Critical Thinking and Reflection for Mental Health Nursing Students
Publication Year: 2015
Need 1 Mental health nursing students need to develop a critical and self-critical approach in order to help those in their care Features The book starts with the basics and carefully builds critical thinking and reflection skills Benefits Students will be able to steadily increase their knowledge and apply it to their practice
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Critical thinking
- Chapter 2: Critical reflection
- Chapter 3: Developing critical mental health practice
- Chapter 4: Self and values
- Chapter 5: Others and difference
- Chapter 6: Interventions and involvement
- Chapter 7: Academic standards
- Chapter 8: Critical evaluation
- Chapter 9: Critical writing
An imprint of SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
© Marc Roberts 2015
First published 2015
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015948016
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4739-1312-7 (pbk)
Editor: Alex Clabburn
Development editor: Eleanor Rivers
Production controller: Chris Marke
Project management: Swales & Willis Ltd, Exeter, Devon
Marketing manager: Tamara Navaratnam
Cover design: Wendy Scott
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
Transforming Nursing Practice[Page vi]
Transforming Nursing Practice is a series tailor-made for pre-registration student nurses. Each book in the series is:
- Mapped to the NMC Standards and Essential Skills Clusters
- Full of active learning features
- Focused on applying theory to practice
Each book addresses a core topic and they have been carefully developed to be simple to use, quick to read and written in clear language.Core Knowledge Titles
Becoming a Registered Nurse: Making the Transition to Practice
Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Nursing (3rd Ed)
Contexts of Contemporary Nursing (2nd Ed)
Getting into Nursing (2nd Ed)
Health Promotion and Public Health for Nursing Students (2nd Ed)
Introduction to Medicines Management in Nursing Law and Professional Issues in Nursing (3rd Ed)
Leadership, Management and Team Working in Nursing (2nd Ed)
Learning Skills for Nursing Students
Medicines Management in Children's Nursing
Nursing and Collaborative Practice (2nd Ed)
Nursing and Mental Health Care
Nursing in Partnership with Patients and Carers
Passing Calculations Tests for Nursing Students (3rd Ed)
Palliative and End of Life Care in Nursing
Patient Assessment and Care Planning in Nursing (2nd Ed)
Patient and Carer Participation in Nursing
Patient Safety and Managing Risk in Nursing
Psychology and Sociology in Nursing (2nd Ed)
Successful Practice Learning for Nursing Students (2nd Ed)
Understanding Ethics in Nursing Practice
Using Health Policy in Nursing
What is Nursing? Exploring Theory and Practice (3rd Ed)Personal and Professional Learning Skills Titles
Clinical Judgement and Decision Making for Nursing Students (2nd Ed)
Critical Thinking and Writing for Nursing Students (3rd Ed)
Evidence-based Practice in Nursing (2nd Ed)
Information Skills for Nursing Students
Reflective Practice in Nursing (3rd Ed)
Succeeding in Essays, Exams & OSCEs for Nursing Students
Succeeding in Literature Reviews and Research Project Plans for Nursing Students (2nd Ed)
Successful Professional Portfolios for Nursing Students (2nd Ed)
Understanding Research for Nursing Students (2nd Ed)Mental Health Nursing Titles
Assessment and Decision Making in Mental Health Nursing
Engagement and Therapeutic Communication in Mental Health Nursing
Medicines Management in Mental Health Nursing
Mental Health Law in Nursing
Physical Healthcare and Promotion in Mental Health Nursing
Psychosocial Interventions in Mental Health NursingAdult Nursing Titles
Acute and Critical Care in Adult Nursing
Caring for Older People in Nursing
Medicines Management in Adult Nursing
Nursing Adults with Long Term Conditions (2nd Ed)
Safeguarding Adults in Nursing Practice
Dementia Care in Nursing
You can find more information on each of these titles and our other learning resources at www.sagepub.co.uk. Many of these titles are also available in various e-book formats, please visit our website for more information.
When I started out as a mental health nursing student in the 1980s I had a naive expectation that everything that went on in the care of mental health patients was the best quality, the most effective and the best for the patient. It did not take me long to realise that, in this ever-increasingly complex world of mental health, this was not the case. It was only over time though, as I developed my ability to think critically and not accept at face value the information that comes from all sources around you as a nurse, that I became a more competent practitioner. It is not that long ago, historically speaking, that we were advocating deep insulin comas, ice-cold baths and other, now considered barbaric, practices in an effort to help people manage their mental health. If people had not questioned these practices perhaps they would still be in use today. Critical thinking is one of the most essential development tools you can foster; it is extremely important for the safety of patients in making sure that the care they receive is the least restrictive and truly effective for them.
