Criminal Law & Criminal Justice: An Introduction

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Noel Cross

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    Acknowledgements

    Many thanks go to my parents, my colleagues on the Criminal Justice team at Liverpool John Moores University, and Caroline Porter at Sage for their help and encouragement along the long and winding road from developing the idea for the book to publication. The book is dedicated to Helen Paton, for her constant love and support during the time in which it was put together.

  • Glossary of Common Legal Terms

    Actus reuslegal phrase meaning the ‘guilty act’, or the physical/external element of a crime.
    Automatisma legal defence sometimes available where the defendant, for various reasons defined in the criminal law, is judged not to be in control of his or her actions.
    Common lawlaw which is made and developed by judges, in line with the rules on precedent (see below).
    Complete defencea defence which, if successfully used, leads to the acquittal of the defendant. Examples include self-defence.
    Complicitythe area of criminal law dealing with crimes where two or more people are involved in planning and/or commission of the criminal acts.
    Conduct crimea crime where the illegality relates to conduct which is not allowed. An example is the actus reus for the offence of perjury (lying while giving evidence in court).
    Doli incapaxthe principle in the common law of England and Wales (now abolished by the Crime and Disorder Act 1998) under which young children were presumed not to be capable of committing crime with the necessary mens rea, unless it was proved otherwise by the prosecution.
    Duressa justificatory defence (see below) available for some crimes, where a defendant has committed the crime as a result of particular threats or pressure, from a human or non-human source. Includes duress per minas (through threats) and duress through circumstances.
    Excusatory defencea defence available because of internal factors which are affecting the defendant. Examples include infancy and insanity.
    Homicidethe unlawful killing of another person, committed with the required mens rea. Homicide includes the offences of murder and various types of manslaughter.
    Inchoate offencean offence under which the required actus reus and mens rea of a full offence have not been completed, but certain acts defined by the criminal law have been carried out, with the appropriate mens rea, in preparation for the full offence taking place. There are three types of inchoate offence in the criminal law: attempt, incitement and conspiracy.
    Indictable offencean offence which can only be dealt with at the Crown Court, by a judge and jury (e.g. murder, rape).
    Justificatory defencea defence available because of external factors which are affecting the defendant. Examples include duress (see above) and self-defence.
    Lacunaa loophole in the law. Often used when discussing the Caldwell [1982] AC 341 test for objective recklessness.
    Mens realegal phrase meaning the ‘guilty mind’, or the mental/internal element of a crime.
    Obiter (dictum/dicta)things said by judges which are not part of the deciding principle in a particular case, and are therefore not binding on later court decisions.
    Partial defencea defence which, if successfully used, reduces the seriousness of the charge against the defendant. Examples include provocation and diminished responsibility, both of which are only defences to murder, and if successfully used reduce the offence from murder to manslaughter.
    Precedent (or stare decisis)the system by which a court has to follow decisions made on the same issue earlier by a higher court, and (usually) also decisions made at the same level as itself.
    Ratio (decidendi)the legal principle which is used to decide a particular case, and which is binding (subject to precedent – see above) on later court decisions.
    Result crimea crime where the illegality relates to a result which is not allowed to occur. An example is the actus reus for the offence of murder (the causation of someone else's death).
    Statute law (legislation)the law which is introduced by Acts of Parliament. It is often used to decriminalise old offences, create new offences, redefine or modify offences which already exist, or consolidate (bring together) old pieces of legislation on the same topic.
    Strict liabilitya crime under which only a certain defined actus reus is required – no accompanying mens rea is needed.
    Summary offencean offence which can only be dealt with at the magistrates’ court (e.g. drink-driving).
    Triable either way offencean offence which can be dealt with either at the magistrates’ court or at the Crown Court, depending on a number of factors, including magistrates’ and defendants’ opinions on where the case should be dealt with.

