Counselling for Anxiety Problems
Publication Year: 2002
`Any cognitive therapy text which quotes from Alice in Wonderland is off to a good start - and in the case of Counselling for Anxiety Problems, it gets better and better. This is an excellent book written by counselling psychologists, aimed primarily at counselling psychologists. Diana Sanders and Frank Wills are experienced cognitive therapists, who, through various books, are performing a valuable role of building bridges between counsellors and the practice of cognitive therapists. In doing so, they lay to rest many of the misconceptions counsellors may have about cognitive therapy (often based on an 80s version of the therapy), and place particular emphasis on the central importance of therapeutic relationship in cognitive therapy, as in counselling. Their review and discussion of the anxiety disorders ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Theory and Practice of Counselling for Anxiety
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Conceptualising Anxiety
- Chapter 3: Cognitive Approaches to Counselling for Anxiety
- Chapter 4: The Therapeutic Relationship in Counselling for Anxiety
- Chapter 5: Assessment of Anxiety Problems
- Chapter 6: Methods and Techniques
Part II: Counselling for Specific Anxiety Problems
Counselling in Practice[Page ii]
Series editor: Windy Dryden
Associate editor: E. Thomas Dowd
Counselling in Practice is a series of books developed especially for counsellors and students of counselling, which provides practical, accessible guidelines for dealing with clients with specific, but very common, problems. Books in this series have become recognized as classic texts in their field, and include:
Counselling with Dreams and Nightmares
Delia Cushway and Robyn Sewell
Robert Nathan and Linda Hill
Donald L. Bubenzer and John D. West
Counselling People with Communication Problems
Counselling for Family Problems
Counselling for Stress Problems
Stephen Palmer and Windy Dryden
Counselling People on Prescribed Drugs
Counselling for Fertility Problems
Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems
Counselling for Grief and Bereavement
Geraldine M. Humphrey and David G. Zimpfer
Counselling for Eating Disorders, second edition
Counselling Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse, second edition
Claire Burke Draucker
Counselling for Depression, second edition
Counselling for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, second edition
Michael J. Scott and Stephen G. Stradling
Counselling for Alcohol Problems, second edition
© Diana Sanders and Frank Wills, 2003
First published 1992
This edition first published 2003
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
32, M-Block Market
Greater Kailash – I
New Delhi 110 048
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 7619 6574 2
ISBN 0 7619 6575 0 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2002108287
Typeset by Mayhew Typesetting, Rhayader, Powys
Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall
List of Figures and Tables[Page vii]
List of Figures
- Figure 1.1 Generic cognitive models for understanding anxiety 4
- Figure 2.1 Model of anxiety 16
- Figure 2.2 Changes in anxiety levels over time if client does not try to avoid or reduce anxiety 27
- Figure 2.3 Changes in anxiety levels over time if client avoids or reduces anxiety 28
- Figure 2.4 Levels of thoughts and beliefs 29
- Figure 2.5 Longitudinal conceptualisation 30
- Figure 5.1 Diary of thoughts and feelings 70
- Figure 6.1 Diary of anxious thoughts and alternatives 86
- Figure 6.2 Behavioural experiment diary 92
- Figure 6.3 Questions to explore imagery 96
- Figure 6.4 Problem-solving exercise 102
- Figure 6.5 Questions to help the client discover alternative assumptions 105
- Figure 7.1 The vicious cycle of panic 113
- Figure 7.2 Josie's vicious cycle of panic 120
- Figure 7.3 Josie's vicious cycle 121
- Figure 8.1 Model of general anxiety and worry 135
- Figure 9.1 Description of specific phobias 151
- Figure 9.2 Vicious cycle in phobias 155
- Figure 9.3 Example of spider phobia experiments 164
- Figure 10.1 Model of social anxiety 172
- Figure 10.2 Conceptualisation for Phil 177
- Figure 10.3 Interpretations and reality testing 184
- Figure 10.4 Diary of social situations 185
- Figure 11.1 A model for health anxiety 193
- Figure 11.2 Pie chart of causes of headaches 201
- Figure 12.1 Cycles of normal and problematic obsessive thoughts 210
- Figure 12.2 Conceptualising OCD 211 [Page viii]
- Figure 12.3 Sally's conceptualisation 217
- Figure 12.4 Sally's feared situations and predictions 221
List of Tables
- Table 2.1 Physical sypmptoms of anxiety 17
- Table 5.1 Medical and pharmacological causes of anxiety symptoms 75
- Table 6.1 Identifying anxious thoughts 84
- Table 7.1 Definition of a panic attack 111
- Table 7.2 Safety behaviours in panic and agoraphobia 116
- Table 7.3 Definition of agoraphobia 117
- Table 7.4 Behavioural experiments for working with panic 126
- Table 8.1 Definition of generalised anxiety disorder 133
- Table 9.1 Common phobias 152
- Table 10.1 Defining social anxiety 170
- Table 11.1 Defining health anxiety 190
- Table 12.1 Defining obsessive compulsive disorder 207
- Table 12.2 Common themes in obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours 209
We were both very pleased to be invited to write a revised edition of Richard Hallam's original book, Counselling for Anxiety Problems, first published in 1992. We have worked together on a number of projects, including writing Cognitive Therapy: Transforming the Image, published by Sage in 1997, which aims to present counsellors with the developments in cognitive therapy which, we believe, make it more attractive for counsellors to use or to integrate with their practice. The opportunity to work on Counselling for Anxiety Problems follows on from our theme and interests: to promote the successful developments in cognitive therapy for anxiety problems in a way which is accessible and attractive to the counselling world. We are convinced by the strong evidence that cognitive therapy offers a realistic and effective therapy for our many clients burdened by anxiety problems, while at the same time being aware of the criticisms and dangers inherent in adopting one approach too rigidly. We hope to present the balance of our thinking in this book.
