Cultural Criticism: A Primer of Key Concepts

Books

Arthur Asa Berger

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Foundations of Popular Culture

    Series Editor: Garth S. JowettUniversity of Houston

    The study of popular culture has now become a widely accepted part of the modern academic curriculum. This increasing interest has spawned a great deal of important research in recent years, and the field of “cultural studies” in its many forms is now one of the most dynamic and exciting in modern academia. Each volume in the Foundations of Popular Culture Series will introduce a specific issue fundamental to the study of popular culture, and the authors have been given the charge to write with clarity and precision and to examine the subject systematically. The editorial objective is to provide an important series of “building-block” volumes that can stand by themselves or be used in combination to provide a thorough and accessible grounding in the field of cultural studies.

    • The Production of Culture: Media and the Urban Arts

      by Diana Crane

    • Popular Culture Genres: Theories and Texts

      by Arthur Asa Berger

    • Rock Formation: Music, Technology, and Mass Communication

      by Steve Jones

    • Cultural Criticism: A Primer of Key Concepts

      by Arthur Asa Berger

    • Advertising and Popular Culture

      by Jib Fowles

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Series Editor's Introduction

    One of the most interesting and also challenging aspects of the emergence of popular culture studies in the last two decades has been the creation of a specific argot by scholars to describe the complex nature of cultural activities. This argot, replete with neologisms and often arcane language, has been both praised for its ability to creatively conceptualize new synergies of cultural interaction and also condemned for its impenetrability and obfuscation.

    The neophyte student of popular culture who is asked to read many popular cultural texts is often faced with having to work with a dictionary in one hand and his or her text in the other. In many cases the dictionary itself is not enough to provide a definition of how the usage of words and phrases have been shifted to meet the needs of popular culture scholars. For example, what is the difference between a “problem” and a “problematic”? No current dictionary makes this cultural criticism usage clear to the inexperienced reader. What does “hegemony” mean? How is the concept of “ideology” applied? Perhaps most difficult of all, what is “postmodernism,” and why should anyone care about it?

    This book by Arthur Berger, who has been one of the most prolific of all writers in the field of popular culture, examines these words and concepts from a perspective of more than three decades of experience. Throughout, Dr. Berger's wit and ability to “cut through” helps the reader to understand the new argot, while at the same time providing concrete examples of its application. There are bound to be a few readers who will take exception to some of his definitions and explanations, but this is the contentious nature of the field of popular culture studies at this point in time. However, this book is an extremely valuable addition to the field, in that it offers an introduction to complex ideas in a way that is itself very accessible.

    There will be other attempts to “define the territory” of popular culture in the future, but Arthur Asa Berger's book will stand as an important achievement for others to emulate. The volume can be a valuable addition to a variety of courses on popular culture, or it can be used as a primary text for introductory courses on popular culture. Whatever its intended use, students will be both charmed and informed by Dr. Berger's perspectives.

    GarthJowett Series Editor

    Acknowledgments

    I would like to thank Sophy Craze, my editor at Sage Publications, for her encouragement, and Garth Jowett, the editor of the Foundations of Popular Culture series, for his support and friendship over the years. Mitch Allen, Sage's northern California editor, has been a good friend and has helped me come up with ideas for books for Sage for quite a while. He has also rejected an inhumane number of my manuscripts. As he once put it, “I've rejected better men than you, Arthur.” Rather than writing new books for Mitch to reject, I have now taken to sending him manuscripts he previously rejected, with new titles, for him to reject again—or maybe accept, in a moment of weakness or madness? One always hopes!

    This is, it turns out, my sixth book with Sage Publications. They probably deserve some kind of a medal! Or maybe I do? (Maybe we all do?) Whatever the case, I have had wonderful experiences with the people there—with the editorial staff, the production staff, and the marketing staff—so, even as I sit writing this, in the back of my mind I'm thinking up ideas for new books.

    My colleagues in the Broadcast and Electronic Communication Arts Department at San Francisco State University have provided a congenial, supportive, and exciting place to work, and my students have endured my courses in criticism (where I discuss The Prisoner, blondness, professional wrestling, and teeth and hairstyles as signs, and explain how the Washington monument is a phallic symbol) with stoicism, skepticism, and a good-natured kind of puzzlement and bemusement.

