Counselling in Transcultural Settings: Priorities for a Restless World
Publication Year: 2013
Subject: Multi-Cultural Counseling
Drawing on over 40 years of experience, Patricia d'Ardenne provides the reader with a unique and practical introduction to counseling and psychotherapy in a world on the move, where ethnic, linguistic, religious, economic, political and environmental differences collide and create a rich and complex setting for contemporary therapeutic practice.
Positioning counseling within the shifting contexts of the modern world, this book: Examines anti-discriminatory practice - its origins and development; The complexities of working effectively with refugees, asylum seekers, vulnerable migrants, and the victims of human trafficking; Considers the needs of the cultural traveler; Address the intricacies of faith and spirituality; Provides a guide to assessing language and the role of interpreters; Addresses ethics, the law and transcultural issues in Healthcare; Looks at the importance of supervision, ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Anti-Discriminatory Practice: Its Origins and Development in Transcultural Counselling
- Chapter 2: Transcultural Counselling for International Workers
- Chapter 3: Transcultural Counselling for Refugees
- Chapter 4: Using Interpreters in Transcultural Counselling
- Chapter 5: Religion and Spirituality in Transcultural Counselling
- Chapter 6: Transcultural Counselling in Healthcare
- Chapter 7: The Voice of Users in Transcultural Counselling
- Chapter 8: Ethics and Governance in Transcultural Counselling
- Chapter 9: Supervision, Personal Development and Self-Care in Transcultural Counselling
- Chapter 10: An Evidence Base for Transcultural Counselling
- Chapter 11: Future Directions for Transcultural Counselling
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© Patricia d'Ardenne 2013
First published 2013
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[Page v]For our grandchildren Oliver, Jessica and Felix
-morning stars above a restless world-[Page vi]
About the Author
Foreword by Colin Lago[Page ix]
Patricia d'Ardenne is to be congratulated on writing this exciting and extremely informative new book within the field of transcultural counselling. With Aruna Mahtani she co-authored a previous landmark text, Transcultural Counselling in Action, which was first published in 1989, subsequently reprinted almost annually throughout the 1990s, before penning a second edition in 1999. This new text reflects and evidences Patricia's long-term commitment to and experience of delivering mental health services to people from a very wide range of diverse communities, both in the UK and overseas. As such, this new book is a goldmine of ideas, resources, references and clinical examples rooted in everyday practice. Few writers in this field can claim such extensive clinical experience.
In previous correspondence with me, Patricia noted: “I have painted a broad but I hope very practical book.” This is without doubt. She has brought together a unique blend of subject areas (that are not replicated in any other texts I know), with contents dedicated to informing the quality of professional practice in different settings and contexts. She has provided a range of further website references and practice exercises for the discerning reader. This book comprises a solid working text suitable for students of many mental-health-related professions as well for professional colleagues seeking to improve their skills, knowledge and awareness within the transcultural arena.
Upon opening the text I immediately found the list of contents thoroughly engaging. Again, quoting from Patricia's own book abstract:
Specific chapters examine counselling refugees, using interpreters, screening and supporting aid workers who provide psychosocial interventions, and supporting journalists, military and missionary staff. Other cross cultural domains include healthcare, spirituality and religion, and The User Movement. New directions include working with developing nations, the stressors of globalisation, and the use of telemedicine.
This breadth of coverage is breathtaking in its vision and extensive in its application.
Much of the early literature concerned with the provision of interpersonally sensitive, anti-discriminatory, culturally informed counselling practice was published in the United States, where this professional focus continues to stimulate [Page x]new ideas, research and publications. Indeed, the practice of multicultural counselling within the USA was claimed to be the “fourth force” in psychological treatments after the first three forces of psychoanalysis, cognitive-behaviourism and humanistic approaches. This bold but necessary assertion by American theorists and exponents was made on the basis that therapeutic practitioners from all three main bodies of theory would inevitably work with all members of society. The fourth force of multicultural counselling thus highlighted the need for skilled practice right across society. Theoretical knowledge, they argued, though of great value, was insufficient to ensure sensitive, anti-discriminatory, effective therapeutic interventions with all clients. Predominantly, much of this early American literature was devoted to the improvement of counselling services to those within minority groups within the USA.
To some extent, the UK has seen a slightly later emergence of its own dedicated transcultural counselling literature, devoted to the delivery of culturally sensitive psychological practices with the various Black and minority ethnic groups resident in Britain. Inspired and informed by the original, and still emerging literature from the USA, British theorists have begun to develop new terminology relevant to this particular cultural milieu.
