’ Presentation to the European Audiovisual Conference, Birmingham (6–8 April 1998).
    Kurin, Richard. ‘Cultural Policy Through Public Display’Journal of Popular Culture29, no. 1 (1995): 2–14.
    Lacarrieu, Mónica. ‘Construcción de imaginarios locales e identidades culturales en la mundialización.’ Ponencia presentada en el Seminario Nuevos retos y estrategias de las politicas culturales frente a la globalización, Instituto d'Estudis Catalans, Barcelona, (22 a 25 de nov 2000).
    LaFranchi, Howard. ‘Mexifilms vs. Mickey Mouse.’Christian Science Monitor (5 January 1999).
    Lambropoulos. Vassilis. ‘Violence and the Liberal Imagination: The Representation of Hellenism in Matthew Arnold.’The Violence of Representation: Literature and the History of Violence. ed. NancyArmstrong and LeonardTennenhouse. London: Routledge (1989): 171–93.
    Lang. Beryl and ForestWilliams, eds Marxism and Art: Writings in Asthetics and Criticism. New York: McKay (1972).
    Lang, Gladys Engel and KurtLang. ‘Public Opinion and the Helms Amendment’Journal of Arts Management and Law21, no. 2 (1991): 127–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1991.9943131
    Lang, Tim and ColinHines. The New Protectionism: Protecting the Future Against Free Trade. New York: New P (1993).
    Langsted, Jorn. ‘Double Strategies in a Modern Cultural Policy’Journal of Arts Management and Law19, no. 4 (1990): 53–71. Language Problems & Language Planning.
    Larson, Gary O.American Canvas. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Arts (1997).
    Larson, Gary O.The Reluctant Patron: The United States Government and the Arts, 1943–1965. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P (1983).
    Lasch, Christopher. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in An Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York: Norton (1978).
    Lawson, Sylvia. ‘General Editor's Preface’Images and Influence. AlbertMoran. Sydney: Curency P. (1985): 6.
    Lawson, Sylvia. ‘Not for the Likes of Us’An Australian Film Reader. ed. AlbertMoran and TomO'Regan. Sydney: Currency P (1985): 154–55.
    LeClaire, Jennifer. ‘Latin America Makes Miami Major Entertainment Player. “Hollywood East” is now third-largest production hub.’Christian Science Monitor (17 August 1998).
    Lee, Benjamin. ‘Hong Kong Arts Policy’http://www.info.gov.hk.
    Lee, Terence. ‘Freedom to Regulate: The Internet in Singapore’Media & Culture Review no. 1 (May 2000): 4–5.
    Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. ‘On Proletarian Culture’Art in Theory 1900–1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. ed. CharlesHarrison and PaulWood. Oxford: Blackwell (1996): 383–87.
    Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. ‘Party Organization and Party Literature’Marxism and Art: Essays Classic and Contemporary, ed. MaynardSolomon. Brighton: Harvester P (1979): 179–83.
    Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. On Literature and Art. Moscow: Progress (1967).
    Lent, John A.‘The Animation Industry and its Offshore Factories’Global Productions: Labor in the Making of the ‘Information Society’ ed. GeraldSussman and JohnA. Lent. Cresskill: Hampton P (1998): 239–54.
    Leon, Warren and RoyRosenzweig, eds History Museums in the United States. A Critical Assessment. Urbana: U of Illinois P (1989).
    Lev, Peter. The Euro-American Cinema. Austin: U of Texas P (1993).
    Leventhal, F.M.‘“The Best for the Most”: CEMA and State Sponsorship of the Arts in Wartime. 1939–1945’Twentieth Century British History1, no. 3 (1990): 289–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tcbh/1.3.289
    LeverM., Elsa. ‘Televisión y Educación al final de milenio’Fem no. 190 (January 1999): 22–26.
    Levy. Bronwen. ‘Ruffling the Feathers of the Cultural Polity’Meanjin51, no. 3 (1992): 552–55.
    Lewis, Geoffrey. For Instruction and Recreation – A Century History of the Museums Association. London: Quiller P (1989).
    Lewontin, R.C.‘The Cold War and the Transformation of the Academy’The Cold War and the University: Toward an Intellectual History of the Postwar Years. ed. NoamChomsky. New York: New P (1997).
    Leyva, Dennis. Inteview with George Yúdice, Office of City of Miami Beach, 14 March (2000).
    Lievrouw, Leah A.‘Communication and the “Culture Wars”’Journal of Communication46, no. 1 (1996): 169–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1996.tb01467.x
    Lingle, Christopher. ‘Interest Groups and Cultural Protectionism: Apartheid and Public Arts Policies’International Journal of Social Economics18, no. 4 (1991): 4–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03068299110001299
    Lister, David and NonieNiesewand. ‘Admission Charges Strike Discordant Note in Minister's Museum Fanfare’Independent (21 January 2000): 3.
    Llewellyn, K.N.‘On the Good, the True, the Beautiful, in the Law’University of Chicago Law Review9 (1942): 224–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1597592
    Lloyd, David and PaulThomas. ‘Culture and Society or “Culture and the State”?’Social Text30 (1992): 49–78.
    Lloyd, David and PaulThomas. Culture and the State. New York: Routledge (1998).
    Lopez, Susana. The Cultural Policy of the European Community and its Influence on Museums'Museum Management and Curatorship12, no. 2 (1993): 143–57.
    Lovell, Alan. ‘The British Cinema: The Known Cinema?’The British Cinema Book. ed. RobertMurphy. London: BFI (1997).
    Low, Kee Hong. ‘The Singapore Culture Inc.: Promises of a “New Asian Renaissance”’ Paper to the Workshop on Cultural Policy, Singapore Art Museum (21 March 1998).
    Lowry, W. McNeil, ed. The Arts and Public Policy in the United States. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall (1984).
    Lumley, R., ed. The Museum Time Machine: Putting Cultures on Display. London: Routledge (1988). http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203358825
    Lury, Celia. Cultural Rights: Technology, Legality, and Personality. London: Routledge (1993). http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203422892
    Lyotard, Jean-François. La Condition Postmoderne: Rapport sur le Savoir. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit (1988).
    MacBride, Sean and ColleenRoach. ‘The New International Information Order’The Global Media Debate: Its Rise, Fall, and Renewal, eds GeorgeGerbner, HamidMowlana and KaarleNordenstreng. Norwood: Ablex (1994). 3–11.
    MacCabe, Colin. ‘A Post-National European Cinema: A Consideration of Derek Jarman's The Tempest and Edward II’ Dissolving Views: Key Writings on British Cinema. ed. AndrewHigson. London: Cassell (1996): 191–201.
    MacCabe, Colin. ‘Preface’ Remote Control: Dilemmas of Black Intervention in British Film & TV. Ed. JuneGivanni. London: BFI (1995): ix-x.
    MacCallum, Mungo. ‘Drama’ Ten Years of Television. ed. MungoMacCallum. Melbourne: Sun, (1968).
    Macdonnell, Justin. Arts, Minister? Government Policy and the Arts. Sydney: Currency P (1992).
    Mackey, Eva. ‘Postmodernism and Cultural Politics in a Multicultural Nation: Contests over Truth in the Into the Heart of Africa Controversy’Public Culture7, no. 2 (1995): 403–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-7-2-403
    Mackey, William F.‘Language Diversity, Language Policy and the Sovereign State’History of European Ideas13, nos. 1–2 (1991): 51–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-6599%2891%2990113-D
    Maffi, Luisa. ‘Toward the Integrated Protection of Language and Knowledge as a Part of Indigenous Peoples' Cultural Heritage’Cultural Survival24, no. 4 (2001): 32–36.
    Magat, R., ed. Philanthropic Giving: Studies in Varieties and Goals. New York: Oxford UP (1989).
    Mahmud, Tayyab. ‘Migration, Identity, & the Colonial Encounter’Oregon Law Review76, no. 3 (1997): 633–690.
    Malaro, Marie C.Museum Governance: Mission, Ethics, Policy. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P (1994).
    Mally, Lynn. Culture of the Future: The Proletkult Movement in Revolutionary Russia. Berkeley: U of California P (1990).
    Mankin, Lawrence D.‘The National Endowment for the Arts: The Biddle Years and After’Journal of Arts Management and Law14, no. 2 (1984). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1984.9942125
    Mansfield, Alan. ‘Cultural Policy Theory and Practice: A New Constellation’Continuum4, no. 1 (1990): 204–14.
    Mantell, Edmund H.‘If Art is Resold, Should the Artist Profit?’The American Economist39, no. 1 (1995): 23–31.
    MaoTse-Tung. Mao Tse-Tung Unrehearsed: Talks and Letters: 1956–71. Trans. JohnChinnery and Tieyun. ed. StuartSchram. Harmondsworth: Penguin, (1974).
    Marable, Manning. ‘In Pursuit of Cultural Democracy’Journal of Arts Management and Law13 (1983): 28–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1983.9942071
    Marcus. George E. and Fred R.Myers, eds The Traffic in Culture: Refiguring Art and Anthropology. Berkeley: U of California P (1995).
    Margalit, Avishai and MosheHalbertal. ‘Liberalism and the Right to Culture’Social Research61, no. 3 (1994): 491–510.
    Marinetto, M.‘The Historical Development of Business Philanthropy: Social Responsibility in the New Corporate Economy’Business History41, no. 4 (1999): 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00076799900000342
    Mark, Charles Christopher. Reluctant Bureaucrats: The Struggle to Establish the National Endowment for the Arts. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt (1991).
    Markoff, John and Ver¢nicaMontecinos. ‘The Ubiquitous Rise of Economists’Journal of Public Policy13, no. 1 (1993): 37–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00000933
    Marshall, T.H.‘The Nature and Determinants of Social Status.’Sociological Perspectives: Selected Readings. ed. KennethThompson and JeremyTunstall. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books (1976): 288–98.