  • Suggested Further Reading

    Abelove, H., Barale, M. A., & Halperin, D. (Eds.). (1993). The lesbian and gay studies reader. New York: Routledge.
    Adorno, T. W. (1967). Prisms (S.Weber & S.Weber, Trans.). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Adorno, T. W. (1991). The culture industry: Selected essays on mass culture. London: Routledge.
    Armstrong, N. (1987). Desire and domestic fiction: A political history of the novel. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Aronowitz, S. (1992). The politics of identity. New York: Routledge.
    Aronowitz, S. (1993). Dead artists, live theories and other cultural problems. New York: Routledge.
    Bakhtin, M. (1984). Rabelais and his world (H.Iswolsky, Trans.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Barker, M., & Beezer, A. (1992). Reading into cultural studies. London: Routledge.
    Barthes, R. (1970). Writing degree zero and elements of semiology (A.Lavers & C.Smith, Trans.). Boston: Beacon.
    Barthes, R. (1974). S/Z (R.Miller, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.
    Barthes, R. (1975). The pleasure of the text (R.Miller, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.
    Barthes, R. (1975). Roland Barthes by Roland Barthes (R.Howard, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.
    Barthes, R. (1978). A lover's discourse (R.Howard, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.
    Barthes, R. (1988). The semiotic challenge (R.Howard, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.
    Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine.
    Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations (P.Foss et al., Trans.). New York: Semiotext(e).
    Beilharz, P., Robinson, G., & Rundell, J. (1992). Between totalitarianism and post-modernity: A thesis eleven reader. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Benjamin, W. (1974). The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. In Mast, G., & Cohen, M. (Eds.), Film theory and criticism. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bennett, T., & Woollacott, J. (1987). Bond and beyond: The political career of a popular hero. New York: Methuen.
    Berger, A. A. (1973). The comic-stripped American. New York: Walker.
    Berger, A. A. (1984). Signs in contemporary culture: An introduction to semiotics. New York: Annenberg-Longman.
    Berger, A. A. (Ed.). (1987). Visual sociology and semiotics. Aachen, Germany: Edition Herodot.
    Berger, A. A. (1989). Seeing is believing: An introduction to visual communication. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
    Berger, A. A. (Ed.). (1990). Agitpop: Political culture and communication theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Berger, A. A. (1993). An anatomy of humor. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Berman, M. (1982). All that is solid melts into air: The experience of modernity. New York: Touchstone.
    Bernstein, R. J. (1992). The new constellation: The ethical-political horizons of modernity/postmodernity. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Bettelheim, B. (1976). The uses of enchantment: The meaning and importance of fairy tales. New York: Knopf.
    Bhabha, H. K. (1993). The location of culture. New York: Routledge.
    Bird, J., et al. (1993). Mapping the futures: Local cultures, global change. London: Routledge.
    Blau, H. (1992). To all appearances: Ideology and performance. London: Routledge.
    Bloom, C. (Ed.). (1993). Creepers: British horror and fantasy in the twentieth century. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society, and culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bowlby, R. (1993). Shopping with Freud: Items on consumerism, feminism and psychoanalysis. London: Routledge.
    Branigan, E. (1992). Narrative comprehension and film. New York: Routledge.
    Brenkman, J. (1993). Straight, male, modern: A cultural critique of psychoanalysis. New York: Routledge.
    Brown, M. E. (Ed.). (1990). Television and women's culture: The politics of the popular. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Buck-Morss, S. (1989). The dialectics of seeing: Walter Benjamin and the arcades project. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter. New York: Routledge.
    Carey, J. W. (Ed.). (1988). Media, myths, and narratives: Television and the press. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Clark, K., & Holmquist, M. (1984). Mikhail Bakhtin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Clarke, J. (1992). New times and old enemies: Essays on cultural studies and America. London: Routledge.
    Collins, J., Radner, H., & Collins, A. P. (Eds.). (1992). Film theory goes to the movies: Cultural analysis of contemporary film. New York: Routledge.
    Collins, R., Curran, J., Garnham, N., Scannell, P., Schlesinger, P., & Sparks, C. (Eds.). (1986). Media, culture and society: A critical reader. London: Sage.
    Cottom, D. (1989). Text and culture: The politics of interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Coward, R., & Ellis, J. (1977). Language and materialism: Developments in semiology and the theory of the subject. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Crane, D. (1992). The production of culture: Media and the urban arts. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Creed, B. (1993). The monstrous-feminine: Film, feminism, psychoanalysis. London: Routledge.
    Crimp, D. (Ed.). (1988). AIDS: Cultural analysis/cultural activism. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Crook, S., Pakulski, J., & Waters, M. (Eds.). (1992). Postmodernization: Change in advanced society. London: Sage.
    Cross, G. (1993). Time and money: The making of a consumer culture. London: Routledge.
    Culler, J. (1977). Ferdinand de Saussure. New York: Penguin.
    Culler, J. (1981). The pursuit of signs. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Culler, J. (1982). On deconstruction. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Davis, R. C., & Schleifer, R. (1991). Criticism and culture. London: Longman.
    de Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life (S.Rendall, Trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    de Certeau, M. (1986). Heterologies: Discourse on the other (B.Massumi, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    De Lauretis, T. (1984). Alice doesn't: Feminism, semiotics, cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    De Lauretis, T. (1987). Technologies of gender: Essays on theory, film and fiction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Denzin, N. K. (1991). Images of postmodern society: Social theory and contemporary cinema. London: Sage.
    Derrida, J. (1967). Of grammatology (G. C.Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Derrida, J. (1981). Positions (A.Bass, Trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Doane, M. A. (1987). The desire to desire: The woman's film of the 1940s. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Doane, M. A. (1991). Femmes fatales. New York: Routledge.
    Douglas, M. (1992). Risk and blame: Essays in cultural theory. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430866
