Counselling in Transcultural Settings: Priorities for a Restless World


Patricia d'Ardenne

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • SAGE

    SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.

    Find out more at:


    View Copyright Page


    For our grandchildren Oliver, Jessica and Felix

    -morning stars above a restless world-

    About the Author

    Patricia d'Ardenne is a clinical and counselling psychologist with 40 years” practice, teaching and research in London and overseas. She began work researching in Nashville, Tennessee, returned as psychology lecturer at the Institute of Psychiatry, and then established an English-language mental health service in Brussels. She returned to East London, and published adapted psychological treatments for the young Bangladeshi community there, as well as those with refugee experience. Her doctoral thesis was on multicultural psychology approaches for diverse communities. Patricia co-founded the Special Interest Group on Race and Culture within the British Psychological Society, where she met Aruna Mahtani, and with her, wrote Transcultural Counselling in Action, first and second editions for SAGE (1989 and 1999). In the past decade, Patricia established the Institute of Psychotrauma, an East London Foundation NHS Trust specialist service, where she undertook research on the use of interpreters in trauma-focussed therapies.

    Patricia currently chairs a Global Health Link between East London and Uganda – a government-supported partnership for mental health development, where she has been training practitioners since 2006 in psychological therapies in post-conflict settings. Patricia teaches transcultural psychological approaches at Queen Mary College, London. She is an Associate with Interhealth Worldwide, preparing and supporting staff on humanitarian missions overseas, and was recently elected to join the Psychological Health of Travellers Group within the International Society for Travel Medicine.

    Foreword by Colin Lago

    Patricia d'Ardenne is to be congratulated on writing this exciting and extremely informative new book within the field of transcultural counselling. With Aruna Mahtani she co-authored a previous landmark text, Transcultural Counselling in Action, which was first published in 1989, subsequently reprinted almost annually throughout the 1990s, before penning a second edition in 1999. This new text reflects and evidences Patricia's long-term commitment to and experience of delivering mental health services to people from a very wide range of diverse communities, both in the UK and overseas. As such, this new book is a goldmine of ideas, resources, references and clinical examples rooted in everyday practice. Few writers in this field can claim such extensive clinical experience.

    In previous correspondence with me, Patricia noted: “I have painted a broad but I hope very practical book.” This is without doubt. She has brought together a unique blend of subject areas (that are not replicated in any other texts I know), with contents dedicated to informing the quality of professional practice in different settings and contexts. She has provided a range of further website references and practice exercises for the discerning reader. This book comprises a solid working text suitable for students of many mental-health-related professions as well for professional colleagues seeking to improve their skills, knowledge and awareness within the transcultural arena.

    Upon opening the text I immediately found the list of contents thoroughly engaging. Again, quoting from Patricia's own book abstract:

    Specific chapters examine counselling refugees, using interpreters, screening and supporting aid workers who provide psychosocial interventions, and supporting journalists, military and missionary staff. Other cross cultural domains include healthcare, spirituality and religion, and The User Movement. New directions include working with developing nations, the stressors of globalisation, and the use of telemedicine.

    This breadth of coverage is breathtaking in its vision and extensive in its application.

    Much of the early literature concerned with the provision of interpersonally sensitive, anti-discriminatory, culturally informed counselling practice was published in the United States, where this professional focus continues to stimulate new ideas, research and publications. Indeed, the practice of multicultural counselling within the USA was claimed to be the “fourth force” in psychological treatments after the first three forces of psychoanalysis, cognitive-behaviourism and humanistic approaches. This bold but necessary assertion by American theorists and exponents was made on the basis that therapeutic practitioners from all three main bodies of theory would inevitably work with all members of society. The fourth force of multicultural counselling thus highlighted the need for skilled practice right across society. Theoretical knowledge, they argued, though of great value, was insufficient to ensure sensitive, anti-discriminatory, effective therapeutic interventions with all clients. Predominantly, much of this early American literature was devoted to the improvement of counselling services to those within minority groups within the USA.

    To some extent, the UK has seen a slightly later emergence of its own dedicated transcultural counselling literature, devoted to the delivery of culturally sensitive psychological practices with the various Black and minority ethnic groups resident in Britain. Inspired and informed by the original, and still emerging literature from the USA, British theorists have begun to develop new terminology relevant to this particular cultural milieu.

    A further development within this arena in recent decades has been concern for the wider implications of human diversity and how these additional fields of application both require necessary further considerations on behalf of transcultural therapists and, in equal measure, challenge such practitioners (and their professional bodies, researchers and writers). The contemporary inclusion of the “big seven” stigmatised identities of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, age, ability and religion under the rubric of “diversity” has had the important consequences of alerting the professional field to the complex life experiences of many of those inhabiting minority group status within society. It has also challenged the creation of new bodies of theory and practice that will prove robust and effective with this wider population.

    Historically, within the psychological helping professions, the advice to beginning practitioners was “therapist, know thyself'. Transcultural counselling, through its awareness of the enormous impact of “social situatedness” (i.e. where and how one lives, works, grew up, was educated, earns, etc.), has begun to advocate the concept of “therapist, know thy identity”. The transcultural counselling project is doomed before it starts if practitioners have little conscious awareness of their location within society and how it and they relate to the various members of the other communities with whom they come into contact.

    Patricia is so right when she states that “transcultural counselling is in its infancy, and faces many challenges”. Globalisation, vast material inequalities across countries and communities, the sheer speed of travel compared with the complexity and slowness of adaptation to new cultural surroundings, the impact of violence, ill health, poverty and international politics are all profoundly complex, interrelating phenomena that demand enormous repositories of commitment, knowledge, awareness and skills for the mental health professional seeking to work in this arena. The pursuit of core cultural competences is a necessary yet extremely demanding professional requirement.

    This book really takes readers beyond their own cultural framework and indeed beyond their own national borders. It considers many fields of application; it critically pays attention to the words and views of service users (a much neglected yet critical source for understanding and practice development); it evaluates the very important functions and use of interpreters; it requires consideration of ethics; it demands psychological helpers pay great attention to their supervision, ongoing development and self-care; it contains very useful web references for further details; it poses a wide range of counselling issues and situations combined with practice-based exercises; and finally, it contains an extraordinary wealth of reference and resource material.

    I believe this book will come to be an absolute “must have” for all therapists training to be and working within transcultural settings. I believe Patricia has, in this volume, made an extraordinary groundbreaking contribution to transcultural counselling and I dearly hope that in future years consideration will be made to have it published in other languages.

    ColinLago, DLitt, MEd, FBACP, UKRC, BACP Accr. Counsellor and Trainer

    Foreword by Dinesh Bhugra

    In the rapid shrinking of the world as a result of globalisation, not only has the movement of goods become easier, but the movement of people across national boundaries has become significant. We carry our cultures wherever we go, and while coming into contact with other cultures – either directly or indirectly – we may adjust accordingly, depending upon a number of factors. Globalisation has also contributed to increased urbanisation with internal migrations and changes in family structures. People have always been on the move for a variety of reasons, which have included economic, educational and political. Political and economic discrimination, along with religious persecution, add to the likelihood of moving away from one culture towards another one. The process of migration and subsequent cultural adjustment is fraught with difficulties, and a large number of studies from across the globe have shown that migrants experience higher levels of emotional and psychological distress.

    In several countries, counselling is increasingly being seen as acceptable and is indeed becoming available. However, working across cultures brings special challenges. The individual comes into the therapeutic setting with certain expectations and models of explanation, as does the clinician.

    Patricia d'Ardenne, in this excellent volume, brings wide experience in writing, research and clinical settings in her overview. She sets the scene admirably by highlighting problems related to discrimination. The system within which health care is provided is undoubtedly influenced by the culture within which the system is delivered, but the accessibility and availability of the system is also determined by the resources provided by the society. Migrants may not be aware of the healthcare system, as well as not see their problems in a “medical” manner. This is where anti-discriminatory practice, both at the individual and institutional level, becomes critical, and d'Ardenne provides a superb overview. Her practical overview and approach in getting the counsellor to think both of theoretical and practice points is critical in making therapists think of major factors in delivering care. Her approach is pragmatic, easy to follow and extremely helpful to the reader. D'Ardenne deserves our congratulations and thanks in delivering what hopefully will become a classic text.

    DineshBhugra CBE, FRCP, FRCPsych, PhD, Professor of Mental Health and Cultural Diversity, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, Immediate Past President, Royal College of Psychiatrists


    Why then to me this restless world's but hell.

    Richard III, William Shakespeare

    There were several core ideas in creating Counselling in Transcultural Settings: Priorities for a Restless World. I wanted readers to have a resource for work beyond their own culture, where counselling and psychotherapy are understood to be as dynamic as the political and social contexts in which distressed people seek help. If the big human stories today are globalisation, terrorism, migration and racism, then counselling practice now needs a proactive response, where present demand and future directions are grasped, tried and updated. The aim of this book is to provide a practical update of counselling for changing worlds, where ethnic, linguistic, religious, economic and environmental differences collide, creating rich settings for contemporary practice. The first half of the text visits these settings for transcultural counselling; the second half addresses how practitioners can care for themselves and the quality of the service they provide. More than that, I hope that the chapters will give readers some inspiration and confidence, encouraging a reconsideration of model or practice, and then seeing if it makes a difference to outcome.

    We all have formative experiences, but nothing in my education or professional training in clinical, and later, counselling psychology prepared me for diverse practice. Cross-cultural studies were the domain of anthropology and politics (see Chapter 1). Implicit assumptions in the psychology curriculum were that human traits, development and behaviour could all be universally defined and observed independently of their cultural or linguistic contexts. The generalisability of psychological models was rarely questioned or investigated. The word “culture” implied the exotic, the alien and, above all, the unknown.

    But the real world soon imposed another agenda. An undergraduate project on the authoritarian personality (Adorno et al., 1950) engaged us in comparing two Northern English cities by questionnaire; a mono-cultural, white, working class community disclosed more prejudiced and racist attitudes than another with an established Asian community in its textiles industry.

    A Kennedy Research Fellowship took me to work in a state penitentiary in Tennessee in 1970. It was a stark introduction to institutionalised racism in the USA. Even in the aftermath of the American Civil Rights movement, 98 per cent of the 2,000 inmates were young black offenders, some as young as 14, incarcerated for crimes ranging from rape to cattle rustling. My psychology colleagues, the prison officers, the medical and academic staff were, without exception, all white.