    Table of Cases

    • A [2001] 3 All ER 1
    • Abdul-Hussain [1999] Crim LR 570
    • Abdullahi [2007] 1 WLR 225
    • Adams v Camfoni [1929] 1 KB 95
    • Adomako [1995] 1 AC 171
    • Ahluwalia [1992] 4 All ER 889
    • Airedale NHS Trust v Bland [1993] AC 789
    • Aitken [1992] 4 All ER 541
    • Ali [1995] Crim LR 303
    • Allen [1988] Crim LR 698
    • Alphacell v Woodward [1972] AC 824
    • Anderson [1986] AC 27
    • Anderson and Morris [1966] 2 QB 110
    • Arobieke [1988] Crim LR 314
    • Attorney-General v Able [1984] QB 795
    • Attorney-General for Jersey v Holley [2005] 3 WLR 29
    • Attorney-General for Northern Ireland v Gallagher [1963] AC 349
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 1 of 1975) [1975] QB 773
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 4 of 1980) [1981] 1 WLR 705
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 6 of 1980) [1981] QB 715
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 2 of 1983) [1984] QB 456
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 1 of 1992) [1993] 1 WLR 274
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 2 of 1992) [1994] QB 91
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 3 of 1992) [1994] 1 WLR 409
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 3 of 1994) [1997] 3 WLR 421
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 3 of 1998) [2000] QB 401
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 2 of 1999) [2000] QB 796
    • Attorney-General's Reference (No. 4 of 2004) [2005] 1 WLR 2810
    • Attorney-General's References (Nos. 1 & 2 of 1979) [1980] QB 180
    • B v DPP [2000] 2 AC 428
    • B & S v Leathley [1979] Crim LR 314
    • Bailey [1983] 2 All ER 503
    • Baillie [1995] Crim LR 739
    • Bainbridge [1960] 1 QB 129
    • Ball [1989] Crim LR 730
    • Barnes [2005] 1 WLR 910
    • Belfon [1976] 3 All ER 46
    • Bell [1984] 3 All ER 842
    • Bennett [1995] Crim LR 877
    • Becerra and Cooper (1976) 62 Cr App Rep 212
    • Bezzina; Codling; Elvin [1994] 3 All ER 964
    • Billinghurst [1978] Crim LR 553
    • Bird [1985] 1 WLR 816
    • Birkin [1988] Crim LR 855
    • Birmingham [2002] EWCA Crim 2608
    • Blake [1997] 1 All ER 963
    • Blake v DPP [1993] Crim LR 586
    • Blaue [1975] 3 All ER 446
    • Bollom [2004] 2 Cr App Rep 6
    • Bourne (1952) 36 Cr App Rep 125
    • Bowen [1996] 4 All ER 837
    • Bowsher [1973] RTR 202
    • Boyea [1992] Crim LR 574
    • Brady [2007] Crim LR 564
    • Bratty v Attorney-General for Northern Ireland [1963] AC 386
    • Bree [2007] 2 All ER 676
    • Bristol & West Building Society v Mothew [1998] Ch 1
    • Brown [1985] Crim LR 212
    • Brown [1994] 1 AC 212
    • Bryce [2004] 2 Cr App Rep 35
    • Bryson [1985] Crim LR 699
    • Burgess [1991] 2 QB 92
    • Burrell v Harmer [1967] Crim LR 169
    • Byrne [1960] 2 QB 396
    • Caballero v UK (2000) 30 EHRR 43
    • Cairns [1999] 2 Cr App Rep 137
    • Cakmak [2002] Crim LR 581
    • Caldwell [1982] AC 341
    • Calhaem [1985] QB 808
    • Campbell (1991) 93 Cr App Rep 350
    • Carey [2006] Crim LR 842