    Dundes, A. (1987). Cracking jokes: Studies in sick humor cycles and stereotypes. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed.
    Dworkin, D. L., & Roman, L. G. (1992). Views beyond the border country: Raymond Williams and cultural politics. New York: Routledge.
    Dyer, R. (1993). The matter of images: Essays on representations. London: Routledge.
    Eagleton, T. (1976). Marxism and literary criticism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Eagleton, T. (1983). Literary theory: An introduction. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Easthope, A. (1991). Literary into cultural studies. London: Routledge.
    Ehrmann, J. (Ed.). (1970). Structuralism. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
    Elam, K. (1980). The semiotics of theatre and drama. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426074
    Ewen, S. (1976). Captains of consciousness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Ewen, S., & Ewen, E. (1992). Channels of desire: Mass images and the shaping of American consciousness (
    rev. ed.
    ). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Featherstone, M. (1991). Consumer culture and postmodernism. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212424
    Ferguson, R., Gever, M., Minh-ha, T. T., & West, C. (Eds.). (1990). Out there: Marginalization and contemporary cultures. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Fiske, J. (1989). Reading the popular. Winchester, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Fiske, J. (1989). Understanding popular culture. Winchester, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Fjellman, S. M. (1992). Vinyl leaves: Walt Disney World and America. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Franklin, S., Lury, C., & Stacey, J. (1992). Off-centre: Feminism and cultural studies. London: Routledge.
    Freud, S. (1957). Civilization and its discontents (J.Riviere, Trans.). London: Hogarth.
    Freud, S. (1963). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious (J.Strachey, Trans.). New York: W. W. Norton.
    Fry, W. F. (1968). Sweet madness: A study of humor. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific.
    Frye, N. (1957). Anatomy of criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Garber, M. (1993). Vested interests: Cross-dressing and cultural anxiety. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Garber, M., Matlock, J., & Walkowitz, R. (Eds.). (1993). Media spectacles. New York: Routledge.
    Garber, M., Parmar, P., & Greyson, J. (Eds.). (1993). Queer looks: Perspectives on lesbian and gay film and video. New York: Routledge.
    Glasgow Media Group. (1976). Bad news. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Glasgow Media Group. (1980). More bad news. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Goldstein, A., Jacob, M. J., Rorimer, A., & Singerman, H. (1989). A forest of signs: Art in the crisis of representation. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Greenblatt, S. J. (1992). Learning to curse: Essays in early modern culture. New York: Routledge.
    Gronbeck, B., Farrell, T. J., & Soukup, P. A. (Eds.). (1991). Media, consciousness, and culture: Explorations of Walter Ong's thought. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Grossberg, L. (1992). We gotta get out of this place: Popular conservatism and postmodern culture. New York: Routledge.
    Grossberg, L., Nelson, C., & Treichler, P. A. (Eds.). (1992). Cultural studies. New York: Routledge.
    Guiraud, P. (1975). Semiology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Gumbrecht, H. U. (1992). Making sense in life and literature (G.Burns, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Habermas, J. (1979). Communication and the evolution of society (T.McCarthy, Trans.). Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, J. (1987). The philosophical discourse on modernity: Twelve lectures (F. G.Lawrence, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Habermas, J. (1989). The new conservatism: Cultural criticism and the historians' debate (S. W.Nicholsen, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Haug, W. F. (1971). Critique of commodity aesthetics: Appearance, sexuality, and advertising in capitalist society (R.Bock, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Hoggart, R. (1992). The uses of literacy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Holland, N. (1975). Five readers reading. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Hoover, S. M. (1988). Mass media religion: The social sources of the electronic church. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hutcheon, L. (1989). The politics of postmodernism. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426050
    Jakobson, R. (1985). Verbal art, verbal sign, verbal time (K.Pomorska & S.Rudy, Eds.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Jameson, F. (1971). Marxism and form: Twentieth century dialectical theories of literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jameson, F. (1981). The political unconscious. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Jameson, F. (1992). The geopolitical aesthetic: Cinema and space in the world system. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Jameson, F. (1992). Signatures of the visible. New York: Routledge.
    Jauss, H. R. (1982). Aesthetic experience and literary hermeneutics (M.Shaw, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Jauss, H. R. (1982). Toward an aesthetic of reception (T.Bahti, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Jensen, J. (1990). Redeeming modernity: Contradictions in media criticism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Jhally, S., & Lewis, J. (1992). Enlightened racism: The Cosby Show, audiences, and the myth of the American dream. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Jones, S. (1992). Rock formation: Music, technology, and mass communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Jowett, G., & Linton, J. M. (1989). Movies as mass communication. Newbury Park: Sage.
    Kaplan, E. A. (1982). Motherhood and representation. London: Routledge.
    Kellner, D. (1992). The Persian Gulf TV war. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Korzenny, F., & Ting-Toomey, S. (Eds.). (1992). Mass media effects across cultures. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Larsen, N. (1989). Modernism and hegemony: A materialist critique of aesthetic agencies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Lavers, A. (1982). Roland Barthes: Structuralism and after. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Lipsitz, G. (1990). Time passages: Collective memory and American popular culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Lotman, J. M. (1976). Semiotics of cinema. Ann Arbor. Michigan Slavic Contributions.