As Richard Hallam states in the preface to the first edition: ‘All of us can empathize with what it might be like to suffer from an ‘anxiety problem.’ Anxiety is second to depression as one of the most common psychological problems for which people seek help, from their GPs, counsellors, psychologists, psychotherapists and psychiatrists, and can be pervasive and disabling. Anxiety is an experience of many dimensions, affecting our physiology, feelings, behaviour and patterns of thinking, and is both triggered and maintained by environmental factors. There are many different manifestations of anxiety, the main ones being panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific or social phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and anxiety problems related to medical conditions or substance abuse. Whatever our feelings and beliefs about the value of diagnosis and diagnostic categories, understanding the kinds of problems our clients are experiencing is vital to being able to offer appropriate solutions. The approach [Page x]in therapy and counselling for anxiety problems varies for different types of anxiety, and what works for one problem may well be counterproductive for another. This book therefore separates different types of anxiety problems, and describes specific counselling approaches for the different problems, rather than considering anxiety as a single problem.Why Cognitive Therapy for Anxiety?
In this book, we aim to offer an overview of anxiety problems, to look at how cognitive therapy seeks to understand and conceptualise anxiety, and to offer practical guidelines for working with anxious clients generally, and with different forms of anxiety. The reader may stop at this point and ask whether they wish to subscribe to a cognitive approach to anxiety problems. We would urge that the approach is fully understood and evaluated, for both its strengths and weaknesses, before the reader makes up his or her mind. Why cognitive therapy for anxiety? Firstly, cognitive therapy for anxiety problems has improved in leaps and bounds over the past decade, enabling psychological therapists* to have greater understanding of the problems and offer more targeted therapeutic interventions. This is particularly true for some of the most difficult and complex types of anxiety, such as obsessive compulsive disorder and severe agoraphobia. The essence of cognitive therapy is to understand the meanings that thoughts, events, ideas, physical symptoms or behaviours hold for clients. A careful and detailed understanding of meanings, and specific work targeting meanings that are unhelpful, outdated or out of proportion, is central to cognitive therapy, and we have many ideas and tools at our disposal to help us, and our clients, to do this work. Secondly, good research shows that cognitive therapy is effective in helping people recover from anxiety disorders (Clark, 1999a) and cognitive approaches emerge as the treatment of choice for anxiety (Roth and Fonagy, 1996; DeRubeis and Crits-Christoph, 1998; Department of Health, 2001). Thirdly, it is a parsimonious form of therapy, and clients can feel much better, as well as addressing underlying problems, in relatively few sessions. Fourthly, cognitive therapy is not simply a short-term fix for symptoms (Wills and Sanders, 1997), but can offer clients a real understanding of why they are anxious, what is important to [Page xi]them, and what keeps the anxiety going, in terms of both present and past experience.
* We use the term ‘psychological therapist’ as a generic term to encompass counsellors, psychotherapists, psychologists and others offering psychological therapies.
Having extolled the virtues of cognitive therapy for anxiety, we are by no means underestimating the potential for other therapies to significantly help anxious clients. Therapists from different disciplines, be they humanistic, psychodynamic, interpersonal, integrative or cognitive analytic, have their various understandings of anxiety disorders, and can help clients to understand and work with anxiety in different ways. All therapies, we believe, aim to encourage understanding of meanings, but within different conceptual models. In non-cognitive therapies, there is less ‘benchmark’ research evidence to demonstrate effectiveness. We suspect that this is mainly because the outcome variables, often of symptom reduction, running through randomised controlled trials of anxiety treatments, are different to the outcome variables of non-cognitive therapy. The recent publication in the British Medical Journal of studies looking at the effectiveness of counselling for depression is a welcome addition to the research on counselling (Bower et al., 2000; Ward et al., 2000). We hope to offer, in this book, both a ‘purist’ cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders, based on both clinical and empirical evidence, and ideas and focus from other disciplines. However, we also believe that if cognitive therapy is practised well, it automatically includes many of the active ingredients of other forms of psychotherapy, particularly the qualities of the therapeutic relationship necessary for any therapy to succeed. Cognitive therapy has been called ‘the integrative psychotherapy’, integrating ideas and approaches from many other therapies, within a cognitive framework or conceptualisation (Alford and Beck, 1997).Counselling and Cognitive Therapy
How do cognitive methods fit within the counselling world? Demands are growing for counselling to be more accountable and to ‘prove itself’, particularly in one of the main settings in which British counselling takes place, the National Health Service, where evidence-based practice and accountability are required. As cognitive therapy was formed within the research-minded orbit of Beck and his colleagues (Wills and Sanders, 1997), it has benefited by being able to claim much evidence for effectiveness (Department of Health, 2001). In some cases, the strong evidence for cognitive therapy has been used as evidence against other therapies, and we have watched with increasing alarm as otherwise rational people have spoken of counselling and cognitive [Page xii]behavioural therapy (CBT) in oppositional terms. The writing partnership between the two authors (and hence the approach of this book) is based on the concept that counselling and CBT are complementary skills which empower each other. Diana is a counselling psychologist who finds that cognitive therapy is a powerful aid to her practice. Frank is a counsellor who has found that the psychological dimension of cognitive therapy has sharpened and amplified his counselling practice. Both authors have considerable experience in training and have found that good counselling skills greatly enhance the quality of cognitive therapy practice (Wills and Sanders, 1997).
In operating in the middle ground between counselling and cognitive therapy, there is always the danger of succeeding only in offending both parties. Our basic position is that if counselling is to become truly ‘post-tribal’ then the focus should be on what different models can learn from each other (Inskipp and Proctor, 1999). While this position will be exemplified throughout the book, a few tasters here might persuade the doubtful reader to read on. Counselling can learn from cognitive therapy the use of structure, the concentration on generalising the gains of therapy outside the sessions and building ongoing evaluation into sessions. Cognitive therapy can learn from counselling that psychological theory can only take you so far, that clients are essentially individuals who often do not react in textbook fashion, and that self-awareness and good skills add immensely to the interpersonal reality of sessions.Overview of Counselling for Anxiety Problems
This second edition of Counselling for Anxiety Problems has a number of key themes, which are different from the first edition, based on thinking and research in the field over the past decade. We focus on developments in describing and conceptualising individual anxiety problems, enabling counselling to be more targeted on the specifics of the problems. We describe counselling protocols for different anxiety disorders, and look at the pros and cons of protocol-based counselling. We bring new thinking in cognitive therapy, including the specifics of thinking in anxiety, the anxiety equation, concepts of safety behaviours where people's attempts to cope with anxiety become part of the problem, and developments in using ‘behavioural experiments’ as ways of helping people test out their fears and develop new ways of seeing that are less laden with anxiety.