A further development within this arena in recent decades has been concern for the wider implications of human diversity and how these additional fields of application both require necessary further considerations on behalf of transcultural therapists and, in equal measure, challenge such practitioners (and their professional bodies, researchers and writers). The contemporary inclusion of the “big seven” stigmatised identities of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, age, ability and religion under the rubric of “diversity” has had the important consequences of alerting the professional field to the complex life experiences of many of those inhabiting minority group status within society. It has also challenged the creation of new bodies of theory and practice that will prove robust and effective with this wider population.
Historically, within the psychological helping professions, the advice to beginning practitioners was “therapist, know thyself'. Transcultural counselling, through its awareness of the enormous impact of “social situatedness” (i.e. where and how one lives, works, grew up, was educated, earns, etc.), has begun to advocate the concept of “therapist, know thy identity”. The transcultural counselling project is doomed before it starts if practitioners have little conscious awareness of their location within society and how it and they relate to the various members of the other communities with whom they come into contact.
Patricia is so right when she states that “transcultural counselling is in its infancy, and faces many challenges”. Globalisation, vast material inequalities across countries and communities, the sheer speed of travel compared with the complexity and slowness of adaptation to new cultural surroundings, the impact of violence, ill health, poverty and international politics are all profoundly complex, interrelating phenomena that demand enormous repositories [Page xi]of commitment, knowledge, awareness and skills for the mental health professional seeking to work in this arena. The pursuit of core cultural competences is a necessary yet extremely demanding professional requirement.
This book really takes readers beyond their own cultural framework and indeed beyond their own national borders. It considers many fields of application; it critically pays attention to the words and views of service users (a much neglected yet critical source for understanding and practice development); it evaluates the very important functions and use of interpreters; it requires consideration of ethics; it demands psychological helpers pay great attention to their supervision, ongoing development and self-care; it contains very useful web references for further details; it poses a wide range of counselling issues and situations combined with practice-based exercises; and finally, it contains an extraordinary wealth of reference and resource material.
I believe this book will come to be an absolute “must have” for all therapists training to be and working within transcultural settings. I believe Patricia has, in this volume, made an extraordinary groundbreaking contribution to transcultural counselling and I dearly hope that in future years consideration will be made to have it published in other languages.
Foreword by Dinesh Bhugra[Page xii]
In the rapid shrinking of the world as a result of globalisation, not only has the movement of goods become easier, but the movement of people across national boundaries has become significant. We carry our cultures wherever we go, and while coming into contact with other cultures – either directly or indirectly – we may adjust accordingly, depending upon a number of factors. Globalisation has also contributed to increased urbanisation with internal migrations and changes in family structures. People have always been on the move for a variety of reasons, which have included economic, educational and political. Political and economic discrimination, along with religious persecution, add to the likelihood of moving away from one culture towards another one. The process of migration and subsequent cultural adjustment is fraught with difficulties, and a large number of studies from across the globe have shown that migrants experience higher levels of emotional and psychological distress.
In several countries, counselling is increasingly being seen as acceptable and is indeed becoming available. However, working across cultures brings special challenges. The individual comes into the therapeutic setting with certain expectations and models of explanation, as does the clinician.
Patricia d'Ardenne, in this excellent volume, brings wide experience in writing, research and clinical settings in her overview. She sets the scene admirably by highlighting problems related to discrimination. The system within which health care is provided is undoubtedly influenced by the culture within which the system is delivered, but the accessibility and availability of the system is also determined by the resources provided by the society. Migrants may not be aware of the healthcare system, as well as not see their problems in a “medical” manner. This is where anti-discriminatory practice, both at the individual and institutional level, becomes critical, and d'Ardenne provides a superb overview. Her practical overview and approach in getting the counsellor to think both of theoretical and practice points is critical in making therapists think of major factors in delivering care. Her approach is pragmatic, easy to follow and extremely helpful to the reader. D'Ardenne deserves our congratulations and thanks in delivering what hopefully will become a classic text.
Why then to me this restless world's but hell.