    Lotman, J. M. (1991). Universe of the mind: A semiotic theory of culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Lyotard, J.-E (1984). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    MacCabe, C. (1985). Tracking the signifier: Theoretical essays on film, linguistics, and literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    MacCannell, D., & MacCannell, J. E (1982). The time of the sign: A semiotic interpretation of modern culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Mandel, E. (1985). Delightful murder: A social history of the crime story. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Massumi, B. (1992). A user's guide to capitalism and schizophrenia: Deviations from Deleuze and Guattari. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Mattelart, A., & Mattelart, M. (1992). Rethinking media theory (J. A.Cohen & M.Urquidi, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    McCarthy, T. (1991). Ideals and illusions: On reconstruction and deconstruction in contemporary critical theory. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    McClue, G. (1993). Dark knights: The new comics in context. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Mellencamp, P. (1990). Indiscretions: Avant-garde film, video and feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Mellencamp, P. (Ed.). (1990). Logics of television: Essays in cultural criticism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Metz, C. (1982). The imaginary signifier: Psychoanalysis and the cinema (C.Britton et al., Trans.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Mindess, H. (1971). Laughter and liberation. Los Angeles: Nash.
    Modleski, T. (1984). Loving with a vengeance: Mass-produced fantasies for women. New York: Routledge.
    Modleski, T. (Ed.). (1986). Studies in entertainment: Critical approaches to mass culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Modleski, T. (1988). The women who knew too much: Hitchcock and feminist theory. New York: Routledge.
    Mulvey, L. (1989). Visual and other pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Naremore, J., & Brantlinger, P. (Eds.). (1991). Modernity and mass culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Navarro, D. (Ed.). (1993, Summer). Postmodernism: Center and periphery [Special issue]. South Atlantic Quarterly.
    Nichols, B. (1981). Ideology and the image: Social representation in the cinema and other media. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Nichols, B. (1992). Representing reality: Issues and concepts in documentary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Penley, C. (1989). The future of an illusion: Film, feminism, and psychoanalysis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Piddington, R. (1963). The psychology of laughter. New York: Gamut.
    Powell, C., & Paton, G. E. C. (Eds.). (1988). Humor in society: Resistance and control. New York: St. Martin's.
    Prindle, D. F. (1993). Risky business: The political economy of Hollywood. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Propp, V. (1984). Theory and history of folklore (A. Y.Martin & R. P.Martin, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Ramet, S. P. (Ed.). (1993). Rocking the state: Rock music and politics in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Real, M. R. (1989). Supermedia: A cultural studies approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Reinelt, J. G., & Roach, J. R. (Eds.). (1993). Critical theory and performance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Richter, M., & Bakken, H. (1992). The cartoonist's muse: A guide to generating and developing creative ideas. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
    Rouch, I., & Carr, G. F. (Eds.). (1989). The semiotic bridge: Trends from California. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    Ryan, M., & Kellner, D. M. (1988). Camera politica: The politics and ideology of contemporary Hollywood film. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Sabin, R. (1993). Adult comics: An introduction. London: Routledge.
    Said, E. (1983). The world, the text, and the critic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Saint-Martin, F. (1990). Semiotics of visual language. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Schechner, R. (1993). The future of ritual: Writings on culture and performance. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359150
    Schneider, C., & Wallis, B. (Eds.). (1989). Global television. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Schostak, J. (1993). Dirty marks: The education of self, media and popular culture. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Schwichtenberg, C. (Ed.). (1992). The Madonna connection: Representational politics, subcultural identities, and cultural theory. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Sebeok, T. (Ed.). (1978). Sight, sound and sense. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Shukman, A. (1977). Literature and semiotics: A study of the writings of Yuri M. Lotman. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Smith, G. (Ed.). (1991). On Walter Benjamin: Critical essays and recollections. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Smith, P. (1988). Discerning the subject. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Spivak, G. C. (1992). Outside in the teaching machine. New York: Routledge.
    Staake, B. (1991). The complete book of caricature. Cincinnati, OH: North Light.
    Steidman, S. (1993). Romantic longings: Love in America 1830–1980. New York: Routledge.
    Szondi, P. (1986). On textual understanding (H.Mendelsohn, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Todorov, T. (1975). The fantastic: A structural approach to a literary genre (R.Howard, Trans.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Todorov, T. (1981). Introduction to poetics (R.Howard, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Todorov, T. (1984). Mikhail Bakhtin: The dialogical principle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Traube, E. G. (1992). Dreaming identities: Class, gender, and generation in 1980s Hollywood movies. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Turner, B. S. (1990). Theories of modernity and postmodernity. London: Sage.
    Wernick, A. (1991). Promotional culture. London: Sage.
    Willemen, P. (1993). Looks and frictions: Essays in cultural studies and film theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Williams, R. (1958). Culture and society: 1780–1950. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Williams, R. (1976). Keywords. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Williamson, J. (1978). Decoding advertisements: Ideology and meaning in advertising. London: Marion Boyars.
    Willis, P. (1990). Common culture: Symbolic work at play in the everyday cultures of the young. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Winick, C. (1968). The new people: Desexualization in American life. New York: Pegasus.
    Wollen, P. (1993). Raiding the icebox: Reflections on twentieth-century culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Wright, W. (1975). Sixguns and society: A structural study of the western. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Zizek, S. (1991). Looking awry: An introduction to Jacques Lacan through popular culture. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    References