[Page xiii]The book is divided into two parts. Part I describes general issues and themes relevant to counselling clients with anxiety. We start with an overview of anxiety problems, what causes them, how they keep going, and how to distinguish the different forms. We outline the cognitive approach to anxiety disorders, and describe how different problems can be conceptualised. The book goes on to look at the therapeutic relationship when working with anxious clients, highlighting particular issues in developing a working alliance. The following chapters describe in detail how to assess anxiety problems, and the tools and techniques that can be used with anxious clients.
Part II is devoted to the nuts and bolts of counselling with different types of anxiety, with separate chapters describing different anxiety disorders and how to adapt counselling accordingly. We cover problems of panic, agoraphobia, worry and general anxiety, specific phobias, social anxiety, health anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder.* The book aims to provide an overview of working with clients with these problems, giving information about relevant research and further reading. The book concludes with an appendix of resources, self-help organisations, publications and web sites, with information for both counsellors and clients.
The client studies throughout this book are ficticious characters, but are based on examples from our clinical experience, chosen to illustrate specific problems, issues and ways of working.
* The problems of post traumatic stress disorder and general stress are well covered in Palmer and Dryden (1995) and Scott and Stradling (2000).[Page xiv]Acknowledgements
We have learned much of what we know about anxiety through our work with colleagues in Oxford and Newport, Wales, and through our clients, and we are very grateful to all concerned. We thank the kind souls who spent time reading and tactfully commenting on drafts: Jacqueline Tonin, Ann Perry, Brian Hunter, Kathy Baines, June Parkinson, Barbara Sanders and Norma Morrison, and thanks to Helen Jenkins for her help with references. We are, as always, supremely appreciative and grateful to our respective spouses – Diana to her husband, Mo Chandler, and Frank to Annie Wills – who have put up with us changing into preoccupied beasts during intensive writing phases, and helped us in all sorts of ways. We are of course appreciative of each other for negotiating and working collaboratively in this joint project. Alison Poyner and Louse Wise at Sage have been supportive and helpful throughout.
Every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the first opportunity.
Figure 1.1 C.A. Padesky and K.A. Mooney (1990), ‘Clinical tip. Presenting the cognitive model to clients', International Cognitive Therapy Newsletter, 6: 13-14. Huntington Beach, CA: Center for Cognitive Therapy. © 1986 Center for Cognitive Therapy. Reproduced with permission. Table 2.1 S. Palmer and W. Dryden (1995), Counselling for Stress Problems. London Sage. A.T. Beck, G. Emery with R.L. Greenberg (1985), Anxiety Disorders and Phobias. A Cognitive Perspective. New York: Basic Books. Figure 2.3 © 1995 Center for Cognitive Therapy. [Page xv] Figure 2.4 C.A. Padesky and K.A. Mooney (1998), ‘Between two minds: the transformational power of underlying assumptions', workshop given at 28th Congress of the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies. © 1995 Center for Cognitive Therapy. Reproduced with permission. Figure 2.5 M. Fennell (1989), ‘Depression’, in K. Hawton et al. (eds), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems: A Practical Guide, p. 171. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press. Figure 6.3 A. Wells and A. Hackman (1993), ‘Imagery and core beliefs in health anxiety: content and origins', Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 21 (3): 265-74. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Figure 6.5 A.T. Beck, A.J. Rush, B.F. Shaw and G. Emery (1979), Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guildford Press. A.T. Beck, G. Emery with R.L. Greenberg (1985) Anxiety Disorders and Phobias. A Cognitive Perspective. New York: Basic Books. D. Burns (1999), The Feeling Good Handbook, rev. edn. London: Penguin. Table 7.1 APA (2000), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 4th edition text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Figure 7.1 D.M. Clark (1986), ‘A cognitive approach to panic’, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24: 461-70. Oxford: Elsevier Science. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science. A. Wells (1997), Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders. A Practice Manual and Conceptual Guide. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Limited. Table 7.3 APA (2000), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 4th edition text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Table 7.4 A. Wells (1997), Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders. A Practice Manual and Conceptual Guide, pp. 113-18. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Limited. [Page xvi] Table 8.1 APA (2000), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 4th edition text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Figure 8.1 T. Ricketts and G. Donohoe (2000), adapted from A. Wells (1997), Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders, p. 204. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Limited. Figure 9.1 Table 10.1 Figure 10.1 D.M.Clark and A. Wells (1995), ‘A cognitive model of social phobia’, in R.G. Heimberg et al. (eds), Social Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Treatment, pp. 69-93. New York: Guildford Publications. Table 11.1 Figure 11.1 D. Sanders (1996), Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems. London: Sage. P. Salkovskis and C. Bass (1997), ‘Hypochondriasis’, in D.M. Clark and C. Fairburn (eds), Science and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Table 12.1 Table 12.2 Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (1997), ‘Cognitive assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder’, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35: 667-81. Oxford: Elsevier Science. Figure 12.2 P. Salkovskis, E. Forrester, H.C. Richards and N. Morrison (1998), ‘The devil is in the detail: conceptualizing and treating obessional problems’, in N. Tarrier, A. Wells and G. Haddock (eds), Treating Complex Cases, p. 56. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Limited.
Appendix: Books and Self-Help Organisations[Page 228]Books
Flying? No fear! by Adrian Akers-Douglas and George Georgiou. Published by Summersdale, 2000.
Living with Fear by Isaac M. Marks. Published by McGraw-Hill, New Edition, 2001. Manage your Mind by Gillian Butler and Tony Hope. Published by Oxford University Press, 1995.
Mind over Mood. A Cognitive Therapy Treatment Manual by Dennis Greenberger and Christine Padesky. Published by Guilford Press, 1995.
Overcoming Anxiety by Helen Kennerley. Published by Robinson, 1997.