Richard III, William Shakespeare
There were several core ideas in creating Counselling in Transcultural Settings: Priorities for a Restless World. I wanted readers to have a resource for work beyond their own culture, where counselling and psychotherapy are understood to be as dynamic as the political and social contexts in which distressed people seek help. If the big human stories today are globalisation, terrorism, migration and racism, then counselling practice now needs a proactive response, where present demand and future directions are grasped, tried and updated. The aim of this book is to provide a practical update of counselling for changing worlds, where ethnic, linguistic, religious, economic and environmental differences collide, creating rich settings for contemporary practice. The first half of the text visits these settings for transcultural counselling; the second half addresses how practitioners can care for themselves and the quality of the service they provide. More than that, I hope that the chapters will give readers some inspiration and confidence, encouraging a reconsideration of model or practice, and then seeing if it makes a difference to outcome.
We all have formative experiences, but nothing in my education or professional training in clinical, and later, counselling psychology prepared me for diverse practice. Cross-cultural studies were the domain of anthropology and politics (see Chapter 1). Implicit assumptions in the psychology curriculum were that human traits, development and behaviour could all be universally defined and observed independently of their cultural or linguistic contexts. The generalisability of psychological models was rarely questioned or investigated. The word “culture” implied the exotic, the alien and, above all, the unknown.
But the real world soon imposed another agenda. An undergraduate project on the authoritarian personality (Adorno et al., 1950) engaged us in comparing two Northern English cities by questionnaire; a mono-cultural, white, working class community disclosed more prejudiced and racist attitudes than another with an established Asian community in its textiles industry.
A Kennedy Research Fellowship took me to work in a state penitentiary in Tennessee in 1970. It was a stark introduction to institutionalised racism in the USA. Even in the aftermath of the American Civil Rights movement, 98 per cent of the 2,000 inmates were young black offenders, some as young as 14, incarcerated [Page xiv]for crimes ranging from rape to cattle rustling. My psychology colleagues, the prison officers, the medical and academic staff were, without exception, all white.
I directed a mental heath service for English-language people in Brussels for several years and began to understand the impact on mental well-being when multinationals placed their employees without preparation to live in the capital of the European Union. Those employed certainly had to make a cultural transition; but their spouses at home and children at schools faced the bigger daily challenges of language, values, education and health systems, with its many potential stressors. Our first three children were born outside the UK – making acculturation a personal and fascinating priority. Marriage to a journalist made me aware of the emotional impact of reporting distant events on overseas correspondents and their families.
Further teaching, training and editorial work allowed me to see different models of social and mental healthcare in India, Canada, Australia, Cuba, South Africa, China, France, Italy and Turkey, and compare them with the development of counselling and psychotherapy professions within the UK. This was alongside 30 years” clinical practice in East London – one of the most culturally diverse (and economically deprived) neighbourhoods in the country. Staff were given no additional training for diversity, but we did get a chance to ask patients what they wanted, to adapt our methods to their needs and evaluate the outcome of our work (Crown and d'Ardenne, 1982, 1986; d'Ardenne, 1986).
These experiences increased my conviction that, in essence, all counselling and psychotherapy is about difference and is, in a sense, transcultural. Effective practice, therefore, incorporates the principles of transcultural counselling, although these need to be identified and evaluated.
The British Psychological Society (BPS) Special Interest Group in Race and Culture had members who were the most supportive but candid critics of my naive prejudices about cross-cultural work (Crown and d'Ardenne, 1986; d'Ardenne, 1986). However, out of this grew a friendship that led directly to co-authoring Transcultural Counselling in Action with Aruna Mahtani over 20 years ago (d'Ardenne and Mahtani 1989, 1999). This small book was written at a time where there was much less published in the field, and still offers readers a “how to do it” approach. That text, however, now seems simple – even simplistic – in some of its assumptions and exhortations. We wrote it as a black and white therapist – and worked through the text with clients defined either as “culturally close” or “culturally different” from ourselves. From this we derived, quite literally, a black and white grid of equivalent counselling comparisons (d'Ardenne and Mahtani, 1999).
Counselling in Transcultural Settings: Priorities for a Restless World instead considers the many shades of grey in contemporary practice. Our counselling clients, for example, may not see themselves as belonging to the dominant culture, and have transcultural needs, but equally may not classify themselves as black or white. Some clients, when asked, prefer to define their culture [Page xv]through faith or spiritual belief, gender, gender preference, education, political beliefs or health status – to name but some of the identities considered throughout the text. Similarly, counsellors are not culturally neutral; they come from their own historical, cultural, educational, gender-specific and linguistic backgrounds, both individually and shared, both at home and abroad (Ryde, 2009). Good practice in transcultural counselling requires us to understand the impact of our own cultural identities on our practice, and to use supervision and continuing professional development (CPD) to help us with that process. If curious about every aspect of our own world and that of our clients, we can try always to meet them in a shared space.