    Abrams, M. H. (1958). The mirror and the lamp: Romantic theory and the critical tradition. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Abrams, M. H. (1989). The deconstructive angel. In R. C.Davis & R.Schleifer (Eds.), Contemporary literary criticism: Literary and cultural studies (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Longman.
    Adorno, T. W. (1948). Philosophy of modern music. New York: Seabury.
    Adorno, T. W. (1957). Television and the patterns of mass culture. In B.Rosenberg & D. M.White (Eds.), Mass culture: The popular arts in America. New York: Free Press.
    Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination (M.Holmquist, Ed.; C.Emerson & M.Holmquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies (A.Lavers, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.
    Barthes, R. (1982). Empire of signs (R.Howard, Trans.) New York: Hill & Wang.
    Benjamin, W. (1974). The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. In G.Mast & M.Cohen (Eds.), Film theory and criticism: Introductory readings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Berger, A. A. (1991). Media analysis techniques (
    rev. ed.
    ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Best, S., & Kellner, D. M. (1991). Postmodern theory: Critical interrogations. New York: Guilford.
    Brenner, C. (1974). An elementary textbook of psychoanalysis (
    rev. ed.
    ). Garden City, NY: Anchor.
    Cirksena, K. (1987). Politics and difference: Radical feminist epistemological premises for communication studies. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 11, 19–28.
    Culler, J. (1975). Structuralist poetics: Structuralism, linguistics, and the study of literature. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203449769
    Dorfman, A., & Mattelart, A. (1991). How to read Donald Duck: Imperialist ideology in the Disney comic (
    2nd ed.
    ) (D.Kunzle, Trans.). New York: International General.
    Douglas, J. D., Adler, P. A., Adler, P., Fontana, A., Freeman, C. R., & Kotarba, J. A. (1980). Introduction to the sociologies of everyday life. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Douglas, M. (1975). Implicit meanings: Essays in anthropology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Durkheim, É. (1951). Suicide. New York: Free Press.
    Durkheim, É. (1967). The elementary forms of the religious life. New York: Free Press.
    Eco, U. (1976). A theory of semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Eco, U. (1984). The role of the reader. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Eisenstein, S. (1947). Word and image. In S.Eisenstein, The film sense (J.Leyda, Ed. & Trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace.
    Eliade, M. (1961). The sacred and the profane: The nature of religion (W.Trask, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row.
    Engels, F. (1972). Socialism: Utopian and scientific. In R.Tucker (Ed.), The Marx-Engels reader. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Enzenberger, H. M. (1974). The consciousness industry: On literature, politics and the media. New York: Seabury.
    Fairchild, H. P. (Ed.). (1967). Dictionary of sociology and related terms. Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams.
    Featherstone, M. (1988). In pursuit of the postmodern: An introduction. In M.Featherstone (Ed.), Postmodernism [Special issue]. Theory, Culture & Society, 5, 195–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276488005002001
    Fiske, J., & Hartley, J. (1978). Reading television. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203356623
    Freud, S. (1933). New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (J.Strachey, Trans.). New York: W. W. Norton.
    Freud, S. (1953). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Freud, S. (1962). Civilization and its discontents. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Freud, S. (1963). The occurrence in dreams of material from fairy-tales. In S.Freud, Character and culture: Psychoanalysis applied to anthropology, mythology, folklore, literature, and culture in general (P.Rieff, Ed.). New York: Collier.
    Freud, S. (1965). The interpretation of dreams (J.Strachey, Trans.). New York: Avon.
    Fromm, E. (1957). The forgotten language: An introduction to the understanding of dreams, fairy tales and myths. New York: Grove.
    Fromm, E. (1980). The greatness and limitations of Freud's thought. New York: Mentor.
    Gaines, J. (1987). Women and representation: Can we enjoy alternative pleasure? In D.Lazere (Ed.), American media and mass culture: New left perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Gandelman, C. (1991). Reading pictures, viewing texts. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Gerbner, G. (1977). Comparative cultural indicators. In G.Gerbner (Ed.), Mass media politics in changing cultures. New York: John Wiley.
    Girard, R. (1991). A theatre of envy: William Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gitlin, T. (1989, July/August). Postmodernism defined, at last! Utne Reader, pp. 52–58, 61.
    Gramsci, A. (1957). The modern prince and other writings (L.Marks, Ed. & Trans.). New York: International.
    Grotjahn, M. (1966). Beyond laughter: Humor and the subconscious. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Haug, W. F. (1987). Commodity aesthetics: Ideology and culture. New York: International General.
    Hawkes, T. (1977). Structuralism and semiotics. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203443934
    Henderson, J. L. (1968). Ancient myths and modern man. In C. G.Jung (Ed.), Man and his symbols. New York: Dell.
    Hinsie, L., & Campbell, R. J. (1970). Psychiatric dictionary (
    4th ed.
    ). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Ingarden, R. (1968). Vom Erkennen des literarischen Kuntswerks. Tubingen, Germany: n.p.