    Marshall, T.H.Class, Citizenship, and Social Development: Essays by T. H.Marshall. ed. Seymour MartinLipset. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1964).
    Martin, Lydia. ‘Studio Miami How Does an Entertainment Capital Rise from the Ground Up? Cash, Connections and Cool’Miami Herald (13 December 1998): 11.
    Martin, Randy. Critical Moves: Dance Studies in Theory and Politics. Durham: Duke UP (1998).
    Martin, Randy. Socialist Ensembles: Theater and State in Cuba and Nicaragua. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1994).
    Martorella, Rosanne, ed. Art and Business: An International Perspective on Sponsorship. Westport. Greenwood P (1996).
    Martorella, Rosanne. Corporate Art. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP (1990).
    Marvasti, A.‘International Trade in Cultural Goods: A Cross-Sectional Analysis’Journal of Cultural Economics18, no. 2 (1994): 135–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01078936
    Marx, Karl. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Peking: Foreign Language P (1978).
    Marx, Karl. The Grundrisse. Trans. and ed. DavidMcLellan. New York: Harper Torchbooks (1971).
    Marx, Karl. Karl Marx on colonialism and modernization, his despatches [sic] and other writings on China, India, Mexico, the Middle East and North Africa. Edited with an introd. by ShlomoAvineri. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday (1968).
    Marquis, Alice Goldfarb. Art Lessons: Learning from the Rise and Fall of Public Arts Funding. New York: Basic Books (1995).
    Mastrini, Guillermo y CésarBolaño, eds Globalizacióny monopolios en la comunicación en América Latina. Hacia una economía política de la comunicación. Buenos Aires: Editorial Biblos (1999).
    Mattelart, Armand and MichéleMattelart. Theories of Communication: A Short Introduction. Trans. SusanGruenheck Taponier and James A.Cohen. London: Sage (1998).
    Mattelart, Armand. ‘European Film Policy and the Response to Hollywood’World Cinema: Critical Approaches. ed. JohnHill and Pamela ChurchGibson. Oxford: Oxford UP (2000). 94–101.
    Mattelart, Michèle. ‘Can Industrial Culture Be a Culture of Difference: A Reflection on France's Confrontation with the U.S. Model of Serialized Cultural Production’ Trans. StanleyGray and NellyMitchell. Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. ed. CaryNelson and LawrenceGrossberg. Urbana: U of Illinois P (1988).
    Mattson, Kevin. ‘Populism and the NEA’Telos no. 89 (Fall 1991): 115–20.
    Masiello, Francine. Between Civilization and Barbarism. Women, Nation, and Literary Culture in Modern Argentina. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P (1992).
    Mato, Daniel. ‘Culture, Development, and Indigenous Peoples in the Age of Globalization: The 1994 Smithsonian's Folklife Festival and the Transnational Making of Representations.’Cultural Studies12, no. 2 (1998). 193–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095023898335537
    Mato, Daniel. ‘Miami en la transnacionalización de la industria de la telenovela: Sobre la territorialidad de los procesos de globalización.’ Paper presented panel on Global Cities and Cultural Capitals I: Media and Culture Industries, XXII Congreso de la Latin American Studies Association, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Miami, (16–18 March 2000).
    Maxwell, Richard. ‘Model for European TV and National Identity: Assembly Instructions not Included’Jump Cut no. 40 (1996): 89–95.
    Maxwell, Richard. ‘Out of Kindness and Into Difference: The Value of Global Market Research’Media, Culture & Society18, no. 1 (1996): 105–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344396018001007
    May, Anthony. ‘The Magnetics of Policy: Stuart Cunningham's Framing Culture’New Researcher nos. 1–2 (1992): 116–21.
    Mayer, Gerald M.‘American Motion Pictures in World Trade’Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science no. 254 (1947): 31–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271624725400106
    Mayer, J.P.Sociology of Film: Studies and Documents. London: Faber & Faber (1946).
    Mayrhofer, Debra. ‘Media Briefs’Media Information Australia no. 74 (1994): 126–42.
    Mazama, Ama. ‘An Afrocentric Approach to Language Planning’Journal of Black Studies25, no. 1 (1994): 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002193479402500101
    Mazrui, Ali A.Cultural Forces in World Politics. London: James Currey; Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya (1990).
    McArthur, Colin. ‘The Cultural Necessity of a Poor Celtic Cinema’Border Crossing: Film in Ireland, Britain and Europe. ed. JohnHill, MartinMcLoone and PaulHainsworth. Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's U of Belfast, U of Ulster, and the BFI (1994).
    McCann, Paul. ‘Hollywood Film-makers Desert UK’Independent (14 August 1998): 7.
    McCarthy, Kathleen D.Women's Culture: American Philanthropy and Art, 1830–1930. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1991).
    McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. New York: Routledge (1995).
    McCormack, Thelma. ‘Culture and the State’Canadian Public Policy10, no. 3 (1984): 267–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3550320
    McDonald, Kevin M.‘How Would You Like Your Television: With or Without Borders and With or Without Culture-A New Approach to Media Regulation in the European Union’Fordham International Law Journal22 (1999): 1991–2023.
    McDonald, William F.Federal Relief Administration and the Arts. Cleveland: Ohio UP (1969).
    McGuigan, Jim. Culture and the Public Sphere. London: Routledge (1996). http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203203330
    McIntyre, Steve. ‘Art and Industry. Regional Film and Video Policy in the UK’Film Policy. ed. AlbertMoran. London: Routledge (1996): 215–33.
    McIntyre, Steve. ‘Vanishing Point: Feature Film Production in a Small Country’Border Crossing: Film in Ireland, Britain and Europe. ed. JohnHill, MartinMcLoone, and PaulHainsworth. Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's U of Belfast, U of Ulster, and the BFI (1994).
    McKay, Jim. ‘Hegemonic Masculinity, the State and the Politics of Gender Equity Policy Research’Culture and Policy5 (1993): 233–40.
    McKinnon, K.R.‘Australian Cultural Policy Issues’Public Policies in Two Federal Countries: Canada and Australia (1982): 249–65.
    McKinzie, R.D.The New Deal for Artists. Princeton: Princeton UP (1973).
    McLaren, John. ‘Cultural Independence for Australia: The Need for a National Literature’Australian Studies14 (1990).
    McNaughton, Patrick R.‘Malian Antiquities and Contemporary Desire’African Arts28, no. 4 (1995): 22–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3337288
    McQuail, Denis. ‘Media Policy Research: Conditions for Progress’Mass Communication Research: On Problems and Policies: The Art of Asking the Right Questions. In Honor of James D.Halloran. ed. Cees J.Hamelink and OlgaLinn. Norwood: Ablex Publishing (1994): 39–51.
    Mda, Zakes. The Role of Culture in the Process of Reconciliation in South Africa. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. U of Witwatersrand. Seminar no. 9 (1994).
    Meils, Cathy. ‘Prague Studio Steels for Future.’Variety (22–28 June 1998): 46.
    Meils, Cathy. ‘More Pix Say 'Czech, Please.’Variety (1–7 May 2000): 88.
    Meils, Cathy. ‘Milk & Honey Cuts in with Blade 2 Prod'n.’Daily Variety (28 November 2000): 38.
    Meils, Cathy. ‘Czech It Out: Studio Biz Good, Sale Is On.’Daily Variety (22 December 2000): 8.
    Meisel, John. ‘Political Culture and the Politics of Culture’Canadian Journal of Political Science7, no. 4 (1974): 601–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900048538
    Melvin, Sheila. ‘On a Golden Anniversary, a Leaden Yoke of Ideology’New York Times (26 September 1999): 1, 38.
    Mennell, Stephen. ‘Cultural Policy and Models of Society’Loisir et Société4, no. 2 (1981): 213–27.
    Mennell. Stephen. ‘Theoretical Considerations on the Study of Cultural Needs’Sociology13, no. 2 (1979): 235–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803857901300206
    Mera, Jorge and CarlosRuiz. ‘Freedom of the Press: Censorship and Cultural Policy in Chile’Studies in Communications4 (1990): 21–38.
    Meredith, Robyn. ‘Another Art Battle, as Detroit Museum Closes an Exhibit Early’New York Times (23 November 1999): A14.
    Messenger, Phyllis Mauch. ‘Preface to the Second Edition’The Ethics of Collecting: Whose Culture? Whose Property?,
    2nd edition.
    ed. Phyllis MauchMessenger. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P (1999): xv-xvii.
    Meyer, Birgit. ‘Popular Ghanaian Cinema and “African Heritage”’Africa Today46, no. 2 (1999): 92–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/AFT.1999.46.2.92
    Meyer, Karl E.The Art Museum: Power, Money, Ethics. New York: Morrow (1979).
    Meyrick, Julian. ‘Accounting for the Arts in the Nineties: The Growth of Performing Arts Administration in Australia, 1975–1995’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society26, no. 4 (1997): 285–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1997.9942967
    Michalski, Sergiusz. Public Monuments: Art in Political Bondage 1870–1997. London: Reaktion (1998).
    Miège, Bernard. The Capitalization of Cultural Production. Trans. J.Hay, N.Garnham and UNESCO. New York: International General (1989).
    Mignolo, Walter. The Darker Side of the Renaissance: Literacy, Territoriality, and Colonization. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P (1994).
    Millea, Michael. ‘Czech Privatization: The Case of Fimove Studio Barrandov.’Journal of International Affairs50, no. 2 (1997): 489–505.
    Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. Harmondsworth: Penguin (1974).
    Miller, J.D.B.Norman Angell and the Futility of War: Peace and the Public Mind. Basingstoke: Macmillan (1986).
    Miller, Judith. ‘Alexander Plans to Resign As Leader of Arts Agency,’New York Times (8 October 1997): A12.
    Miller. Toby. ‘Hollywood and the World’The Oxford Guide to Film Studies. ed. JohnHill and Pamela ChurchGibson. Oxford: Oxford UP (1998): 371–81.
