Covering the Community: A Diversity Handbook for Media
Today's reporters need to understand differences and be able to report on diverse individuals and communities accurately and sensitively. This inexpensive and slim pocketbook is the perfect supplement to help your students achieve these crucial contemporary skills.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Examining Diversity
- The Importance of Covering the Community
- The Importance of Diversity in the Newsroom
- Defining Diversity
- Developing Awareness
- Identifying “Ism”s
- Guidelines for Reporting Diversity
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 2: Preparing for a Diversity Story
- Identifying Community News Values
- Case Study: Principal Buys Uniforms
- Testing for Bias
- Go Where People Live and Work
- Making Ethical Decisions
- Interview with Diversity Reporter Stephen Magagnini
- Stephen Magagnini's Tips for Diversity Writing
- Identifying Sources within the Community
- Doing Ethics
- A Cultural Profile
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 3: Gathering News with a Cultural Spin
- How to Develop Diversity News Judgment
- Developing Accuracy, Balance and Fairness, Clarity and Completeness
- Avoid Omission
- Cyberspace is Diverse and Color Blind
- The Great Equalizer
- Finding a Different Angle
- Good Reporting Requires Organization and Time Management
- Organizing Your Information
- Managing Your Time
- Developing Sensitivity to Diversity
- N-Word Will Sting—If You Let it
- Finding Multicultural Resources
- A Cultural Profile
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 4: Interviewing with Awareness
- Checklist for Interviews
- Conducting the Interview
- Note-Taking Tips
- How to Improve Listening Skills
- Working with an Interpreter
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 5: Writing and Editing the Diversity Story
- Identifying Story Topic, Purpose and Reader
- Developing Skills for Accuracy, Balance and Clarity
- Telling a Good Story
- The Diversity Angle
- Using Narrative Writing Puts the Reader into the Story
- Reflecting Diversity in Word Choice
- Time's First Editor
- Solving Pronoun Problems
- Writing about Real Women
- Correcting other Writing Problems
- The San Francisco KRON-TV Multicultural Policy
- Using Interview Materials
- Choosing a Story Format
- Using Verb Power
- Editing with Style
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 6: Catching the Image Through Photography and Graphics
- Making a Commitment to Diversity
- Making Ethical Decisions
- Celebrity Images
- A Computer Graphics Problem
- Avoiding Stereotypes and Omission
- Image Problems with Cartoons
- Employment and Image Study
- Ask for Feedback
- Writing Good Captions
- Graphics in the News
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 7: Shaping Broadcast Decisions
- Writing for the Eye and the Ear
- Problems for Minorities in Mainstream Television
- Women Television Stars
- Broadcast Time Limits
- Toward Enterprise Reporting
- Writing for the Ear
- Developing a Visual Attitude
- Case Studies of Diversity Television
- A Radio Diversity Case Study
- Examining Radio Differences
- Hate Speech on Radio
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 8: Practicing Diversity in Public Relations and Advertising
- Looking at Public Relations
- Looking at Advertising
- Ethical Guidelines and Principles of Persuasion
- Practicing Diversity in Public Relations
- Developing Projects and Events
- Practicing Diversity in Advertising
- Women and Minority Dollars Influence Advertising
- What is Good Advertising?
