Creative Economy and Culture: Challenges, Changes and Futures for the Creative Industries


John Hartley, Wen Wen & Henry Siling Li

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    Frontispiece: Global Media Culture

    The Shakespeare Duck: Globe Theatre Shop, London.

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Culture and technology, exhibit A: ‘TV happiness shared by all the family!’ 1951 advertisement (Time Magazine) 12
    • 1.2 Culture and technology, exhibit B: ‘Over 100,000 people live in tiny “cubicle apartments” in the city [Hong Kong] … Residents go about their lives in these confined spaces, sleeping in one corner, eating in another, storing their belongings in a third, and perhaps watching a TV that's found in a fourth’ 13
    • 2.1 The Earth System: the geosphere and biosphere combined 17
    • 2.2 Preserved for posterity: V.I. Vernadsky's grave in Moscow – protected by a perspex box 19
    • 2.3 A conjectural diagram showing the growth of human knowledge, correlated with changes in media technologies (x axis) and successive economic epochs (y axis) 21
    • 6.1 Four phases of the creative industries – from industry clusters and services to creative citizens and cities 70
    • 6.2 Urban semiosis: cities as incubators of social network markets 78
    • 7.1 Jiaoshou's mask and his online avatar 90
    • 7.2 Cover pages of Jiaoshou Weekly94
    • 7.3 The tombstone of Toulushe (Disclosure Agency) 95
    • 8.1 Growth of Maker Faires 108
    • 12.1 ‘Ceci tuera cela’: illustration for Hugo's Notre Dame de Paris170
    • 12.2 Control: not the opposite of chaos but a position of ‘liquidity’ or ‘antichaos’ in a ‘poised system’ 176
    • 12.3 Order, chaos, poise and policy 178
    • 13.1 Paul Baran's 1964 diagram 182
    • 13.2 Total household stocks of home appliances and electronics in China, 2011 193
    • 14.1 Tavi Gevinson at Makers: Women Who Make America, New York 227

    About the Authors

    John HARTLEY

    John Hartley, AM (Order of Australia), is John Curtin Distinguished Professor at Curtin University Australia, and Professor of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University Wales. Recent books include: Cultural Science: A Natural History of Stories, Demes, Knowledge and Innovation (with Jason Potts, Bloomsbury, 2014); Key Concepts in Creative Industries (co-authored, Sage, 2013); A Companion to New Media Dynamics (co-edited, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013); and Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012). He is editor of the International Journal of Cultural Studies (Sage) and publisher of Cultural Science Journal (online). He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Humanities and the International Communication Association, Honorary Professor of Zhejiang University of Media and Communications (Hangzhou), and Guest Researcher, Institute for Cultural Industries, Shenzhen University, China.

    WEN Wen

    Wen received her doctoral degree in creative industries from Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia in 2012. She is now a Lecturer and Director of the Project Development Department of the Shenzhen Institute for Cultural Industries, University (SZU), China. She was a visiting scholar at Curtin University, Australia in 2014 (February to April). Her main research interests include creative scenes, urban culture and the cultural economy. She has published academic papers in the International Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural and Creative Industries and Cultural Science Journal.

    Henry Siling LI

    Henry is Senior Lecturer and Director of International at the School of Media, Culture and Creative Arts in the Faculty of Humanities, Curtin University. He has a PhD in creative industries from Queensland University of Technology and MA in simultaneous interpreting from Beijing Foreign Studies University. Henry worked at China Executive Leadership Academy Pudong for ten years and was Executive Director of its Centre for International Courses and Programs before joining Curtin University in 2013. His research covers social media, user productivity and young people in China and has been published in the Chinese Journal of Communication and Cultural Science Journal.

  • Acknowledgements

    We would like to acknowledge the Australian Research Council, which supported much of the research on which this book is based, especially:

    • John Hartley received an Australian Research Council Federation Fellowship, The Uses of Multimedia: Citizen Consumers, Creative Participation and Innovation in Australian Digital Content (FF0561981), 2005–10.
    • Part of the research was conducted at the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (SR0590002), 2005–13 (Cultural Science programme).

    The views expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Australian Research Council.

    Wen Wen and Henry Siling Li would like to acknowledge the China Scholarship Council, which supported their doctoral research, upon which some of the materials in Chapters 711 is based.

    We are grateful to the Faculty of Humanities at Curtin University, which supported Wen Wen to make an extended visit to Western Australia in order to facilitate the preparation of this book. Similarly, we are grateful to the Institute for Cultural Industries (SICI), Shenzen University and especially to Professor Li Fengliang, for supporting John Hartley and Henry Siling Li to visit Shenzhen. Curtin University Centre for Culture and Technology (CCAT) supported Hartley and Li during the course of the research on which the book is based, and enabled us to get on with writing it up.

    We are grateful to our colleagues at SAGE Publications, especially Chris Rojek, who commissioned the title, Gemma Shields and Delayna Spencer, our editors, and Katherine Haw, our production editor.

    Parts of Chapters 4 and 5 are adapted and updated from John Hartley's introduction to Lucy Montgomery (2010), China's Creative Industries: Copyright, Social Network Markets and the Business of Culture in a Digital Age. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. The idea of ‘urban semiosis’ was trialled in Hartley's ‘Urban Semiosis: Creative Industries and the Clash of Systems’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 18(1), 2015. Parts of Chapter 7 are adapted from Li, Henry Siling (2012) Seriously playful: The uses of networked spoof videos in China, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology. Parts of Chapters 8 and 9 are adapted from Wen, Wen (2012) Scenes, quarters and clusters: New experiments in the formation and governance of creative places in China, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.


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