    Iser, W. (1988). The reading process: A phenomenological approach. In D.Lodge (Ed.), Modern criticism and theory: A reader. White Plains, NY: Longman. (Original work published 1972)
    Jakobson, R. (1988). The metaphoric and metonymic poles. In D.Lodge (Ed.), Modern criticism and theory: A reader. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Jameson, F. (1972). The prison-house of language: A critical account of structuralism and Russian formalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jones, E. (1949). Hamlet and Oedipus. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Jung, C. G. (1968). Approaching the unconscious. In C. G.Jung (Ed.), Man and his symbols. New York: Dell.
    Kottak, C. P. (1987). Cultural anthropology (
    4th ed.
    ). New York: Random House.
    Lacan, J. (1966). Ecrits: A selection (A.Sheridan, Trans.). New York: W. W. Norton.
    Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Lazere, D. (1977). Mass culture, political consciousness and English studies. College English, 38, 755–766.
    Le Bon, G. (1960). The crowd: A study of the popular mind. New York: Viking. (Original work published 1895)
    Lefebvre, H. (1984). Everyday life in the modern world (S.Rabinovitch, Trans.). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1967). Structural anthropology. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Lotman, J. M. (1977). The structure of the artistic text. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Contributions.
    Lowery, S., & DeFleur, M. L. (1983). Milestones in mass communication research: Media effects. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Mannheim, K. (1936). Ideology and utopia: An introduction to the sociology of knowledge (L.Wirth & E.Shils, Trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace.
    Marx, K. (1963). Karl Marx: Early writings (T. B.Bottomore, Ed. & Trans.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Marx, K. (1964). Selected writings in sociology and social philosophy (T. B.Bottomore & M.Rubel, Eds.; T. B.Bottomore, Trans.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Marx, K. (1972). Capital. In R. C.Tucker (Ed.), The Marx-Engels reader. New York: W. W. Norton.
    McLuhan, M. (1951). The mechanical bride: Folklore of industrial man. Boston: Beacon.
    McLuhan, M. (1965). Understanding media: The extensions of man. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Merton, R. (1957). Social theory and social structure. New York: Free Press.
    Mueller, C. (1973). The politics of communication: A study in the political sociology of language, socialization and legitimation. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nason, S. (1992, April 21). Top 1% had greater net worth than bottom 90% of U.S. households by 1989. New York Times.
    Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence: A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 43–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcom.1974.24.issue-2
    Peirce, C. S. (1931–1935). The collected papers of C. S. Pierce (Vols. 1–6) (C.Hartshorne & P.Weiss, Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Peirce, C. S. (1958). The collected papers of C. S. Pierce (Vols. 7–8) (A. W.Burks, Ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Propp, V. (1968). The morphology of the folktale (
    2nd ed.
    ). Austin: University of Texas Press. (Original work published 1928)
    Pye, L. (1962). Politics, personality and nation building: Burma's search for identity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Saussure de, F. (1966). A course in general linguistics (W.Baskin, Trans.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Scholes, R. (1974). Structuralism in literature. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Schwartz, T. (1974). The responsive chord. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Sebeok, T. A. (Ed.). (1977). A perfusion of signs. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Shklovsky, V. (1989). Art as technique. In R. C.Davis & R.Schleifer (Eds.), Contemporary literary criticism: Literary and cultural studies (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Longman.
    Shorer, M. (1968). The necessity of myth. In H. A.Murray (Ed.), Myth and mythmaking. Boston: Beacon.
    Silverman, K. (1983). The subject of semiotics. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Smith, J. H., & Parks, E. W. (1951). The great critics: An anthology of literary criticism (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: W. W. Norton.
    Thompson, M., Ellis, R., & Wildavsky, A. B. (1990). Cultural theory. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Tocqueville de, A. (1956). Democracy in America (R. D.Heffner, Ed.). New York: Mentor.
    Tönnies, F. (1957). Community and society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft) (C. P.Loomis, Ed. & Trans.). East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. (Original work published 1887)
    von Franz, M.-L. (1968). The process of individuation. In C. G.Jung (Ed.), Man and his symbols. New York: Dell.
    Warner, W. L. (1953). American life: Dream and reality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wildavsky, A. B. (1989). Choosing preferences by constructing institutions: A cultural theory of preference formation. In A. A.Berger (Ed.), Political culture and public opinion. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Williams, R. (1977). Marxism and literature. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Wollen, P. (1973). Signs and meaning in the cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Zeyman, J. J. (1977). Peirce's theory of signs. In T. A.Sebeok (Ed.), A perfusion of signs. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Name Index