    Miller, Toby. ‘National Policy and the Traded Image’National Identity and Europe: The Television Revolution. ed. PhillipDrummond, RichardPaterson and JanetWillis. London: BFl (1993): 95–109.
    Miller, Toby. ‘The Crime of Monsieur Lang: GATT. the Screen and the New International Division of Cultural Labor’Film Policy. ed. AlbertMoran. London: Routledge (1996): 72–84.
    Miller, Toby. ‘The NEA in the 1990s: A “Black Eye on the Arts”?’American Behavioral Scientist (2000).
    Miller, Toby. Technologies of Truth: Cultural Citizenship and the Popular Media. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1998).
    Millea, Mechael. ‘Czech Privatization: The Case of Fimove Studio Barrandov’Journal of International Affairs50, no. 2: (1997) 489–505.
    Miller, Toby. The Well-Tempered Self: Citizenship, Culture, and the Postmodern Subject. Baltimore: The Johnsn Hopkins UP (1993).
    Miller, Toby, NitinGovil, JohnMcMurria, and RichardMaxwell. Global Hollywood. London: BFI (2001).
    Mills. C. Wright. ‘Culture and Politics’ Power, Politics and People: The Collected Essays of C. Wright Mills. ed. Irving LouisHorowitz. London: Oxford UP (1970).
    Minihan, I.The Nationalization of Culture: The Development of State Subsidies to the Arts in Great Britain. London: Hamish Hamilton (1977).
    Mitchell, Clare J.A. and GeoffreyWall. ‘The Arts and Employment: A Case Study of the Stratford Festival’Growth and Change20, no. 4 (1989): 31–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2257.1989.tb00501.x
    Mitchell. J.M.International Cultural Relations. London: Allen and Unwin (1986).
    Mitchell, Paul. ‘Britain: Labour Government Outlines the Next Stage in its Assault on the Arts’World Socialist Web Site (10 April 2001).http://wsws.org/articles/2001/apr2001/arts-a10_prn.shtml.
    Mitchell, Timothy. Colonising Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1988).
    Mitter, Rana. ‘Behind the Scenes at the Museum: Nationalism, History and Memory in the Beijing War of Resistance Museum, 1987–1997’China Quarterly no. 161 (2000): 279–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000004033
    Moen, Matthew C.‘Congress and the National Endowment for the Arts: Institutional Patterns and Arts Funding, 1965–1994’Social Science Journal34, no. 2 (1997): 185–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0362-3319%2897%2990050-1
    Moen, Matthew C.The Christian Right and Congress. Philadelphia: Temple UP (1989).
    Mokia, Rosemary Ntumnyuy. ‘Publishers, United States Foreign Policy and the Third World, 1960–1967’Publishing Research Quarterly11, no. 2 (1995): 36–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02680425
    Mokwa, Michael and WilliamDawson, Eds. Marketing and the Arts. New York: Praeger (1979).
    Molotsky, Irvin. ‘Donations May be Sought to Send U.S. Arts Abroad’New York Times (29 November 2000): E3.
    Moncrieff Arrarte, Anne. ‘Region Emerges as Entertainment Capital’, Miami Herald 25 June: 1A (1998).
    Monitor. U.S. Runaway Film and Television Production Study Report (1999).
    Moore, Kevin, ed. Museum Management. London: Routledge (1994).
    Moore, Thomas Gale. The Economics of the American Theater. Durham: Duke UP (1968).
    Moraes, Angélica de. ‘Fábio Magalhães conta como serã a Bienal do Mercosul.’O Estado de São Paulo 28 July (1998). http://www.estado.estadao.com.br/edicao/pano/98/07/27/ca2606.html
    Monitor. U.S. Runaway Film and Television Production Study Report (1999).
    Moran, Albert, ed. Film Policy. International, National and Regional Perspectives. London: Routledge (1996).
    Morais, Federico. ‘Reescrevendo a historia da arte latino-americana.’I Bienal de Artes Visuais do Mercosul. Porto Alegre: Fundação Bienal do Mercosul (1997), 12–20.
    Morales-Moreno, Luis Gerardo. ‘History and Patriotism in the National Museum of Mexico.’Museums and the Making of ‘Ourselves’: The Role of Objects in National Identity ed. FloraKaplan, London: Leicester UP (1994) 171–191.
    Moran, Albert. Copycat TV: Globalisation, Program Formats and Cultural Identity. Luton: U of Luton P (1998).
    Moran, Albert. Images and Industry: Television Drama Production in Australia. Sydney: Currency P (1985). Morrison.
    WilliamG. and Edwin G. West. ‘Subsidies for the Performing Arts: Evidence on Voter Preferences’Journal of Behavioral Economics15 (Fall 1986): 57–72.
    Mossetto, Gianfranco. Aesthetics and Economics. Dordrecht: Kluwer (1993).
    Moulin, Raymonde. The French Art Market: A Sociological View. Trans. ArthurGoldhammer. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP (1987).
    Mulcahy, Kevin V.‘Ideology and Public Culture’Journal of Aesthetic Education16 (1982): 11–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3332273
    Mulcahy, Kevin V.‘Official Culture and Cultural Repression’Journal of Aesthetic Education18 (1984): 69–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3332676
    Mulcahy, Kevin V.‘Public Support for the Arts in the United States, Western Europe and Canada: Polities, Policies, Politics’ Commissioned by the American Assembly. New York: Columbia U (1997).
    Mulcahy, Kevin V.‘The Arts and Their Economic Impact: The Values of Utility’Journal of Arts Management and Law16 (Autumn 1986): 33–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1986.9942174
    Mulcahy, Kevin V.‘Cultural Policy and Kulturkampf’Journal of Aesthetic Education14 (October 1980): 48–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3332368
    Mulcahy, Kevin V.‘The Public Interest in Public Culture’Journal of Arts Management and Law21, no. 1 (1991): 9–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1991.9943124
    Mulcahy, Kevin V. and C. RichardSwaim, Eds. Public Policy and the Arts. Bolder: Westview P (1982).
    Mulcahy, Kevin V. and Harold F. Kendrick. ‘Congress and Culture: Legislative Reauthorization and the Arts Endowment’Journal of Arts Management and Law17, no. 4 (1988).
    Murdoch, Rupert. Presentation Prepared for the European Audiovisual Conference. Birmingham (6–8 April 1998).
    Murdock, Graham. ‘Across the Great Divide: Cultural Analysis and the Condition of Democracy’Critical Studies in Mass Communication12, no. 1 (1995): 89–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039509366922
    Nahmod, Sheldon. ‘Artistic Expression and Aesthetic Theory: The Beautiful, the Sublime, and the First Amendment’ WisconsinLaw Review221 (1987).
    National Endowment for the Arts. International Data on Government Spending on the Arts. Research Note no. 74. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Arts (2000).
    National Endowment for the Arts Question & Answer. http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~ope/nea.html. National Endowment for the Arts. Toward Civilization: A Report on Arts Education. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Arts (1988).
    Netzer, Dick. The Subsidized Muse: Public Support for the Arts in the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1978).
    Newcomb, Horace. ‘Other People's Fictions: Cultural Appropriation, Cultural Integrity, and International Media Struggles’ Mass Media and Free Trade: NAFTA and the Cultural Industries. ed. Emile G.McAnany and Kenton T.Wilkinson. Austin: U of Texas P (1996): 92–109.
    Newland, Carlos. Buenos Aires no es pampa: La educación elemental porteóa 1820–1860. Buenos Aires: Grupo Editor Latinoamericano (1992).
    Nichols, Deborah L., Anthony L.Klesert, and RogerAnyon. ‘Ancestral Sites, Shrines, and Graves: Native American Perspectives on the Ethics of Collecting Cultural Properties’The Ethics of Collecting: Whose Culture? Whose Property?,
    2nd ed.
    Ed. Phyllis MauchMessenger. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P (1999): 27–38.
    Ninkovich, Frank. A.The Diplomacy of Ideas: US Foreign Policy and Cultural Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1981).
    Ninkovich, Frank. U.S. Information Policy and Cultural Diplomacy. New York: Foreign Policy Association (1996).
    Nisbet, Robert A.‘Project Camelot: An Autopsy’ OnIntellectuals: Theoretical Studies: Case Studies. ed. PhilipRieff. New York: Anchor. 1970: 307–39.
    Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. ‘Prefatory Statement’Fires Were Started: British Cinema and Thatcherism ed. LesterFriedman. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1993).
    Nulens, Gert and Leo VanAudenhove. An Information Society in Africa? An Analysis of the Information Society Policy of the World Bank, ITU and ECA. Gazette6, no. 16 (1999) 451–71.
    O'Conner, J. and D.Wynne. ‘The Uses and Abuses of Popular Culture: Cultural Policy and Popular Culture’Loisir et Société14, no. 2 (1991): 465–82.
    O'Connor, F.V., ed. Art for the Millions: Essays from the 1930s by Artists and Administrators of the WPA Federal Art Project. Boston: New York Graphic Society (1973).
    O'Connor, Timothy Edward. The Politics of Soviet Culture: Anatolii Lunacharskii. Ann Arbor: UMI Research P (1983).
    Ochoa Gautier, Ana María. ‘Listening to the State: Power, Culture, and Cultural Policy in Colombia.’2Companion to Cultural Studies. TobyMiller, ed. Boston: Blackwell, (2001) 375–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470998809.ch22
    Odendahl, Teresa, ed. America's Wealthy and the Future of Foundations. New York: Foundation Center (1987).
    O'Hagan, John W.‘Access to and Participation in the Arts: The Case of Those with Low Incomes/Educational Attainment’Journal of Cultural Economics20, no. 4 (1996): 269–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00149232
    Opondo, Patricia A.‘Cultural Policies in Kenya’ ArtsEducation Policy Review101, no. 5 (2000): 18–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632910009600269
    O'Regan, Tom. ‘“Knowing the Processes but not the Outcomes”: Australian Cinema Faces the Millennium’Culture in Australia: Policies, Publics and Programs. ed. TonyBennett and DavidCarter. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (2001): 18–45.