Overcoming Depression by Paul Gilbert. Published by Robinson, 2000.
Overcoming Depression: A Five Areas Approach by Christopher Williams. Published by Arnold, 2001.
Overcoming Low Self Esteem by Melanie Fennell. Published by Robinson, 1999.
Overcoming Panic by Derrick Silove and Vijaya Manicavasagar. Published by Robinson, 1997.
Overcoming Shyness and Social Phobia: A Step by Step Guide by Ronald M. Rapee. Published by Jason Aronson, 1998.
Overcoming Social Anxiety and Shyness by Gillian Butler. Published by Robinson, 1999.
Overcoming Traumatic Stress by Claudia Herbert and Ann Wetmore. Published by Robinson, 1999.
Phobias: Fighting the Fear by Helen Saul. Published by Harper Collins, 2001.
Fake the Fear out of Flying by Maurice Yeffé. Published by Robinson Publications, 2000.
The Feeling Good Handbook (revised edition) by David Burns. Published by Penguin, 1999.Booklets published by Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre
- Managing Anxiety: A Users’ Manual
- Overcoming Social Anxiety
- Understanding Panic
- Understanding Health Anxiety
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Managing Depression
- [Page 229]How to Relax
- Understanding your Reactions to Trauma
- Overcoming Phobias
These booklets are available from OCTC, Department of Psychology, Warneford Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 7JX.
Tel: 01865 223986
Web site: http://www.octc.co.ukSelf-Help Organisations
No Panic: self-help organisation for anxiety, including panic, OCD and phobias.
Address: 93 Brands Farm Way, Randlay, Telford, Shropshire, TF3 2JQ.
Tel: 01952 590545
Fax: 01952 270962
Web site: http://www.no-panic.co.uk
Triumph Over Phobia: a network of self-help groups using behaviour therapy to help overcome phobias.
Address: TOP U.K., PO Box 1831, Bath BA2 4YW
Tel: 01225 330353
Web site: http://www.triumphoverphobia.com
National Phobics Society: help for many forms of anxiety and phobias. Address: Zion Community Resource Centre, 339 Stretford Road, Hulme, Manchester, M15 4ZY
Tel: 0870 7700456 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Web site: http://www.phobics-society.org.ukFear of Flying Web Site
References[Page 230]1997) ‘Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder: a quantitative review’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,65: 44-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.65.1.44(1997) The Integrative Power of Cognitive Therapy.New York: Guilford Press.and (1998) ‘Specific phobia’, in V.E.Caballo (ed.), International Handbook of Cognitive Behavioural Treatments for Psychological Disorders.Oxford: Pergamon/Elsevier Science Ltd, pp. 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-008043433-9/50003-1and (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 4th edition text revision.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.(1996) ‘Psychological treatment of panic disorder without agoraphobia: cognitive therapy versus applied relaxation’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,34: 113-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2895%2900061-5and (1997) ‘Stress reduction through mindfulness mediation. Effects on psychological symptomatology, sense of control and spiritual experiences’, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics,66 (2): 97-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000289116(2001) ‘Challenging obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours within a collaborative counselling relationship’. Paper presented at the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy Research Conference, Bristol, 19 May.and (1997) ‘Psychosocial treatments for panic disorder, phobias and generalised anxiety disorder’, in P.E.Nathan and J.M.Gormon (eds), A Guide to Treatments that Work.New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 288-318., and (1990) ‘Hypochondriasis and somatosensory amplification’, British Journal of Psychiatry,157: 404-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.157.3.404and (1994) ‘Histories of childhood trauma in adult hypochondriacal patients’, American Journal of Psychiatry,151: 397-401., , and (2000) ‘Integration in psychotherapy: an evolving reality in personality disorder’, British Journal of Psychotherapy,17 (2): 147-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjp.2000.17.issue-2(1976) Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders.New York: International Universities Press.(1991) ‘Cognitive therapy: a 30-year retrospective’, American Psychologist (April): 368-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.4.368(1987) Manual for the Revised Beck Depression Inventory.San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.and ([Page 231]1985) Anxiety Disorders and Phobias. A Cognitive Perspective.New York: Basic Books., with (1990) Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders.New York: Guilford Press., and (1988) ‘An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,56: 893-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.6.893, , and (1979) Cognitive Therapy of Depression.New York: Guilford Press., , and (1974) ‘The measurement of pessimism: the hopelessness scale’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,42 (16): 861-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037562, , and (1992) ‘Focused cognitive therapy for panic disorder: a crossover design and one year follow up’, American Journal of Psychiatry,147: 778-83., , , and (1995) Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond.New York: Guilford Press.(2000) ‘Assessing effectiveness of treatment of depression in primary care’, British Journal of Psychiatry,177: 312-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.4.312, , , , , , , , and (1997) ‘Task concentration training and fear of blushing’, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,4: 251-8., and (2000) ‘Psychological treatment of a fear of flying’, Counselling Psychology Review,15 (2): 13-17., and (2001) ‘Brief solution-focused initial treatment sessions for clients with a fear of flying’, Counselling Psychology Review,16 (4): 32-40., and (1990) ‘The nature of worry in generalised anxiety disorder: a predominance of thought activity’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,28: 153-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2890%2990027-Gand (1995) ‘Effects of psychotherapy on co-morbid conditions in generalised anxiety disorder’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,63: 479-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.3.479, and (1999) ‘The possibility of reducing therapist contact and total length of therapy in the treatment of panic disorder’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,27 (3): 231-47.and (1997) ‘Mixed anxiety and depression: from theory to practice’, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,58: 27-34., , and (1998) ‘Cognitive and behavioural treatment of hypochondriasis’, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics,67: 214-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000012283and (1990) The Anxiety and Phobia Workbook.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.(2000) ‘Randomised controlled trial of non-directive counselling, cognitive behaviour therapy, and usual general practitioner care for patients with depression. II. Cost effectiveness’, British Medical Journal,321: 1389-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7273.1389, , , , , and (1969) Attachment and Loss, Vol. 1: Attachment.New York: Basic Books.(1996) ‘Theoretical foundations of cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression’, Annual Review of Psychology, 47: 33-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.33(2000) ‘Large-scale health promotion [Page 232]stress workshops for the general public: a controlled evaluation’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,28 (2): 139-51., and (1992) ‘Co-morbidity amongst anxiety disorders: implications for treatment and DSM-IV’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,60: 835-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.6.835and (1999) The Peeling Good Handbook,(rev. edn. London: Penguin.1996) ‘Therapeutic empathy in cognitive-behavioural therapy: does it really make a difference?’ in P.Salkovskis (ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy.New York: Guilford Press, pp. 135-64.and (2000) ‘Does psychotherapy homework lead to improvements in depression in cognitive-behavioural therapy or does improvement lead to increased homework compliance?’Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,68 (1): 46-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.1.46and (1994) ‘Treatment of worry in generalised anxiety disorder’, in G.Davey and F.Tallis (eds), Worrying: Perspectives on Theory, Assessment and Treatment.Chichester: Wiley.(1998) ‘Clinical formulation’, in A.S.Bellack and M.Hersen (eds), Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, vol. 6. Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B0080-4270%2873%2900186-3(1999) Overcoming Social Anxiety and Shyness.London: Robinson Publishing.(1995) Manage Your Mind: The Mental Fitness Guide.Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1995) ‘Differential effects of worry and imagery after exposure to a stressful stimulus: a pilot study’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,23: 45-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465800017628, and (2001) The Greeks.London: BBC Worldwide.(1985) On Learning from the Patient.London: Tavistock.(1996) ‘Cognitive approaches to the psycho-pathology and treatment of social phobia’, in P.Salkovskis (ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy.New York: Guilford, pp. 345-82.and (1984) ‘Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,52: 1090-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.6.1090, , and (1999) ‘Dental fear in children. A proposed model’, British Dental Journal,187: 408-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.4800293and (1986) ‘A cognitive approach to panic’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,24: 461-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2886%2990011-2(1988) ‘A cognitive model of panic’, in. S.Rachman and J.Maser (eds), Panic: Psychological Perspectives.Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.(1996) ‘Panic disorder: from theory to therapy’, in P.Salkovskis (ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy.New York: Guilford, pp. 318-44.(1997) ‘Panic disorder and social phobia’, in D.M.Clark and C.G.Fairburn (eds), Science and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 119-54.(1999a) ‘Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,37: S5-S27.(1999b) ‘Implementing a new cognitive treatment for social phobia’. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies, Bristol.([Page 233]Clark, D.M. and Fairburn, C.G. (eds) (1997) Science and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.Oxford: Oxford University Press.1995) ‘A cognitive model of social phobia’, in R.Heimberg, M.Liebowitz, D.A.Hope and F.R.Schneier (eds), Social Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Treatment.New York: Guilford Press.and (1999) ‘Brief cognitive therapy for panic disorder: a randomised controlled trial’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,67: 583-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.4.583, , , and (1994) ‘A comparison of cognitive therapy, applied relaxation and imipramine in the treatment of panic disorder’, British Journal of Psychiatry,164: 759-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.164.6.759, , , , and (1998) ‘Two psychological treatments for hypochondriasis: a randomised controlled trial’, British Journal of Psychiatry,173: 218-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.173.3.218, , , , , , , and (2002) ‘The role of the therapeutic relationship in promoting psychological change: a cognitive-behavioural perspective’, Counselling Psychology Review,17 (2): 23-31.(2000) ‘Cognitive behaviour therapy versus supportive therapy in social phobia: a randomised controlled trial’, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics,69 (3): 137-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000012382, , , , , , , , and (1997) ‘A comparison of behavioural and cognitive treatments of phobias’, in G.C.L.Davey (ed.), Phobias: A Handbook of Theory, Research and Treatment.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 247-80.and (1998) ‘Specific fears and phobias: epidemiology and classification’, British Journal of Psychiatry,173: 212-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.173.3.212, , , and (1997) Phobias: A Handbook of Theory, Research and Treatment.Chichester: Wiley.(2000) Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders: A Guide for Therapists.New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.(2001) Treatment Choice in Psychological Therapies and Counselling. Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guideline.London: Department of Health.(1998) ‘Empirically supported individual and group psychological treatments for adult mental disorders’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,66 (1): 37-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.1.37and (1987) Counselling Individuals: A Rational Emotive Approach.London: Whurr.(1998) Developing Self Acceptance. A Brief, Educational, Small Group Approach.Chichester: Wiley.(1994) Developing the Practice of Counselling.London: Sage.and (1995) ‘Worry and problem solving: evidence of a special relationship’, Cognitive Therapy and Research,19: 109-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02229679, , , and (1999) ‘One year follow-up of cognitive therapy, analytic psychotherapy and [Page 234]anxiety management training for generalised anxiety disorder: symptom change, medication usage and attitudes in treatment’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,27 (1): 19-36., , , , and (1990) ‘Chronic blushing, self-consciousness and social anxiety’, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment,12: 119-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00960761(1990) ‘Cognitive therapy and the restructuring of early memories through guided imagery’, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 4 (1): 33-50.(2002) The Skilled Helper,(7th edn.Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/Cole.1995) ‘A one year prospective study of panic attacks: clinical course and factors associated with maintenance’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,31: 269-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2893%2990025-P(1992) ‘Increased cardiac awareness in panic disorder’, Journal of Abnormal Psychology,101: 371-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.101.3.371and (1991) ‘Cognitive therapy with obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparative evaluation’, Behavior Research and Therapy,29: 292-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2891%2990120-Rand (1994) ‘Individualized versus standardised therapy: a comparative evaluation with obsessive compulsive patients’, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,1: 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.v1:2, and (1994) ‘The integration of the cognitive and psychodynamic unconscious’, American Psychologist,49 (8): 709-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.8.709(1998) Constructive Thinking: The Key to Emotional Intelligence.Westport, CT: Praeger Publishing.(1997) Anxiety and Emotion: A Unified Theory.Hove: Psychology Press.(1989) ‘Depression’, in K.Hawton, P.M.Salkovskis, J.Kirk and D.M.Clark (eds), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems.Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 169-234.(1998) ‘Low self-esteem’, in N.Tarrier, A.Wells and G.Haddock (eds), Treating Complex Cases.