In the last decade I have trained mental health workers in psychological therapies with a mental health team, as part of a Global Health Partnership between a UK NHS Mental Health Trust and a National Psychiatric Referral Hospital in Uganda. Many identities divide and unite us. Mental health training in East Africa has until now had to focus on the psychiatric sequelae of malaria and malaria-induced epilepsy. Practitioners there now want to learn about psychological and counselling approaches for those who experience mood disorders, relationship difficulties, behavioural problems, substance misuse and – for a country riven by civil conflict – those with post-traumatic disorders. Most of all, our colleagues want to be able to support service users and their families within their own communities and refer individuals to precious regional hospital beds only when local interventions have proven inadequate. There are currently no texts about how to address their needs: rather we are collaborating on objectives, piloting our teaching and training, and evaluating this transcultural work as we go. At the same time we have provided an account of that input and its sustainability to the service users and to our joint funders (d'Ardenne et al., 2009; Dorner, 2008).
These clinicians will no doubt benefit from partnership with the West, but they need to be supported in valuing their own knowledge and skills and finding solutions within modest resources (Baillie et al., 2009; Crisp, 2010). Equally important is how we can learn from those who counsel in harsh economic and physical conditions, with a level of unpredictability and inequality that many of us would find hard to imagine, let alone tolerate (d'Ardenne et al., 2009). Future directions for transcultural counselling research will focus on the resilience of overseas mental health workers and their capacity to adapt counselling models to the cultural needs of their own communities. We shall also be able to use new technologies to share knowledge – their most precious commodity – for preserving mental health and well-being.
Recent personal influences include working with Interhealth Worldwide (http://www.interhealth.org.uk) who screen and support humanitarian aid workers and others in non-government organisations, and assist distressed people in very different cultural settings overseas (Hargrave et al., 2011a). Screening began historically with physical preparation, for example vaccinations, but [Page xvi]now includes the personal resilience of workers exposed to hostile environments. Similarly, the International Society for Travel Medicine (http://www.ISTM.org) has developed from considering the physical needs of travellers to include mental well-being, and has recently established an international mental health group to address this important topic. Those of us who have joined this group hope to stimulate an interest in any psychological factors affecting the health of all overseas travellers. The Health Information for All 2015 network (http://www.hifa2015.org) was established to provide free online health information and libraries to colleagues around the world, and has helped me understand the importance of sharing and translating information, as well as the considerable benefits of models of telemedicine, with mobile phones and remote supervision and teaching. Most recently, colleagues and students on the MSc Transcultural Mental Healthcare course at Queen Mary College continue to inform my thinking about the impact of racism and cultural relativity in all counselling relationships.
The first half of this book introduces readers to a selection of transcultural contexts. Such evidence as there is, or established good practice, is described and sourced. Fictionalised case examples will be used to illustrate a model or issue, but are based on real stories. The bias towards African and Asian cases reflects personal experience, but the principles are universal. Summaries, discussion and practice points have been included to guide the busy reader, and further reading or websites are also listed.
Chapter 1 tracks the history of racist and discriminatory practices and beliefs in psychiatry and psychology, and how they still exist today. It considers how transcultural work has grown in response to these, and readers are shown the ethical requirements for current professional practice.
Chapter 2 considers the previously neglected needs of the international worker, moved to hostile environments at short notice, supporting local people. Attention is given to the prevention of secondary traumatisation and culture shock for those who counsel the victims of disaster. Examples described include development workers, humanitarian aid workers, the armed forces, journalists and missionaries on overseas assignments.
Chapter 3 examines transcultural counselling with those who have refugee experience, including asylum seekers, vulnerable migrants and the victims of human trafficking. Case examples focus on their losses, their resilience and response to trauma, and the complex social and legal processes they face when seeking asylum in the West. Readers are introduced to engagement, narrative approaches and the central role of accessing and processing traumatic memory in counselling.
Chapter 4 reviews the role of interpreters and translators in transcultural counselling and provides practical guidelines through case histories to help them in that process. Attention is given to preparation and debriefing of the interpreter, and the models of interpreting suitable for counsellors, with some [Page xvii]research findings about feasibility. Telephone interpreting services and the role of advocates in counselling, with specific examples of how and when to deploy them, are reviewed.