- Working the Beat
- Chapter 9: Going to the Source
- Covering African Americans/Blacks
- Covering Asian Americans
- Covering People with Disabilities
- Covering Gay-Related Stories
- Covering Latinos/Hispanics
- Other Considerations When Covering Hispanics
- Covering Native Americans/American Indians
- Covering Older Adults
- Covering Women
- Guidelines When Writing about Women
- An Interview with an AIDS Reporter
- Covering HIV and AIDS
- Guidelines When Writing about HIV/AIDS
- Chapter 10: Reporters' Resources, Ethics Codes and Laws
- Ethics Codes
- Code of Ethics for the Society of Professional Journalists
- Code of Broadcast News Ethics for the Radio-Television News Directors Association
- Code of Ethics for the Public Relations Society of America
- Code of Ethics for the National Press Photographers Association
- Laws Useful to Journalists
- The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States
- Equal Pay Act of 1963
- Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Higher Education Act 1972
- Rehabilitation Act of 1973
- Freedom of Information Act of 1966
- Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1975
- Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
- Copyright Act of 1978
- Libel and Slander
- Shield Laws
- U.S. Immigration Status
- Selected Media and Diversity Organizations
- Internet Resources
- Books about Online Usage and Sources
- Useful Websites
- Hate Groups in America
- Violence-Prone Organizations
- Propaganda Organizations
Pine Forge Press Titles of Related Interest[Page ii]
Second Thoughts: Conventional Wisdom Through the Sociological Eye, 2nd. Ed. by Karen Cerulo and Janet Ruane
Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences, 2nd Ed. by David Croteau and William Hoynes
Crime and Everyday Life: Insights and Implications for Society, 2nd Ed. by Marcus Felson
Exploring Social Issues Using SPSS for Windows 95/98 by Joseph F. Healey, John Boli, Earl Babbie, and Fred Halley
Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life (text), 2nd Ed. by David Newman
Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life (readings), 2nd Ed. by David Newman
Building Community: Social Science in Action by Philip Nyden, Anne Figert, Mark Shibley, and Darryl Burroughs
The McDonaldization of Society, Rev. Ed. by George Ritzer
Shifts in the Social Contract: Understanding Change in American Society by Beth Rubin
Sociology for a New Century: A Pine Forge Press Series Edited by Charles Ragin, Wendy Griswold, and Larry Griffin
Crime and Disrepute by John Hagan
An Invitation to Environmental Sociology by Michael M. Bell
Global Inequalities by York Bradshaw and Michael Wallace
Schools and Societies by Steven Brint
How Societies Change by Daniel Chirot
Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World by Stephen Cornell and Doug Hartmann
The Sociology of Childhood by William A. Corsaro
Cultures and Societies in a Changing World by Wendy Griswold
Gods in the Global Village: The World's Religions in Sociological Perspective by Lester R. Kurtz
Waves of Democracy: Social Movements and Political Change by John Markoff
Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective by Philip McMichael
Constructing Social Research by Charles C. Ragin
Women and Men at Work by Barbara Reskin and Irene Padavic
Cities in a World Economy by Saskia Sassen
Gender, Family, and Social Movements by Suzanne Staggenborg
Copyright © 1999 by Pine Forge Press
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopymg, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Aldrich, Leigh Stephens.
Covering the community: A diversity handbook for media/by Leigh Stephens Aldrich.
p. cm.—(A diversity stylebook for media)
Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index.
ISBN 0-7619-8513-1 (acid-free paper)
1. Mass media and culture—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Pluralism (Social sciences)—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. II. Series.
TO SHIRLEY BIAGI
Mentor and Friend
About the Author[Page vi]
LEIGH STEPHENS ALDRICH is Professor of Journalism and Communication Studies at California State University, Sacramento. She is the author of more than 500 articles, studies and desktop study guides. Her book, 12 Steps to Clear Writing, won a National Federation of Press Women first place instructional book award. In her business consulting work she has trained thousands of people in communications. She is a Fellow of the Poynter Institute for Media Studies.
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Preface[Page xiii]Acknowledgments with Appreciation
This book is the result of contributions from many who are interested in the diverse community in which we live. I want to thank Shirley Biagi and Ginny McReynolds for their thorough edit of the manuscript and for their support throughout the project. A special thank-you to my husband Bob Aldrich, an enthusiastic motivator and tireless researcher. Dr. Virginia Kidd, Suzanne Sommer, Cari Vinci, Christina Navarette, Lisa Trask, Reagan Wisham, and Jay Wisham all gave professional and personal inspiration throughout the work.
My California State University, Sacramento students and State Hornet staff taught me the meaning of diversity. Our students' courage and success such as that of Giselle Fernandez and Joan Lunden have inspired me throughout the years to continue working on diversity and women's issues.
