Critical Theory and Methodology
Publication Year: 1994
Critical Theory traces its roots from Marxism, through the renowned Frankfurt School, to a wide array of national and cultural traditions. Raymond Morrow's book traces the history and outlines the major tenets of critical theory for an undergraduate audience. He exemplifies the theory through an analysis of two leading social theorists: J[um]urgen Habermas and Anthony Giddens. Unique to this volume is the emphasis on the link between Critical Theory and empirical research and social science methodology, often thought to be incompatible.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Metatheory: Grounding Method
- Chapter 1: Introduction: What is Critical Theory?
- Why Social Science?
- Critical Theory as a Human Science
- The Origins of Critical Theory
- Contemporary Critical Theory
- Critical Theory Now
- Critiques of Critical Theory
- An Agenda
- Chapter 2: Foundations of Metatheory: Between Subjectivism and Objectivism
- Approaching Methodology
- Orienting Definitions
- Basic Concepts of Metatheory
- The Subjectivist-Objectivist Polarization in Metatheory
- Three Approaches to Metatheory and Methodology
- Chapter 3: Postempiricist Critiques of Positivism and Empiricism
- Why the Critique of Positivism?
- Positivist Philosophies of Science
- Positivism in the Social Sciences
- Postempiricism and the Rise of Antifoundationalism
- Postempiricist Alternatives
- The Critical Realist Theory of Science
- Conclusion: Rethinking Reason
Part II: Critical Theory as a Research Program
- Chapter 4: Early Critical Theory as a Research Program: A Historical Introduction
- From Western Marxism to Critical Theory
- The Hermeneutic-Dialectical Tradition
- Interdisciplinary Materialism as a Research Program
- An Emergent Alternative Research Program
- The Decline of a Research Program: The Dialectic of Enlightenment
- Conclusion: Beyond the Crisis
- Chapter 5: Postempiricist Metatheory and the Human Sciences: Interim Developments
- The Weberian Challenge
- Action Theories
- The (Post)Structuralist Revolution(s)
- French Social Theory
- Critical Realism and the Social Sciences
- Chapter 6: The Metatheory of Critical Theory: Beyond Objectivism and Relativism
- Rethinking Critical Theory
- Knowledge Interests: Quasi Transcendentalism
- Theory of Communicative Action: Reconstructive Sciences
- Transcending the Subject-Object Split
- Chapter 7: Contemporary Critical Theory as a Research Program: Giddens and Habermas
- Weak and Strong Research Programs for Critical Theory
- Giddens: A Critique of Historical Materialism
- Habermas: A Reconstruction of Historical Materialism
- Complementary Critical Research Traditions
Part III: Critical Theory and Empirical Research
- Chapter 8: Deconstructing the Conventional Discourse of Methodology: Quantitative versus Qualitative Methods
- The Conventional Methods Discourse
- Critique of the Discourse
- Disciplinary Interests and Two Research Logics
- A Taxonomy of Social Research Strategies
- The Investigative Concerns of Critical Theory
- Chapter 9: Non-Empirical Methods: Reflexive Procedures
- Logic as Rhetoric
- Positivist Research and Non-Empirical Methods
- Critical Theory and Non-Empirical Methods
- Is There a Dialectical Method?
- Chapter 10: Empirical Procedures in Critical Research
- Explanation and Interpretation in Social Science
- Intensive Research Designs
- Narrative and Discourse Analysis
- Chapter 11: Contexts of Critical Empirical Research
- State and Economy
- Cultural Theory
- Social Psychology
- Chapter 12: Critical Social Science and Society: Theory and Practice
- Models of Social Science
- Redefining Counterhegemony and the Public Sphere
- Intellectuals and Practice: Contexts of Critical Research
- Conclusion: Beyond Fragmentation?
Contemporary Social Theory[Page ii]
University of California, Riverside
CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL THEORY books are brief, introductory texts designed to make current trends in social theory accessible to undergraduate students in the social sciences.
VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES
- Tom Mayer, ANALYTICAL MARXISM
- Sondra Farganis, SITUATING FEMINISM: From Thought to Action
- Raymond A. Morrow with David D. Brown, CRITICAL THEORY AND METHODOLOGY
- Robert Hollinger, POSTMODERNISM IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES: A Thematic Approach
SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD
- Ben N. Agger, Sociology, SUNY Buffalo
- Robert J. Antonio, Sociology, Univ. of Kansas
- Wini Breines, Sociology, Northeastern Univ.
- Richard Harvey Brown, Sociology, Univ. of Maryland, College Park
- Nancy Fraser, Philosophy, Norwestern Univ.