Chapter 5 highlights the importance of faith and spirituality – topics that have not always been a priority with counsellors – and how these can be understood to achieve a better outcome in transcultural settings. The chapter refers both to clients and counsellors as potential believers, as well as those providing pastoral counselling across cultures.
Chapter 6 looks at counselling in healthcare settings, from early life until death and dying, and discusses how an understanding of cross-cultural difference can be used to help patients. It shows how counsellors can improve treatment compliance, requiring collaboration from families and friends, as well as changes in lifestyle.
Chapter 7 considers how transcultural counsellors can collaborate with clients, empowered by the Service Users” Movement. Innovations in the West and in developing countries, including patient experts, users” groups within specific cultures or diagnostic categories, and peer support workers are described. Counsellors are shown how cultural knowledge can increase support to clients in a range of health, social, economic and ethnic contexts.
The second half of the book covers professional priorities for the counsellor in transcultural settings.
Chapter 8 addresses ethics in transcultural counselling, and contextualises them within clinical governance, current law on discrimination and social inclusion. The particular demands of working across cultures with black clients and counsellors who endure racism, the power imbalance between practitioners and supervisors from the dominant culture, and the drivers of policy and research agendas from the West are all critically reviewed.
Chapter 9 incorporates supervision and CPD – and the additional resourcing that counsellors require to ensure the quality of their work and the preservation of their well-being is maintained. The power permutations of a black or white supervisor/counsellor/client are described. Reflective practice and group supervision are proposed as an immediate and effective means of learning across cultures.
Chapter 10 discusses practitioners” responsibility to work from an evidence base, with practical guidelines on how to achieve this with a heavy workload. It looks at a range of sources including reflective practice, individual casework, literature reviews and audits, as well as the more formal requirements of individual and multicentred research, and common methods used.
Chapter 11 presents existing requirements in practice, training and research and how well they have been addressed to date. New directions include telemedicine, globalisation, global health, the environment and the evolving levels of interpersonal violence. A case is made for transcultural models to be integrated into all counselling training, but since this has yet to occur, an appendix of some transcultural courses around the world is included.
[Page xviii]There are exclusions. There is nothing on children and young people, nor on counselling in educational settings. Similarly, the counselling needs of those with serious mental and physical disorder has not been covered. No specific reference in case examples has been made to Romany travellers; the word “traveller” is only used in its more general meaning. But transcultural counselling is developing and specific texts are emerging covering some of these areas (Lago, 2011).
This text should be of use to readers who counsel across cultures, including those who coach and mentor. It does not prescribe specific counselling models, nor does it seek to train readers as cultural experts. Rather, it aims to bring together a range of professional settings and topics that better cover contemporary issues, and to plot a chart for trainees and counsellors where future practice and research might develop.
The world spins on. The helping professions (all counselling professionals), and those who train and supervise them, are considerably better prepared for working with diversity than when I qualified in 1972. But in another 40 years, will there will be the political and professional commitment to transcultural issues that will make counselling globally relevant?
I am indebted to all these people for their help, but own all errors in content or form:
Professor Kamaldeep Bhui, Dr Ken Carswell, Dr Nasir Warfa and the students at QMUL
Malcom Downing at the BBC
Cerdic Hall and the Butabika Link Committee
Annie Hargrave and Dr Ted Lankaster at Interhealth Worldwide
Dr Sarah Heke and colleagues at the Institute of Psychotrauma
Catherine Kenyon at Action Aid
Richard Mpango, for his insights into psychotherapy in Uganda
Carleen Scott, for her experience as a black trainee in supervision
My friends at Progressio and CAFOD
Jonathan Hinchliffe, for his unfailing and meticulous editorial and research assistance
Alice Oven, Rachel Burrows, Kate Wharton and colleagues at SAGE
Publications, for their patience, professionalism and kindness
And lastly, a big thank you to Peter and our growing family for their understanding and unconditional love.[Page xx]
Appendix[Page 154]Transcultural Postgraduate Courses
The following courses have been selected on the basis of an internet search using the terms “intercultural”, “transcultural”, “cultural”, “interracial”, “psychology”, “counselling”, “courses” both undergraduate and postgraduate. Most of the undergraduate sites provided cultural awareness and diversity as part of their basic introductory syllabus. There were many master's programmes within the realms of education and business but far fewer in applied psychology. Below is a selection of these retrieved from sites visited at the beginning of 2012 using the Google search engine (http://www.google.co.uk).