A particular area of concern in mental health care is the social control element of the service. This is long-standing and it is here, often, that we still see questionable practice ‘done to’ people despite clear indications from them that this is not what they need. The very existence of the Mental Health Act is often challenged and at odds with some of the Human Rights Act. In these complex times the art of thinking critically is ever more important and Critical Thinking and Reflection for Mental Health Nursing Students provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.
This book not only introduces you to the concept of critical thinking, reflection and practice – it also encourages you to think more widely about the idea of ‘other’. Through the sensitively created exercises throughout the book you are encouraged to think more deeply about many contentious issues, including the role of the media in perpetuating prejudice, and how stigma is often inherent in our practice in the ‘us and them’ attitude we can find ourselves taking without thinking. The author encourages us to consider ways in which we can address this stigma when we notice it in both ourselves, via closer observation of self-awareness practices, and others, by challenging it in gentle but effective ways.
If you are a student nurse, a newly qualified nurse or even a nurse of some years’ standing looking for tips to update your portfolio of skills, Critical Thinking and Reflection for Mental Health Nursing Students will stand you in good stead for practice. It can be read as a whole, but can also be dipped into section by section as you come across situations in your journey that warrant further exploration or practice of that particular subject. Engaging with this book will help you to become a more effective practitioner of the art of mental health nursing, enhancing your ability to provide effective care for people of diverse backgrounds and needs as well as enhancing your ability to write academically.
In the opening sentence of this book, the author states that there has never been a more exciting time to become a mental health nurse. I believe he is right.Series Editor
About the Author
I would like to thank Becky Taylor for her work in commissioning this book, Eleanor Rivers for her valuable contributions throughout its development and Sandra Walker for her supportive reading of the original drafts. In addition, I wish to thank Robin Ion and the staff and students at the Centre of Excellence in Mental Health Nursing and Counselling at Abertay University, Dundee for the stimulating critical questions and discussions about all aspects of contemporary mental health care that inspired the present work. Finally, I would like to thank Philippa, Ruth and John for their encouragement, support and patience throughout the writing process.
the condition of being answerable and responsible for one's actions and decisions.
the process of change that occurs when an individual or group from one culture encounters an individual or group from other cultures.
relating to art, beauty and creativity.
relating to moods, feelings and attitudes.
relating to the study of humankind, and especially the origins and development of past and present cultures and societies.
relating to autocracy and the political principle that the decisions that affect a group of people should be made by one person.
the right, condition or capacity to make decisions and act in a manner that is free from undue control, constraint and influence.
the principle and practice of acting in a way that seeks to benefit others and ensure good.
relating to intellectual activity, such as analysing, reasoning and remembering.
the principle and practice of pursuing and obtaining material goods, products and services.
in the context of person-centred therapy and interpersonal communication more generally, the conditions or qualities that are considered necessary to establish therapeutic relationships and bring about therapeutic change (i.e. empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard).
the practice of systematically thinking about a piece of information in order to determine its worth and importance.
relating to democracy and the political principle that the decisions that affect a group of people should be made by those people.
the practice of treating a person or people less favourably because they possess, or are perceived as possessing, a particular characteristic.
in the context of medication, the explanation that psychiatric drugs work by targeting specific underlying disease processes.
in contrast to the disease-centred model, the explanation that psychiatric drugs produce a range of altered mental and physical states that may have both a negative and positive effect on the person and the symptoms associated with mental distress.
the condition of thinking, feeling and acting from one's own perspective without giving due consideration to alternative perspectives.
the practice of giving concrete form and expression to an idea, quality or disposition.
relating to observation, experience and experiment.[Page 131]
standards of right and wrong conduct and also a branch of philosophy that is concerned with questioning, analysing and reasoning about what is right and wrong conduct.
the explicit use of the best current evidence when considering which interventions and treatments to provide to those who use health care services.
relating to questions, issues and problems surrounding human existence, particularly the purpose, direction and meaning of one's life.
the quality of being similar or the same.
a belief in the worth of the individual and the right of each individual to decide and pursue what is in his or her best interests.
the perpetuation of negative attitudes and unequal treatment by an institution towards a person or people based on their race.