- Kenneth J. Gergen, Psychology, Swarthmore College
- Lawrence E. Hazelrigg, Sociology, Florida State Univ.
- Douglas Kellner, Philosophy, Univ. of Texas, Austin
- Jennifer M. Lehmann, Sociology, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln
- Eric Monkkonen, History, UCLA
- John O'Neill, Sociology, York Univ.
- Paul Rabinow, Anthropology, Univ. of California, Berkeley
Copyright © 1994 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Morrow, Raymond Allan.
Critical theory and methodology / Raymond A. Morrow, with David D. Brown
p. cm. – (Contemporary social theory ; 3)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-4682-1. – ISBN 0-8039-4683-X (pbk.)
1. Critical theory. 2. Social sciences—Philosophy. 3. Sociology—Methodology. I. Brown, David D., 1954– II. Title. III. Series: Contemporary social theory (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) : 3.
94 95 96 97 98 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Sage Production Editor: Astrid Virding
This book had its origins in three distinct events during a number of years. Most immediately, I would like to thank Ben Agger for recommending me for this project even though his own conception of a “dialectical sensibility” lies at the Adorno-Benjamin end of the spectrum of critical theory; and I would like to commend Mark Gottdiener for taking the initiative to get this series off the ground and for having provided the patient encouragement that is so crucial for those relatively inexperienced in completing a book.
More distantly, in 1978 Peter Bruck (now at Carleton University in communications) organized a conference at Concordia University (Montreal) on “Critical Theory and Empirical Method.” Although last-minute attendance precluded my preparation of a full paper on this topic, the problematic has stayed with me. The issues were sharpened as I was confronted term by term with new cohorts of skeptical graduate students. Although I could have written a somewhat different book in between, perhaps now is the most appropriate time from the ironic perspective of the subsequent ups and downs of critical theory as an intellectual force in the academic marketplace.
The crucial intermediate factor has been my association with David Brown, initially as a doctoral student in sociology at the University of Alberta, and now colleague at the University of Lethbridge. Before I became his supervisor, David had gained a reputation as a problem-solver in research methods, and our association began when I became a member of his comprehensive examination committee in “methodology.” As it happens, he had set out the agenda for a comprehensive definition of the [Page x]problematic that revealed he was also a theorist with a primary interest in interpretive methods. That experience revealed convergent interests and led us to explore the possibility of collaboration on a project redefining methodology from the perspective of critical theory. That collaborative project was delayed by his writing a dissertation that reconstructed Paul Ricoeur's theory of narrative for a novel conception of life history methodology; and then it was sidetracked by his subsequent relocation at Lethbridge, where various distractions undermined his ability to contribute to the extent originally envisioned. Although we collaborated directly only on Chapter 8, and I am solely responsible for all of the others, crucial aspects of my understanding of many key issues stem from our dialogue about theory and methods during the past few years.
The foundations for this slowly gestating project were laid (often unknowingly) by diverse, even contradictory, influences in Toronto in the mid-1970s: e.g., loan Davies, Bryan Green, John Fekete, William Leiss, Christian Lenhardt, Thelma McCormack, Dieter Misgeld, John O'Neill, Paul Piccone, Dorothy Smith, Tom Wilson, Irving Zeitlin. A DAAD fellowship to the Freie Universität in Berlin in 1976–7 exposed me in depth to German social theory. A postdoctoral fellowship at the Université de Montréal from 1981–3 facilitated understanding the problems of linking German and French theory (as exemplified in the work of the late Québécois sociologist, Marcel Rioux) and led to an ongoing intellectual exchange with Greg Nielsen (e.g., Nielsen and Morrow 1991), now at Glendon College, York University. Some recent conversations with the critical theorist and theologian Gregory Baum (now at McGill University) provided a boost of confidence at a crucial moment when I was having doubts about finishing this project. Collaboration with Carlos Alberto Torres over the past several years has been a continuous source of mutual learning that has contributed indirectly to many aspects of the present discussion.
Here at the University of Alberta, I would like to thank the members of a small Cultural Studies reading group who sensitized me to a number of interdisciplinary issues. The work of my colleague Derek Sayer has been diffusely significant for my thinking, even if it is not directly manifest in ways that would be apparent to him. Barb Marshall, a graduate of our program now [Page xi]teaching at Trent University, has kept me aware of the troubled aspects of the relations between critical theory and feminist theory, though that is only a theme insufficiently alluded to here.
Among recent and current graduate students here at the University of Alberta, I would like to single out several who have contributed indirectly in little ways (discussions, references, reading their work) to this project: Guy Germain and Alan Law (sociology), Michael Mauws (business), Jerry Kachur, Kelly Murphy, and Donald Plumb (educational foundations).