    I directed a mental heath service for English-language people in Brussels for several years and began to understand the impact on mental well-being when multinationals placed their employees without preparation to live in the capital of the European Union. Those employed certainly had to make a cultural transition; but their spouses at home and children at schools faced the bigger daily challenges of language, values, education and health systems, with its many potential stressors. Our first three children were born outside the UK – making acculturation a personal and fascinating priority. Marriage to a journalist made me aware of the emotional impact of reporting distant events on overseas correspondents and their families.

    Further teaching, training and editorial work allowed me to see different models of social and mental healthcare in India, Canada, Australia, Cuba, South Africa, China, France, Italy and Turkey, and compare them with the development of counselling and psychotherapy professions within the UK. This was alongside 30 years” clinical practice in East London – one of the most culturally diverse (and economically deprived) neighbourhoods in the country. Staff were given no additional training for diversity, but we did get a chance to ask patients what they wanted, to adapt our methods to their needs and evaluate the outcome of our work (Crown and d'Ardenne, 1982, 1986; d'Ardenne, 1986).

    These experiences increased my conviction that, in essence, all counselling and psychotherapy is about difference and is, in a sense, transcultural. Effective practice, therefore, incorporates the principles of transcultural counselling, although these need to be identified and evaluated.

    The British Psychological Society (BPS) Special Interest Group in Race and Culture had members who were the most supportive but candid critics of my naive prejudices about cross-cultural work (Crown and d'Ardenne, 1986; d'Ardenne, 1986). However, out of this grew a friendship that led directly to co-authoring Transcultural Counselling in Action with Aruna Mahtani over 20 years ago (d'Ardenne and Mahtani 1989, 1999). This small book was written at a time where there was much less published in the field, and still offers readers a “how to do it” approach. That text, however, now seems simple – even simplistic – in some of its assumptions and exhortations. We wrote it as a black and white therapist – and worked through the text with clients defined either as “culturally close” or “culturally different” from ourselves. From this we derived, quite literally, a black and white grid of equivalent counselling comparisons (d'Ardenne and Mahtani, 1999).

    Counselling in Transcultural Settings: Priorities for a Restless World instead considers the many shades of grey in contemporary practice. Our counselling clients, for example, may not see themselves as belonging to the dominant culture, and have transcultural needs, but equally may not classify themselves as black or white. Some clients, when asked, prefer to define their culture through faith or spiritual belief, gender, gender preference, education, political beliefs or health status – to name but some of the identities considered throughout the text. Similarly, counsellors are not culturally neutral; they come from their own historical, cultural, educational, gender-specific and linguistic backgrounds, both individually and shared, both at home and abroad (Ryde, 2009). Good practice in transcultural counselling requires us to understand the impact of our own cultural identities on our practice, and to use supervision and continuing professional development (CPD) to help us with that process. If curious about every aspect of our own world and that of our clients, we can try always to meet them in a shared space.

    In the last decade I have trained mental health workers in psychological therapies with a mental health team, as part of a Global Health Partnership between a UK NHS Mental Health Trust and a National Psychiatric Referral Hospital in Uganda. Many identities divide and unite us. Mental health training in East Africa has until now had to focus on the psychiatric sequelae of malaria and malaria-induced epilepsy. Practitioners there now want to learn about psychological and counselling approaches for those who experience mood disorders, relationship difficulties, behavioural problems, substance misuse and – for a country riven by civil conflict – those with post-traumatic disorders. Most of all, our colleagues want to be able to support service users and their families within their own communities and refer individuals to precious regional hospital beds only when local interventions have proven inadequate. There are currently no texts about how to address their needs: rather we are collaborating on objectives, piloting our teaching and training, and evaluating this transcultural work as we go. At the same time we have provided an account of that input and its sustainability to the service users and to our joint funders (d'Ardenne et al., 2009; Dorner, 2008).

    These clinicians will no doubt benefit from partnership with the West, but they need to be supported in valuing their own knowledge and skills and finding solutions within modest resources (Baillie et al., 2009; Crisp, 2010). Equally important is how we can learn from those who counsel in harsh economic and physical conditions, with a level of unpredictability and inequality that many of us would find hard to imagine, let alone tolerate (d'Ardenne et al., 2009). Future directions for transcultural counselling research will focus on the resilience of overseas mental health workers and their capacity to adapt counselling models to the cultural needs of their own communities. We shall also be able to use new technologies to share knowledge – their most precious commodity – for preserving mental health and well-being.

    Recent personal influences include working with Interhealth Worldwide ( who screen and support humanitarian aid workers and others in non-government organisations, and assist distressed people in very different cultural settings overseas (Hargrave et al., 2011a). Screening began historically with physical preparation, for example vaccinations, but now includes the personal resilience of workers exposed to hostile environments. Similarly, the International Society for Travel Medicine ( has developed from considering the physical needs of travellers to include mental well-being, and has recently established an international mental health group to address this important topic. Those of us who have joined this group hope to stimulate an interest in any psychological factors affecting the health of all overseas travellers. The Health Information for All 2015 network ( was established to provide free online health information and libraries to colleagues around the world, and has helped me understand the importance of sharing and translating information, as well as the considerable benefits of models of telemedicine, with mobile phones and remote supervision and teaching. Most recently, colleagues and students on the MSc Transcultural Mental Healthcare course at Queen Mary College continue to inform my thinking about the impact of racism and cultural relativity in all counselling relationships.

    The first half of this book introduces readers to a selection of transcultural contexts. Such evidence as there is, or established good practice, is described and sourced. Fictionalised case examples will be used to illustrate a model or issue, but are based on real stories. The bias towards African and Asian cases reflects personal experience, but the principles are universal. Summaries, discussion and practice points have been included to guide the busy reader, and further reading or websites are also listed.

    Chapter 1 tracks the history of racist and discriminatory practices and beliefs in psychiatry and psychology, and how they still exist today. It considers how transcultural work has grown in response to these, and readers are shown the ethical requirements for current professional practice.

    Chapter 2 considers the previously neglected needs of the international worker, moved to hostile environments at short notice, supporting local people. Attention is given to the prevention of secondary traumatisation and culture shock for those who counsel the victims of disaster. Examples described include development workers, humanitarian aid workers, the armed forces, journalists and missionaries on overseas assignments.

    Chapter 3 examines transcultural counselling with those who have refugee experience, including asylum seekers, vulnerable migrants and the victims of human trafficking. Case examples focus on their losses, their resilience and response to trauma, and the complex social and legal processes they face when seeking asylum in the West. Readers are introduced to engagement, narrative approaches and the central role of accessing and processing traumatic memory in counselling.

    Chapter 4 reviews the role of interpreters and translators in transcultural counselling and provides practical guidelines through case histories to help them in that process. Attention is given to preparation and debriefing of the interpreter, and the models of interpreting suitable for counsellors, with some research findings about feasibility. Telephone interpreting services and the role of advocates in counselling, with specific examples of how and when to deploy them, are reviewed.

    Chapter 5 highlights the importance of faith and spirituality – topics that have not always been a priority with counsellors – and how these can be understood to achieve a better outcome in transcultural settings. The chapter refers both to clients and counsellors as potential believers, as well as those providing pastoral counselling across cultures.

    Chapter 6 looks at counselling in healthcare settings, from early life until death and dying, and discusses how an understanding of cross-cultural difference can be used to help patients. It shows how counsellors can improve treatment compliance, requiring collaboration from families and friends, as well as changes in lifestyle.

    Chapter 7 considers how transcultural counsellors can collaborate with clients, empowered by the Service Users” Movement. Innovations in the West and in developing countries, including patient experts, users” groups within specific cultures or diagnostic categories, and peer support workers are described. Counsellors are shown how cultural knowledge can increase support to clients in a range of health, social, economic and ethnic contexts.

    The second half of the book covers professional priorities for the counsellor in transcultural settings.

    Chapter 8 addresses ethics in transcultural counselling, and contextualises them within clinical governance, current law on discrimination and social inclusion. The particular demands of working across cultures with black clients and counsellors who endure racism, the power imbalance between practitioners and supervisors from the dominant culture, and the drivers of policy and research agendas from the West are all critically reviewed.

    Chapter 9 incorporates supervision and CPD – and the additional resourcing that counsellors require to ensure the quality of their work and the preservation of their well-being is maintained. The power permutations of a black or white supervisor/counsellor/client are described. Reflective practice and group supervision are proposed as an immediate and effective means of learning across cultures.

    Chapter 10 discusses practitioners” responsibility to work from an evidence base, with practical guidelines on how to achieve this with a heavy workload. It looks at a range of sources including reflective practice, individual casework, literature reviews and audits, as well as the more formal requirements of individual and multicentred research, and common methods used.

    Chapter 11 presents existing requirements in practice, training and research and how well they have been addressed to date. New directions include telemedicine, globalisation, global health, the environment and the evolving levels of interpersonal violence. A case is made for transcultural models to be integrated into all counselling training, but since this has yet to occur, an appendix of some transcultural courses around the world is included.

    There are exclusions. There is nothing on children and young people, nor on counselling in educational settings. Similarly, the counselling needs of those with serious mental and physical disorder has not been covered. No specific reference in case examples has been made to Romany travellers; the word “traveller” is only used in its more general meaning. But transcultural counselling is developing and specific texts are emerging covering some of these areas (Lago, 2011).

    This text should be of use to readers who counsel across cultures, including those who coach and mentor. It does not prescribe specific counselling models, nor does it seek to train readers as cultural experts. Rather, it aims to bring together a range of professional settings and topics that better cover contemporary issues, and to plot a chart for trainees and counsellors where future practice and research might develop.

    The world spins on. The helping professions (all counselling professionals), and those who train and supervise them, are considerably better prepared for working with diversity than when I qualified in 1972. But in another 40 years, will there will be the political and professional commitment to transcultural issues that will make counselling globally relevant?