Leading by example:
the practice of consistently acting in a way that sets a desirable standard for others to emulate and follow.
the political principle and practice of protecting and enhancing the rights, freedom and liberty of the individual.
the principle and practice of using professional managers to plan and administer the activities of a group of individuals. It is associated with the importance of setting targets, and obtaining those targets with maximum efficiency.
relating to the forms of communication that are designed to reach large numbers of people, such as television, films and newspapers.
the practice of performing certain competencies in such a way that one's actions can serve as an example, standard or model from which others can learn. It can also refer to the practice of learning from others by observing the manner in which they perform certain competencies.
the condition or practice of relating to events, and one's thoughts and feelings about those events, in a calm, composed and balanced manner.
the principle and practice of acting in a way that does not harm others.
beliefs, attitudes and behaviors that are considered normal in a particular group, culture or society.
questions which cannot be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ and therefore enable a person to ‘open up’ and respond to a question in detail.
a collection of assumptions, concepts and theories that form a framework by which to understand an aspect of the world or the world more generally.
the practice of restating something that has been written or spoken using different words.
the principle and practice of limiting, obstructing or overriding the freedom, self-determination and autonomy of others.
relating to the evaluation of a person's work by others who work in that area and possess a similar level of expertise.
the practice of using someone else's words, thoughts and ideas and, intentionally or unintentionally, presenting them as your own.[Page 132]
the practice of prescribing ‘multiple’ medications (commonly understood as four or more) to the same individual.
a preconceived and often negative opinion about others that is formed without good reason.
Qualitative research methodologies:
research frameworks or approaches – such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and case studies – that are adopted to carry out research into people's experiences and the quality of those experiences.
Quantitative research methodologies:
research frameworks or approaches – such as randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies – that are adopted to obtain measurable or quantifiable data.
Randomised controlled trial:
a research experiment in which participants are randomly assigned to receive one of two or more treatment interventions to determine the usefulness of those interventions.
the process by which a person thinks about his or her activity while in the midst of it.
the process by which a person thinks about his or her activity after it has finished.
the right, condition or capacity to decide what is in one's best interests and act in a manner that is free from undue control, constraint and influence.
relating to the set of beliefs, behaviours and expectations associated with being sick that are placed upon someone or that an individual may adopt.
in the context of health care, the physical indications of the potential presence of disease or disorder.
the social and economic conditions that affect, influence and determine the health of individuals.
relating to a fixed and oversimplified image or idea about an individual or a group.
a characteristic that is judged to be unwanted and shameful and the disapproval of a person because he or she possesses, or is perceived as possessing, this characteristic.
the subjective experiences and feelings about the potential presence of disease or disorder that a person may report to health care professionals.
relating to technocracy and the political principle that the decisions that affect a group of people should be made by individuals who possess technical knowledge and expertise.
the practice of recognising and working with one's personal values, professional values and the values of those who use health care services when considering which interventions and treatments to provide.