    O'Regan, Tom. ‘(Mis)taking Policy: Notes on the Cultural Policy Debate’Australian Cultural Studies: A Reader. ed. JohnFrow and MeaghanMorris. Sydney: Allen and Unwin (1993): 192–206.
    O'Regan, Tom. Australian National Cinema. London: Routledge (1996).
    Ortiz, Fernando. Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar (1940). Trans. Harriet deOnis. Intro. BronislawMalinowski. New intro. Fernando Coronil. Chapel Hill: Duke University Press (1995).
    Ortiz, Renato. Cultura brasileira e identidade nacional. São Paulo: Brasiliense (1985).
    Ooi, Vicki. ‘The Best Cultural Policy is no Cultural Policy: Cultural Policy in Hong Kong’Cultural Policy1, no. 2 (1995): http://www.info.gov.hk.
    Orosz, J.J.Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1773–1870. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P (1990).
    Ostrower, Francie. Why the Wealthy Give: The Culture of Elite Philanthropy. Princeton: Princeton UP (1997).
    Ottmann, Goetz. ‘Cultura é urn Bom Negócio.’ Unpublished ms.
    Raima, Giuseppe and Guido Clementedi San Luca. ‘State Intervention in the Arts in Italy from 1945 to 1982’ Trans. G.Falcone. The Patron State: Government and the Arts in Europe, North America, and Japan. ed. Milton C.Cummings, Jr. and Richard S.Katz. New York: Oxford UP (1987): 68–104.
    Pankratz, David B.‘Toward an Integrated Study of Cultural and Educational Policy’Journal of Arts Management and Law 18. no. 3 (1988): 63–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1988.9942182
    Pankratz, David B. and Valerie B.Morris, eds The Future of the Arts: Public Policy and Arts Research. New York: Praeger (1990).
    Pankratz, David B.Multiculturalism and Public Arts Policy. Westport: Bergin and Garvey (1993).
    Pannell, Sandra. ‘Mabo and Museums: “The Indigenous (Re)Appropriation of Indigenous Things”’Oceania65 (1994): 18–39.
    Park, M. and G. E.Markowitz. Democratic Vista: Post Offices and Public Art in the New Deal. Philadelpia: Temple UP (1984).
    Parker, Richard A.‘The Guise of the Propagandist: Governmental Classification of Foreign Political Films’Current Research in Film: Audiences, Economics and Law vol. 5. ed. Bruce A.Austin. Norwood: Ablex (1991): 135–46.
    Parsons, Philip, ed. Shooting the Pianist: The Role of Government in the Ms. Sydney: Currency P (1987).
    Payne, Richard I.The Clash with Distant Cultures: Values, Interests, and Force in American Foreign Policy. Albany: State U of New York P (1996).
    Paz, Octavio. ‘The Power of Ancient Mexican Art.’New York Review of Books (Dec. 6) 1990.
    Peacock, Alan and lldeRizzo, Eds. Cultural Economics and Cultural Policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic (1994). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1140-9
    Peacock, Alan. ‘Economics, Cultural Values and Cultural Policies’Journal of Cultural Economics15, no. 2 (1991): 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00208443
    Pearce, Susan M.Museums, Objects, and Collections: A Cultural Study. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P (1992).
    Pearce, Susan M., ed. Museum Studies in Material Culture. Leicester: Leicester UP (1989).
    Pearson, N.The State and the Visual Arts: A Discussion of State Intervention in the Visual Arts in Britain, 1760–1981. Milton Keynes: Open UP (1982).
    Pendakur, Manjunath. ‘Dynamics of Cultural Policy Making: The US Film Industry in India’Journal of Communication35, no. 4 (1987): 52–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1985.tb02972.x
    Pendakur, Manjunath. ‘Hollywood North: Film and TV Production in Canada’Global Productions: Labor in the Making of the ‘Information Society’. ed. GeraldSussman and John A.Lent. Cresskill: Hampton P (1998): 213–38.
    Peterson, Richard A.‘Foreword: Beyond the Production of Culture’Art, Ideology, and Politics. ed. Judith H.Balfe and Margaret JaneWyszomirski. New York: Praeger, 1985. iii-v.
    Persick, L.J.‘The Continuing Development of United States Policy Concerning the International Movement of Cultural Property’Dickinson Journal of International Law4, no. 1 (1985): 89–112.
    Petras, James. ‘The CIA and the Cultural Cold War Revisited’Monthly Review51, no. 6 (1999): 47–56.
    Petropoulos, Jonathan. Art as Politics in the Third Reich. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P (1996).
    Pfister, Bonnie. ‘Movie May Help, Hurt Mexican Village.’San Diego Union-Tribune (31 May 2000).
    Phillips. A.A.‘Culture and Canberra’Meanjin Papers: A Quarterly of Literature and Art5, no. 2 (1946): 99–103.
    Phillipson, Robert. ‘English Language Spread Policy’International Journal of the Sociology of Language no. 107 (1994): 7–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1994.107.7
    Pick, John. Managing the Arts? The British Experience. London: Rhinegold (1986).
    Pick, John. The Arts in a State. Bristol: Bristol Classical P (1988).
    Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. ‘Fictions of Europe’Race & Class32, no. 3 (1991). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030639689103200302
    Ping-hui, Lao. ‘Chinese Nationalism or Taiwanese Localism?’Culture and Policy7, no. 2 (1996): 75–92.
    Piven, Frances Fox and RichardCloward. Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare,
    rev. ed.
    New York: Vintage/Random House (1993).
    Plagens, P.‘Squishy Defenses by its Supporters Don't Help the Endowment’Chronicle of Higher Education (24 July 1998): B4-B5.
    Pointon, Marcia, ed. Art Apart: Art Institutions and Ideology Across England and North America. Manchester: Manchester UP (1994).
    http://Policy.com. ‘Issue of the week: Defunding the NEA’ (1997): http://www.policy.com/issuewk/0721/072197b.html1–3.
    Political & Economic Planning. The British Film Industry. London: PEP (1952).
    Pollock, Barbara. ‘Jockeying for Position in the Culture Wars’Village Voice (12 October 1999): 50–53.
    Pommerehne, Werner W. and Bruno S.Frey. ‘Public Promotion of the Arts: A Survey of Means’Journal of Cultural Economics14, no. 2 (1990): 73–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02898283
    Porter, Eduardo. ‘Hispanic Actors Await End of Strike.’Wall Street Journal (22 September 2000): B3.
    Posner, Richard. ‘Art for Law's Sake’American Scholar (Autumn 1989): 513–20.
    Potts, Jackie. ‘Lincoln Road Revitalized.’Variety 1–7 November (1999): M25-M26.
    Powell, Walter W., ed. The Handbook of Non-Profit Organizations. New Haven: Yale UP (1987).
    Pratten, Stephen and SimonDeakin. ‘Competitiveness Policy and Economic Organization: The Case of the British Film Industry’Screen41, no. 2 (2000): 217–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/41.2.217
    Pendergast, David M. and ElizabethGraham. ‘The Battle for the Maya Past: The Effects of International Looting and Collecting in Belize’The Ethics of Collecting: Whose Culture? Whose Property?,
    2nd edition.
    ed. Phyllis MauchMessenger. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P (1999): 51–60.
    President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities. Creative America: A Report to the President. Washington (1997).
    Preuss, U.K. ‘Migration – A Challenge to Modern Citizenship’Constellations4, no. 3 (1998): 307–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8675.00057
    Price, Clement Alexander. Many Voices Many Opportunities: Cultural Pluralism and American Arts Policy. New York: American Council for the Arts/Allworth P (1994).
    Price, Monroe E.‘Controlling Imagery: The Fight Over Using Art to Change Society’American Art7, no. 3 (1993): 2–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/424192
    Price, Richard and SallyPrice. ‘Executing Culture: Musée, Museo, Museum’American Anthropologist97, no. 1 (1995): 97–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1995.97.1.02a00120
    Price, Sally. Primitive Art in Civilized Places. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1989).
    Public Affairs Quarterly8 (April 1994).
    Public Law 89–209. ‘National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965’ Public Law 89–209. Cited in President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, 23.
    Puplick, Christopher and TonyBennett. ‘Arts National’ Programme on Museums: A Discussion with Christopher Puplick and Tony Bennett Held Following the Delivery of ‘Thanks for the Memories,’ August 1989'Culture and Policy1, no. 2 (1990): 67–74.
    Puttnam, David with NeilWatson. Movies and Money. New York: Alfred A. Knopf (1998).
    Pye, Lucian W.‘Introduction: Political Culture and Political Development’Political Culture and Political Development. ed. Lucian W.Pye and SidneyVerba. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. 3–26.
    Quester, George H.The International Politics of Television. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington (1990).
    Radbourne, Jennifer. ‘Creative Nation-A Policy for Leaders or Followers? An Evaluation of Australia's 1994 Cultural Policy Statement’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society26, no. 4 (1997): 271–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1997.9942966
    Rama, Angel. The Lettered City. Trans. JohnChasteen. Durham: Duke University Press (1996).
    Ramos, Julio. Divergent Modernities: Culture and Politics in Nineteenth Century Latin America. Trans. John D.Blanco. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
    Rankin, Elizabeth and CarolynHamilton. ‘Revision; Reaction; Re-Vision: The Role of Museums in (a) Transforming South Africa’Museum Anthropology22, no. 3 (1999): 3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/mua.1999.22.3.3
    Raphael, Alison. Samba and Social Control: Popular Culture and Racial Democracy in Rio de Janeiro. Ph.D. Diss. Columbia University (1980).
    Ratman, Niru. ‘Chris Ofili and the Limits of Hybridity’ NewLeft Review no. 235 (May-June 1999): 153–59.
    Reeves, Geoffrey. Communications and the ‘Third World’London: Routledge, 1993.