    • Carter v Richardson [1974] RTR 314
    • Caurti v DPP [2002] Crim LR 131
    • Chan-Fook [1994] 2 All ER 552
    • Charlson [1955] 1 All ER 859
    • Cheshire [1991] 3 All ER 670
    • Chief Constable of Avon and Somerset v Shimmen (1986) 84 Cr App Rep 7
    • Church [1966] 1 QB 59
    • Clarke [1972] 1 All ER 219
    • Clarkson [1971] 1 WLR 1402
    • Cocker [1989] Crim LR 740
    • Codere (1916) 12 Cr App Rep 21
    • Cogan and Leak [1976] QB 217
    • Cole [1994] Crim LR 582
    • Collins [1973] QB 100
    • Collins v Wilcock [1984] 3 All ER 374
    • Concannon [2002] Crim LR 213
    • Coney (1882) 8 QBD 534
    • Constanza [1997] 2 Cr App Rep 492
    • Conway [1989] QB 290
    • Cooper and Schaub [1994] Crim LR 531
    • Corcoran v Anderton (1980) 71 Cr App Rep 104
    • Cox (1968) 52 Cr App Rep 130
    • Cunningham [1957] 2 QB 396
    • Cunningham [1982] AC 566
    • Dadson (1850) 4 Cox CC 350
    • Dalby [1982] 1 All ER 916
    • Dalloway (1847) 2 Cox CC 273
    • Dawson [1976] Crim LR 692
    • Dawson (1985) 81 Cr App Rep 150
    • Dear [1996] Crim LR 595
    • Deller (1952) 36 Cr App Rep 184
    • Dhaliwal [2006] 2 Cr App Rep 348
    • Dica [2004] QB 1257
    • Dietschmann [2003] 1 AC 1209
    • DPP v Blakeley and Sutton [1991] Crim LR 763
    • DPP v Camplin [1978] AC 705
    • DPP v Gomez [1993] AC 442
    • DPP v K [1990] 1 WLR 1067
    • DPP v Lavender [1994] Crim LR 297
    • DPP v Majewski [1977] AC 443
    • DPP v Newbury [1977] AC 500
    • DPP v Pal [2000] Crim LR 756
    • DPP v Ray [1974] AC 370
    • DPP v Smith [1961] AC 290
    • DPP v Taylor; Little [1992] 1 All ER 299
    • DPP v Woods [2002] EWHC Admin 85
    • DPP for Northern Ireland v Maxwell [1978] 1 WLR 1350
    • Dobson v General Accident [1990] 1 QB 274
    • Donovan [1934] 2 KB 498
    • Doughty (1986) 83 Cr App Rep 319
    • Downes (1875) 13 Cox CC 111
    • Dudley [1989] Crim LR 57
    • Dudley and Stephens (1884) 14 QBD 273
    • Dunbar [1958] 1 QB 1
    • Dytham [1979] QB 722
    • EB [2007] 1 Cr App Rep 29
    • Eden DC v Braid [1999] RTR 329
    • Elbekkay [1995] Crim LR 163
    • Elliott v C [1983] 1 WLR 939
    • Emmett (1999) The Times, 15 October
    • Environment Agency v Empress Car Co (Abertillery) Ltd [1999] 2 AC 22
    • Fagan v Metropolitan Police Commissioner [1969] 1 QB 438
    • Feely [1973] QB 530
    • Ferguson v Weaving [1951] 1 KB 814
    • Fernandes [1996] 1 Cr App Rep 175
    • Flattery (1877) 2 QBD 410
    • Francis [1982] Crim LR 363
    • G [2003] 3 WLR 1060
    • G [2008] UKHL 37
    • Gammon Ltd v A-G for Hong Kong [1985] AC 1
    • Geddes [1996] Crim LR 894
    • Ghosh [1982] QB 1053
    • Gilmour [2000] 2 Cr App Rep 407
    • Goodfellow (1986) 83 Cr App Rep 23
    • Goodwin [1996] Crim LR 262
    • Gotts [1992] 2 AC 412
    • Graham [1982] 1 All ER 801
    • Gray v Barr [1971] 2 QB 554
    • Grundy [1977] Crim LR 543
    • Gullefer [1990] 1 WLR 1063
    • H [2002] 1 Cr App Rep 59
    • H [2005] 1 WLR 2005
    • Hale (1979) 68 Cr App Rep 415
    • Hancock and Shankland [1986] 1 AC 455
    • Hardie [1985] 1 WLR 64
    • Hardman v Chief Constable of Avon and Somerset [1986] Crim LR 330