A special thank-you to the professionals who made this book possible: Pine Forge Press Publisher Stephen Rutter, his assistant Jean Skeels, Wendy Westgate, Windy Just, David Nakamura, Art Nauman, Stephen Magagnini, Jade Moon, Kenneth F. Irby, Valerie Hyman, Don Fry, Roy Peter Clark, [Page xv]Joyce Mitchell, Dr. Ann L. Gerhardt, Dr. Ray Oshiro, Dr. Robert Humphrey, Marilyn Kern-Foxworth, Larry Dalton, Kit Cullen and Elaine Hussey. My deepest appreciation to the reviewers who molded the book and pushed my writing and editing skills to the limit:
- Brenda Dervin, Ohio State University
- Victoria Goff, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay
- Lauren Kessler, University of Oregon
- Catherine Mitchell, University of North Carolina, Asheville
- Barbara Straus Reed, Rutgers University
- Pamela Shoemaker, Syracuse University
- Antone Silvia, University of Rhode Island
- Carol Stepp, University of Maryland, College Park
- Bernell Tripp, University of Florida
Appendix A[Page 147][Page 148]“American Indian School Far from Old ‘Institute’ Days”By Senior Writer for Ethnic Affairs and Race Relations
The Sacramento Bee, February 5,1997
RIVERSIDE—On a grassy campus here, 450 American Indian teenagers from throughout the United States study basket weaving, tribal government, Navajo and other subjects not found at most public schools.
But Sherman Indian High School is not your ordinary public school. The 105-year-old institution is one of the last vestiges of the old Indian boarding school system—widely considered one of the worst abuses perpetrated against American Indians.
At 10 a.m. today, Sacramento City College will host a Native American Cultural Council forum on Indian boarding schools.
From the 1880s through the 1960s, hundreds of thousands of Indian children across the country were sent to government boarding schools, often hundreds of miles away from home, in an effort to “take the Indian out of the Indian.”
Indian children were given haircuts, uniforms, non-Indian names and orders not to speak their native language—even though many arrived not speaking English. Those who violated the English-only rule were often beaten or assigned latrine duty. In the summers they were hired out as domestics or migrant workers.
But the “Sherman Institute” once known for its reform school atmosphere—has undergone a remarkable metamorphosis. Its mission is no longer to eradicate, but to celebrate Indian culture and language.
“We're trying to give back what was taken away,” said administrator Ken Taylor, a Creek who attended Haskell, an Indian boarding school in Kansas.
Sherman, which once had 1,200 students, nearly closed in 1992 when local tribes wanted to turn it into an alcohol treatment center. But in the last five years, the school has retrained its teachers to meet the unusual needs of Indian students.
“Man Indian children learn in different ways (than non-Indians) they are visual, hands-on learners; they learn better in groups,” said Superintendent Fayetta Babby, a Seneca Cayuga who attended Chilocco Indian School in Oklahoma.
[Page 149]“I was very shy, and it gave me a chance to excel,” said Babby, 50. “If not for that experience, I would not be where I am today.”
For decades boarding schools were the only way Indians could get a high school education. Indians were not allowed in California's public schools until 1935. The first public high school on the 25,000-square-mile Navajo Reservation didn't open until the 1950s, and by 1955, 81 percent of Navajo children were in boarding schools.
Helen Waukazoo, director of Friendship House, an Indian drug and alcohol treatment program in San Francisco, said she was pulled off the Navajo Reservation at age 8 against her parents' wishes and sent to school in Utah.
“This was another way to disrupt the American Indian Family system,” said Waukazoo, 55.
“The only language I knew was Navajo, so I was always punished,” she said. “My punishment was to scrub the hallways, windows and floors … I couldn't attend any movies or activities.”
Indian boarding schools were often at military outposts in isolated areas, where abuses could go unreported. At Stewart Institute in Carson City, which closed in 1980, people have claimed to see the ghosts of Indian children who were sent there and never heard from again.
“This was operated similar to a POW camp when it opened in 1890,” said Suzi Lisa, director of the Stewart Cultural Center. “They were innocent victims of a war being waged against them and their culture.”
While many Indians in their 40s and 50s forged lifelong friendships and used boarding school as a springboard to decent jobs or college, their parents often endured much harsher treatment. Waukazoo remembers an elderly Indian woman describing how a nun bathed her in water and bleach to try to whiten her brown skin.
Tom Hyde, a Viejas Kummeyaay elder from San Diego, went to Sherman in 1943, then served in World War II. When he and 47 other veterans returned to Sherman, they began to question the teachers.
“They were not qualified—some were matrons out of state prisons and reformatories,” said Hyde, who was kicked out for probing teachers' backgrounds.
Hyde said he was recruited for Sherman at 12 by a federal agent who got $125 per child.
Sherman was mostly a trade school, and Hyde spent mornings learning leather work and carpentry. The most important thing he learned, he said, was “responsibility to keep your word and fulfill your commitments.”
Boarding schools were the defining experience for generations of Indians.