    Patriciad'Ardenne, London, 2012


    I am indebted to all these people for their help, but own all errors in content or form:

    Professor Kamaldeep Bhui, Dr Ken Carswell, Dr Nasir Warfa and the students at QMUL

    Malcom Downing at the BBC

    Cerdic Hall and the Butabika Link Committee

    Annie Hargrave and Dr Ted Lankaster at Interhealth Worldwide

    Dr Sarah Heke and colleagues at the Institute of Psychotrauma

    Catherine Kenyon at Action Aid

    Richard Mpango, for his insights into psychotherapy in Uganda

    Carleen Scott, for her experience as a black trainee in supervision

    My friends at Progressio and CAFOD

    Jonathan Hinchliffe, for his unfailing and meticulous editorial and research assistance

    Alice Oven, Rachel Burrows, Kate Wharton and colleagues at SAGE

    Publications, for their patience, professionalism and kindness

    And lastly, a big thank you to Peter and our growing family for their understanding and unconditional love.

  • Appendix

    Transcultural Postgraduate Courses

    The following courses have been selected on the basis of an internet search using the terms “intercultural”, “transcultural”, “cultural”, “interracial”, “psychology”, “counselling”, “courses” both undergraduate and postgraduate. Most of the undergraduate sites provided cultural awareness and diversity as part of their basic introductory syllabus. There were many master's programmes within the realms of education and business but far fewer in applied psychology. Below is a selection of these retrieved from sites visited at the beginning of 2012 using the Google search engine (

    The list is in no way comprehensive, nor does it seek to recommend; it has been devised in much the same way that readers would find a course by using the internet. Some of the courses (e.g. at Colombo) emphasise local culture as a way of understanding national identity but do not focus on transcultural issues. Each course summary has been edited according to the amount of information available on the website, and some are more precise than others. The courses are arranged alphabetically according to their geographical location. Readers will need to visit each site and judge for themselves how useful a course might be. Such lists date rapidly; there is nothing better than updating professional links by regular online searches.

    Readers might also be interested in a special issue of Clinical Psychology Forum (Latchford and Melluish, 2010) that looks at psychology from a global perspective and visits psychological research, training and practice in nations as varied as Ghana, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, and Cuba. There is now an organisation called the International Union of Psychological Science ( seeking to address the specific and general challenges facing psychological workers within global contexts. The special issue refers to the training and cultural requirements of practitioners both now and in the future (Bullock, 2010).

    Readers might be interested in a “Map of Social-Personality Psychology Graduate Programs” showing over 90 master's and doctoral programmes in social psychology ( It does not explicitly refer to transcultural counselling, although many courses cover the topics of local cultural norms, migration and diversity.


    University of Melbourne (Melbourne Medical School):

    Victoria University of Melbourne:


    McGill University (Department of Psychiatry):

    The University of Alaska-Fairbanks and University of Alaska-Anchorage, Psychology Departments:

    • The PhD Programme in Clinical-Community Psychology seeks to educate scholars and clinicians in research, evaluation, clinical practice and community-based action, grounded in the cultural contexts of all affected stakeholders. The programme integrates clinical, community and cultural psychology with a focus on rural, indigenous issues and emphasis on the integration of research and practice.
    • URL:

    The University of Alberta:

    The University of Saskatchewan:


    Zhejiang University (School of International Studies):

    • Institute of Cross Cultural Studies
    • “Our mission is to facilitate cross-cultural understanding between China and the world, and to promote cultural diversity in all spheres of social life within and across nations. The Institute aims to develop innovative modes of research to provide insights into the different ways that cross-cultural relations and histories are constructed and represented.” Offers specialisation in Globalisation, Migration and Diaspora Culture.
    • URL:

    The American University in Cairo (AUC):

    • International Counseling and Community Psychology (ICCP) Program
    • “These programs will place AUC and its graduates at the forefront of advancing global trends toward multi-cultural and systemic psychological practice that promotes culturally relevant family, child and community interventions in Egypt and the region.”
    • URL:

    University of Osnabrück:

    • Master's Degree in Intercultural Psychology
    • Intercultural psychology of culture and development. Including: cross-cultural business psychology, cross-cultural social psychology, a study project and a colloquium on intercultural focus. Introduction to Migration Research: Historical and sociological foundations. Psychotherapy and Counselling (emphasis on intercultural factors).
    • URL:

    The American University of Beirut:

    • Undergraduate: Introduction to Culture and Psychology
    • Led by Charles Harb, Associate Professor of Social Psychology
    • Research interests focus on multiple social identities and the self-concept, with a special interest in the Arab world. Professor Harb is currently working on discrimination, confessionalism, intergroup distance and identities within the Lebanese socio-political context.
    • URL:

    University of Malta: MA in Transcultural Counselling:


    Tilburg University:


    Fatima Jinnah Women's University Rawalpindi

    • Master's/Bachelor's in Behavioural Sciences
    • Specialisations offered include: culture, identity and nationalism, counselling and clinical psychology. The culture, identity and nationalism course encourages students to engage critically with the concepts of culture–nation relationship, nationalism and identity that they have perhaps taken for granted to date. It will also explore the literature of nationalism, including an analysis of the concepts of otherness and difference in the construction of identity, as well as gender, race and class. The advanced course of counselling and clinical psychology covers diversity issues such as trauma counselling, rehabilitation and mental health counselling and counselling for special populations.
    • URL:

    De La Salle University:

    • Master of Science in Psychology, Major in Social and Cultural Psychology
    • “The Social and Cultural Psychology major program provides students with specialized training in the theory and research on the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping human behavior and development. Special emphasis will be given to the epistemological and methodological issues for socio-cultural research and on the applications of social and cultural psychology perspectives to concerns related to gender, health, environment, politics, peace, business and economics, and other development issues in the Philippine setting.”
    • URL:

    Warsaw School of Social Psychology:

    • 5-year Master's Degree and 4-year PhD programmes in Psychology of Intercultural Relations
    • Courses are offered in English and in Polish
    • URL:
    Sri Lanka

    University of Colombo:

    • Masters/Postgraduate Diploma in Counselling and Psychosocial Support
    • “This programme has been designed to respond to some needs and social concerns prevalent in Sri Lanka. Some of these may be dealt with at an individual level whereas others would require family or community emphasis/outlook. “Both programmes are interdisciplinary embracing insights from politics, sociology, anthropology and psychology. They will enable students to obtain practical experience, to enhance personal growth and to be absorbed into governmental, non-governmental or private organizations.”
    • URL:
    United Kingdom

    Brunel University, London:

    • Course type: MSc
    • Course title: Cross Cultural Psychology MSc
    • Transcultural Information: teaching on the course is by renowned international experts on culture and ethnicity, with the Brunel teaching team being complemented with visiting speakers from around the world. Recent invited lecturers have included specialists from the USA, Hungary, Russia and Finland.
    • Duration: Full time (1 year), Part time (2 years)
    • URL:

    King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry/London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine:

    Queen Mary, University of London/Bart's and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry:

    University of East London:

    • MSc/PG Cert/PG Dip International Humanitarian Psychosocial Consultation by Distance Learning
    • The programme is understood to be the first of its kind, focussing on psychosocial issues within international humanitarian contexts, visiting the multiple contexts that affect people's experiences, capacities and resilience. It provides students with opportunities to learn from professional practitioners who have direct experience of working with populations around the world.
    • URL:

    The University of Northampton (CCPE):

    • Course type: PG Dip/MA
    • Course title: Counselling and Psychotherapy (PG Dip)/Transpersonal Counselling and Psychotherapy (MA): the spiritual approach to counselling and psychotherapy
    • Duration: 4 years part time (PG Dip)
      • Suitable Diploma course students may be able to transfer to the MA programme in the third year of their training.
    • URL:

    California School of Professional Psychology-San Diego:

    Harvard Graduate School of Education:

    • MA and doctoral degrees in Human Development and Psychology
    • “Enables students to reflect on specific issues such as cultural diversity, bilingualism, literacy development, academic achievement among high-risk populations, the educational progress of immigrants, promotion and development of interpersonal and inter-group relations, prevention of the consequences of risk in the lives of children and adolescents, brain processes in learning, and children's emotional, moral, and cognitive development. Students in the program examine empirical evidence about language development, cognitive development, social and moral development and cultural differences.”
    • URL:

    University of Chicago (Department of Psychology):

    • PhD programme of research and graduate study in cross-cultural studies (including psychological anthropology and cultural psychology).
    • The Cultural Psychology Course analyses the concept of “culture” and examines ethnic and cross-cultural variations in mental functioning, with special attention to the cultural psychology of emotions, self, moral judgement, categorisation and reasoning.
    • URL:

    University of Hawaii:

    • East–West Center
    • Graduate work and research, scholarships; no degrees granted.
    • PhD in social-personality with concentration in cross-cultural psychology.
    • Programmes of cooperative study, training, and research for Asian and American collaboration and community building.
    • URL:
    • PhD in Community and Cultural Psychology
    • The Community and Cultural Concentration (CCC) is a graduate specialisation leading to the PhD in psychology. This multidisciplinary curriculum is designed to provide systematic coverage of the major theoretical and empirical work in the field with sufficient flexibility to meet student interests, enthusiasms and career goals.
    • URL:

    University of Michigan, Departments of Anthropology and Psychology:

    • The Culture and Cognition Program seeks to understand how psychological processes of individuals are shaped through participation in socio-cultural processes and, conversely, the socio-cultural processes are maintained and changed by behaviours of these very individuals.
    • URL:

    University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Education:

    • MS Ed in intercultural communication, with coursework in linguistics, anthropology and psychology. “Exploration of issues that arise in communication between cultural groups (including linguistic, social, racial, ethnic, national, gender and other groupings).”
    • URL:

    Washington State University, Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology:

    Western Washington University, Department of Psychology:

    • MA in general psychology and MS in mental health counselling with emphasis on cross-cultural counselling
    • Cross Cultural Counselling
    • Introduction to the cross-cultural perspective in psychology. Conceptual and methodological issues and problems mediated by culture and ethnicity will be considered.
    • “Theories of counselling; personality and psychopathology; cognitive psychology; psychological testing and appraisal; statistics; research methods in counselling; social psychology; standardized tests; lifespan and psychological development; counselling techniques; child and adult individual counselling practicum, family and couple counselling practicum; group practicum; professional, cultural and legal issues; and cross-cultural counselling issues.”
    • URL:


    Abbott, D. (1999) “Foreword”, in P.d'Ardenne and A.Mahtani (eds), Transcultural Counselling in Action,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Abbott, D. (2012) “Young, Black and unemployed: the tragedy of the 44%”, Guardian, 5 March.
    Abdul-Hamid, W., Kotwal, S. and Stansfeld, S. (2009) The homelessness of the mentally ill: the old-new issue”, International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2 (S1): 1–17.
    Access to Health Records Act 1990. London: HMSO, 1990. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Adichie, C.N. (2007) Half of a Yellow Sun. London: Harper Perennial.
    AdornoT.W., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D. and Sanford, R. (1950) The Authoritarian Personality. Oxford: Harpers.
    Afiya Trust (2012)
    Ahmer, S., Faruqui, R. and Aijaz, A. (2007) “Psychiatric rating scales in Urdu: a systematic review”, BMC Psychiatry, 7: 59.
    Al-lssaI. and Oudji, S. (1998) “Culture and anxiety disorders” in S.Kazarian and D.Evans (eds), Cultural Clinical Psychology, Theory Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 127–51.
    American Anthropological Association (1998) Statement on “Race”: position paper.
    American Counseling Association (2002) Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
    4th edn
    – text revision ((DSMIV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    American Psychological Association (APA) (2002) Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    American Psychological Association (APA) (2006) Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    American Psychological Association (APA) (2007) Resolution on Religious, Religion-Based and/or Religion-Derived Prejudice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Angelou, M. (1995) The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou. London: Virago Press.
    Arcel, L. and Simunkovic, G. (eds) (1998) War Violence, Trauma and the Coping Process: Armed Conflict in Europe and Survivor Responses. Copenhagen: International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims.
    Article 19 (2003) Media Coverage of Asylum Seekers: What's the Story? Available at's-the-story
    Arulmani, G. (2007) “Counselling psychology in India: at the confluence of two traditions”, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56 (1): 69–82.
    Asylum Aid (2011) Unsustainable: The Quality of Initial Decision Making in Women's Asylum Claims. London: Asylum Aid.
    Avigad, J. (2003) “On becoming a supervisor to teams working with survivors of torture”, Context – A News Magazine of Family Therapy, 67: 26–8.
    Avon NHS Trust (2008) Health Equity Audit of Maternity Care and Birth Outcomes in Bristol 2003–5. Bristol: Avon NHS Trust. Available at (accessed 26 November 2011).
    Baillie, D., Boardman, J., Onen, T., Gedde, M. and Parry, E. (2009) “NHS Links: achievements of a scheme between one London mental health trust and Uganda”, Psychiatric Bulletin, 33: 265–9.
    Barrett, J.L. and Burdett, E.R. (2011) “The cognitive science of religion”, The Psychologist, 24 (4): 252–5.
    Barty, A. (2011) “International students: who are they?”, in ColinLago (ed.), The Handbook of Transcultural Counselling & Psychotherapy. Maidenhead: Open University Press. pp. 169–82.
    Busuttil, W. (2008) “Message for medical professionals”. Leatherhead: Combat Stress. Available at (accessed 24 May 2012).
    BBC News (2001) “Bereaved relatives “still in shock” “, BBC News, 21 September. Available at (accessed 11 April 2011).
    Berry, J., Poortinga, Y., Segall, M. and Dasen, P. (2002) Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications,
    2nd edn.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Beutler, L.E., Mohr, D., Alimohamed, S., Harwood, M, Talebi, H. and Noble, S. (2004) “Therapist variables”, in M.Lambert (ed.), Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change,
    5th edn.
    Chicago: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 227–306.
    Bhatti-Sinclair, K. (2011) Anti-Racist Practice in Social Work: Reshaping Social Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Bhugra, D. and Bhui, K. (2007) Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    BhugraD. and de Silva, P. (2007) “Sexual dysfunction across cultures”, in K.Bhui (ed.), Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 364–78.
    BhugraD., SumathipalaA. and Sirbaddana, S. (2007) “Culture-bound syndromes: a re-evaluation”, in D.Bhugra and K.Bhui (eds), Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 141–56.
    Bhui, K. (2002) Racism and Mental Health: Prejudice and Suffering. London: Jessica Kingsely.
    Bhui, K. and Bhugra, D. (2003) A Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bhui, K. and Bhugra, D. (2007) “Ethnic inequalities and cultural capability framework in mental healthcare”, in D.Bhugra and K.Bhui (eds), A Handbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 81–90.
    Bhui, K., Stansfeld, S., Hull, S., Priebe, S., Mole, F. and Feder, G. (2003) “Ethnic variations in pathways to and use of specialist mental health services in the UK: systematic review”, British Journal of Psychiatry, 182: 105–16.
    Bjorn, G.J. (2005) “Ethics and interpreting in psychotherapy with refugee children and families”, Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 59: 516–21.
    Bochner, S. (2003) “Culture shock due to contact with unfamiliar cultures”, Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 8. Melbourne, FL: International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Bond, T. (2005) “Developing and monitoring professional ethics and good practice guidelines”, in R.Tribe and J.Morrissey (eds), Handbook of Professional and Ethical Practice for Psychologists, Counsellors and Psychotherapists. Hove: Brunner-Routledge.
    Bot, H. (2005) “Dialogue interpreting as a specific case of reported speech”, Interpreting, 7: 237–61.
    Bot, H. and Wadensjo, C. (2004) “The presence of a third party: a dialogical view on interpreter-assisted treatment”, in J.P.Wilson and B.Drozdec (eds), Broken Spirits: The Treatment of Traumatised Asylum Seekers, Refugees, War And Torture Victims. Hove: Brunner Routledge.
    Bowcott, O. (2010) “Britain's child migrants lost their childhoods to years of hard labour”, Guardian, 24 February.
    Brewin, C.R., Dalgeish, T. and Joseph, S. (1996) “A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder”, Psychological Review, 103: 670–86.
    British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy (BABCP) (2010) Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics. Revised November 2010. Available at (accessed 22 May 2012).
    British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) (2010a) About the BACP. Lutterworth: BACP. Available at (accessed 19 April 2012).
    British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) (2010b) Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling and Psychotherapy. Lutterworth: BACP. Available at (accessed 19 April 2012).
    British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) (2012) Research Strategy. Lutterworth: BACP. Available at (accessed 19 April 2012).
    British Psychological Society (BPS) (2001) British Psychological Society, Division of Clinical Psychology.
    British Psychological Society (BPS) (2004) Good Practice Guidelines for the Conduct of Psychological Research within the NHS. Leicester: BPS.
    British Psychological Society (BPS) (2006) Guidelines for Supervision. Leicester: BPS.
    British Psychological Society (BPS) (2011) Code of Conduct of the British Psychological Society. Leicester: BPS.
    Bullock, M. (2010) “Challenges to psychology from an international perspective: activities of the International Union of Psychological Science”, Clinical Psychology Forum, 215 (November): 12–16
    Burke, A. (1984) “Racism and mental illness”, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 30 (special issue), 1–2.
    Burnett, A. and Peel, M. (2001) “Health needs of asylum seekers and refugees”, BMJ, 322 (7285); 544–7.
    Burnett, A. and Rhys-Jones, D. (2006) “Health care for asylum seekers” (rapid response), BMJ Online, 4 August. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Care Quality Commission (2012) Government Standards. Available at (accessed 24 May 2012).
    Carr, C., d'Ardenne, P., Sloboda, A., Scott, C., Wang, D. and Priebe, S. (2012) “Group music therapy for patients with persistent post-traumatic stress disorder – an exploratory randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation”, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory Research and Practice, 85 (2): 179–202.
    Carter, H. (2011) “Shafilea Ahmed “honour killing” witnessed by sister, court told”, Guardian, 21 May.
    Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) (2007) Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health – Top Ten Recommendations from the 2003 Report. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
    Centre for Psychological Services Research, University of Sheffield (2010) An Evaluation of Six Community Mental Health Pilots for Veterans of the Armed Forces. A Case Study Series for the Ministry of Defence CTLBC-405. Sheffield: University of Sheffield. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Centre for Social Cohesion (2010) Crimes of the Community: Honour-Based Violence in the UK. London: Centre for Social Cohesion. Available from (accessed 24 May 2012).
    Chamberlin, J. (1988) On Our Own. London. National Association for Mental Health.
    Chang, T. (2005) “Online counselling: prioritizing psychoeducation, self-help, and mutual help for counseling psychology research and practice”, The Counseling Psychologist, 33 (6): 881–9.
    Children Act 1989. London: HMSO. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Cinnirella, M. and Loewanthal, K. (1999) “Religious and ethnic group influences on beliefs about mental illness: a qualitative interview study”, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72 (94): 505–24.
    Clarke, I. (2001) “Psychosis and spirituality: the discontinuity model”, in I.Clarke (ed.), Psychosis and Spirituality: Exploring the New Frontier. London: Whurr.
    Cochrane, R. (1977) “Mental illness in immigrants to England and Wales”, Social Psychiatry, 12: 25–35.
    Cochrane, R. and Sashidharan, S.P. (1996) Mental Health and Ethnic Minorities: A Review of the Literature and Service Implications. CRD Report 5. York: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Social Policy Research Unit, University of York.
    Coleman, A.M. (1972) “Scientific” racism and the evidence on race and intelligence”, Race & Class, 14: 137–53.
    Collicutt, J. (2011) Psychology, religion and spirituality. The Psychologist, 24 (4): 250–3.
    Cooper, M. (2008) Essential Research Findings in Counselling Psychotherapy: The Facts are Friendly. London: Sage.
    Corrie, S. (2003) “Information, innovation and the quest for legitimate knowledge”, Counselling Psychology Review, 18 (3): 5–13.
    Council of Europe (1950) European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (1950). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