    • Abrams, M. H., 12, 13, 14, 25
    • Adorno, Theodor W., 6, 43, 44
    • Agamemnon, 110
    • Allen, Mitch, xi
    • Allen, Woody, 58
    • Althusser, Louis, 6, 29, 58
    • Aristotle, 10, 11, 33, 55, 140
    • Auden, W. H., 7, 103
    • Bakhtin, Mikhail, 2, 6, 35, 36, 91, 92, 142
    • Barthelme, Donald, 28
    • Barthes, Roland, 6, 29, 72, 84, 85, 142
    • Bartok, Bela, 27
    • Baudrillard, Jean, 28
    • Bazin, Andre, 6
    • Benjamin, Walter, 6, 65, 66
    • Bergman, Ingmar, 92
    • Berkeley, Busby, 31
    • Berkeley, George, 23, 81
    • Bluebeard, 131
    • Bond, James, 63, 84
    • Bourdieu, Pierre, 6
    • Braque, Georges, 27
    • Brecht, Bertolt, 6, 33
    • Brenner, Charles, 105, 107, 108, 110
    • Brooks, Cleanth, 19
    • Burroughs, William, 28
    • Byrne, David, 28
    • Campbell, R. J., 104, 106, 112
    • Cervantes, Miguel de, 142
    • Chandler, Raymond, 17
    • Chaplin, Charlie, 18
    • Christ, Jesus, 80
    • Cinderella, 24
    • Cirksena, Kathryn, 30
    • Comte, Auguste, 134
    • Crane, Diana, 3
    • Craze, Sophy, xi
    • Culler, Jonathan, 97, 98
    • DeFleur, Melvin L., 153
    • DeLillo, Don, 28
    • Derrida, Jacques, 2, 4, 6, 24, 25, 28, 142
    • Descartes, René, 81
    • Dietrich, Marlene, 31
    • Disney, Walt, 62
    • Dorfman, Ariel, 62
    • Dostoyevsky, F. M., 142
    • Douglas, Jack D., 163
    • Douglas, Mary, 6, 123
    • Durante, Jimmy, 138
    • Durkheim, Émile, 6, 144, 148
    • Echo, 116
    • Eco, Umberto, 6, 24, 76, 83, 142
    • Eisenstein, Sergei, 6, 37, 38
    • Electra, 110
    • Eliade, Mircea, 122, 123, 149
    • Eliot, T. S., 27
    • Ellis, Richard, 146
    • Empson, William, 6
    • Engels, Friedrich, 42
    • Eyck, Jan Van, 80
    • Fairchild, H. P., 136
    • Faulkner, William, 27
    • Featherstone, Mike, 27
    • Fisher, Lucy, 31
    • Fiske, John, 49
    • Fleiss, Wilhem, 108
    • Foucault, Michel, 2, 6, 28, 142
    • Freud, Sigmund, 2, 6, 31, 78, 88, 102, 103, 104–121, 131, 132, 142
    • Fromm, Erich, 113, 117, 118
    • Frye, Northrop, 6
    • Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 6
    • Gaines, Jane, 31
    • Gandelman, Claude, 80, 81
    • Garbo, Greta, 84
    • Geertz, Clifford, 6
    • Gerbner, George, 149–150, 151
    • Gershwin, George, 161
    • Girard, René, 14, 15, 57
    • Gitlin, Todd, 28
    • Glass, Philip, 28
    • Gramsci, Antonio, 6, 63
    • Graves, Michael, 28
    • Gray, Spalding, 28
    • Greenberg, Clement, 44
    • Greimas, A. J., 6
    • Grotjahn, Martin, 110, 111
    • Hall, Stuart, 6
    • Hammett, Dashiell, 17
    • Harbermas, Jürgen, 6
    • Hartley, John, 49
    • Haug, Wolfgang, 52, 53, 54, 66
    • Hawkes, Terence, 83
    • Headroom, Max, 28
    • Hegel, G. W. F., 142
    • Henderson, Joseph L., 127
    • Heracles, 110
    • Hermes, 20
    • Herzog, Herta, 6
    • Hinsie, L., 104, 106, 112
    • Hockney, David, 28
    • Hoggart, Richard, 6
    • Homer, 66
    • Horkheimer, Max, 6, 43
    • Hume, David, 140
    • Ingarden, Roman, 23
    • Innis, H., 6
    • Iser, Wolfgang, 22
    • Isuzu, Joe, 28
    • Jakobson, Roman, 6, 86, 88, 89, 98, 142
    • Jameson, Frederic, 6, 33, 34
    • Jauss, Hans Robert, 22
    • Jekels, Ludwig, 110
    • Jocasta, 110
    • Johnson, Mark, 86, 87
    • Johnson, Philip, 28
    • Jones, Ernest, 110, 112
    • Jowett, Garth S., ix–x, xi
    • Joyce, James, 27, 42
    • Jung, Carl, 6, 77, 125, 126, 128, 131
    • Kafka, Franz, 27, 42