Occasional cappuccinos with Taras at La Gare reminded me of two themes obscured by the particular tasks of this book: that social theory needs ultimately to speak to the issues of everyday life, and in ways that do not deny the poetic origins of all critical thought. And to Marlene: Thanks for the patience and understanding at several crucial turning points.
This book is dedicated to my father-Ray Morrow, Jr.-whose natural pragmatism and principled skepticism contradicts his own deep sense of justice and human values. Although circumstances constrained him to work with his hands, he encouraged me to pursue an intellectual vocation to learn to answer the questions he could not. Mostly I have succeeded (as part of an extended community of inquirers) only in reframing some of the questions, hence the methodological focus of this book. But the outcome is, I think, quite consistent with things we implicitly learned growing up together and that I can now name: the necessary interplay between critical realist ontology, methodological pragmatism, and communicative ethics in reconstructing human understanding.[Page xii]
This book was written with different kinds of audiences in mind, resulting in certain tensions within the text itself. First, despite the prevalence of sociological issues, it is a work of social theory and methodology addressed to an interdisciplinary social scientific audience.
Second, it is oriented specifically toward upper level undergraduate and graduate students in the social sciences. Although it was conceived with the hope that it might supplement teaching in social science methodology, it more likely will be used to give the teaching of social theory a more methodological focus. Further, it could serve interested colleagues in search of a guide to recent debates and a jumping off point for more specialized reading.
Third, it seeks to address indirectly those trained in the humanities but in need of an introduction to social theory and methodology from a critical sociological perspective. In particular, proponents of cultural studies approaches in the humanities often are handicapped by a lack of ready access to the forms of sociology and social science adequate to their needs, especially in relation to methodological questions other than those of textual analysis. One manifestation of this problem is an often cavalier attitude toward questions of empirical adequacy on the basis of a wholesale rejection of “empiricism,” a tendency first evident in Althusserian structuralism and now reinforced in rather different ways by the postmodernist suggestion that virtually “anything goes” with respect to knowledge claims.
In the process of this synthetic reconstruction, it was necessary to develop themes that may prove useful for ongoing debates [Page xiv]within social theory, and critical theory in particular. The constraints of a relatively accessible format have required formulating (without fully defending or exemplifying) a number of arguments that, we hope, will be of some interest for those involved in these more specialized debates. In particular, the methodological notion of interpretive structuralism has an ecumenical objective: It seeks to draw out the similarities between a number of research approaches that are more often thought as either distinct or competing, a tendency reinforced by the inherently competitive character of scholarship.
Several limitations in the scope of this study should be noted at the outset. First, it does not and could not seek to provide an “applied” approach to linking critical theory and the techniques of social research. The most fundamental reason is that the pragmatic nature of inquiry precludes any general formulas or recipes. Different strategies of inquiry can be mastered only by close analyses of appropriate exemplary studies, combined with ongoing reflection on and engagement in the research process itself.
Second, it does not provide the kind of close analysis of actual empirical projects that would be appropriate for a somewhat differently conceived project (e.g., Harvey 1990). The immediate task at hand is to provide a jumping off point for direct immersion in the theoretical and methodological problems of different contexts of inquiry.
Third, various considerations have led to a relative neglect of the range of external and internal criticisms that have been directed against critical theory as a research program. Yet the whole project is directed generally toward answering much criticism that has focused on critical theory's problematic relation to empirical research. Further, it responds to the skeptical and antiscientific mood of certain postmodernist tendencies.
On the other hand, many of the most important criticisms are internal to critical theory and closely related tendencies. As a consequence, such issues constitute the central themes of ongoing debates and research controversies. Introducing too many of these more advanced questions here would only serve to further confuse the already overwhelmed reader.
The structure of the book reflects an attempt to facilitate access on the part of readers with diverse backgrounds. The chapters are highly integrated sequentially, in the sense that concepts are [Page xv]introduced first in contexts where their meaning is clarified. Further, the chapters are linked in that the earlier ones set up foundations for those that come later.
Nevertheless the chapters often could be read separately or in other combinations for various purposes. Half of the chapters are concerned with the reconstruction of critical theory as a specific research program (Chaps. 1, 4, 6–7, 11–12), whereas the other half treat metatheoretical and methodological issues in a manner that is not necessarily specific or unique to critical theory (Chaps. 2–3, 5, 8–10), even if broadly linked with the “new philosophy of social science” (Outhwaite 1987; Bohman 1991). The latter, in short, could be extended to analyze, justify, or criticize other research programs that focus on different aspects of domination (e.g., feminist theory) or draw on different methodological tools (e.g., analytical Marxism).