The list is in no way comprehensive, nor does it seek to recommend; it has been devised in much the same way that readers would find a course by using the internet. Some of the courses (e.g. at Colombo) emphasise local culture as a way of understanding national identity but do not focus on transcultural issues. Each course summary has been edited according to the amount of information available on the website, and some are more precise than others. The courses are arranged alphabetically according to their geographical location. Readers will need to visit each site and judge for themselves how useful a course might be. Such lists date rapidly; there is nothing better than updating professional links by regular online searches.
Readers might also be interested in a special issue of Clinical Psychology Forum (Latchford and Melluish, 2010) that looks at psychology from a global perspective and visits psychological research, training and practice in nations as varied as Ghana, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, and Cuba. There is now an organisation called the International Union of Psychological Science (http://www.iupsys.net) seeking to address the specific and general challenges facing psychological workers within global contexts. The special issue refers to the training and cultural requirements of practitioners both now and in the future (Bullock, 2010).
Readers might be interested in a “Map of Social-Personality Psychology Graduate Programs” showing over 90 master's and doctoral programmes in social psychology (http://www.socialpsychology.org/maps/gradprograms). It does not [Page 155]explicitly refer to transcultural counselling, although many courses cover the topics of local cultural norms, migration and diversity.Australia
University of Melbourne (Melbourne Medical School):
- Course type: MA
- Course title: Master of Health Sciences
- Duration: 1 year full time, 2 years part time
- Genetic counselling
- Infant and parent mental health
- Transcultural Mental Health
- URL: http://www.medicine.unimelb.edu.au/future/rhd/masterhealthsciences.html
Victoria University of Melbourne:
- Course type: MSc
- Course title: Cross Cultural Psychology
- Duration: 1 year full time, 2 years part time
- Compulsory modules:
- Research Preparation
- Current Issues in Cross-cultural Psychology
- Conducting Research Across Cultures
- Various other chosen modules
- URL: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/psyc/study/postgraduate-study/msc-cross-cult.aspx#degree
McGill University (Department of Psychiatry):
- Course type: MSc
- Course title: MSc in Psychiatry (Social and Transcultural Psychiatry)
- Duration: Part time or full time (1 year)
- URL: http://www.mcgill.ca/psychiatry/education/graduate-program
The University of Alaska-Fairbanks and University of Alaska-Anchorage, Psychology Departments:
- [Page 156]
- The PhD Programme in Clinical-Community Psychology seeks to educate scholars and clinicians in research, evaluation, clinical practice and community-based action, grounded in the cultural contexts of all affected stakeholders. The programme integrates clinical, community and cultural psychology with a focus on rural, indigenous issues and emphasis on the integration of research and practice.
- URL: http://psyphd.uaa.alaska.edu
The University of Alberta:
- Course type: MA
- Course title: Counselling Psychology
- Duration: Full time (2 years: Practicum)
- Module of interest: Year 1: Cross Cultural Counselling
- URL: http://www.edpsychology.ualberta.ca/en/GraduatePrograms/CounsellingPsychology/CourseBasedCohort.aspx
The University of Saskatchewan:
- Course type: MSc/PhD
- Course title: Culture and Human Development Program
- Duration: Varies
- URL: http://artsandscience.usask.ca/psychology/programs/chdevelopment
Zhejiang University (School of International Studies):
- Institute of Cross Cultural Studies
- “Our mission is to facilitate cross-cultural understanding between China and the world, and to promote cultural diversity in all spheres of social life within and across nations. The Institute aims to develop innovative modes of research to provide insights into the different ways that cross-cultural relations and histories are constructed and represented.” Offers specialisation in Globalisation, Migration and Diaspora Culture.
- URL: http://www.sis.zju.edu.cn/Item/42.aspx
The American University in Cairo (AUC):
- International Counseling and Community Psychology (ICCP) Program
- “These programs will place AUC and its graduates at the forefront of advancing global trends toward multi-cultural and systemic psychological practice that promotes culturally relevant family, child and community interventions in Egypt and the region.”
- URL: http://www.aucegypt.edu/huss/sape/gradprog/Pages/ICCP.aspx
University of Osnabrück:
- Master's Degree in Intercultural Psychology
- Intercultural psychology of culture and development. Including: cross-cultural business psychology, cross-cultural social psychology, a study project and a colloquium on intercultural focus. Introduction to Migration Research: Historical and sociological foundations. Psychotherapy and Counselling (emphasis on intercultural factors).