References[Page 133]2009 ) Services for older people with mental health conditions, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 486–92., & (1995 ) Can there be an ethics of care? Journal of Medical Ethics, 21(1): 19–24.(2011 ) Age discrimination in mental health services needs to be understood. The Psychiatrist, 35(1): 1–4.(1993 ) Recovery from mental illness: the guiding vision of the mental health system in the 1990s. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(4): 11–23.(APA (American Psychiatric Association) ( 2013 ) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.2013 ) Mindfulness at Work: Flourishing in the workplace. Lewes: Leaping Hare Press.(2015 ) A Beginner's Guide to Critical Thinking and Writing in Health and Social Care, 2nd edition. Maidenhead: Open University Press., , & (2012 ) Mental Health Law in England and Wales: A guide for mental health professionals, 2nd edition. London: Sage/Learning Matters., , & (2009a ) The nature of nursing, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 3–11.(2009b ) Psychiatric nursing, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp 123–32.(2009 ) Getting personal: being human in mental health care, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 12–20., & (1981 ) Breaking the circuit of control, in (ed) Critical Psychiatry: The politics of mental health. Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 184–92.(2000 ) The philosophical basis of psychiatric ethics, in , & (eds) Psychiatric Ethics, 4th edition. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 25–48.(2001 ) Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 5th edition. New York: Oxford University Press., & (1979 ) Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: The Guilford Press., , , & (2008 ) Age Discrimination in Mental Health Services. Canterbury: PSSRU., , , , , , , , & (2010 ) DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness. Journal of Mental Health, 19(4): 318–27., , & (2004 ) Madness Explained: Psychosis and human nature. London: Penguin.(2010 ) Doctoring the Mind: Why psychiatric treatments fail. London: Penguin.(2010 ) A Straight Talking Introduction to Being a Mental Health Service User. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.(2013 ) Beyond the Usual Suspects: Towards inclusive user involvement. London: Shaping Our Lives.(2007 ) Baby boomers and adult ageing: issues for social and public policy. Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, 8(3): 32–40., , , & (2014 ) Risk, Safety and Recovery. London: Centre for Mental Health and Mental Health Network, NHS Confederation., & (2014 ) Reflective Practice: Writing and professional development, 4th edition. London: Sage.(1970 ) Reach, Touch and Teach. New York: McGraw-Hill. [Page 134](1985 ) Promoting reflection in learning: a model, in , , & (eds) Reflection: Turning experience into learning. London: Kogan Page, pp. 18–40., , & (1992 ) Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1983 ) Reflective learning: key to learning from experience. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23(2): 99–117., & (2002 ) Schizophrenia: A scientific delusion, 2nd edition. London: Routledge.(2012 ) Diagnosis, in , , & (eds) This is Madness: A critical look at psychiatry and the future of mental health services. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books, pp. 75–90.(2001 ) Postpsychiatry: a new direction for mental health. British Medical Journal, 322: 724–7., & (1993 ) Toxic Psychiatry. London: Fontana.(2001 ) Developing Critical Thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(2013 ) Reflective Practice in Nursing, 5th edition. Chichester: John Wiley., & (eds) (2011 ) Mental Illness. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2013 ) What do patients find helpful in psychotherapy? Implications for the therapeutic relationship in mental health nursing. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 20(9): 782–91., , & (2013 ) Service users/survivors and mental health services, in , , & (eds) Psychology, Mental Health and Distress. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 139–51.(Care Quality Commission ( 2015 ) Monitoring the Mental Health Act in 2013/14. London: HMSO.1978 ) Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(1): 13–23.(2003 ) Personality Disorder: Temperament or trauma? London: Jessica Kingsley.(1977 ) On Our Own. London: Mind.(1972 ) Women and Madness. New York: Doubleday.(1999 ) Recovery: An alien concept. Gloucester: Handsell Publishing.(1967 ) Psychiatry and Anti-Psychiatry. London: Tavistock Publications.(2008 ) Essential Research Findings in Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage.(2011 ) Pluralistic Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage., & (2008 ) Gender, in , & (eds) Critical Issues in Mental Health. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 91–107.(2009 ) Brilliant Writing Tips for Students. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2011 ) Critical Thinking Skills: Developing effective analysis and argument, 2nd edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2000 ) Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health. Social Science and Medicine, 50: 1385–1401.(2013a ) Disordered personalities? in , , & (eds) Psychology, Mental Health and Distress. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 308–38., , & (2013b ) From disorder to experience, in , , & (eds) Psychology, Mental Health and Distress. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 3–18., , & (2009 ) The person with a diagnosis of personality disorder, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 244–51., & (2000 ) Mad Pride: A celebration of mad culture. London: Spare Change Books., , , & (eds) (2012 ) Suicide and Self-Harm: An evidence-informed approach. London: Quay Books., & (2015/1949 ) The Second Sex. London: Vintage.