At the proof stage a couple of studies came to our attention that should be noted, partly to indicate more precisely the distinctive strategy underlying our approach. These final prefatory comments are directed primarily to readers with more specialized interests in social theory.
Derek Layder's New Strategies of Social Research (1993) provides a useful mediation between conventional methodological discussions (e.g., middle range and grounded theory) and a “multistrategy” conception of social analysis close to that of Giddens. As a consequence, in many respects it could be profitably used as a more “applied” sequel to our study. But his introduction is developed largely without reference to the metatheoretical issues required for grounding methodology; partly as a consequence, he fails to clearly differentiate between variable analysis and other uses of quantification. As well, the tradition of critical theory-along with discourse theory and the concept of ideology—mysteriously disappear (despite references to history and power). We do not find this sanitized approach fully consistent with Giddens’ social theory, and would contend it is more productive (as we have done) to introduce the methodological implications of his work in the context of a dialogue with Habermas and critical theory generally.
For accidental reasons we did not become aware of Douglas Porpora's The Concept of Social Structure (1987) until the last minute, even though our project would have gained from engagement [Page xvi]with his parallel theoretical argument. Theoretically, Porpora uses (as we do) Bhaskar's critical realism as a way of differentiating between Durkheimian (nomothetic) models of social structure and what he takes to be the Marxian conception (via Bhaskar's early work). Though he admits that much exciting recent work has focused on modes of domination “beyond Marx,” he rejects the “growing chorus of voices … arguing that Marxian theory needs to be superseded” (1987, p. 117). His point is that non-Marxian modes of domination (e.g., race and gender) “still conform to the Marxian conception of social structure. Like modes of production, they may all be interpreted as powerful particulars with underlying generating mechanisms that consist of relationships among categories of people” (Porpora, 1987, p. 132).
Though our substantive conclusions with respect to theory and research are generally convergent with Porpora's, we have framed the problematic rather differently by speaking more broadly (and ecumenically) of the interpretive structuralist research program of contemporary critical theory. While we would agree that this general methodological conception can be traced back to Marx (and Hegel), we would contest the suggestion that contemporary critical theory has merely “reinvented the wheel” (as Derek Sayer has argued with reference to Giddens).
But the issue at stake is not one of a priority dispute, but rather of stressing theoretical discontinuity as part of engaging the particulars of the present historical horizon. The omissions in Porpora's account are symptomatic of his rehabilitative strategy: no reference to Habermas or the debates on European structuralism (e.g., the later, structuralist side of Durkheim) and post-structuralism (despite a brief discussion of Foucault); and a failure to develop the more specific implications for research methods. The attempt to distance his own conception from that of Giddens (despite apparent resemblances) is not altogether convincing, though it points to some important issues requiring further clarification. The resulting theory of social structure, however compelling, is elaborated virtually without reference to one of culture and its relation to the normative presuppositions that define a critical theory of society—decisive issues for a critique and reconstruction of historical materialism. The theory of society we need today requires historical contents, normative grounding [Page xvii]and methodological reflection that go far beyond the concept of social structure bequeathed by Marx. In short, our more comprehensive response to post-Marxist nihilism attempts to avoid the temptations of either methodological sanitization or Marxian nostalgia.[Page xviii]
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About the Authors[Page 381]
Raymond A. Morrow is Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, where he has taught since 1984. His graduate training included an MA at the University of British Columbia, study at the Free University of Berlin, a Ph.D. at York University (1981), and postdoctoral research at the Université de Montréal. He also has taught at the University of Manitoba and the University of Western Ontario. He teaches primarily in the areas of sociological theory and cultural sociology (especially in relation to mass communications and education) and has published articles and chapters in critical theory and cultural studies. He recently completed a book on social theory and education (with Carlos Alberto Torres, Graduate Faculty of Education, UCLA), and is working on a project on theories of social psychology.
David D. Brown completed his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Alberta in 1990. His thesis was titled Ricoueur's Narrative Methodology and the Interpretation of Life History Texts. He is an Associate Professor of Sociology at the University Lethbridge, where he teaches in the areas of contemporary theory and research methodology. He recently published an article titled “Discursive Moments of Identification” in Current Perspectives in Social Theory. He is the organizer of an internet electronic discussion group called Narrative-L which provides an international forum for scholars concerned with narrative in everyday life. He is a principal researcher with the University of Lethbridge Regional Center for Health Promotion and Community Studies and he is currently conducting research into narrative-based identification within communities and support groups.