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 217-40.(1999) Overcoming Low Self-Esteem.London: Robinson Books.(1999) ‘Recovering rates in generalized anxiety disorder following psychological therapy’, Psychological Medicine,29: 1425-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799001336and (1991) ‘Emotional processing: theory, research and clinical implications’, in J.D.Safran and L.S.Greenberg (eds), Emotion, Psychotherapy and Change.New York: Guilford Press, pp. 21-49.and (1999) ‘Exposure and response prevention for obsessive thoughts’, Cognitive Behavioural Practice,6 (4): 362-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229%2899%2980056-Xand (1994) ‘Why do people worry?’Personality and Individual Differences,17 (6): 791-802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2894%2990048-5, , , and (1997) ‘Cognitive-behavioural treatment of obsessive thoughts: a controlled study’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,65 (3): 405-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.65.3.405, , , , and (1981) Focusing.New York: Everest House.(1991) Overcoming Agoraphobia: Conquering Fear of the Outside World.New York: Viking Penguin.and (1993) ‘A meta-analysis of self help treatment approaches’, Clinical Psychology Review,13: 169-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2893%2990039-Oand (1995) Mind over Mood.New York: Guilford Press.and (1983) Cognitive Processes and Emotional Disorders.New York: Guilford Press.and ([Page 235]1995) ‘Treatment of functional somatic symptoms: psychodynamic treatment’, in R.Mayou, C.Bass, and M.Sharpe (eds), The Treatment of Functional Somatic Symptoms.Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 144-60.(1997) ‘The transformation of meaning in cognitive therapy’, in M.Power and C.R.Brewin (eds), Transformation of Meaning in Psychological Therapies.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 125-40.(1998) ‘Cognitive therapy with panic and agoraphobia: working with complex cases’, in N.Tarrier, A.Wells and G.Haddock (eds), Treating Complex Cases.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 27-45.(2000) ‘Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,38: 601-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2899%2900161-8, and (1998) ‘Seeing yourself through others’ eyes: a study of spontaneously occurring images in social phobia’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,26 (1): 3-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465898000022, and (1998) Anxiety and Depression: Your Questions Answered.London: Churchill Livingstone.and (1995) Counselling People on Prescribed Drugs.London: Sage.(1998) ‘A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of counselling in primary care’, British Journal of General Practice,48: 1043-8., , , , and (1993) ‘Misinterpretation of ambiguous stimuli in panic disorder’, Cognitive Therapy and Research,17: 235-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01172948, , and (1996) ‘Cognitive therapy in the treatment and prevention of depression’, in P.Salkovskis (ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy.New York: Guilford Press, pp. 293-317., and (1999) ‘Post-tribalism: a millennium gift for clients?’ Keynote address given at the Annual Conference of the British Association for Counselling, University of Warwick, September.and (1987) Counselling and Psychotherapy: Integrating Skills, Theory and Practice.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall International., and (2001) ‘Schema therapy: the next generation but should it carry a health warning?’Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29: 401-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465801004015(1998) ‘The British psychiatric morbidity survey’, British Journal of Psychiatry,173: 4-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.173.1.4, , , , and (1990) Full Catastrophe Living.New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell.(1994) Mindfulness Meditation for Everyday Life.London: Piatkus.(1995) Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life.New York: Hypericon Books.(1992) ‘Effectiveness of a mediation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders’, American Journal of Psychiatry,149 (7): 936-43., , , , , , and (2000) ‘Virtual reality-assisted cognitive behavioural treatment for fear of flying: acute treatment and follow up’, CyberPsychology and Behaviour,3 (3): 387-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/10949310050078832, , and (1998) Abnormal Psychology: Understanding Human Problems,and ([Page 236]2nd edn.Boston: Houghton Mifflin.1995) Managing Anxiety: a Training Manual,(2nd edn.Oxford: Oxford University Press.1997) Overcoming Anxiety: a Self Help Guide using Cognitive Behavioural Techniques.London: Robinson.(1993) Cognitive Therapy of Borderline Personality Disorder.Boston: Allyn & Bacon., , and (2000) Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety Disorders.New York: Guilford Press.and (1993a) Cognitive Behavioural Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder.New York: Guilford Press.(1993b) Skills Training Manual for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder.New York: Guilford Press.(1991) ‘Insecure attachment and agoraphobia’, in C.Murray-Parkes, J.Stevenson-Hinde and P.Marris (eds), Attachment across the Life Cycle.London: Tavistock, pp. 216-33.(1979) ‘Brief standard self-rating for phobic patients’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,17: 263-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2879%2990041-Xand (2000) ‘Specificity of cognitive biases in social phobia and their role in recovery’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,28 (3): 201-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465800003015, and (1987) ‘Cognition and agoraphobia: bias in interpretation of threat’, Cognitive Therapy and Research,11: 567-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01183859and (1986) ‘The concept of illness behaviour: culture, situation and personal predisposition’, Psychological Medicine,16: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700002476(2000) ‘Cognitive processes in social anxiety: the effects of self focus, rumination and anticipatory processing’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,38: 243-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2899%2900040-6and (2000) Counselling in primary care in the context of NHS quality agenda: the facts.Rugby: British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy.(1966) ‘Modification of expectations in cases with obsessional rituals’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,4: 273-80.(2001) ‘Group cognitive therapy: treatment of choice or sub-optimal option?’Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,29 (3): 311-32.(1999) ‘Attentional focus and fear of blushing: a case study’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,27: 153-64., and (1979) ‘The origins of fear of snakes’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,17: 489-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2879%2990065-2and (2000) ‘Epidemiology of hypochondriasis’, in D.Lipsitt and J.Starcevic (eds), Hypochondriasis: Theory and Clinical Practice.New York: Oxford University Press.(2000) Integrative Therapy: A Practitioners’ Guide.London: Sage.and (1997) ‘Cognitive assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,35: 667-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2897%2900017-X(1997) ‘Rapid treatment of specific phobias’, in G.C.L.Davey (ed.), Phobias: a Handbook of Theory, Research and Treatment.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 228-46.(1997) ‘Blood-injury-injection phobia’, in G.C.L.Davey (ed.), Phobias: a Handbook of Theory, Research and Treatment.