    • Harrow LBC v Shah [1999] 3 All ER 302
    • Hasan [2005] 2 WLR 709
    • Hatton [2006] Crim LR 353
    • Haystead v Chief Constable of Derbyshire [2000] 3 All ER 890
    • Hayward (1908) 21 Cox CC 692
    • Heard [2007] 3 All ER 306
    • Henley [2000] Crim LR 582
    • Hennessy [1989] 2 All ER 9
    • Hensler(1870) 11 Cox CC 570
    • Hibbert (1869) LR 1 CCR 184
    • Hill and Hall (1989) 89 Cr App Rep 74
    • Hill v Baxter [1958] 1 QB 277
    • Hills [2001] Crim LR 318
    • Hinks [2001] 2 AC 241
    • Hobbs v Winchester Corp [1910] 2 KB 471
    • Holland (1841) 2 Mood & R 351
    • Howe [1987] AC 417
    • Howells [1977] QB 614
    • Hudson and Taylor [1971] 2 QB 202
    • Hunt (1978) 66 Cr App Rep 105
    • Ibrams (1981) 74 Cr App Rep 154
    • Ireland; Burstow [1998] AC 147
    • JCC v Eisenhower (1984) 78 Cr App Rep 48
    • JF Alford Transport Ltd [1997] 2 Cr App Rep 326
    • Jackson [1985] Crim LR 442
    • Jaggard v Dickinson [1981] QB 527
    • James; Karimi [2006] 1 All ER 759
    • Jennings [1990] Crim LR 588
    • Jheeta [2008] Crim LR 144
    • Jones (1986) 83 Cr App Rep 375
    • Jones [1990] 1 WLR 1057
    • Jones and Milling [2007] 1 AC 136
    • Jones and Smith [1976] 3 All ER 54
    • Jordan (1956) 40 Cr App Rep 152
    • K [2002] 1 AC 462
    • Kaitamaki [1985] AC 147
    • Kelly [1998] 3 All ER 741
    • Kelly v DPP [2003] Crim LR 45
    • Kemp [1957] 1 QB 399
    • Kennedy (No. 2) [2007] 3 WLR 612
    • Khan [1990] 1 WLR 813
    • Kingston [1995] 2 AC 355
    • Knuller v DPP [1973] AC 435
    • Konzani [2005] 2 Cr App Rep 14
    • Lamb [1967] 2 QB 981
    • Lambie [1982] AC 449
    • Larkin [1943] KB 174
    • Larsonneur (1933) 24 Cr App Rep 74
    • Laskey Jaggard and Brown v UK [1997] 2 EHRR 39
    • Latimer (1886) 17 QBD 359
    • Lau v DPP [2000] Crim LR 580
    • Lawrence [1972] AC 626
    • Lawrence [1982] AC 510
    • Le Brun [1991] 4 All ER 673
    • Lewis [1970] Crim LR 647
    • Lidar (2000) 4 Archbold News 3
    • Lim Chin Aik v R [1963] AC 160
    • Linekar [1995] 3 All ER 69
    • Lipman [1970] 1 QB 152
    • Lloyd [1967] 1 QB 175
    • Lloyd [1985] QB 829
    • Lockley [1995] 2 Cr App Rep 554
    • Logdon v DPP [1976] Crim LR 121
    • Lowe [1973] QB 702
    • Luc Thiet Thuan v R [1997] AC 131
    • McFall [1994] Crim LR 226
    • M'Growther (1746) Fost 13
    • McInerney and Keating [2003] 2 Cr App Rep (S) 240
    • McKnight (2000) The Times, 5 May
    • M'Naghten (1843) 10 Cl & Fin 200
    • Malcherek [1981] 2 All ER 422
    • Marison [1996] Crim LR 909
    • Marjoram [2000] Crim LR 372
    • Martin (1881) 8 QBD 54
    • Martin [1989] 1 All ER 652
    • Martin [2003] QB 1
    • Matthews and Alleyne [2003] 2 Cr App Rep 30
    • Matudi v R [2003] EWCA Crim 697
    • Merrick [1995] Crim LR 802
    • Millberry [2003] 2 All ER 939
    • Miller [1954] 2 QB 282
    • Miller [1983] 2 AC 161
    • Millward [1994] Crim LR 527
    • Misra [2005] Crim LR 234
    • Mitchell [1983] QB 741
    • Mohan [1976] QB 1
    • Moloney [1985] 1 AC 905
    • Morhall [1996] AC 90
    • Moriarty v Brookes (1834) 6 C & P 684