    Regen, Richard. ‘Flinching and Fear. Is the Art World Doing Jesse Helms' Work For Him?’Village Voice (17 October 1989): 29.
    Report of the International Meeting on Cultural Policy: Putting Culture on the World Stage. (1999).
    Rhoades, Gary and SheilaSlaughter. ‘Academic Capitalism. Managed Professionals, and Supply Side Higher Education’Social Text no. 51 (Summer 1997): 9–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466645
    Rice, William Craig. ‘I Hear America Singing: The Arts will Flower without the NEA’Policy Review: The Journal of American Citizenship no. 82 (March-April 1997): 37–45.
    Rich, B. Ruby. ‘Dissed and Disconnected: Notes on Present Ills and Future Dreams’Transition no. 62 (1993): 27–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2935201
    Richards, Jeffrey. ‘British Film Censorship’The British Cinema Book. ed. RobertMurphy. London: BFI (1997).
    Riddell, Janice B.‘The Political Climate and Arts Education’ ArtsEducation Policy Review98, no. 5 (1997): 2–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632913.1997.9935103
    Riding, Alan. ‘Art in Germany Crosses the Borders’ NewYork Times (2 December 1999): E1, E5.
    Ridler, Neil B.‘Cultural Identity and Public Policy: An Economic Analysis’Journal of Cultural Economics10, no. 2 (1986): 45–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00204577
    Ridley, F.F.‘Cultural Economics and the Culture of Economists’Journal of Cultural Economics7, no. 1 (1983): 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00232387
    Rieff, Philip. ‘The Case of Dr Oppenheimer’On Intellectuals: Theoretical Studies. Case Studies. ed. PhilipRieff. New York: Anchor, (1970). 341–69.
    Riggins, Stephen H. and KhoaPham. ‘Democratizing the Arts: France in an Era of Austerity’Queen's Quarterly93, no. 1 (1986): 149–61.
    Riely, Michael. ‘Producers Find Magic in Mexico.’Houston Chronicle (3 December 1999).
    Rivera-Lyles, Jeannette. ‘FIU hacia la elite iniversitaria de EU’El Nuevo Herald 4 January (2000).
    Roane, Kit R.‘Buchanan Visits Art Exhibit in Brooklyn and Doesn't Like It’New York Times (6 November 1999): B5.
    Robbins, Lord. Politics and Economics: Essays in Political Economy. London: Macmillan (1963).
    Robinson, J.P., ed. Social Science and the Ms. Lanham: UP of Americas (1985).
    Rodda, Clinton. ‘The Accomplishment of Aesthetic Purposes Under the Police Power’Southern California Law Review27 (1954): 149–79.
    Roddick, Nick. ‘A Hard Sell: The State of Documentary Film Marketing’Dox no. 2 (1994): 30–32.
    Rodríguez, Roberto and PatrisiaGónzales. ‘Bring Me the Foot of Oñate’ColorLines3, no. 1 (2000): 8–10.
    Rohter, Larry. ‘500 Years Later, Brazil Looks its Past in the Face’New York Times (25 April 2000): A3.
    Rohter, Larry. ‘Miami, the Hollywood of Latin America’New York Times Hews Service (1996): http://www.latinolink.com/art/0818aho1.htm.
    Rorty, Amélie Oksenberg. ‘Rights: Educational, Not Cultural’Social Research62, no. 1 (1995): 161–70.
    Rosaldo, Renato. ‘Cultural Citizenship and Educational Democracy’Cultural Anthropology9, no. 3 (1994): 402–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/can.1994.9.3.02a00110
    Rose, Joseph B.‘Landmarks Preservation in New York’The Public Face of Architecture: Civic Culture and Public Spaces. ed. NathanGlazer and MarkLilla. New York: Free P; London: Collier Macmillan (1987): 428–42.
    Rose, Nikolas and PeterMiller. ‘Political Power Beyond the State: Problematics of Government’British Journal of Sociology43, no. 2 (1992): 173–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591464
    Rose, Nikolas. Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488856
    Rosenberg, Carol. ‘Miami attracting celebrity exiles: Famous flee Colombia for life on quieter, safer South Florida’, The Miami Herald, 3 April (2000).
    Rosenthal, Andrew. ‘Bush's Balancing Act Over Financing of Arts’New York Times (19 June 1990): C14.
    Rousseau, Jean-JacquesThe Social Contract and Discourses. Trans. G.D.H.Cole. London: J.M. Dent (1975).
    Rowe, David and PeterBrown. ‘Promoting Women's Sport: Theory, Policy and Practice’Leisure Studies13, no. 2 (1994): 97–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614369400390071
    Rowse, Tim. ‘Cultural Policy and Social Theory’Media Information Australia no. 53 (August 1989): 13–22.
    Rowse, Tim. Arguing the Arts. Melbourne: Penguin (1985).
    Rubinstein, A.J., William J.Baumol, and HildaBaumol. ‘On the Economics of the Performing Arts in the Soviet Union and the USA: A Comparison of Data’Journal of Cultural Economics16, no. 2 (1992): 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00231286
    Rueschemeyer, Marilyn. ‘State Patronage in the German Democratic Republic: Artistic and Political Change in a State Socialist Society’Journal of Arts Management and Law20, no. 4 (1991): 31–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1991.9942866
    Rydell, Robert W.‘Museums and Cultural History: A Review Article’Comparative Studies in Society and History34, no. 2 (1992): 242–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500017679
    Rydell, Robert W.All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876–1916. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1984).
    Rydon, Joan and DianeMackay. ‘Federalism and the Arts’Australian Cultural History no. 3 (1984): 87–99.
    Ryerson, André. ‘Abolish the NEA: Government is Incapable of Detecting Artistic Genius’Policy Review104 (Fall 1990). 32–37.
    Sabonis-Chafee, Theresa. ‘Communism as Kitsch: Soviet Symbols in Post-Soviet Society’Consuming Russia: Popular Culture, Sex, and Society since Gorbachev. ed. Adele MarieBarker. Durham: Duke UP (1999): 362–82.
    Salz, Jerry. ‘At ‘Sensation,’ Transgression Prevails Over Insight’Village Voice (12 October 1999): 59.
    Salz, Jerry. ‘Man in the Middle’Village Voice (12 October 1999): 48.
    Sankowski, Edward. ‘Ethics, Art. and Museums’Journal of Aesthetic Education26, no. 3 (1992): 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333009
    Santana, Elcior. (1999) Remarks at Meeting on the Transnationalization of Support for Culture in a Globalizing World, Bellagio Study and Conference Center, Villa Serbelloni, Bellagio, Italy, 6 to 10 December.
    Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino. Educion popular (1849). Buenos Aires: Banco de la Provincia de Córdoba (1989).
    Sarmiento. ‘Ejercicios populares de la lengua castellana’ (1842). Sarmiento en el destierro. ed. ArmandoDuroio. Buenos Aires: M. Gleizer (1927).
    Sarmiento. ‘Raro descubrimiento!’ (1842) In Sarmiento en el destierro. ed. ArmandoDuroio. Buenos Aires: M. Gleizer (1927).
    Sarmiento. Facundo, or, civilization and barbarism (1845). Trans. MaryMann. (1998) New York: Penguin Books, 1998.
    Sarmiento. Obras completas iv: Ortografia, instrucción pública, 1841–1854. Buenos Aires: Editorial Luz del Día (1948).
    Saunders. Frances Stonor. Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters. New York: The New Press (1999).
    Savage, James D.‘Populism, Decentralization, and Arts Policy in California: The Jerry Brown Years and Afterward’Administration and Society20, no. 4 (1989): 446–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539978902000403
    Schatz, Thomas. The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era. New York: Pantheon (1988).
    Schechner, Richard. ‘Bon Voyage, NEA’The Drama Review40, no. 1 (1996): 7–9.
    Schiller, Herbert I.‘Transnational Media: Creating Consumers Worldwide’Journal of International Affairs47. no. 1 (1993): 47–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10357719308445097
    Schiller. Herbert I.Culture, Inc.: The Corporate Takeover of Public Expression. New York: Oxford UP (1989).
    Schlesinger, Arthur. The Vital Center: The Politics of Freedom. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP (1949).
    Schlesinger. Philip. Media, State and Nation: Political Violence and Collective Identities. London: Sage (1991).
    Schmidt. Ronald, Sr.Language Policy and Identity Politics in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple UP (2000).
    Schuster, J. Mark Davidson. ‘Funding the Arts and Culture Through Dedicated State Lotteries-Part I’European Journal of Cultural Policy1, no. 1 (1995): 21–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639409357967
    Schuster, J. Mark Davidson. ‘Funding the Arts and Culture Through Dedicated State Lotteries-Part II’European Journal of Cultural Policy1, no. 2 (1995): 329–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639509357990
    Schuster, J. Mark Davidson. ‘Making Compromises to Make Comparisons in Cross-National Arts Policy Research’Journal of Cultural Economics11, no. 2 (1987): 1–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00711860
    Schuster, J. Mark Davidson. ‘The Interrelationships Between Public and Private Funding of the Arts in the United States’Journal of Arts Management and Law14 (Winter 1985): 77–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1985.9942139
    Schwab, S.‘Television in the 90's: Revolution or Confusion?’Tenth Joseph I. Lubin Memorial Lecture. New York U (1 March 1994).
    Schwarz, Roberto. Misplaced Ideas: Essays On Brazilian Culture. London and New York: Verso (1992).
    Seelye, K.Q.‘For Election Year, House Approves Arts Financing’New York Times (22 July 1998): A1, A14.
    Sellars, Richard West. Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. New Haven: Yale UP (1997).
    Selle, Per and LarsSvasand. ‘Cultural Policy, Leisure and Voluntary Organizations in Norway’Leisure Studies6, no. 3 (1987): 347–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614368700390261
    Senghor, Léopold Sédar. ‘The African Road to Socialism’On African Socialism. Trans. MercerCook. New York: Frederick A. Praeger (1964): 67–103.