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 63-80.and ([Page 237]1987) ‘Applied tension: a specific behavioural treatment of blood phobia’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,25: 25-9.and (1991) ‘One session therapist-directed exposure versus self-exposure in the treatment of a spider phobia’, Behaviour Therapy,22: 407-22., and (2001) ‘One versus five sessions of exposure and five sessions of cognitive therapy in the treatment of claustrophobia’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,39 (2): 167-83., , and (1993) ‘Socratic questioning: changing minds or guiding discovery?’ Keynote address to European Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, London.(1994) ‘Schema change processes in cognitive therapy’, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,1 (5): 267-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.v1:5(1995) ‘Cognitive therapy of anxiety: key treatment principles and methods’. Audiotape published by the Center for Cognitive Therapy, Newport Beach, CA.(1995) Clinicians Guide to Mind over Mood.New York: Guilford Press.and (1990) ‘Clinical tip. Presenting the cognitive model to clients’, International Cognitive Therapy Newsletter,6: 13-14.and (1998) ‘Between two minds: the transformational power of underlying assumptions’. Workshop given at 28th Congress of the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, Cork, Eire, 8th September.and (2000) ‘Applying client creativity to recurrent problems’. Workshop, Centre for Cognitive Therapy.and (1995) Counselling for Stress Problems.London: Sage.and (2000) ‘A self help toolkit for conquering fears and anxieties about flying’, Counselling Psychology Review,15 (2): 18-29., and (1998) ‘Effects of attention training on hypochondriasis. A brief case series’, Psychological Medicine,28 (1): 193-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291797005825and (1999) ‘Transformation of meaning and its effects on cognitive behavioural treatment of an injection phobia’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,27 (4): 369-75.and (1989) Cognitive Therapy in Practice. A Case Formulation Approach.New York: W.W. Norton & Co.(2000) ‘Psychiatric diagnosis: more questions than answers’, The Psychologist,13: 302-5.(1998) ‘Evidence for a non-associative model of the acquisition of a fear of heights’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,36 (5): 537-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2897%2910037-7, , , and (1997) Anxiety.Hove: Taylor & Francis.(1978) ‘Abnormal and normal obsessions’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,16: 233-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2878%2990022-0and (1986) ‘A simple method for determining the functional independence of two or more fears’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,24: 661-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2886%2990061-6and (2000) ‘Anxiety and panic’, in C.Feltham and I.Horton (eds), Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy.London: Sage, pp. 431-9.and ([Page 238]1989) ‘Development of a new self-report questionnaire to measure self esteem’, Psychological Medicine,19: 513-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329170001254X(1996) What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy.New York: Guilford Press.and (2000) ‘Back to basics: two kinds of therapy’, Counselling,12 (2): 76-8.(1990) Interpersonal Processes in Cognitive Therapy.New York: Basic Books.and (1989) ‘Cognitive-behavioural factors and the persistence of intrusive thoughts in obsessive problems’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,23: 571-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2885%2990105-6(1991) ‘The importance of behaviour in the maintenance of panic and anxiety: a cognitive account’, Behavioural Psychotherapy,19: 6-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0141347300011472(1996a) ‘The cognitive approach to anxiety: threat beliefs, safety-seeking behaviour, and the special case of health anxiety and obsessions’, in: P.Salkovskis (ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy.New York: Guildford, pp. 48-74.(1996b) ‘Avoidance behaviour is motivated by threat beliefs: a possible resolution of the cognition-behaviour debate’, in P.M.Salkovskis (ed.), Trends in Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies.New York: Wiley, pp. 25-41.(1999) ‘Understanding and treating obsessive-compulsive disorder’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,37: S29-S52.(1997) ‘Hypochondriasis’, in D.M.Clark and C.G.Fairburn (eds), Science and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 313-39.and (1984) ‘Abnormal and normal obsessions: a replication’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,22: 549-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2884%2990057-3and (1997) ‘Obsessive compulsive disorder’, in D.M.Clark and C.Fairburn (eds), Science and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1998) ‘The devil is in the detail: conceptualizing and treating obsessional problems’, in N.Tarrier, A.Wells and G.Haddock (eds), Treating Complex Cases.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 46-80., , and (1999) ‘Multiple pathways to inflated responsibility beliefs in obsessional problems: possible origins and implications’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,37: 1055-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2899%2900063-7, , and (1997) ‘An experimental investigation of the role of safety-seeking behaviours in the maintenance of panic disorder with agoraphobia’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,37: 559-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2898%2900153-3, , , and (1996) Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems.London: Sage.(2000) ‘Psychosomatic problems’, in C.Feltham and I.Horton (eds), Textbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy.London: Sage.(1999) ‘The relationship in cognitive therapy’, in ColinFeltham (ed.), Understanding the Counselling Relationship.London: Sage, pp. 120-38.and (2001) Phobias: Fighting the Fear.London: HarperCollins.(1997) ‘Behavioural analysis: does it matter?’Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,25: 231-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465800018531(1992) ‘Tailor made [Page 239]versus standardized therapy of phobic patients’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,14: 67-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0146-6402%2892%2990001-5, , and (1998) Brief Group Psychotherapy. Integrating Individual and Group Cognitive Behavioural Approaches.Chichester: Wiley.and (2000) Counselling for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder,and (2nd edn.London: Sage.2001) Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression.New York: Guilford Press., and (2001) ‘Should counselling psychologists oppose the use of DSM-IV and testing?’Counselling Psychology Review,16 (4): 44-8.and (1994) ‘Situational and interpersonal correlates of anxiety associated with peer victimisation’, Child Psychiatry and Human Development,25 (2): 97-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02253289(1983) Manual for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory.Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychology Press., , , and (1999a) Overcoming Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Therapist Protocol.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.(1999b) Overcoming Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Client Protocol.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.