“Most reservation Indians over age 30 went to boarding school,” said Sherman Museum curator Lorene Sisquoc, who also teaches weaving. “It changed our whole lives.”
[Page 150]The nation's 30 off-reservation Indian boarding schools produced thousands of intertribal marriages that spawned generations of mixed-blood Indians.
“There's a lot of bittersweet memories—they tore apart families and some kids never got to go home,” Sisquoc said. “You don't know how to function as a family unit.” Some elders believe the high rate of Indian domestic abuse can be traced to oppressive boarding school experiences.
After World War II, as a part of the government's push to close reservations and assimilate Indians into “mainstream society,” thousands of Indian boarding school grads were funneled into jobs in Los Angeles, San Francisco and other cities.
Today children from 64 tribes attend Sherman, one of five remaining Indian boarding schools. This year, 65 students left because of homesickness, but 90 will graduate and more than a dozen will go on to college.
For information on today's forum, call 558-2155.Copyright 1997, The Sacramento Bee; article used by permission.
Appendix B[Page 151]
THESE COULD OFFEND ALTERNATIVES A AIDS victim or AIDS sufferer person living with AIDS airman pilot all chiefs and no injuns too many bosses and not enough workers alumni/alumna alums, graduates, former students amputee (disabled) one who has lost a limb(s) anchorman anchor Anglo Anglo-American, white assemblyman, assemblywoman assembly member authoress author B babe an attractive woman bachelor's degree undergraduate degree old bag an older woman bag lady a homeless woman ball and chain wife barrio poor Hispanic neighborhood basket case (disabled) eliminate bastard (classist) born out of marriage better half wife be your own man be your own person beaner a Mexican, Mexican American best man for the job best person for the job Bible thumper conservative Christian bimbo (woman) eliminate birth defect born with … blind visually impaired blind as a bat eliminate boy use for under 18 years; use man for over 18 years boy friend friend, companion brave a (tribal name) warrior broad woman brotherhood humanity buck a young male bum someone without work businessmen business people butch lesbian C canuck French Canadian camera girl photographer caveman cave dweller chairman chair, chairperson Chicano Mexican American chick woman [Page 153] Chinaman, chink Chinese, Chinese American not having a Chinaman's chance not likely churchman church member city slicker city dweller cleaning lady housecleaner, housekeeper old codger an older man coed (woman) student colored a black person confined to a wheelchair person who uses a wheelchair congressman, congresswoman congress member coolie Chinese laborer councilman, councilwoman council member cracker (classist) eliminate craftsman skilled worker or crafts worker crazy mental disorder crewman crew member cripple (disabled) one who walks with difficulty crone (older woman) eliminate D dame woman dancing girl dancer deaconess deacon deaf as a doorknob (disabled) eliminate deaf and dumb hearing impaired deaf mute speech impaired Dear Sir (letter salutation) Dear Mr. or Dear Ms. deformed one who has a disability delivery boy delivery person, deliverer distaff (women) eliminate doll (woman) eliminate dragon lady eliminate druggie a drug addict Dutchman Dutch citizen dutch treat each pays own way dwarf little person dyke lesbian E elderly older adults enlisted man enlistee Eskimo Inuk, plural is Inuit executrix executor F fag or faggot gay, homosexual male fairy gay, homosexual male fair sex women fallen woman eliminate [Page 154] family of man humankind or humanity fatherland homeland feebleminded developmentally disabled female doctor, lawyer, engineer, etc. doctor, lawyer, engineer, etc. feminize to soften filly (woman) eliminate fireman firefighter fisherman fisher fishwife a quarrelsome woman forefathers ancestors foreman supervisor four-eyes wears glasses fraternal twins nonidentical twins fraternize associate Frenchman French citizen freshman first-year student G gentleman man gentleman's agreement honorable agreement getting senile age stereotype (unless it is a medical condition) ghetto a poor ethnic neighborhood ghetto blaster portable stereo gimp (disabled) eliminate girl use for under 18 years; use woman for over 18 years girl friend friend, companion governess instructor grandfather clause escape clause gringo (white) eliminate gyped me out of it (Gypsy) cheated me out of it H half-breed person of mixed heritage handyman repair person or repairer handicapped disabled or physically challenged haole a white person harelip (disabled) eliminate hatchet man hatchet person headmaster principal heiress heir henpecked eliminate heroine hero hick an ignorant person high class describe behavior hillbilly person who lives in Appalachia