    Senie, Harriet F. and SallyWebster, eds. Critical Issues in Public Art: Content, Context, and Controversy. New York: Iconeditions (1992).
    Sewell, James P.‘UNESCO: Pluralism Rampant’The Anatomy of Influence: Decision Making in International Organization. ed. Robert W.Cox and Harold K.Jacobson. New Haven: Yale UP (1974): 139–74.
    Shafir, G.‘Introduction: The Evolving Traditions of Citizenship’The Citizenship Debates: A Reader. ed. G.Shafir. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1998): 1–28.
    Shapiro, Michael J.Reading ‘Adam Smith’: Desire, History and Value. Newbury Park: Sage (1993).
    Shapiro, Michael J.Reading the Postmodern: Political Theory as Textual Practice. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1992).
    Shaw, Douglas V, William S.Hendon, and C.Richard Waits, Eds Artists and Cultural Consumers. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics (1986).
    Shaw, Douglas V, William S.Hendon, and Virginia LeeOwen, Eds Cultural Economics 8: An American Perspective. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, (1988).
    Shen, Zhilong and ChunmeiZhao. ‘Aesthetic Education in China’Journal of Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Research in Art Education17 (1999): 91–102.
    Sherman, Daniel I. and IritRogoff, Eds. Museum Culture: Histories, Discourses, Spectacles. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1994).
    Shipley, Kim M.‘The Politicization of Art: The National Endowment for the Arts, the First Amendment, and Senator Helms’Emory Law Journal40 (1991).
    Sholle, David. ‘Resisting Disciplines: Repositioning Media Studies in the University’Communication Theory5, no. 2 (1995): 130–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1995.tb00102.x
    Shore, Chris. ‘Transcending the Nation-State?: The European Commission and the (Re)-Discovery of Europe’Journal of Historical Sociology9, no. 4 (1996): 473–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6443.1996.tb00108.x
    Short, David. ‘Pearson Resists Pressure for a Focus on Television.’European (21 March 1996): 24.
    Sierra, Justo. (1948) La educación nacional; artículos, actuaciones y documentos. ed. AgustinYáñez. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Simmel, Georg. ‘The Metropolis and Mental Life.’Trans. Kurt H. Wolff. Sociological Perspectives: Selected Readings. ed. KennethThompson and JeremyTunstall. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books (1976): 82–93.
    Simpson, Christopher. Science of Coercion: Communication Research and Psychological Warfare 1945–1960. New York: Oxford UP, 1994.
    Sinclair, Andrew. Arts and Cultures: The History of the 50 Years of the Arts Council of Great Britain. London: Sinclair-Stevenson (1995).
    Singer. Daniel. ‘GATT and the Shape of Our Dreams’The Nation258, no. 2 (1994): 54–6.
    Sjolander, Claire Turner. ‘Unilateralism and Multilateralism: The United States and the Negotiation of the GATS’International Journal48, no. 1 (1992–3): 52–79.
    Smejkalová-Strickland. Jirina. ‘Censoring Canons: Transitions and Prospects of Literary Institutions in Czechoslovakia’The Administration of Aesthetics: Censorship, Political Criticism, and the Public Sphere. ed. RichardBurt. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P (1994): 195–215.
    Smith, Paul. ‘A Memory of Marxism’Polygraph nos. 6–7 (1993): 98–105.
    Smith, Ralph A. and AlanSimpson, Eds Aesthetics and Arts Education. Urbana: U of Illinois P (1991).
    Smith, Ralph A. and RonaldBerman, Eds Public Policy and the Aesthetic Interest: Critical Essays on Defining Cultural and Educational Relations. Urbana: U of Illinois P (1992).
    Smith, Roberta. ‘Waging Guerilla Warfare Against the Art World’New York Times (17 June 1990): H1, H31.
    Smolensky, Eugene. ‘Municipal Financing of the U.S. Fine Art Museum: A Historical Rationale’Journal of Economic History46, no. 4 (1986): 757–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022050700046866
    Snow, Nancy. Propaganda, Inc.: Selling America's Culture to the World. New York: Seven Stories P (1998).
    Sofoulis. Zoë. ‘Position-Envy and the Subsumption of Feminism: Some Hypotheses’Cultural Studies: Pluralism and Theory. ed. DavidBennett. Melbourne: Melbourne U Department of English (1993): 213–20.
    Sorensen, Colin. ‘Theme Parks and Time Machnies’The New Museology. ed. PeterVergo. London: Reaktion, (1991): 60–73.
    Soren, Barbara. ‘The Museum as Curricular Site’Journal of Aesthetic Education26, no. 3 (1992): 91–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333017
    Sorlin, Pierre. European Cinemas, European Societies 1939–1990. London: Routledge (1991).
    Southwick, Ron. ‘Budget Will Rise for Arts and Humanities Endowments’Chronicle of Higher Education (10 November 2000): A29.
    Southwick, Ron. ‘House Panel Votes Down Spending Increases for NEH and NEA’Chronicle of Higher Education (18 May 2000): 3.
    Sparshott, Francis. ‘Why Artworks Have no Right to Have Rights’Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism42 (1983): 5–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/429942
    Spurgeon, Christina. ‘National Culture, Communications and the Information Economy’Media International Australia no. 87 (May 1998): 23–34.
    Stahler, Gerald J. and William R.Tash. ‘Centers and Institutes in the Research University: Issues. Problems, and Prospects’Journal of Higher Education65. no. 5 (1994). 540–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2943777
    Stalin. J.V.Marxism and Problems of Linguistics. Peking: Foreign Languages P (1972).
    Stark. Andrew. ‘“Political-Discourse” Analysis and the Debate over Canada's Lobbying Legislation’Canadian Journal of Political Science25. no. 3 (1992): 513–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900021442
    Stehle, Vincent. ‘The Competitive Disadvantage of Foundation Giving’Grantmakers in the Arts11, no. 1 (2000): 18–20.
    Stern, Andy. ‘EC Funnels $355 Mil to Boost Pix’Variety (20 December 1999–2 January 2000): 20.
    Stern, Andy. ‘Film/TV Future Tops Confab Agenda’Variety (27 June-3 July 1994): 39.
    Stern. Andy. ‘Reding Plans More Green for Distrib'n’Variety (1–7 November 1999): 18.
    Stern, Andy. ‘Valenti Denies Euro TV Crisis’Daily Variety (23 June 1994): 1, 17.
    Stevenson, Richard W.‘Lights! Camera! Europe!’New York Times (6 February 1994): 1, 6.
    Stimpson, Catharine R.‘Federal Papers’October no. 53 (1990): 24–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/778913
    Stocking. G., ed. Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture. Madison: U of Wisconsin P (1985).
    Stoklund, Bjarne. ‘The Role of the International Exhibitions in the Construction of National Cultures in the 19th Century’Ethnologia Europaea24, no. 1 (1994): 35–44.
    Stone. Marla Susan. The Patron State. Culture & Politics in Fascist Italy. Princeton: Princeton UP (1998).
    StonorSaunders. Frances. Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters. New York: New P (1999).
    Straight, Michael. Twigs for an Eagle's Nest: Government and the Arts, 1965–1978. New York: Devon P (1979).
    Strange. Susan. ‘The Limits of Politics’Government and Opposition30, no. 3 (1995): 291–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1995.tb00129.x
    Street, Sarah. British National Cinema. London: Routledge (1997).
    Streeter, Thomas. Selling the Air: A Critique of the Policy of Commercial Broadcasting in the United States. Chicago: U of Chicago P (1996).
    Sullivan. Martin. ‘A Museum Perspective on Repatriation: Issues and Opportunities’Arizona Law Journal71 (1992). 40–44.
    Sutter, Mary. ‘Viva Mexico!-Hollywood Heads South of the Border’Kempos 21–27 December: 1, 4–5 (1998a).
    Sutter, Mary. ‘Woman on Top in a Macho Man's Union’Kempos 21–27 December: 8 (1998b).
    Swarns, Rachel L.‘Oppression in Black and White’New York Times (10 December 2001): E1, E3.
    Swift, Brent. ‘Film and Television Action Committee Past & Present’ (1999) http://www.ftac.net/about.html.
    Synnott, Anthony. The Body Social: Symbolism, Self and Society. London: Routledge, (1993).
    Tagg, John. ‘A Discourse (With Shape of Reason Missing)’Art History15, no. 3 (1992): 351–73.
    Taylor, Andrew. ‘How Political is the Arts Council?’Political Quarterly66. no. 2 (1995): 184–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-923X.1995.tb00462.x
    Taylor, Fannie and Anthony L.Barresi. The Arts at a New Frontier. The National Endowment for the Arts. New York: Plenum P (1984). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-2731-8
    Tedesco, Juan Carlos. Educación y sociedad en la Argentina (1880–1900). Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de América Latina (1982).
    Tegel, Simeon. ‘Hollywood Gets Last Word in Mexican Dubs’Variety 13 March (2000).
    Tegel, Simeon. ‘Sand and Stardust’Business Mexico 1 February (2001).
    Theiler, Tobias. ‘Viewers into Europeans?: How the European Union Tried to Europeanize the Audiovisual Sector, and Why it Failed’Canadian Journal of Communication24, no. 4 (1999): 557–87.
    Thelen, David. ‘History after the Enola Gay Controversy: An Introduction’Journal of American History82, no. 3 (1995): 1029–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2945110
    Thøgersen, Stig. ‘Cultural Life and Cultural Control in Rural China: Where is the Party?’China Journal44 (2000): 129–41.
    Thompson, Kristin. Exporting Entertainment: America in the World Film Market 1907–1934. London: BFI (1985).
    Thorp, Rosemary. ‘The Latin American Economies, 1939—c. 1950’ In Bethelled., Latin America. Economy and Society Since 1930Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1998).