    Coyle, A. and Olsen, C. (2005). “Research in therapeutic practice settings: ethical considerations”, in R.Tribe and J.Morrissey (eds), Handbook of Professional and Ethical Practice for Psychologists, Counsellors and Psychotherapists. Hove: Brunner-Routledge. pp. 249–62.
    Coyle, A. and Lochner, J. (2011) Religion, spirituality and therapeutic practice. The Psychologist, 24 (4): 264–6.
    Crisp, N. (2007) Global Health Partnerships: The UK Contribution to Health in Developing Countries. London: Department of Health. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Crisp, N. (2010) Turning the World Upside Down: The Search for Global Health in the 21st Century. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press.
    Crown, S. and d'Ardenne, P. (1982) “Symposium on sexual dysfunction”, British Journal of Psychiatry, 140: 70–7.
    Crown, S. and d'Ardenne, P. (1986) “Sexual dysfunction in Asian couples”, BMJ, 292: 1078–80.
    Culliford, L. (2007) “Taking a spiritual history”, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 13: 212–19.
    CurlingP. and SimmonsK. (2010) “Stress and staff support strategies for international aid work”, Intervention, 5 (2), 93–105.
    Daily Mail (2009) “Schizophrenic who killed Jonathan Zito set to be moved from high-security prison”, Daily Mail, 24 March.
    d'Ardenne, P. (1986) “Sexual dysfunction in a transcultural setting: assessment treatment and research”, Sexual and Marital Therapy, 1 (1): 23–34.
    d'Ardenne, P. (2009) “The mental health needs of refugee women with PTSD”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Royal College of Psychiatrists: A Fair Deal for All: Mental Health in a Multicultural Society. Liverpool, 2–9 June.
    d'Ardenne, P. and Heke, S. (2011) “Wrestling with our demons: getting started with research in trauma”, Proceedings of the United Kingdom Post Traumatic Stress Society 3rd Annual Conference. Oxford.
    d'Ardenne, P. and Mahtani, A. (1989) Transcultural Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    d'ArdenneP. and Mahtani, A. (1999) Transcultural Counselling in Action,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    d'Ardenne, P. and Morrod, D. (2003) “Sick children – parents under pressure”, in The Counselling of Couples in Healthcare Settings: A Handbook for Clinicians. London: Whurr. pp. 53–65.
    d'Ardenne, P., Capuzzo, N., Ruaro, L. and Priebe, S. (2005). “One size fits all? Cultural sensitivity in a psychological service for traumatised refugees”, Diversity in Health and Social Care, 2: 29–36.
    d'Ardenne, P., Cestari, L. and Priebe, S. (2007a) “The challenge of regular outcome assessment: why do we fail?”, Clinical Psychology Forum, 173: 7–12.
    d'Ardenne, P., Farmer, E., Ruaro, L. and Priebe, S. (2007b). “Not lost in translation: protocols for interpreting trauma-focused CBT”, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35: 303–16.
    d'Ardenne, P., Ruaro, L., Cestari, L., Wakhoury, W., and Priebe, S. (2007c) “Does interpreter-mediated CBT with traumatized refugee people work? A comparison of patient outcomes in East London”, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35: 293–301.
    d'Ardenne, P., Dorner, H., Walugembe, J., Nakibuuka, A., Nsereko, J., Onen, T. and Hall, C. (2009) “Training in the management of post-traumatic stress disorder in Uganda”, International Psychiatry, 6 (3): 67–68.
    Data Protection Act 1998. London: TSO. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Davidson, S. (2010a) “Psychosocial support within a global movement”, The Psychologist, 23 (4): 304–7.
    Davidson, S. (2010b) “The development of the British Red Cross Psychosocial Framework: CALMER”, Journal of Social Work Practice, 24: 29–42.
    Davies, M., Griffiths, M. and Vice, S. (2001) “Affective reactions to auditory hallucinations in psychiatric, evangelical, and control groups”, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40: 361–70.
    Dawkins, R. (2006) The God Delusion. London. Bantam Press.
    Dehghan, S. (2011) “Tatchell calls on Hague to raise gay rights at Commonwealth meeting”, Guardian, 21 October.
    Dein, S. (2010) “Religion, spirituality and mental health: cross cultural psychiatry special report”, Psychiatric Times, 27 (1): 2–5. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Dein, S. and Littlewood, R. (2007) “The voice of God”, Anthropology & Medicine, 14 (2): 213–28.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (2010) Working Together to Safeguard Children: A Guide to Inter-Agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. London: Department for Children Schools and Families. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Department of Health (1999) Clinical Governance in the New NHS. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2001) Treatment Choices in Psychological Therapies and Counselling. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2005) Practical Guide to Ethnic Monitoring in Health and Social Care. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2006) Our Health, Our Care, Our Say: A New Direction for Community Services. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2007) Putting People First: A Shared Vision and Commitment to the Transformation of Adult Social Care. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2008) No Health without Mental Health: A Cross-Governmental Health Outcomes Strategy. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2009) New Horizons: A Shared Vision for Mental Health. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2011) No Health without Mental Health: A Cross-Governmental Health Outcomes Strategy. London: Department of Health.
    De Silva, P. (1999) “Cultural aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder”, in W.Yule (ed.), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: Concepts and Therapy. Chichester: Wiley. pp. 116–38.
    Diamond, M. (2002) “What aid workers and frogs have in common”, in Y.Danieli (ed.), Sharing the Front Line and the Back Hills. Amityville, NY: Baywood. pp. 9–20.
    Dokter, D. (1998) “Being a migrant, working with migrants: issues of identity and embodiment”, in D.Dokter (ed.), Arts Therapists, Refugees and Migrants: Reaching Across Borders. London: Jessica Kingsley. pp. 145–54.
    Dominelli, L. (1989) “An uncaring profession; An examination of racism in social work”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 15 (3): 391–403.
    Dorner, H., d'Ardenne, P., Walugembe, J. and Hall, C. (2008) “Trauma in Ugandan children – an educational visit”, Poster for the 4th International Mental Health Conference Mental Health for All – Young and Old. London, 26–28 August.
    Dowden, R. (2008) Africa: Altered States, Ordinary Miracles. London: Portobello Books.
    Downe, S., Finlayson, K., Walsh, D. and Lavender, T. (2009) “Weighing up and balancing out: a meta-synthesis of barriers to antenatal care for marginalised women in high-income countries”, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116 (4): 518–29.
    Drennan, G. and Swartz, L. (1999) “A concept overburdened: institutional roles for psychiatric interpreters in post-apartheid South Africa”, Interpreting, 4: 169–98.
    Drug Trafficking Act 1994. London: HMSO. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    du Plock, S. (2010) “Humanistic approaches”, in R.Woolfe, S.Strawbridge, B.Douglas and W.Dryden (eds), Handbook of Counselling Psychology,
    3rd edn.
    London: Sage. pp. 130–50.
    East, P. (2011) “Supervision: the supervisee's perspective”, Clinical Psychology Forum, 218 (February): 21–6.
    Economist, The (2001) “Globalisation and its critics”, The Economist, 27 September.
    Economist, The (2010) Pocket World in Figures. London: Profile Books.
    Ehlers, A. and Clark, D. (2000) “A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder”, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38: 319–45.
    Eleftheriadou, Z. (1994) Transcultural Counselling. London: Central Publishing House.
    European Patients” Forum (EPF) (2012) (accessed 22 May 2012).
    Ewing, T.N. (1974) “Racial similarity of client and counselor and client satisfaction with counseling”, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 21 (5): 446–9.
    Eysenck, H.J. (1971) Race, Intelligence and Education. London: Temple Smith.
    Farsimadan, F., Kahn, A. and Draghi-Lorenz, R. (2011) “On ethnic matching: a review of the research and considerations for practice, training and policy”, in C.Lago (eds), The Handbook of Transcultural Counselling & Psychotherapy. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Faulkner, A. and Layzell, S. (2000) Strategies for Living: A Report of User-Led Research into People's Strategies for Living with Mental Distress. London: Mental Health Foundation.
    FawcettG. (2003) “Stress and staff support strategies for international aid work”, in J.Fawcett (ed.), Stress and Trauma Handbook: Strategies for Flourishing in Demanding Environments. Monrovia, CA: World Vision. pp. 101–21.
    Federoff, I. and McFarlane, T. (1998) “Cultural aspects of eating disorders”, in S.Kazarian and D.Evans (eds), Cultural Clinical Psychology, Theory Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 152–76.
    Feinstein, A. (2006) Journalists Under Fire: The Psychological Hazards of Covering War. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Fernando, S. (1989) “Schizophrenia in ethnic minorities”, Psychiatric Bulletin, 13: 573–4.
    Fernando, S. (2002) Mental Health, Race and Culture,
    2nd edn.
    Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Fernando, S. (2005) Multicultural mental health services: projects for minority ethnic communities in England. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42: 420–36.
    Fernando, S. (2009) “Meanings and Realities”, in S.Fernado and F.Keating (eds), Mental Health in a Multi-Ethnic Society: A Multidisciplinary Handbook,
    2nd edn.
    London: Routledge. pp. 13–26.
    Fernando, S. (2010) Mental Health, Race and Culture,
    3rd edn.
    Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Fernando, S. and Keating, F. (2009) Mental Health in a Multi-Ethnic Society: A Multidisciplinary Handbook,
    2nd edn.
    London: Routledge.
    Figley, C.R. (1999) “Compassion fatigue: toward a new understanding of the costs of caring”, in B.H.Stamm (ed.), Secondary Traumatic Stress: Self Care Issues for Clinicians, Researchers, and Educators,
    2nd edn.
    Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press. pp. 3–28.
    FogartyL.A., Curbow, B.A. and Wingard, J.R. (1999) “Can 40 seconds of compassion reduce patient anxiety?”, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 17 (1): 371–9.
    Fonagy, P. and Roth, A. (2005) What Works for Whom?
    2nd edn.
    New York. Guilford Press.
    Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007. London: TSO. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Forest, D. (1995) “Francis Galton (1822–1911)”, in R.Fuller (ed.), Seven Pioneers of Psychology: Behavior and Mind. London: Routledge. pp. 1–19.