honest injun it's the truth holy roller a conservative Christian honkers women's breasts honky a white person hooters women's breasts [Page 155] homeroom mother homeroom parent homo gay, homosexual male hostess host housewife homemaker I idiot developmentally disabled imbecile developmentally disabled Indian tribal name: Navajo, Native American indian giver taking something back you have given Indian maiden a young Native American woman injun give tribal name: a Navajo illegal alien undocumented worker insane (disabled) mental disorder invalid bedridden or house bound J Jack of all trades good at all things Jap Japanese JAP, Jewish American princess eliminate Jesus freak a conservative Christian jewed him down (Jewish) bartered the price down journeyman trainee K kingpin top person, leader kinsman kin knockers women's breasts Koran Curan L lady woman lady luck luck lame (disabled) one who walks with difficulty landlord owner lawman name position: sheriff, judge, etc. layman layperson in layman's terms in nontechnical terms leading lady lead left-handed compliment ambiguous, doubtful lesbo lesbian, a homosexual woman libber liberationist, feminist little lady wife little woman wife, woman low class (classist) describe behavior low man on the totem pole last in line low rider Mexican youths who drive altered vehicles lumberman wood chopper [Page 156] lush an alcoholic M madam (woman) eliminate madam chairman I address the chair maid houseworker, room cleaner maiden lady single maiden name former name maiden voyage first voyage mailman mail carrier maintenance man maintenance person manhole maintenance hole man the stations take the stations man-eater human-eater manhandle to handle roughly manhood adulthood man hours staff hours manhunt a search mankind humankind manmade artificial, synthetic manning staffing man overboard person overboard manpower workforce man-sized big, large manslaughter human slaughter man-to-man (sports) player-to-player marksman sharpshooter master head, expert master of ceremonies leader of ceremonies mastermind carry out project skillfully masterpiece great work medicine man shaman, a healer Mexican standoff a standoff midget little person Miss or Mrs. Ms. Mongoloid Mongolian Moonie member of the Unification Church moron developmentally disabled Moslem Muslim mothering parenting Mother Nature nature Muhammadan Muslim murderess murderer N nanny nurse Near East Middle East Negro or nigger black, African American, person of color newsman news person night watchman night guard [Page 157] normal don't use with disabled; use nondisabled O okie (geographic) slang for poor from Oklahoma—eliminate old biddy older woman old geezer older man old goat older man old maid (woman) single old wives' tale folklore, superstition oldsters older adults ombudsman investigator one-man show one-person show Oriental Asian, name by country: Japanese P paddy wagon (Irish) police van papoose Native American baby patrolman patrol officer patroness patron penmanship handwriting Pig a law enforcement officer, a sexist man plain Jane (woman) eliminate policeman police officer project subsidized housing proprietress proprietor Q queen gay, homosexual man queer homosexual man or woman R raped only use literally red man use tribal name, Native American redface use tribal name, Native American redneck (classist) one who has ignorant behavior reformed alcoholic recovering alcoholic retard developmentally disabled right-hand man right hand rug rat a child S saleslady, salesman salesperson Scotch Scottish seaman sailor serviceman service person, servicer sexual preference sexual orientation shanghai (geographic) to take someone against their will showgirl dancer shrew (woman) eliminate Siamese twins (disabled) joined twins [Page 158] significant other partner, companion worked like a slave worked hard slum (geographic) poor economic area songstress singer sorceress sorcerer spase or spastic (disabled) one who has cerebral palsy spinster a single woman spokesman speaker squaw Native American woman starlet star straight man straight person stewardess flight attendant suffragette suffragist T tart (woman) eliminate trailer trash (classist) eliminate tramp (woman) eliminate trash (classist) eliminate tribe name group: Cherokee Nation trick a person who solicits a prostitute two-man two-person U Uncle Tom (black) stereotype—eliminate underdeveloped nation developing nation unwed mother mother usherette usher V vamp (woman) eliminate vixen (woman) eliminate W waitress waiter, server warpath warring wampum money WASP White Anglo-Saxon Protestant weaker sex (women) eliminate weathergirl weather reporter welsh on a promise (Welsh) not keep a promise wetback Mexican laborer wheelchair bound (disabled) uses a wheelchair whore (woman) a female prostitute wimp a weak person Y yes man yes person
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