(1991) ‘Group cognitive and behavioural treatment of hypochondriasis’, British Medical Journal,303: 1229-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.303.6812.1229and (1993) ‘Cognitive processes in social phobia’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,31: 255-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2893%2990024-Oand (2000) ‘Social phobia and interpretation of social events’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,38: 273-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2899%2900043-1and (2001) ‘Issues relating to the use of psychiatric diagnostic categories in counselling psychology, counselling and psychotherapy: what do you think?’Counselling Psychology Review,16: 4-6.and (1999) ‘Attachment and interpersonal relationships in somatisation’, Psychosomatics,40: 34-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3182%2899%2971269-7and (1995) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a Cognitive and Neurophysical Perspective.Chichester: Wiley.(2002) ‘New developments in cognitive behavioural case formulation: epidemiological, systematic and social context: an integrative approach’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,30 (3): 311-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465802003065and (1999) ‘Metacognition, mindfulness and the modification of mood disorders’, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,6: 146-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0879%28199905%296:2%3C%3E1.0.CO;2-L(1995) ‘Phobic beliefs: do cognitive factors play a role in specific phobias?’Behaviour Research and Therapy,33: 805-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2895%2900022-Pand (1994) ‘A meta-analysis of the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparison of antidepressants, behaviour and cognitive therapy’, Clinical Psychology Review,14: 359-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2894%2990033-7, , , , and (1961) ‘A comparative and analytical study of visual depth perception’, Psychological Monographs,75 (519): 1-44.and (2000) ‘Randomised controlled trial of non-directive counselling, cognitive behaviour therapy, and usual general practitioner care for patients with depression. I. Clinical effectiveness’, British Medical Journal,321: 1383-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7273.1383, , , , , , , and ([Page 240]1992) ‘Provision of appropriate and effective reassurance’, International Review of Psychiatry,4: 76-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09540269209066304(1988) ‘Behavioural treatment of illness phobia and hypochondriasis: a pilot study of 17 cases’, British Journal of Psychiatry,152: 239-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.152.2.239and (1985) ‘Reassurance’, British Medical Journal,290: 1028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.290.6474.1028and (1989) ‘Hypochondriasis’, in J.Scott, J.M.C.Williams and A.T.Beck (eds), Cognitive Therapy in Clinical Practice.London: Croom Helm, pp. 78-102.and (1996) ‘A controlled trial of cognitive behavioural treatment of hypochondriasis’, British Journal of Psychiatry,169: 189-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.169.2.189, , and (1920) ‘Conditioned emotional responses’, Journal of Experimental Psychology,3: 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0069608and (1989) White Bears and Other Unwanted Thoughts: Suppression, Obsession, and the Psychology of Mental Control.New York: Guilford Press.(1987) ‘Paradoxical effects of thought suppression’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,5: 5-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168, , and (2000) Comprehensive Guide to Interpersonal Psychotherapy.New York: Basic Books., and (1995) ‘Meta-cognition and worry: a cognitive model of generalised anxiety disorder’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,23: 301-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465800015897(1997) Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders. A Practice Manual and Conceptual Guide.Chichester: Wiley.(1998) ‘Cognitive therapy of social phobia’, in N.Tarrier, A.Wells and G.Haddock (eds), Treating Complex Cases.Chichester: Wiley, pp. 1-26.(2000) Emotional Disorders and Metacognition.Chichester: Wiley.(1997) ‘Generalised anxiety disorder’, in D.M.Clark and C.G.Fairburn (eds), Science and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 155-78.and (1993) ‘Imagery and core beliefs in health anxiety: content and origins’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,21 (3): 265-74.and (1994) Attention and Emotion: A Clinical Perspective.Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.and (1994) ‘Qualitative dimensions of normal worry and normal intrusive thoughts: a comparative study’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,32: 867-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2894%2990167-8and (1995) ‘Worry and the incubation of intrusive images following stress’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,33: 579-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2894%2900087-Zand (1998) ‘Social phobia: effects of external attention on anxiety, negative beliefs and perspective taking’, Behaviour Therapy,29: 357-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2898%2980037-3and (1999) ‘The observer perspective: biased imagery in social phobia, agoraphobia and blood/injury phobia’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,37: 653-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2898%2900150-8and (2001) ‘Brief cognitive therapy for social phobia: a case series’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,39: 713-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2800%2900036-Xand (1998) ‘How do I look with my mind's eye? [Page 241]Perspective taking in social phobic imagery’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,36: 631-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2898%2900037-0, and (1997) ‘Attention training: effects on anxiety and beliefs in panic and social phobia’, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,4: 226-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0879%28199712%294:4%3C%3E1.0.CO;2-N, and (1998a) ‘“Stress control” large group therapy for generalised anxiety disorder: two year follow up’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,26 (3): 237-46.(1998b) ‘“Stresspac”: three year follow up of a controlled trial of a self help package for the anxiety disorders’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,26 (2): 133-41.(2000) Treating Anxiety and Stress. A Group Psycho-Educational Approach Using Brief CBT.Chichester: Wiley.(1992) ‘“Stress Control”: a controlled comparative investigation of large group therapy for generalised anxiety disorder’, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,20: 97-114., and (1999) ‘CBT for OCD: the rationale, protocol and challenges’, Cognitive and Behavioural Practice,6 (4): 383-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229%2899%2980057-1and (1996) ‘Cognitive and performance-based treatments for panic attacks in people with varying degrees of agoraphobic disability’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,34: 253-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2895%2900063-1and (1997) ‘Cognitive counselling: a down to earth and accessible therapy’, in C.Sills (ed.), Contracts in Counselling.London: Sage.(2002) Accentuate the Positive: Putting Positive Data into Case Conceptualisations. Departmental Research Paper, Social Studies, University of Wales College Newport.(1997) Cognitive Therapy: Transforming the Image.London: Sage.and (1996) ‘Manual based treatments: the clinical application of research findings’, Behaviour Research and Therapy,34: 295-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2895%2900084-4(1995) Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy,(4th edn.New York: Basic Books.1998) ‘Schema-focused therapy for personality disorders’, in N.Tarrier (ed.), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Complex Cases.Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 340-76.and (1993) Reinventing your Life.New York: Dutton.and (1999) Overcoming Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia: Therapist Protocol.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.([Page 242]