    FoskettJ. (2003) “Are the spiritual beliefs of those with severe mental illness worth considering? Does the “truth” really provide us with answers?”, Proceedings of the Association for Pastoral and Spiritual Care and Counselling. Sheffield, 10–12 July.
    Foucault, M. (1988) Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. New York: Vintage Books.
    Fox, A. (2001) “An interpreter's perspective” (Medical Foundation Series), Context, 54: 19–20. Also available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Furnham, A. and BochnerS. (1986) Culture Shock: Psychological Reactions to Unfamiliar Environments. London: Methuen.
    GardnerF. (2007) Blood and Sand. London: Bantam Books.
    Gilbert, P. and Proctor, S. (2006) “Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self criticism: overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach”, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13: 353–79.
    Gilbert, P. (2009a) “Moving beyond cognitive behaviour therapy”, The Psychologist, 22: 400–3.
    Gilbert, P. (2009b) The Compassionate Mind. London: Constable.
    Gilbert, P. (2011) Spirituality and Mental Heath. Brighton: Pavilion.
    GoldbergD. and Solomos, J. (eds) (2002) A Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies. Oxford: Blackwell Books.
    Grayling, A.C. (2009) Ideas that Matter: A Personal Guide for the 21st Century. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Greer, S. (2006) The European Convention on Human Rights: Achievements, Problems and Prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Greenberger, D. and Padesky, C. (1995) Mind over Mood: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think London. New York: Guilford Press.
    Greenberg, D. and Witztum, E. (2001) Sanity and Sanctity: Mental Health Work among the Ultra-Orthodox in Jerusalem. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Greenwood, N., Hussain, F., Burns, T. and Raphael, F. (2000) “Asian in-patient and carer views of mental health care”, Journal of Mental Health, 9 (4): 397–408.
    Gregory, R.L. (1989) The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gupta, J.K., Hofmeyr, G.J. and Smyth, R. (2000) “Position in the second stage of labour for women without epidural anaesthesia”, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, Art. No.: CD002006. DOI: 10.1002/14651858
    Hanley, J. (2007) “The emotional wellbeing of Bangladeshi mothers during the postnatal period”, Community Practitioner, 80 (5): 34–7.
    Hargrave, A. (2011a) Resilience Briefing: A Remote, Collaborative Service for the International Relief and Development Sector. London: Interhealth.
    Hargrave, A. (2011b) “Resilience briefing”, Symposium at the Biannual Conference of the International Society for Travel Medicine. Boston, MA: ISTM. Available at (accessed 21 November 2011).
    Harvey, A.G., Bryant, R.A. and Tarrier, N. (2003) “Cognitive behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder”, Clinical Psychology Review, 23: 501–22.
    Harvey, C. (2000) Seeking Asylum in the UK: Problems and Prospects. London. Butterworths.
    Hasam, M. (2011) “Why David Cameron is wrong about radicalisation and multiculturalism”, Independent, 5 February.
    Hawes, A. and Eagger, S. (2011) Report on the Place of Spirituality in Mental Health. London: Spirituality Forum. Available at (accessed 30 March 2012).
    Hawes, A. and Khan, Q. (2011) “Faith perspectives on mental health, and work with faith communities”, in P.Gilbert (ed.), Spirituality and Mental Health. Brighton: Pavilion.
    Health Professions Council (HPC) (2011) (accessed 22 May 2012).
    Heartsounds (2012)
    Herbert, C. (2002) Understanding Your Reactions to Trauma. Oxford: Blue Stallion Publications.
    Herlihy, J. (2002) “Discrepancies in autobiographical memories – implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated interviews study”, BMJ, 9 (324): 324–7.
    Hewitt, D. and Heaney, P. (2011) “Cardiff Muslims fearful of filling out census, says Islamic leader”, Guardian, 25 March.
    Hight, J. and Smyth, F. (2001) Tragedies and Journalists. Available at (accessed 24 May 2012).
    Hogg, M.A. and Abrams, D. (1999) “Social identity and social cognition: historical background and current trends”, in M.Hogg and D.Abrams (eds), Social Identity and Social Cognition. Blackwell. Oxford.
    Home Office (1998) Guide to the Major Religious and Cultural Observance in the United Kingdom. London: TSO.
    Horowitz, M., Wilner, M. and Alvarez, W. (1979) “The impact of events scale: a measure of subjective stress”, Psychosomatic Medicine, 41: 209–18.
    Human Rights Act 1998. London: TSO. Available at (accessed 30 March 2012).
    Hunt, S. and Bhopal, R. (2004) “Self report in clinical and epidemiological studies with non-English speakers: the challenge of language and culture”, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58: 618–22.
    Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act 2006. London: TSO Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) (2007) IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Situations. Geneva: IASC.
    International Alliance of Patients” Organizations (IAPO) (2011) (accessed 22 May 2012).
    Iranian and Kurdish Women's Rights Organisation (2012) (accessed 22 May 2012).
    Jahoda, G. (1961) “Traditional healers and other institutions concerned with mental illness in Ghana”, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 7 (4): 245–68.
    Jankovic Gavrilovic, J., d'Ardenne, P., Bogic, L., Capuzzo, N. and Priebe, S. (2005) “A survey of specialised UK traumatic stress services”, Psychiatric Bulletin, 29: 416–18.
    Jenkins, P. (2005) “Client confidentiality and data protection”, in R.Tribe and J.Morrissey (eds), Handbook of Professional and Ethical Practice for Psychologists, Counsellors and Psychotherapists. Hove: Brunner-Routledge. pp. 63–74.
    Jenkins, R., Kiima, D., Okonji, M., Njenga, F., Kingora, J. and Lock, S. (2010) “Integration of mental health in primary care and community health workers in Kenya-context, rationale, coverage and sustainability”, Mental Health in Family Medicine, 7 (1): 37–47.
    KaiserA., Katz, R. and Shaw, B. (1998) “Cultural issues in the management of depression”, in S.Kazarian and D.Evans (eds), Cultural Clinical Psychology, Theory Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kareem, J. and Littlewood, R. (eds) (1999) Intercultural Therapy: Themes, Interpretations and Practice. Blackwell: Oxford.
    Karlsen, S. and Nazroo, J. (2004) “Fear of racism and health”, Journal of Epistemology and Community Health, 58: 1017–8.
    Katsakou, C., Bowers, L., Amos, R., Rose, D., Wykes, T. and Priebe, S. (2010) “Coercion and treatment satisfaction among involuntary patients”, Psychiatric Services, 61 (3): 286–92.
    Kazarin, S. and Evans, D. (1998) “Cultural clinical psychology”, in S.Kazarian and D.Evans (eds), Cultural Clinical Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3–38.
    Kelly, B. and Feeney, L. (2007) “Coping with stressors: racism and migration”, in D.Bhugra and K.Bhui (eds), Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 550–60.
    Kendrick, D.C., Gibson, A.J. and Moyes, I.C. (1979) “The Revised Kendrick Battery: clinical studies”, British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18 (3): 329–40.
    Khele, S. (2007) “Continuing professional development (CPD) and supervision in professional bodies”, Therapy Today, 18 (7): 41–2.
    King's Fund, The (2012) The Kings Fund Library Database. Available at
    Kirmayer, L.J. (2007) “Cultural psychiatry in historical perspective”, in D.Bhugra and K.Bhui (eds), Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–19.
    Koenig, H. (2007) “Spirituality and depression: a look at the evidence”, Southern Medical Journal, 100 (7): 737–9.
    Koenig, H., McCullough, M. and Larson, D. (2001) Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Koteskey, R. (2011) What Missionaries Ought to Know about Culture Stress. Wilmore, KT: Missionary Care. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Lago, C. (2010) “On developing our empathic capacities to work inter-culturally and interethnically: attempting a map for personal and professional development”, Psychotherapy and Politics International, 81 (1): 73–85.
    Lago, C. (ed.) (2011) The Handbook of Transcultural Counselling and Psychotherapy. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Lago, C. and Smith, B. (2010) “Anti-discriminatory practice revisited”, in C.Lago and B.Smith (eds), Anti-discriminatory Practice in Counselling & Psychotherapy. London. Sage. pp. 13–22.
    Lago, C. and Thompson, J. (1989) “Counselling and race”, in W.Dryden (ed.), Handbook of Counselling in Britain. London: Tavistock-Routledge. pp. 207–18.
    Lago, C. and Thompson, J. (1996) Race, Culture and Counselling. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Lago, C. and Thompson, J. (1997) “The triangle with curved sides: sensitivity to issues of race and culture in supervision”, in G.Shipton (ed.), Supervision of Psychotherapy and Counselling: Making a Place to Think. Buckingham: Open University Press. pp. 119–30.
    Lankaster, T. (2007) Setting up Community Health Programmes: A Practical Manual for Use in Developing Countries. Oxford: McMillan.
    Latchford, G. and Melluish, S. (2010) “Clinical psychology around the world: an introduction to the special issue”, Clinical Psychology Forum, 215: 9–11.
    Laungani, P. (2005) Death and Bereavement around the World: Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company.
    Lee, D.A. (2005) “The perfect nurturer: a model to develop a compassionate mind within the context of cognitive therapy”, in P.Gilbert (ed.), Compassion: Conceptualisations, Research and Use in Psychotherapy. New York: Routledge. pp. 326–51.
    Lee, D.A. (2009) “Compassion-focussed cognitive therapy for shame-based trauma memories and flashbacks in post-traumatic stress disorder”, in N.Grey (ed.), A Casebook of Cognitive Therapy for Traumatic Stress Reactions. London: Routledge. pp. 230–46.
    Levav, I., Kohn, R. and Schwartz, S. (1998) “The psychiatric after-effects of the Holocaust on the second generation”, Psychological Medicine, 28: 755–60.
    Littlewood, R. and Lipsedge, M. (1982) Aliens and Alienists: Ethnic Minorities and Psychiatry. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
    Littlewood, R. and Lipsedge, M. (1997) Aliens and Alienists: Ethnic Minorities and Psychiatry,
    3rd edn.
    Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
    Loewenthal, K. (2007) “Spirituality and cultural psychiatry”, in D.Bhugra and K.Bhui (eds), Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–71.
    Loewenthal, K. and Cinnirella, M. (2003) “Religious issues in ethnic minority mental health with special relevance to schizophrenia in Afro-Caribbeans in Britain: a systematic review”, in D.Ndegwa and D.Olajide (eds), Main Issues in Mental Health and Race. London: Ashgate. pp. 108–54.
    Loewenthal, K. and Lewis, C.A. (2011) “Reflections on psychology and religion”, The Psychologist (Special Issue), 24 (4): 256–9.