(1988 ) Recovery: the lived experience of rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11(4): 11–19. [Page 135](2000/1972 ) Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. London: Athlone., & (2014 ) Clarifying misconceptions about compassionate care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(8): 1738–47., , , , & (1997/1938 ) Experience and Education. New York: Simon & Schuster.(2012/1910 ) How We Think. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino Publishing.(DH (Department of Health) ( 2004 ) The Ten Essential Shared Capabilities: A framework for the whole of the mental health workforce. London: Department of Health.DH (Department of Health) ( 2006 ) From Values to Action: The Chief Nursing Officer's review of mental health nursing. London: Department of Health.DH (Department of Health) ( 2009 ) Living Well With Dementia: A national dementia strategy. London: Department of Health.DH (Department of Health) ( 2011a ) No Health Without Mental Health: A cross-government mental health outcomes strategy for people of all ages. London: Department of Health.DH (Department of Health) ( 2011b ) Talking Therapies: A four year plan of action. London: Department of Health.DH (Department of Health) ( 2012 ) Compassion in Practice: Nursing, midwifery and care staff – our vision and strategy. London: Department of Health.DH (Department of Health) ( 2014 ) Closing the Gap: Priorities for essential change in mental health. London: Department of Health.DH (Department of Health) ( 2015a ) Mental Health Act 1983: Code of practice. London: The Stationery Office.DH (Department of Health) ( 2015b ) Reference Guide to the Mental Health Act 1983. London: The Stationery Office.2010 ) Gender and self-reported mental health problems: predictors of help seeking from a general practitioner. The British Journal of Health Psychology, 15: 213–28., & (2014 ) The Skilled Helper: A problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping, 10th edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.(2009 ) Mental health inequalities and mental health nursing. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 16(8): 762–71., & (1962 ) Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.(2015 ) Language and Power, 3rd edition. London: Routledge.(2001/1961 ) The Wretched of the Earth. London: Penguin.(2002 ) User-led research and evidence-based medicine. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(1): 1–3., & (2008 ) Institutional racism and cultural diversity, in , & (eds) Critical Issues in Mental Health. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 41–57.(2010 ) Mental Health, Race and Culture, 3rd edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2001/1961 ) Madness and Civilization: A history of insanity in the age of reason. London: Routledge.(2005/1966 ) The Order of Things: An archaeology of the human sciences. London: Routledge.(2007 ) Facts/values: Ten principles of values-based medicine, in (ed) The Philosophy of Psychiatry: A companion. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 205–34.(2008 ) Values-based practice: a new partner to evidence-based practice and a first for psychiatry? Mens Sana Monograhs, 6(1): 10–21.(2012 ) Essential Values-Based Practice: Clinical stories linking science with people. New York: Cambridge University Press., , & (2004 ) Therapy Culture: Cultivating vulnerability in an uncertain age. London: Routledge.(1997 ) Closing the gap between research and practice. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171: 220–5. [Page 136], & (1988 ) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic.(1982 ) In a Different Voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2011 ) Writing for Nursing and Midwifery Students, 2nd edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(1961 ) Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. New York: Doubleday Anchor.(1963 ) Stigma: Notes on the management of a spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(2014 ) How to Read a Paper: The basics of evidence-based medicine, 5th edition. Chichester: John Wiley.(2015 ) Borderline Personality Disorder: New perspectives on a stigmatizing and overused diagnosis. Santa Barbara: Praeger., & (1995 ) Users’ guide to the medical literature: IX. A method for grading health care recommendations. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274(22): 1800–4., , , , , & (2013 ) Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime: How big pharma has corrupted healthcare. London: Radcliffe Publishing.(1952 ) The Language of Morals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Health Committee ( 2014 ) Children's and adolescents’ mental health and CAMHS. London: The Stationery Office.Health & Social Care Information Centre ( 2014 ) Inpatients Formally Detained in Hospitals Under the Mental Health Act 1983, and Patients Subject to Supervised Community Treatment: Annual report, England, 2013/14. London: Health & Social Care Information Centre.2012 ) On critical thinking. The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 4: 11–18.(2008 ) Media: reframing the debates, in , & (eds) Critical Issues in Mental Health. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 195–212.(2010 ) The Mark of Shame: Stigma of mental illness and an agenda for change. New York: Oxford University Press.(2011 ) Lone voices have an emotional content: focussing on mental health service user and carer involvement. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 24(2): 164–77., , , , , , & (2010 ) Cultural Awareness in Nursing and Health Care: An introductory text, 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press., & (2001 ) How using the DSM causes damage: a client's report. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41(4): 36–56., & (2013 ) Reflective Practice in Nursing, 2nd edition. London: Sage/Learning Matters.(1981 ) Understanding ‘mental illness’, in (ed) Critical Psychiatry: The politics of mental health. Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 23–71.(2002 ) The British reaction to dementia praecox 1893–1913. Part 1. History of Psychiatry, 13: 285–304., & (2003 ) Foundations in Nursing and Health Care: Beginning reflective practice. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.(2006 ) Reflection and reflective practice, in (ed) Professional Development, Reflection and Decision-Making. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 39–80. [Page 137](JCPMH (Joint Commissioning Panel for Mental Health) ( 2014 ) Guidance for Commissioners of Mental Health Services for People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities. London: JCPMH.2004 ) Becoming a Reflective Practitioner, 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.(2000 ) Users and Abusers of Psychiatry: A critical look at psychiatric practice, 2nd edition. London: Routledge.(2008 ) Psychiatric diagnosis, in , & (eds) Critical Issues in Mental Health. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 5–22.(2013 ) Diagnosis and formulation, in , , & (eds) Psychology, Mental Health and Distress. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 101–17.(2014 ) A Straight Talking Introduction to Psychiatric Diagnosis. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.(2013 ) Psychological therapies, in , , & (eds) Psychology, Mental Health and Distress. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 173–9., & (1999 ) Critical reflective inquiry for knowledge development in nursing practice. Journal of Advance Nursing, 29(5): 1205–12.(1984 ) Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1960 ) The Divided Self. London: Tavistock Publications.(2009 ) Ethics and nursing, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 607–17.(2007 ) Social determinants of mental health: the missing dimensions of mental health nursing? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14(7): 661–9., , & (2013 ) Mad Matters: A critical reader in Canadian mad studies. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press., , & (eds) (2001 ) Conceptualizing stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27: 363–85., & (1997 ) Aliens and Alienists: Ethnic minorities and psychiatry, 3rd edition. London: Routledge., & (2002 ) The dodo bird verdict is alive and well – mostly. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(1): 2–12., , , , , , , & (2002 ) Othering and psychiatric nursing. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 9(1): 87–96.(1999 ) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report of an inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny. London: The Stationery Office.(2010 ) Research Methods for Nursing and Healthcare. Harlow: Pearson Education., , , & (2008 ) A review of evidence-based practice, nursing research and reflection: levelling the hierarchy. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(2): 214–23.(1988 ) Against Therapy: Emotional tyranny and the myth of psychological healing. New York: Atheneum.(2009 ) Evidence-based practice in mental health, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 30–6.(2007 ) Institutional racism in mental health care. British Medical Journal, 334: 649–50., & (2012 ) Values-based practice, in , , & (eds) Handbook of Mental Health Nursing. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 55–72., , & (Mental Health Foundation ( 2009 ) All Things Being Equal: Age equality in mental health care for older people in England. London: Mental Health Foundation.1991 ) Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(2013 ) The Philosophical Life: Twelve great thinkers and the search for wisdom, from Socrates to Nietzsche. London: Oneworld Publications.(2013 ) The Therapy Industry: The irresistible rise of the talking cure, and why it doesn't work. London: Pluto Press. [Page 138](2008 ) The Myth of the Chemical Cure: A critique of psychiatric drug treatment. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2013 ) Psychiatric medication, in , , & (eds) Psychology, Mental Health and Distress. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 160–8.(2009 ) How do psychiatric drugs work? British Medical Journal, 338: 1535–7., & (2013 ) The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medication: the elephant in the room. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(5): 409–15., , & (2006 ) Images of Organization, 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2013 ) Risk Decision-Making: Working with risk and implementing positive risk-taking. Hove: Pavilion.(2014 ) Nursing Research: An introduction, 2nd edition. London: Sage., & (2013 ) Mental Health Law in Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters., & (NIMHE (National Institute for Mental Health in England) ( 2003 ) Inside Outside: Improving mental health services for black and minority ethnic communities in England. Leeds: NIMHE.NMC (Nursing & Midwifery Council) ( 2010 ) Standards for Pre-registration Nursing Education. London: NMC.NMC (Nursing & Midwifery Council) ( 2015 ) The Code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses and midwifes. London: NMC.1984 ) Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(2011 ) Psychotherapy Relationships That Work: Evidence-based responsiveness, 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press.