- URL: http://www.psycho.uni-osnabrueck.de/institut
The American University of Beirut:
- Undergraduate: Introduction to Culture and Psychology
- Led by Charles Harb, Associate Professor of Social Psychology
- Research interests focus on multiple social identities and the self-concept, with a special interest in the Arab world. Professor Harb is currently working on discrimination, confessionalism, intergroup distance and identities within the Lebanese socio-political context.
- URL: http://www.aub.edu.lb/fas/psychology/academics/undergraduate/Pages/courses.aspx
University of Malta: MA in Transcultural Counselling:
- Course type: MA
- Course title: Transcultural Counselling
- Duration: Full time (12–18 months full time and 6 months of practicum)
- Core Counselling Curriculum
- Professional Practice
- Dissertation/Seminar Paper
- URL: http://www.um.edu.mt/imp/courses/ma-counseling-counselling
- Course type: PhD
- Course title: PhD in Cross Cultural Psychology [Page 158]
- Duration: Varies
- URL: http://www.tilburguniversity.edu/about-tilburg-university/schools/socialsciences
Fatima Jinnah Women's University Rawalpindi
- Master's/Bachelor's in Behavioural Sciences
- Specialisations offered include: culture, identity and nationalism, counselling and clinical psychology. The culture, identity and nationalism course encourages students to engage critically with the concepts of culture–nation relationship, nationalism and identity that they have perhaps taken for granted to date. It will also explore the literature of nationalism, including an analysis of the concepts of otherness and difference in the construction of identity, as well as gender, race and class. The advanced course of counselling and clinical psychology covers diversity issues such as trauma counselling, rehabilitation and mental health counselling and counselling for special populations.
- URL: http://www.fjwu.edu.pk/academic/behavioural.Sciences.htm
De La Salle University:
- Master of Science in Psychology, Major in Social and Cultural Psychology
- “The Social and Cultural Psychology major program provides students with specialized training in the theory and research on the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping human behavior and development. Special emphasis will be given to the epistemological and methodological issues for socio-cultural research and on the applications of social and cultural psychology perspectives to concerns related to gender, health, environment, politics, peace, business and economics, and other development issues in the Philippine setting.”
- URL: http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/academics/continuing/pdf/cla/ms_psych_major_soccultpsych.pdf
Warsaw School of Social Psychology:
[Page 159]Sri Lanka
- 5-year Master's Degree and 4-year PhD programmes in Psychology of Intercultural Relations
- Courses are offered in English and in Polish
- URL: http://www.swps.pl/english
University of Colombo:
- Masters/Postgraduate Diploma in Counselling and Psychosocial Support
- “This programme has been designed to respond to some needs and social concerns prevalent in Sri Lanka. Some of these may be dealt with at an individual level whereas others would require family or community emphasis/outlook. “Both programmes are interdisciplinary embracing insights from politics, sociology, anthropology and psychology. They will enable students to obtain practical experience, to enhance personal growth and to be absorbed into governmental, non-governmental or private organizations.”
- URL: http://www.cmb.ac.lk/academic/gradustd/images/stories/courses/FGS_Courses_New/council/cp_brochure.pdf
Brunel University, London:
- Course type: MSc
- Course title: Cross Cultural Psychology MSc
- Transcultural Information: teaching on the course is by renowned international experts on culture and ethnicity, with the Brunel teaching team being complemented with visiting speakers from around the world. Recent invited lecturers have included specialists from the USA, Hungary, Russia and Finland.
- Duration: Full time (1 year), Part time (2 years)
- URL: http://www.brunel.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/C800PCRCTPSY
King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry/London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine:
- Course title: MSc in Global Mental Health
- The course will focus on the development, scaling up and evaluation of locally appropriate and feasible strategies to reduce the burden of mental disorders, including policy, health systems, health services and clinical interventions. Training in epidemiological and health services research methods will be provided to equip students to monitor and evaluate mental health programmes.