    Long, A (1997) “Nursing: a spiritual perspective”, Nursing Ethics, 4 (6): 496–510.
    Lowenstein, L. (1985) “Cross-cultural research in relation to counseling in Great Britain”, in P.Pederson (ed.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counselling and Therapy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 37–45.
    Mace, C. (1995) (ed.) The Art and Science of Assessment in Psychotherapy. London: Routledge.
    Maguire, N. (2010) “The role of cognitive behaviour therapy in reducing repeat homelessness: a good practice guide”, CBT Today, 38 (5): 10–11.
    Maguire, R.J. and Vallance, M. (1964) “Aversion therapy by electric shock: a simple technique”, BMJ, 1 (5376): 151–3.
    Mahtani, A. (2003) “The right of refugee clients to an appropriate and ethical psychological service”, International Journal of Human Rights, 7: 40–57.
    Mailloux, S. (2004) “Ethics and interpreters: are you practising ethically?”, Journal of Psychological Practice, 10: 37–44.
    Malik, R. (2000) “Culture and emotion: depression among Pakistanis”, in C.Squire (ed.), Culture in Psychology. New York: Routledge. pp. 145–60.
    Mallen, M.J., Vogel, D.L., Rochlen, A.B. and DayS.X. (2005) “Online counseling: reviewing the literature from a counseling psychology framework”, The Counseling Psychologist, 33 (6): 819–71.
    Marinovich, G., and Silva, J. (2000) The Bang-Bang Club: Snapshots from a Hidden War. New York: Basic Books.
    Martin, P. (2010) “Training and professional development”, in R.Woolfe, S.Strawbridge, B.Douglas and W.Dryden (eds), Handbook of Counselling Psychology,
    3rd edn.
    London. Sage. pp. 547–68.
    MayersC., LeaveyG., Vallianatou, C. and Barker, C. (2007) “How clients with religious or spiritual beliefs experience psychological help-seeking and therapy: a qualitative study”, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14: 317–27.
    McAndrew, S. (2009) “Religious faith and contemporary attitudes”, in A.Park, J.Curtice, K.Thompson, C.Phillips and S.Butt (eds), British Social Attitudes: The 26th Report. London: Sage. pp. 88–134.
    McKay, J. (2000) The Penguin Atlas of Human Sexual Behaviour. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    McKenzie, K. and Crowcroft, N. (1996) “Describing race, ethnicity and culture in medical research”, British Medical Journal, 312: 1054–5.
    McKenzie-Mavinga, I. (2005) “Understanding black issues in postgraduate counsellor training”, Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 5 (4): 295–300.
    McKenzie-Mavinga, I. (2009) “Going all the way”, in Black Issues in the Therapeutic Process. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 220–30.
    Mental Health Act 1983. London: TSO. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Merchant, R. (2006) “Promoting health and well-being: the role of spirituality”, Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 126 (5): 408–9.
    Miller, W.R., (2003) “Spirituality, religion and health, an emerging research field”, American Psychologist, 58 (1): 24–35.
    Miller, K.E., Martell, Z.L., Pazdirek, L., Caruth, M. and Lopez, D. (2005). “The role of interpreters in psychotherapy with refugees: an exploratory study”, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75: 27–39.
    Moorhead, S. (2000) “Quantitative research in intercultural therapy: some methodological considerations”, in J.Kareem and R.Littlewood (eds), Intercultural Therapy,
    2nd edn.
    Oxford: Blackwell Science. pp. 88–109.
    Mueller, M. (2009). “The role of narrative exposure therapy in cognitive therapy for traumatised refugees and asylum seekers”, in N.Grey (ed.), A Casebook of Cognitive Therapy for Traumatic Stress Reactions. London: Routledge. pp. 265–82.
    MuellerP.S., Plevak, D.J. and Rummans, T.A. (2001) “Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: implications for clinical practice”, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76 (1): 1225–35.
    Murray Parkes, C., Laungani, P. and Young, B. (1997) “Introduction”, in C. MurrayParkes, P.Laungani and B.Young (eds), Death and Bereavement Across Cultures. London: Routledge. pp. 3–9.
    Nadirshaw, Z. and Torry, B. (2004) Transcultural Health Care Practice: Transcultural Supervision in Health Care Practice. London: RCN. Available at (accessed 30 December 2011).
    Naeem, F., Gobbi, M., Ayub, M. and Kingdon, D. (2010) “Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan”, International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 4: 2.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). (2002) Principles of Best Practice in Clinical Audit. London: NICE.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2005) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): The Management of PTSD in Adults and Children in Primary and Secondary Care. London: NICE.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2011) Antenatal Guideline. London: NICE.
    Naylor, C. and Bell, A. (2010), Mental Health and the Productivity Challenge – Improving Quality and Value for Money. London: The King's Fund.
    Needleman, J. and Persaud, R. (1995) “Why do psychiatrists neglect religion?”, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 68, 169–78.
    Newacheck, P.W. and Taylor, W.R. (1992) “Childhood chronic illness; prevalence, severity and impact”, American Journal of Public Health, 82 (3): 364–71.
    Newland, J. and Patel, N. (2005) “Professional and ethical practice in multicultural and multiethnic society”, in R.Tribe and J.Morrissey (eds), Handbook of Professional and Ethical Practice. Hove: Brunner–Routledge. pp. 233–45.
    New Statesman (2011) “Faith speaks volumes”, New Statesman, 18 April.
    Office for National Statistics (ONS) (1991) 1991 Census. London: ONS. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Office for National Statistics (ONS) (2001) 2001 Census. London: ONS. Available at (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Office for National Statistics (2009) Social Trends. No. 39. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Office for National Statistics. (2011) Final Recommended Questionnaire Content for England and Wales. London: ONS. Available at (accessed 7 December 2012).
    Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) (1949) Declaration of Human Rights 1949. Geneva: United Nations. Available at (accessed 30 March 2012).
    Orford, J. (2008) Community Psychology: Challenges, Controversies and Emerging Consensus. Chichester: Wiley.
    Ovuga, E., Boardman, J. and Oluka, E. (1999) “Traditional healers and mental illness in Uganda”, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 276–9.
    Pan African Network of People with Psychosocial Difficulties (2011) Cape Town Declaration. Congress at Cape Town, South Africa, 16 October. Available at (accessed 18 April 2012)
    Pargament, K. (2007) Spiritually Integrated Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.
    Patel, N. (1999) Ethical Guidelines for Mental Health Research with Black and Minority Ethnic People. London: TCPS/MIND Publications.
    Patel, N. (2003) “Speaking with the silent: addressing issues of disempowerment when working with refugee people”, in R.Tribe and H.Raval (eds), Working with Interpreters in Mental Health. Hove: Brunner–Routledge. pp. 219–37.
    Patel, N. (2004) “Difference and power in supervision: the case of culture and racism”, in I.Fleming and L.Steen (eds), Supervision and Clinical Psychology: Theory, Practice and Perspective. Hove: Brunner–Routledge. pp. 96–117.
    Patel, N. and Mahtani, A. (2007) “The politics of working with refugee survivors of torture”, The Psychologist, 20 (3): 164–6.
    Patel, N., Bennett, E. and Dennis, M. (2000) Clinical Psychology, Race and Culture. Leicester: BPS Books.
    Patel, V. and Kim, Y. (2007) “Contribution of low-and middle-income countries to research published in leading general psychiatry journals, 2002–2004”, British Journal of Psychiatry, 190: 77–8.
    Pathan, T. and d'Ardenne, P. (2010) “An exploratory survey of mental health services for traumatised people in Bangladesh”, Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 3: 108–11.
    Pederson, P. (1985) The Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counselling and Therapy. Westpoint, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Pederson, P. and Ivey, A.E. (1994) Culture-Centred Counselling and Interviewing Skills. Westpoint, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Porter, B. and Emmens, B. (2009) Approaches to Staff Care in International NGOs. London: People in Aid and Interhealth.
    Peters, E., Day, S., McKenna, J. and Orbach, G. (1999) “Delusional ideas in religious and psychiatric populations”, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33: 83–96.
    Pinker, S. (2011) The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence has Declined. New York: Viking Adult.
    Prince, M., Patel, V., Saxena, S., Maj, M., Maselko, J., Phillips, M. and Rahman, A. (2007) “No health without mental health”, The Lancet, 370 (9590): 859–77.
    Race Relations Act Amended (2000) London: TSO. Available at (accessed 24 May 2012).
    Raphael, B. (2003) “Early intervention and the debriefing debate”, in R.J.Ursano, C.S.Fullerton and A.E.Norwood (eds), Terrorism and Disaster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 146–61.
    Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Phiri, P. and Gobbi, M. (2010) “Developing culturally sensitive cognitive therapy for psychosis for ethnic minority patients by exploration and incorporation of service users” and health professionals” views and opinions”, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38: 511–33.
    Raval, H. (1996) “A systemic perspective on working with interpreters”, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1: 29–43.
    Raval, H. and Smith, J.A. (2003) “Therapists” experiences of working with language interpreters”, International Journal of Mental Health, 32: 6–31.
    Rees, D. (2001) Death and Bereavement: The Psychological, Religious and Cultural Interfaces,
    2nd edn.
    London: Whurr.
    Refugee Council (2010) “Statistics show sharp drop in asylum applications”. Available at
    Rennie, D. (1998) Person-Centered Counselling: An Experiential Approach. London: Sage.
    Reporters Sans Frontières (2005) Handbook for Journalists. Available at
    Reporters Without Boundaries (2009) Invisible injuries that threaten the lives of journalists. Available at,33366.html#biblio
    Richards, D. and Whyte, M. (2009) Reach Out: National Programme Educator Materials to Support the Delivery of Training for Psychological Wellbeing Practitioners Delivering Low Intensity Interventions. London: Rethink. Available at (accessed 30 March 2012).
    Rizq, R. (2010) “Personal development”, in R.Woolfe, S.Strawbridge, B.Douglas and W.Dryden (eds), Handbook of Counselling Psychology,
    3rd edn.
    London: Sage. pp. 569–79.
    Robjant, K. and Fazel, M. (2010) “The emerging evidence for narrative exposure therapy: a review”, Clinical Psychology Review, 30: 1030–9
    Rogers, C.R. (1961) On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. London: Constable.