    • Morphitis v Salmon [1990] Crim LR 48
    • Morris [1984] AC 320
    • Morrison (1989) 89 Cr App Rep 17
    • Mowatt [1968] 1 QB 421
    • National Coal Board v Gamble [1959] 1 QB 11
    • Nedrick [1986] 1 WLR 1025
    • Newell (1980) 71 Cr App Rep 331
    • O'Flaherty [2004] Crim LR 751
    • O'Grady [1987] QB 995
    • O'Leary (1986) 82 Cr App Rep 341
    • Olugboja [1981] 3 All ER 443
    • Owino [1996] 2 Cr App Rep 128
    • Oxford v Moss (1978) 68 Cr App Rep 183
    • Page [2004] EWCA Crim 3358
    • Pagett (1983) 76 Cr App Rep 279
    • Palmer v R [1971] 1 All ER 1077
    • Parker (1976) 63 Cr App Rep 211
    • Patel [2005] Crim LR 649
    • Pearman (1985) 80 Cr App Rep 259
    • Pearson [1992] Crim LR 193
    • Pembliton (1874) LR 2 CCR 119
    • Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Storkwain [1986] 1 WLR 903
    • Pitts (1842) Car & M 284
    • Pittwood (1902) 19 TLR 37
    • Pommell [1995] 2 Cr App Rep 607
    • Powell; English [1999] 1 AC 1
    • Pretty v DPP [2002] 1 FCR 1
    • Pretty v UK [2002] 2 FCR 97
    • Prince (1875) LR 2 CCR 154
    • Quayle [2005] 2 Cr App Rep 527
    • Quick [1973] QB 910
    • R (Purdy) v DPP [2009] UKHL 45
    • Rahman [2007] EWCA Crim 342
    • Rahman [2008] UKHL 45
    • Reed [1982] Crim LR 819
    • Richardson [1999] QB 444
    • Rimmington [2006] 1 AC 459
    • Roberts (1971) 56 Cr App Rep 95
    • Robinson [1977] Crim LR 173
    • Rodger and Rose [1998] 1 Cr App Rep 143
    • Rogers [2006] 1 Cr App Rep 14
    • Rook [1993] 1 WLR 1005
    • Ryan [1996] Crim LR 320
    • Safi [2004] 1 Cr App Rep 14
    • Saik [2006] 2 WLR 993
    • Sanderson [1993] Crim LR 857
    • Santana-Bermudez [2004] Crim LR 471
    • Savage; Parmenter [1991] 1 AC 699
    • Seekings and Gould [1986] Crim LR 167
    • Serrano [2007] Crim LR 569
    • Shaw v R [2001] 1 WLR 1519
    • Shayler [2001] 1 WLR 2206
    • Sheehan and Moore [1975] 2 All ER 960
    • Sheppard [1981]AC 394
    • Shivpuri [1987] AC 1
    • Singh [1999] Crim LR 582
    • Siracusa (1990) 90 Cr App Rep 340
    • Slingsby [1995] Crim LR 570
    • Smedleys v Breed [1974] AC 839
    • Smith [1959] 2 QB 35
    • Smith [2001] 1 AC 146
    • Smith v Chief Superintendent of Woking Police Station (1983) 76 Cr App Rep 234
    • Sood [1998] EWCA Crim 254
    • Sooklal [1999] 1 WLR 2011
    • Southern Water Authority v Pegrum [1989] Crim LR 442
    • Speck [1977] 2 All ER 859
    • Steane [1947] KB 997
    • Steer [1988] AC 111
    • Stephenson [1979] 1 QB 695
    • Stone and Dobinson [1977] QB 354
    • Sullivan [1984] AC 156
    • Sutcliffe (1981) The Times, 30 April
    • Sweet v Parsley [1970] AC 132
    • T [1990] Crim LR 256
    • T [2008] EWCA Crim 815
    • T v DPP [2003] Crim LR 622
    • Tabassum [2000] 2 Cr App Rep 328
    • Tesco v Brent LBC [1993] 2 All ER 718
    • Tesco v Nattrass [1972] AC 153
    • Thabo-Meli [1954] 1 WLR 228
    • Thornton [1992] 1 All ER 306
    • Thornton (No. 2) [1996] 1 WLR 1174
    • Thornton v Mitchell [1940] 1 All ER 339
    • Tosti [1997] Crim LR 746
    • Towers (1874) 12 Cox CC 530
    • Tuberville v Savage (1669) 1 Mod Rep 3