(ed) (Norfolk, Suffolk & Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority ( 2003 ) Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett. Cambridge: Norfolk, Suffolk & Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority.NSUN (National Service User Network) ( 2015a ) Involvement for Influence: The 4Pi standards for involvement. London: NSUN.NSUN (National Service User Network) ( 2015b ) The Language of Mental Wellbeing. London: NSUN.2009 ) Providing culturally safe care, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 635–43., , & (2010 ) Evidence based practice and its critics: what is a nurse manager to do? Journal of Nursing Management, 18(1): 90–5., , & (2013 ) Academic Writing and Grammar for Students. London: Sage.(2007 ) Institutional racism in mental health services does not imply racism in individual psychiatrists: commentary on … Institutional racism in psychiatry. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31: 367–8., & (2014 ) Critical Thinking: Tools for taking charge of your professional and personal life, 2nd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education., & (2012 ) The Student's Guide to Writing: Spelling, punctuation and grammar, 3rd edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., & (2014 ) Cross-cultural communication, in (ed) Engagement and Therapeutic Communication in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters, pp. 98–112.(2010 ) Making Drama Out of a Crisis: Authentic portrayals of mental illness in TV drama. London: Shift., , & (1959 ) The Language and Thought of the Child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(2007 ) The survival of psychiatric diagnosis. Social Science & Medicine, 65: 536–47.(2013 ) Recovery and Mental Health: A critical sociological account. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., & (Plato ( 1961 ) The apology, in , & (eds) The Collected Dialogues of Plato. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 3–26.2003 ) Madness: A brief history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Page 139](2007 ) Gender, in (ed) The Philosophy of Psychiatry: A companion. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 237–43.(2013 ) Critical Thinking and Writing for Nursing Students, 2nd edition. London: Sage/Learning Matters., & (2007 ) Disordered boundaries? A critique of ‘borderline personality disorder’, in , & (eds) Beyond Fear and Control: Working with young people who self-harm. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books, pp. 105–18.(2014 ) Stress vulnerability and psychosis, in , & (eds) Theories for Mental Health Nursing: A guide for practice. London: Sage, pp. 202–22.(2010 ) Counselling Suicidal Clients. London: Sage.(2003 ) Social Inclusion and Recovery: A model for mental health practice. London: Baillière Tindall., & (2014 ) Why recovery? in , & (eds) Theories for Mental Health Nursing: A guide for practice. London: Sage, pp. 183–201., & (2014 ) Becoming a recovery-oriented practitioner. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 20(1): 37–47., & (2015 ) Mindfulness for all in action, in (ed) Psychosocial Interventions in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters, pp. 63–80.(2004 ) Psychiatric ethics: a critical introduction for mental health nurses. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(5): 583–8.(2007 ) Modernity, mental illness and the crisis of meaning. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14(3): 277–81.(2008 ) Facilitating recovery by making sense of suffering: a Nietzschean perspective. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15(9): 743–8.(2010 ) Service user involvement and the restrictive sense of psychiatric categories: the challenge facing mental health nurses. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17(4): 289–94.(2014 ) Beyond the bounds of the dogmatic image of thought: the development of critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(4): 313–19.(2015 ) Thinking critically about the occurrence of widespread participation in poor nursing care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(4): 768–76., & (2014 ) Suicide: an existentialist reconceptualization. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(10): 873–8., & (2010 ) The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Stoic philosophy as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London: Karnac Books.(2014 ) A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness, 5th edition. Maidenhead: Open University Press., & (1957 ) The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2): 95–103.(2004/1961 ) On Becoming a Person: A therapist's view of psychotherapy. London: Constable.(2011 ) Models and frameworks for critical reflection, in , , & (eds) Critical Reflection in Practice, 2nd edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 31–51.(2011 ) Critical Reflection in Practice: Generating knowledge for care, 2nd edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., , & (eds) (1993 ) Accepting Voices. London: Mind Publications., & (eds) (2000 ) Making Sense of Voices: A guide for mental health professionals working with voice-hearers. London: Mind Publications., & (2007 ) 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness. BMC Health Services Research, 7: 97. [Page 140], , , & (2009 ) Stigma, negative attitudes and discrimination towards mental illness within the nursing profession: a review of the literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 16(6): 558–67., & (1996 ) Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. British Medical Journal, 312: 71–2., , , , & (1978 ) Orientalism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(2009 ) The person who is suicidal, in (ed) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The craft of caring, 2nd edition. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 182–90., & (2009/1966 ) Being Mentally Ill: A sociological theory, 3rd edition. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.(1983 ) The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.(Scottish Executive ( 2006 ) Rights, Relationships and Recovery: The report of the national review of mental health nursing in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.2011 ) Madness: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2015 ) Madness in Civilization: A cultural history of insanity from the Bible to Freud, from the madhouse to modern medicine. London: Thames & Hudson.(2006 ) Stoicism. Chesham: Acumen.(2008 ) Making Recovery a Reality. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health., , & (1997 ) A History of Psychiatry: From the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. New York: John Wiley.(1987 ) The Female Malady: Women, madness and English culture, 1830–1980. London: Virago.(2005 ) Power, Interest and Psychology: Elements of a social materialist understanding of distress. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.(2014 ) Values in practice, in , & (eds) Theories for Mental Health Nursing: A guide for practice. London: Sage, pp. 235–50., & (2006 ) Should service user involvement be consigned to history? A critical realist perspective. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 13(5): 570–7.(2014 ) Compassion and mental health nursing, in , & (eds) Theories for Mental Health Nursing: A guide for practice. London: Sage, pp. 134–46., & (2008 ) User involvement in mental health care: the role of nurses. A literature review. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15(8): 678–83., , , & (2012 ) Eating disorders in men: underdiagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood. Eating Disorders, 20(5): 346–55., , , & (2014 ) Oxford Guide to Effective Argument and Critical Thinking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1961 ) The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a theory of personal conduct. New York: Paul B. Hoeber.(1983 ) The myth of mental illness, in (ed) Ideology and Insanity: Essays on the psychiatric dehumanization of man. London: Marion Boyars, pp. 12–24.(2010 ) Reflective Practice for Healthcare Professionals: A practical guide, 3rd edition. Maidenhead: Open University Press.(2013 ) Writing Skills for Nursing and Midwifery Students. London: Sage.(2012 ) Appraising and using evidence in mental health practice, in , , & (eds) Handbook of Mental Health Nursing. London: Hodder Arnold, pp. 121–38., & (2008 ) The Critically Reflective Practitioner. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., & (2006 ) Shunned: Discrimination against people with mental illness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2015 ) An introduction to psychosocial interventions, in (ed) Psychosocial Interventions in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters, pp. 4–21. [Page 141](1991 ) Women's Madness: Misogyny or mental illness? Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(2014 ) Engagement and Therapeutic Communication in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters.(ed) (2015 ) Psychosocial Interventions in Mental Health Nursing. London: Sage/Learning Matters.(ed) (2013 ) Critical Reading and Writing for Postgraduates, 2nd edition. London: Sage., & (2009 ) (Mis)representing mental distress? in , , , , , , & (eds) Mental Health Still Matters. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 135–40.(2015 ) The Great Psychotherapy Debate: The evidence for what makes psychotherapy work, 2nd edition. Hove: Routledge., & (2003 ) Diagnosing distress and reproducing disorder: women, child sexual abuse and ‘borderline personality disorder’, in , & (eds) New Feminist Stories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Sexual scripts and dangerous dialogues. London: Routledge, pp. 167–86., & (2011 ) Crazy Like Us: The globalization of the Western mind. London: Constable & Robinson.(2010 ) Mental Health, Service User Involvement and Recovery. London: Jessica Kingsley.(ed) (2009 ) A Rulebook for Arguments, 4th edition. Indianapolis: Hackett.(2010 ) Attitudes and perceptions of mental health nurses towards borderline personality disorder clients in acute mental health settings: a review of the literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17(7): 657–62., & (2006 ) Critical Reflection in Health and Social Care. Maidenhead: Open University Press., , & (eds) (WHO (World Health Organization) ( 1992 ) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: WHO.WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2014 ) Social Determinants of Mental Health. Geneva: WHO.2007 ) The Mindful Way Through Depression: Freeing yourself from chronic unhappiness. New York: The Guilford Press., , , & (2014 ) Counselling and psychotherapy in mental health nursing: therapeutic encounters, in , & (eds) Theories for Mental Health Nursing: A guide for practice. London: Sage, pp. 223–34., & (2011 ) Be More Critical! A practical guide for health and social care students, 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University., , , & (2007 ) Reclaiming the humanity in personality disorder. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 16(4): 236–46., , & (2010 ) Stigma: A review of the evidence. London: Young Minds.(1977 ) Vulnerability: a new view of schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(2): 103–26., & (