- URL: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/prospectus/graduate/index/name/global-mental-health/alpha//header_search/MSc+in+Global+Mental+Health
[Page 160]Queen Mary, University of London/Bart's and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry:
- Course type: MSc/PG Dip
- Course title: Mental Health: Transcultural Mental Healthcare/Psychological Therapies
- Duration: Full (1 year) or part time (2 years)
- Module 1: Mental Health Assessment
- Module 2: Choose one
- Transcultural Mental Healthcare
- Psychological Therapies
- Module 3: Research Methods
- URL: http://www.qmul.ac.uk/qmul/courses/courses.php?dept_id=17&pgcourses=2&course_id=320&course_level=1&article_id=345
University of East London:
- MSc/PG Cert/PG Dip International Humanitarian Psychosocial Consultation by Distance Learning
- The programme is understood to be the first of its kind, focussing on psychosocial issues within international humanitarian contexts, visiting the multiple contexts that affect people's experiences, capacities and resilience. It provides students with opportunities to learn from professional practitioners who have direct experience of working with populations around the world.
- URL: http://www.uel.ac.uk/postgraduate/programmes/psychosocial-consult-msc-dl.htm
The University of Northampton (CCPE):
- Course type: PG Dip/MA
- Course title: Counselling and Psychotherapy (PG Dip)/Transpersonal Counselling and Psychotherapy (MA): the spiritual approach to counselling and psychotherapy
- Duration: 4 years part time (PG Dip)
- [Page 161]
- Suitable Diploma course students may be able to transfer to the MA programme in the third year of their training.
- URL: http://www.ccpe.org.uk/dippsych.html#description
California School of Professional Psychology-San Diego:
- PhD/Master's programs in Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior
- URL: http://www.alliant.edu/cspp/programs-degrees/clinical-psychology/multicultural.php
Harvard Graduate School of Education:
- MA and doctoral degrees in Human Development and Psychology
- “Enables students to reflect on specific issues such as cultural diversity, bilingualism, literacy development, academic achievement among high-risk populations, the educational progress of immigrants, promotion and development of interpersonal and inter-group relations, prevention of the consequences of risk in the lives of children and adolescents, brain processes in learning, and children's emotional, moral, and cognitive development. Students in the program examine empirical evidence about language development, cognitive development, social and moral development and cultural differences.”
- URL: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/academics/masters/hdp
University of Chicago (Department of Psychology):
- PhD programme of research and graduate study in cross-cultural studies (including psychological anthropology and cultural psychology).
- The Cultural Psychology Course analyses the concept of “culture” and examines ethnic and cross-cultural variations in mental functioning, with special attention to the cultural psychology of emotions, self, moral judgement, categorisation and reasoning.
- URL: http://psychology.uchicago.edu
University of Hawaii:
- East–West Center
- Graduate work and research, scholarships; no degrees granted. [Page 162]
- PhD in social-personality with concentration in cross-cultural psychology.
- Programmes of cooperative study, training, and research for Asian and American collaboration and community building.
- URL: http://www.eastwestcenter.org
- PhD in Community and Cultural Psychology
- The Community and Cultural Concentration (CCC) is a graduate specialisation leading to the PhD in psychology. This multidisciplinary curriculum is designed to provide systematic coverage of the major theoretical and empirical work in the field with sufficient flexibility to meet student interests, enthusiasms and career goals.
- URL: http://www.psychology.hawaii.edu/pages/graduate_programs/community.html
University of Michigan, Departments of Anthropology and Psychology:
- The Culture and Cognition Program seeks to understand how psychological processes of individuals are shaped through participation in socio-cultural processes and, conversely, the socio-cultural processes are maintained and changed by behaviours of these very individuals.
- URL: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/psych/grad/program/affiliations/cultcog
University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Education:
- MS Ed in intercultural communication, with coursework in linguistics, anthropology and psychology. “Exploration of issues that arise in communication between cultural groups (including linguistic, social, racial, ethnic, national, gender and other groupings).”
- URL: http://www.gse.upenn.edu/node/1107
Washington State University, Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology:
- MA and PhD in counselling psychology with emphasis on multicultural counselling
- URL: http://education.wsu.edu/graduate/specializations/counselingpsych/
Western Washington University, Department of Psychology:
- MA in general psychology and MS in mental health counselling with emphasis on cross-cultural counselling
- Cross Cultural Counselling
- Introduction to the cross-cultural perspective in psychology. Conceptual and methodological issues and problems mediated by culture and ethnicity will be considered. [Page 163]
- “Theories of counselling; personality and psychopathology; cognitive psychology; psychological testing and appraisal; statistics; research methods in counselling; social psychology; standardized tests; lifespan and psychological development; counselling techniques; child and adult individual counselling practicum, family and couple counselling practicum; group practicum; professional, cultural and legal issues; and cross-cultural counselling issues.”
- URL: http://www.wwu.edu/psychology
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