    • Tuck v Robson [1970] 1 WLR 741
    • Turner (No. 2) (1971) 55 Cr App Rep 336
    • Uddin [1999] QB 431
    • Valderrama-Vega [1985] Crim LR 220
    • Vane v Yiannopoullos [1965] AC 486
    • Velumyl [1989] Crim LR 299
    • Venna [1976] QB 421
    • Vickers [1957] 2 QB 664
    • Vinaigre (1979) 69 Cr App Rep 104
    • Wacker [2003] QB 1207
    • Wai Yu-Tsang v R [1992] 1 AC 269
    • Walker [1962] Crim LR 458
    • Walkington [1979] 2 All ER 716
    • Warner v MPC [1969] 2 AC 256
    • Watson [1989] 1 WLR 684
    • Watson [1992] Crim LR 434
    • Weller [2004] 1 Cr App Rep 1
    • White [1910] 2 KB 124
    • White [2001] WLR 1352
    • Willer (1986) 83 Cr App Rep 225
    • Williams [1923] 1 KB 340
    • Williams [1987] 3 All ER 411
    • Willoughby [2005] 1 WLR 1880
    • Wilson [1984] AC 242
    • Wilson [1997] QB 47
    • Wilson (2007) The Times, 6 June
    • Windle [1952] 2 QB 826
    • Winzar v Chief Constable of Kent (1983) The Times, 28 March
    • Wood (1830) 1 Mood CC 278
    • Woodman [1974] QB 354
    • Woollin [1998] 3 WLR 382
    • Woolmington v DPP [1935] AC 462
    • Wright [2000] Crim LR 510
    • Yip Chiu-Cheung v R [1995] 1 AC 111
    • Zhang [2007] EWCA Crim 2018

    Table of Statutes

    • Accessories and Abettors Act 1861
    • Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001
    • Bail Act 1976
    • Children and Young Persons Act 1933
    • Computer Misuse Act 1990
    • Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007
    • Courts Act 2003
    • Crime and Disorder Act 1998
    • Crime (Sentences) Act 1997
    • Criminal Attempts Act 1981
    • Criminal Damage Act 1971
    • Criminal Justice Act 1988
    • Criminal Justice Act 1991
    • Criminal Justice Act 2003
    • Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000
    • Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008
    • Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994
    • Criminal Law Act 1967
    • Criminal Law Act 1977
    • Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007
    • Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004
    • Fraud Act 2006
    • Homicide Act 1957
    • Human Rights Act 1998
    • Hunting Act 2004
    • Infanticide Act 1938
    • Licensing Act 2003
    • Magistrates Act 1980
    • Mental Health Act 1983
    • Misuse of Drugs Act 1971
    • Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965
    • Offences against the Person Act 1861
    • Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
    • Police and Justice Act 2006
    • Police Reform Act 2002
    • Protection from Harassment Act 1997
    • Road Safety Act 2006
    • Road Traffic Act 1988
    • Road Traffic Act 1991
    • Scotland Act 1998
    • Serious Crime Act 2007
    • Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005
    • Sexual Offences Act 1967
    • Sexual Offences Act 2003
    • Suicide Act 1961
    • Terrorism Act 2000
    • Theft Act 1968
    • Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006
    • Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999

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