    Throsby, C. David and Glen A.Withers. ‘Strategic Bias and Demand for Public Goods: Theory and an Application to the Arts’Journal of Public Economics31 (December 1986): 307–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-2727%2886%2990063-0
    Throsby, C. David and Glen A.Withers. The Economics of the Performing Arts. New York: St. Martin's P (1979).
    Throsby, C. David. ‘The Production and Consumption of the Arts: A View of Cultural Economics’Journal of Economic Literature32, no. 1 (1994): 1–29.
    Toepler, Stefan. ‘From Communism to Civil Society? The Arts and the Nonprofit Sector in Central and Eastern Europe’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society30, no. 1 (2000): 7–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632920009599568
    Toffler, Alvin. The Culture Consumers: A Study of Art and Affluence in America. New York: St. Martin's P (1964).
    Tomaselli, Keyan G. and AlumMpofu. ‘The Rearticulation of Meaning of National Monuments: Beyond Apartheid’Culture and Policy8, no. 3 (1997). 57–76.
    Tonkin, Boyd. ‘Will Lottery Funding Help Mike Leigh or Ken Loach Make More and Better Films? Not if David Puttnam and his Friends Have Anything to do with it’New Statesman (23 May 1997): 38.
    Tovar y de Teresa, Rafael. Modernization y polícica cultural: Una visión de la modernización de México. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica (1994).
    Towse, Ruth and AbdulKhakee, eds. Cultural Economics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag (1992). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-77328-0
    Towse, Ruth and MarkCrain. ‘Editorial: The Culture of Cultural Economics’Journal of Cultural Economics18, no. 1 (1994): 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01207148
    Trend, David. Cultural Pedagogy. Art/Education/Politics. New York: Bergin and Garvey (1992).
    Tribe. K.W.‘Government Support for the Arts – Practices, Principles and Proposals’Australian Cultural History no. 7 (1988): 18–36.
    Trotsky, Leon. Literature and Revolution. Trans. Rose StrunskyAnnArbor: U of Michigan P (1968).
    Tsang, Susan. ‘Arts More Cake than Icing’Variety (15–21 June 1998): 97.
    Tsang, Susan. ‘Intl. Festival of Arts Finds its Feet’Variety (15–21 June 1998): 98.
    Tunstall, Jeremy and DavidMachin. The Anglo-American Media ConnectionOxford University Press (1999).
    Turim, Maureen. ‘The Retraction of State Funding of Film and Video Arts and its Effects on Future Practice’Cinema Histories Cinema Practices. ed. PatriciaMellencamp and PhilipRosen. Los Angeles: AFI, 1984. 132–41.
    Turnbull, Robert. ‘Reconstructing Khmer Classics from Zero’New York Times (25 July 1999): AR6, 24.
    Turner, Graeme. ‘Cultural Policy and National Culture’Nation, Culture, Text: Australian Cultural and Media Studies. ed. GraemeTurner. London: Routledge (1993): 67–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203306581
    Turner, Graeme. Making it National: Nationalism and Australian Popular Culture. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1994.
    UNESCO. Background Document. Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development. Stockholm (30 March-2 April (1998).
    UNESCO. Final Report of World Conference on Cultural Policies. Mexico City and Paris: UNESCO (1982).
    United States Government. ‘Government. 'Communication from the United States: Audiovisual and Related Services.’ World Trade Organization. Council for Trade in Services Special Session, S/CSS/W/21 (18 December 2000).
    Ungureit, Heinz. ‘Le Groupement Européen de Production: Rassembler les Forces du Service Public …’Dossiers de l' Audiovisuel no. 35 (1991).
    Urice, John K.‘Planning at the National Endowment for the Arts: A Review of the Plan and Planning Documents, 1978–1984’Journal of Arts Management and Law15 (Summer 1985): 79–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1985.9942156
    Urice, John K.‘Using Research to Determine, Challenge, or Validate Public Arts Policy’Journal of Arts Management and Law13 (Spring 1983): 199–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1983.9942094
    Urla, Jacqueline. ‘Cultural Politics in an Age of Statistics: Numbers, Nations, and the Making of Identity’American Ethnologist20, no. 4 (1993): 818–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1993.20.4.02a00080
    USIA. ‘1997 National Trade Estimate Report – European Union’ M2 Press Wire (1997).
    Van Camp, Julie. ‘Freedom of Expression at the National Endowment for the Arts: An Opportunity for Interdisciplinary Education’Journal of Aesthetic Education30, no. 3 (1996): 43–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333321
    Van Camp, Julie. ‘The Philosophy of Art Law’Metaphilosophy25, no. 1 (1994): 60–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9973.1994.tb00468.x
    van den Haag, Ernest. ‘Should the Government Subsidize the Arts?’Policy Review10 (Fall 1979).
    Van Elteren, Mel. ‘Conceptualizing the Impact of US Popular Culture Globally’Journal of Popular Culture30, no. 1 (1996): 47–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1996.47654.x
    Van Elteren, Mel. ‘GATT and Beyond: World Trade, the Arts and American Popular Culture in Western Europe’Journal of American Culture19, no. 3 (1996): 59–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1996.1903_59.x
    van Krieken, Robert. ‘Proto-Governmentalization and the Historical Formation of Organizational Subjectivity’Economy and Society25, no. 2 (1996): 195–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149600000010
    Vance, Carol. ‘Misunderstanding Obscenity’Art in America (May 1990): 49–55.
    Vasey, Ruth. The World According to Hollywood, 1918–1939. Madison: U of Wisconsin P (1997).
    Vattimo, Gianni. ‘Postmodernity and New Monumentality’Res no. 28 (Autumn 1995): 39–46.
    Venturelli, Shalini. ‘Cultural Rights and World Trade Agreements in the Information Society’Gazette60, no. 1 (1998): 47–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0016549298060001004
    Vergo, Peter, ed. The New Museology. London: Reaktion (1991).
    Vestheim, G.‘Instrumental Cultural Policy in Scandinavian Countries: A Critical Historical Perspective’European Journal of Cultural Policy1 (1995): 57–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639409357969
    Vianna, Hermano. The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity on Brazil. ed. and trans. JohnChasteen. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press (1999).
    Vitanyi, Ivan. ‘Typology and Effects of Cultural Policies’Cultures no. 33 (1983): 97–106.
    Volkerling, Michael. ‘Death or Transfiguration: The Future for Cultural Policy in New Zealand’Culture and Policy6, no. 1 (1994): 7–28.
    Volkerling, Michael. ‘Deconstructing the Difference-Engine: A Theory of Cultural Policy’European Journal of Cultural Policy2, no. 2 (1996): 189–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286639609358014
    Volos inov, V.N.Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, trans. LadislavMatejka and I.R.Titunik. New York: Seminar P (1973).
    Wachtel, D.Cultural Policy and Socialist France. Westport: Greenwood P (1987).
    Wagnleitner, Reinhold. ‘American Cultural Diplomacy, Hollywood, and the Cold War in Central Europe’Rethinking MARXISM7, no. 1 (1994): 31–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08935699408658085
    Wagnleitner, Reinhold. ‘Propagating the American Dream: Cultural Policies as Means of Integration’American Studies International24, no. 1 (1986): 60–84.
    Waisbord, Silvio. ‘Media in South America: Between the Rock of the State and the Hard Place of the Market’De-Westernizing Media Studies. ed. JamesCurran and Myung-JinPark. London: Routledge, (2000): 50–62.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel. ‘Culture as the Ideological Battleground of the Modern World-System’Hitotsubashi Journal of Social Studies21, no. 1 (1989): 5–22.
    Wallis, Brian. ‘Public Funding and Alternative Spaces’ Unpublished ms. (Dec. 1998).
    Wallis, Roger and KristerMalm. Media Policy and Music Activity. London: Routledge (1993).
    Warren, Karen J.‘Introduction: A Philosophical Perspective on the Ethics and Resoltuion of Cultural Properties Issues’The Ethics of Collecting: Whose Culture? Whose Property?,
    2nd edition.
    Phyllis Mauch Messenger. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P (1999): 1–25.
    Washington, Paul. ‘“Being Post-Colonial”: Culture. Policy and Government’Southern Review28, no. 3 (1995): 273–82.
    Wasko, Janet. ‘Challenges to Hollywood's Labor Force in the 1990s’Global Productions: Labor in the Making of the ‘Information Society’. ed. GeraldSussman and John A.Lent. Cresskill: Hampton P (1998): 173–89.
    Wasko, Janet. Hollywood in the Information Age. Beyond the Silver Screen. Cambridge: Polity P (1994).
    Wasko, Janet. Movies and Money: Financing the American Film Industry. Norwood: Ablex (1982).
    Wasser, Frederick. ‘Is Hollywood America? The Trans-nationalization of the American Film Industry’Critical Studies in Mass Communication12, no. 4 (1995): 423–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039509366949
    Waxman, Sharon. ‘Location, Location: hollywood Loses Films to Cheaper Climes,’Washington Post (25 June 1999): C1.
    Webb, Natalie J.‘Tax and Government Policy Implications for Corporate Foundation Giving’Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly23, no. 1 (1994): 41–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0899764094231004
    Weber, Max. General Economic History. Trans. Frank H.Knight. New York: Collier, (1961).
    Wedell, George. ‘Prospects for Television in Europe’Government and Opposition29, no. 3 (1994): 315–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1994.tb01224.x
    Weil, Stephen E.A Cabinet of Curiosities: Inquiries into Museums and Their Prospects. Washington: Smithsonian Institution P (1995).
    Weiler, Betty and Colin MichaelHall, eds Special Interest Tourism. London: Belhaven P; New York: Halstead P (1992).
    Weinraub, Bernard. ‘Directors Battle Over GATT's Final Cut and Print’New York Times (12 December 1993): L24.
    Weir, Tom. ‘No Daydreams of Our Own: The Film as National Self-Expression’An Australian Film Reader. ed. AlbertMoran and TomO'Regan. Sydney: Currency P (1985): 144.