    Rosenblatt, P. (1997) “Grief in small-scale societies”, in C.M.Parkes, P.Laungani and B.Young (eds), Death and Bereavement Across Cultures. London: Routledge. pp. 27–51.
    Rowe, D. (2003) The Way Out of Your Prison. Hove: Brunner–Routledge.
    Royal College of General Practitioners, British Legion and Combat Stress (2011) Meeting the Healthcare Needs of Veterans: A Guide for General Practitioners. Leatherhead: Combat Stress. Available (accessed 11 April 2012).
    Ryde, J. (2009) Being White in the Helping Professions: Developing Effective Intercultural Awareness. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Ryde, J. (2011) “Culturally sensitive supervision”, in C.Lago (ed.), The Handbook of Transcultural Counselling & Psychotherapy. Maidenhead: Open University Press. pp. 42–51.
    Sashidharan, S. (2001) “Institutional racism in British psychiatry”, Psychiatric Bulletin, 25: 244–7.
    Schalock, R., Luckasson, R.A. and Shogren, K.A. (2007) “The renaming of mental retardation: understanding the change to the term intellectual disability: perspectives editorial”, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45 (2): 116–24.;2
    Schauer, M., Elbert, T. and Neuner, F. (2004) Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Short-Term Intervention for Traumatic Stress Disorders after War, Terror or Torture. Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber.
    Schlapobersky, J. (2010) “The tragedy never ends”, Guardian, 22 April.
    Schmickle, S. (2007) “Reporting war”. New York: Dart Center.
    Scior, K., Gray, J., Halsey, R. and Roth, A. (2007) “Selection for clinical psychology training. Is there evidence of any bias against applicants from ethnic minorities?”, Clinical Psychology Forum, 175: 7–11.
    Scottish Development Centre for Mental Health (2006) Evaluation of the Delivering for Mental Health Peer Support Worker Pilot Scheme: Information Sheet for Service Users. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Seigal, J. (1997) “Counselling people with disabilities/chronic illnesses”, in S.Palmer and G.McMahon (eds), Handbook of Counselling,
    2nd edn.
    London. Routledge. pp. 402–20.
    Sexual Offences Act 1967. London: HMSO. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Shackelford, T. (2005) “An evolutionary psychological perspective on cultures of honor”, Evolutionary Psychology, 3: 381–91.
    Shackman, J. (1984). The Right to Be Understood: A Handbook on Working with, Employing and Training Community Interpreters. Cambridge: National Extension College.
    Shah, S., Garland, E. and Katz, C. (2007) “Secondary traumatic stress: prevalence in humanitarian aid workers in India”, Traumatology, 13 (1): 59–60.
    Shepherd, C., Vanderpuye, N. and Saine, M. (2010) “How are potential black and minority ethnic candidates being attracted into the clinical psychology profession? A review of all UK clinical psychology postgraduate websites”, Clinical Psychology Forum, 207: 5–10.
    Shillito-Clarke, C. (2010) “Ethical issues in counselling psychology”, in R.Woolfe, S.Strawbridge, B.Douglas and W.Dryden (eds), Handbook of Counselling Psychology. London: Sage. pp. 507–28.
    Shipton, G. (1997) “The place of supervision”, in G.Shipton (ed.), Supervision of Psychotherapy and Counselling: Making a Place to Think. Buckingham: Open University Press. pp. 143–9.
    Sloboda, A., Carr, C. and d'Ardenne, P. (2009) “And hope and history rhyme”, Proceedings of the Reflective Conservatoire. Guildhall School of Music and Drama, London, 28 February.
    Sonderegger, R., Rombouts, S., Ocen, B. and McKeever, R. (2011) “Trauma rehabilitation for war-affected persons in northern Uganda: a pilot evaluation of EMPOWER programme”, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50: 234–49.
    Sproston, K. and Nazroo, J. (2002) Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC) Quantitative Report. London: Department of Health.
    Summerfield, D. (1995) “Debriefing after psychological trauma. Inappropriate exporting of Western culture may cause additional harm”, British Medical Journal, 311 (7003): 509.
    Summerfield, D. (2004) “Cross-cultural perspectives on the medicalisation of human suffering”, in G.Rosen (ed.), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues and Controversies. Chichester: John Wiley. pp 233–45.
    Summerfield, D. (2008) “How scientifically valid is the knowledge base of global mental health?”, BMJ, 336: 992–4.
    Tajfel, H. (1981). Human Groups and Social Categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tajfel, H. and Turner, J.C. (1986) “The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour”, in S.Worchel and W.G.Austin (eds), Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall. pp. 7–24.
    Tantam, D. and van Deurzen, E. (2005) “European guidelines to professional and ethical issues”, in R.Tribe and J.Morrissey (eds), Handbook of Professional and Ethical Practice. Hove. Brunner–Routledge. pp. 19–32.
    Tek, C. and Ulug, B. (2001) “Religiousity and religious obsessions in obsessive compulsive disorder”, Psychiatry Research, 104: 99–108.
    Terrorism Act 2000. London: TSO. Available at: (accessed 12 April 2012).
    Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) (2005) (accessed 22 May 2012).
    Thomas, L. (2000) “Racism and psychotherapy: working with racism in the consulting room: an analytical view”, in J.Kareem and R.Littlewood (eds), Intercultural Therapy,
    2nd edn.
    Oxford: Blackwell Science. pp. 146–60.
    Tol, W., Barbui, C., Galappatti, A., Silove, D., Betancourt, T., Souza, R., Golaz, A. and van Ommeren, M. (2011) “Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research”, Lancet, 378: 1581–91.
    Travis, P., Bennett, S., Haines, A., Pang, T., Bhitta, Z., Hyder, A., Pielemeir, A and Evans, T. (2004) “Overcoming health-systems constraints to achieve Millennium development goals”, The Lancet, 364 (4): 900–6.
    Tribe, R. (1997) “A critical analysis of a support and clinical supervision group for interpreters working with refugees located in Britain”, Groupwork, 10: 196–214.
    Tribe, R. and Morrissey, J. (2004) “Good practice issues in working with interpreters in mental health”, Intervention, 2: 129–42.
    Tribe, R. and Calvert, H. (2005) “Moving forward together? Legacy issues and well-being in post war Sri Lanka”, International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care.
    Tribe, R. and Thompson, K. (2008) Working with Interpreters in Health Settings: Guidelines for Psychologists. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
    Turpin, G. and Coleman, G. (2010) “Clinical psychology and diverstiy: progress and continuing challenges”, Psychology Learning and Teaching, 9 (2): 17–27.
    United Nations (1951) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol. Available at
    United Nations (2000) United Nations Millennium Goals. Geneva: United Nations. Available at (accessed 30 November 2011).
    United Nations (2005) Spirituality, Religion and Health: The Round Table Report. Geneva: United Nations.
    United Nations Refugee Agency (2012) On the Run in Their Own Land. Available at
    United States Census Bureau. Census 1790. Washington, DC: United States Census Bureau. Available at (accessed 1 December 2011).
    UrsanoR.J., Fullerton, C.S. and Norwood, A.E. (2003) “Terrorism and disasters: prevention, intervention and recover”, in R.J.Ursano, C.S.Fullerton, A.E.Norwood (eds), Terrorism and Disaster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 333–40.
    Van de Veer, G. (1998) Counselling and Therapy with Refugees and Victims of Trauma: Psychological Problems of Victims of War, Torture and Repression,
    2nd edn.
    Chichester: Wiley.
    Van de Veer, G. (1999) “Psychotherapy with traumatized refugees and asylum seekers: working through traumatic experiences or helping to cope with loneliness”, Torture, 9: 49–53.
    Wallcraft, J. and Bryant, M. (2003) The Mental Health Service User Movement in England: Policy Paper 2. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.
    Waller, D. (2002) “Arts therapies, progressive illness, dementia; the difficulty of being”, in D.Waller (ed.), Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness: Nameless Dread. Hove: Brunner–Routledge. pp. 1–12.
    Walter, N. (2011) “No place to call home”, New Statesman, 7 March: 35.
    Ward, C., Bochner, S. and Furnham, A. (2001) The Psychology of Culture Shock,
    2nd edn.
    London: Routledge.
    Watts, F. (2011) “Reflections on psychology and religion” (special issue), The Psychologist, 24 (4): 268–9.
    Webster, A. and Robertson, M. (2007) “Can community psychology meet the needs of refugees?”, The Psychologist, 20 (3): 156–8.
    Wellington, J. (2010) Making Supervision Work for You: A Student's Guide. London: Sage.
    Wessely, S. (2003) “The role of screening in the prevention of psychological disorders arising form major trauma: pros and cons”, in R.J.Ursano, C.S.Fullerton and A.E.Norwood (eds), Terrorism and Disaster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 121–45.
    White, J. (2008) “Stepping up primary care”, The Psychologist, 21: 844–7.
    Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K. (2010) The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone. London: Penguin Books.
    Wilson, A. and Beresford, P. (2000) “Anti-oppressive practice: emancipation and appropriation”, British Journal of Social Work, 30: 553–73.
    Wilson, N., d'Ardenne, P., Scott, C., Fine, H., and Priebe, S. (2012) “Survivors of the London bombings with PTSD: a qualitative study of their accounts during CBT treatment”, Traumatology, 18 (2): 75–84. DOI: 10.1177/1534765611426793
    Winell, M. (2011) “Trauma from leaving religion”, CBT Today, 39 (4): 19–21.
    Woolfe, R. and Tholstrup, M. (2010) “Supervision”, in R.Woolfe, S.Strawbridge, B.Douglas and W.Dryden (eds), Handbook of Counselling Psychology,
    3rd edn.
    London: Sage. pp. 590–607.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2005) WHO Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation. Geneva: WHO. Available at
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Mental Health and Development: Targeting People with Mental Health Conditions as a Vulnerable Group. Geneva: WHO. Available at (accessed 12 April 2012).
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2012) Genes and Human Disease. Available at
    World Psychiatric Association (WPA) (2012) (accessed 24 May 2012).
    Young, K. (2009) “Cognitive therapy for survivors of torture”, in N.Grey (ed.), A Casebook of Cognitive Therapy for Traumatic Stress Reactions. London: Routledge. pp. 247–64.
    Zane, N., Hall, G., Sue, S., Young, K. and Nunez, J. (2004) “Research on psychotherapy with culturally diverse populations”, in M.Lambert (ed.), Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change,
    5th edn.
    Chicago: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 767–804.
    Zwingmann, C. and Gunn, A. (1983) Uprooting and Health: Psychosocial Problems of Students from Abroad. Geneva: WHO.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website