    • Kant, Immanuel, 140, 142
    • Kottak, Conrad Phillip, 136
    • Krazy Kat, 161
    • Lacan, Jacques, 6, 112
    • Lakoff, George, 86, 87
    • Lazere, Donald, 59
    • Le Bon, Gustav, 153, 154
    • Lefebvre, Henri, 164
    • Levine, Sherrie, 28
    • Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 6, 29, 83, 93, 95, 97, 98, 99, 123, 142
    • Locke, John, 140
    • Lotman, Yuri, 6, 16, 142
    • Lowery, Shearon, 153
    • Lyotard, Jean-François, 28
    • Man, Paul de, 142
    • Mann, Thomas, 27
    • Mannheim, Karl, 59, 60
    • Marcuse, Herbert, 6, 43
    • Marx, Karl, 2, 6, 7, 40, 42, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 142, 152
    • Matisse, Henri, 27
    • Mattelart, Armand, 62
    • McLuhan, Marshall, 6, 57, 155, 165
    • Merton, Robert, 147
    • Miller, Hillis, 25
    • Molière, 82, 83
    • Mueller, Claus, 58
    • Musil, Robert, 27
    • Narcissus, 116, 119
    • Nason, S., 48
    • Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth, 152
    • Orestes, 110
    • Pavlov, Ivar, 37
    • Peirce, C. S., 6, 74, 75, 79, 83
    • Picasso, Pablo, 27, 42
    • Pirandello, Luigi, 27
    • Plato, 140
    • Pope, Alexander, 58
    • Poulet, Georges, 21
    • Propp, Vladimir, 6, 94, 95, 96, 99, 126, 127
    • Proust, Marcel, 27, 142
    • Pye, Lucian, 67
    • Rauschenberg, Robert, 28
    • Renoir, Jean, 93
    • Riegl, Alois, 80, 81
    • Rivers, Larry, 28
    • Saussure, Ferdinand de, 2, 6, 25, 37, 74, 76, 77, 78, 83, 89, 90, 95, 98, 121, 124, 142, 148
    • Schoenberg, Arnold, 27
    • Scholes, Robert, 35
    • Schramm, Wilbur, 6
    • Schwartz, Tony, 156
    • Shakespeare, William, 14, 15, 92, 111, 137
    • Shklovsky, Viktor, 6, 33, 34
    • Shorer, Mark, 122
    • Silverman, Kaja, 57
    • Sinatra, Frank, 28
    • Spinoza, Baruch, 140
    • Stravinsky, Igor, 27
    • Swift, Jonathan, 8
    • Tharp, Twyla, 28
    • Thompson, Michael, 146
    • Tocqueville, Alexis de, 49
    • Todorov, Tzvetan, 142
    • Tönnies, Ferdinand, 153
    • Tracy, Dick, 15
    • Turin, Maureen, 31
    • Turner, Victor, 6
    • von Franz, M.-L., 128, 130
    • Vytgofsky, L. S., 6
    • Warhol, Andy, 28
    • Warner, W. Lloyd, 48
    • Warren, Robert Penn, 19
    • Weber, Max, 6
    • West, Nathanael, 48
    • Wildavsky, Aaron, 68, 69, 146
    • Williams, Raymond, 63, 64
    • Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 6
    • Wolfe, Tom, 28
    • Wollen, Peter, 37, 93, 94
    • Zeyman, J. J., 75

    About the Author

    Arthur Asa Berger is Professor of Broadcast & Electronic Communication Arts at San Francisco State University, where he has taught since 1965. He has written extensively on popular culture, the mass media, and related concerns. Among his many books are Media Analysis Techniques (revised edition, 1991), Agitpop: Political Culture and Communication Theory (1990), Seeing Is Believing (1989), Popular Culture Genres (1992), and An Anatomy of Humor (Transaction, 1993). He is a film and television review editor for Society magazine, editor of a series of reprints, “Classics in Communications,” for Transaction Books, and a consulting editor for Humor magazine. He has appeared on 20/20 and The Today Show, and appears frequently on various local television and radio programs in the San Francisco area. Cultural Criticism is his twenty-fourth book and sixth book for Sage Publications.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website