    Weisberg, Jacob. ‘A Well-Staged Scandal’New York Times Magazine (10 October 1999): 56–57.
    Welch, L.S. and Luostarinen, R.‘Internationalization: Evolution of a Concept’Journal of General Management14, no. 2 (1988): 34–55.
    Welles, Sumner. Pan American Coopoeration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, Department of State Publication no. 692, Latin American Series no. 9 (1935).
    West, Edwin G.‘Art Vouchers to Replace Grants’Economic Affairs6, no. 3 (1986): 9–11, 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0270.1986.tb01737.x
    Whisnant, David E.Rascally Signs in Sacred Places: The Politics of Culture in Nicaragua. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P (1995).
    White, E.W.The Arts Council of Great Britain. London: Davis-Poynter (1975).
    White, Geoffrey M.‘Culture Talk in the 90s’Culture and Policy6, no. 2 (1994): 5–22.
    Whitelaw, Anne. ‘Statistical Imperatives: Representing the Nation in Exhibitions of Contemporary Art’Topia no. 1 (Spring 1997): 22–41.
    Whitt, J. Allen and Allen I.Share. ‘The Performing Arts as an Urban Development Strategy: Transforming the Central City’Research in Politics and Societyvol. 3 (1988): 155–72.
    Whitt, J. Allen and JohnLammers. ‘The Art of Growth: Ties Between Development Organizations and the Performing Arts’Urban Affairs Quarterly26 (1991): 376–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004208169102600304
    Whitt, J. Allen. ‘Mozart in the Metropolis: The Arts Coalition and the Urban Growth Machine’Urban Affairs Quarterly23, no. 1 (1987): 15–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004208168702300103
    Whitt, J. Allen. ‘The Role of the Performing Arts in Urban Competition and Growth’Business Elites and Urban Development: Case Studies and Critical Perspectives. ed. S.Cummings. Albany: State U of New York P (1988): 49–69.
    Wieck, R.Ignorance Abroad: American Educational and Cultural Foreign Policy and the Office of Assistant Secretary of State. Westport: Praeger (1992).
    Wilkins, Geraldine. ‘Film Production in Northern Ireland’Border Crossing: Film in Ireland, Britain and Europe. ed. JohnHill, MartinMcLoone, and PaulHainsworth. Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's U of Belfast, U of Ulster, and the BF1 (1994).
    Williams, J.J.‘Report of the Arts and Culture Task Group Presented to the Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, June 1995’Critical Arts10, no. 1 (1996): 107–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02560049685310071
    Williams, Michael. ‘Euros Bury Dinos, Fete ‘List’ Auteur’Variety (7–13 March 1994): 55–56.
    Williams, Michael. ‘Lines Drawn for Trade Talks’Variety (1–7 November 1999): 27.
    Williams, Raymond. Sources of Hope. ed. RobinGable. London: Verso (1989).
    Williams, Raymond. The Politics of Modernism: Against the New Conformists. ed. TonyPinkney. London: Verso (1989).
    Williams. Robert J.‘Culture in the Service of the State: Canadian and Australian International Cultural Policy’Australian Canadian Studies5. no. 1 (1987): 49–60.
    Williams, Robert J.‘International Cultural Programmes: Canada and Australia Compared’Contemporary Affairs no. 50 (1985): 83–111.
    Williamson, David. ‘Arts 1: Aussie Content At Risk’Australian (9 November 1989): 16.
    Wilson, Elizabeth. The Sphinx in the City. Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women. London: Virago P (1991).
    Wilson, Woodrow. ‘Life Comes from the Soil’Virginia Reader. A Treasury of Writings from the First Voyages to the Present. ed. Francis ColemanRosenberger. New York: Octagon (1972).
    Wineland, John. ‘Rethinking the Philanthropic Ogre: The Privatization of Museums and Exhibitions in Mexico and Brazil’In Representing Latinamerican/Latino Art in the New Millennium: Curatorial Issues and Propositions. ed. Mari CarmenRamirez. Austin: U of Texas P (Forthcoming).
    Winer, L.‘So What's Next, a Mustard Ballet?’Newsday (28 June 1996): B3.
    Withers. Glen A.‘Principles of Government Support to the Arts’Meanjin40 (December 1981): 442–60.
    Wolfson, Richard F.‘Aesthetics in and About the Law’Kentucky Law Review33 (1944): 33–47.
    Wong, Edward. ‘China's New Culture Starting to Take Shape, Minister Says’New Work Times (8 September 2000): A13.
    Woods, Mark. ‘Foreign Pix Bring Life to Biz’Variety (3–9 May 1999): 37, 44, 46, 59.
    Woods, Mark. ‘That Championship Season’Variety (11–17 January 1999): 9, 16.
    Woolf, Marie. ‘Why the Next English Patient Will be British’Independent on Sunday (20 December 1998): 9.
    World Commission on Culture and Development, Our Creative Diversity: Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development. Paris: UNESCO (1995).
    World Trade Organization. ‘Audiovisual Services: Background Note by the Secretariat’ S/CAV/40 of 15 June 1998.
    World Bank. Culture Counts: Financing, Resources, and the Economics of Culture in Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the Conference. Washington, D.C. (1999). http://WBLN0018.Worldbank.org/-Networks/ESSD/icdb.nsf/D4856F112E805DF4852566C9007C27A6/4D4D56F007815BD1852568C8006741DF
    Word Bank. Culture and Sustainable Development: A Framework Action. Washington, D.C.http://Inweb18.worldbank.org/essd/essd.nsf/9b1cfc683a76bt71852567cb0076a25e/fa8a463ac24a486685668525684600720ce7?OpenDocument (1999).
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane and Kevin VMulcahy, eds America's Commitment to Culture: Government and the Arts. Boulder: Westview P (1995).
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane and PatClubb, eds The Cost of Culture: Patterns and Prospects of Private Art Patronage. New York: American Council for the Arts, (1989).
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane, ed. Congress and the Arts: A Precarious Alliance. New York: American Council for the Arts (1988).
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. ‘Arts Policymaking and Interest-Group Politics’Journal of Aesthetic Education14 (October 1980): 28–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3332365
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. ‘Federal Cultural Support: Toward a New Paradigm?’Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society25, no. 1 (1995): 69–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1995.9941788
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. ‘Philanthropy, the Arts, and Public Policy’Journal of Arts Management and Law16 (Winter 1987): 5–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07335113.1987.9943084
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. ‘Policy Communities and Policy influence: Securing a Government Role in Cultural Policy for the Twenty-First Century’Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society25, no. 3 (1995): 192–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1995.9941799
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. ‘The Politics of Art: Nancy Hanks and the National Endowment for the Arts’Leadership and Innovation: Entrepreneurs in Government. ed. Jameson W.Doig and Erwin C.Hargrove. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP (1990).
    Wythe. George. The United States and Inter-American Relations: a Contemporary Appraisal. Gainesville: University of Florida Press (1964).
    Yang, Danielle. ‘MOFA Says Cultural Exchanges can Help Foreign Policy’http://ww3.sinanet.com/-news/0613news/4_E.html (n. d.)
    Yencken. David. ‘The Deep Dung of Cash: Cultural Policy in Australia’Overland no. 88 (July 1982): 5–11.
    YimHak Soon. The Role and Limit of the Local Government and Nonprofit Organizations in the Development of Regional Culture in Korea. Paper delivered to Institute for Cultural Policy Studies Conference ‘Cultural Policy: State of the Art’ (29 June 1995).
    Young, James E.‘Holocaust Memorials in America: Public Art as Process’Critical Issues in Public Art: Content, Contest, and Controversy. ed. Harriet F.Senie and SallyWebster. New York: Iconeditions, 1992. 57–70.
    Yúdice. George. ‘Civil Society. Consumption, and Governmentality in an Age of Global Restructuring: An Introduction’Social Text13, no. 4 (1995): 1–25.
    Yúdice. George. ‘La industria de la música en la integración America Latina-Estados Unidos’. ed. Néstor GarciaCanclini and CarlosMoneta. Eds., Las industrias culturales en la integración Iltinoamericana, Buenos Aires. Eudeba/SELA (1999): 115–161.
    Yúdice. George. ‘For a Practical Aesthetics’Social Text. no. 25/26 (1990): 129–45.
    Zea. Leopoldo. Positivism in Mexico (1943). Austin: U of Texas P (1974).
    Zecchinelli, Cecilia. ‘Gaps Seen for EU TV Meet’Daily Variety (26 June 1994): 13.
    Zeigler. Joseph Wesley. ‘The Tiny Endowment: Radical Differences in Public and Private Sectors’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society24, no. 4 (1995): 345–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1995.9941779
    Zel. Antoinette, Executive Vice President and Director General of MTV Latin America. Interview with George Yúdice. Miami Beach, 14 March (2000).
    Zhdanov. Andrei. ‘Speech to the Congress of Soviet Writers’Art in Theory 1900–1990: AM Anthology of Changing Ideas. ed. CharlesHarrison and PaulWood. Oxford: Blackwell (1996): 409–12.
    Zimmer. Annette and StefanToppler. ‘Cultural Policies and the Welfare State: The Cases of Sweden, Germany, and the United States’Journal of Arts Management. Law and Society26. no. 3 (1996): 167–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1996.9942961
    Zolberg, Vera L.‘Conflicting Visions in American Art Museums’Theory and Society10 (1981): 103–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00209565
    Zolberg, Vera L.‘Museum Culture and the Threat to National Identity in the Age of the GATT’Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society25, no. 1 (1995): 5–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1995.9941783
    Zolberg, Vera L.‘Paying for Art: The Temptations of Privatization à l'Américaine’International Sociology11, no. 4 (1996): 395–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026858096011004001
    Zolberg, Vera L.Constructing a Sociology of the Arts. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1990). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511557712
    Zolov, Eric. Refried Elvis: the rise of the Mexican counterculture. Berkeley: U of California P (1999).

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website