Counselling Couples and Families: A Person-Centred Approach

Books

Charles J. O'Leary

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    To Martha Beth, Gwenyth Kate and Emily Grace

    Foreword

    DaveMearns

    Dr Charles O'Leary works in Arvada, just outside Denver, exactly midway between the politically contrasting communities of Colorado Springs and Boulder. Charlie is well suited to working with varied communities. Proud of his Boston-Irish background, he combines the humour of that heritage with an acute observation of human behaviour. This is a perfect combination for a family therapist, especially one who commentates upon family therapy through public lectures and now in this book. In his lecturing, Charlie is able to combine his sharpness of wit and observation to bring the client to life in the imaginations of his audience. Furthermore, he achieves that in such a fashion that does not demean the client but accentuates the humanity of all concerned. I beieve that he also achieves that in this book.

    Charlie has his roots firmly set in the person-centred approach. When I first met him in 1972 we were both graduate students attached to the Center for Studies of the Person (CSP) in La Jolla, California. He had crossed the country to study with Dr Carl Rogers when CSP, in typical near-sixties fashion, had undertaken an unconventional academic programme.

    The person-centred approach has always maintained an uneasy relationship with conventional institutions. Some years ago, a prominent voluntary counselling agency in Britain declared that the person-centred approach was inappropriate for couples work because its emphasis was on empowering the individual. Within the person-centred approach the response would be that relationships might be considerably enhanced if the partners gained even a little more power over the matter of their own living. Conversely, if relationships are to be preserved at the expense of human growth, then our humanity may be in terminal decline.

    In fact, the person-centred approach articulates well with couple and family therapy. Carl Rogers' ‘Self’ theory, underlying person-centred work, is entirely ‘systemic’, to the extent that family therapy concepts can even be applied directly to the configurations and dynamics which operate within the Self (Mearns, 1999). As the person-centred therapist establishes contact with each emerging dimension of Self, she seeks to hold it in relationship while equally honouring other parts which may be in discord, and this is the case with many families.

    Within the development of family therapy the parallels with person-centred counselling have been evident. In Chapter 4, Charlie articulates the fundamental nature of the person-centred ‘core conditions’ to family therapy. Indeed, sometimes we see therapists sharpening essentially person-centred ideas in their translation into family work. A prime example is the vibrant concept of ‘multi-directional partiality’ coined by Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy (Boszormenyi-Nagy and Ulrich, 1981). This challenges the family therapist not simply to be passively accepting of each family member, but to be experienced by every family member as ‘partial’ to them. Person-centred therapists will find their conception of ‘unconditional positive regard’ stretched by this kind of translation into family work. Indeed, that is what comes over well in this book – the picture of the family therapist being very active and stretched to engage fully with every person in the family.

    While the book will be useful in helping couple and family therapists to see the relationship between their work and the person-centred approach, it will be invaluable to the person-centred therapist who is considering developing their couple and family work. Chapter 2, ‘Why Do Counsellors Stay Away from Relational Counselling?’, anticipates and discusses their fears, Chapter 5 helps them to prepare for relational counselling and Chapters 6, 7 and 8 follow the structure of the popular series ‘Counselling in Action’, also published by Sage, by taking the reader through the process of ‘beginnings’, ‘middles’ and ‘endings’ of the therapeutic process.

    As would be expected by anyone who has been to a Charlie O'Leary lecture or workshop, the book is crammed full of illustrative material from couples and families, making it is a thoroughly good read for even the casual reader. I commend this book to the reader, whoever who are!

    Introduction

    Many person-centred counsellors are seeking to learn more about couples and family counselling. Helpful individual counselling often stimulates clients' desire to involve partners, children and even parents in what has been one of their most significant life experiences. Further, since individual therapy often causes change in relationships, some counsellors and clients wonder if this journey of personal learning might not better take place in the presence of a partner rather than alone with a therapist. Sometimes therapeutic work on a relationship with parents or siblings raises the possibility of a meeting with such persons in the presence of a facilitator. Person-centred counsellors employed by agencies or in medical practice settings are often called upon to work with people having relationship difficulties. People ask, ‘Will you see my husband and me?’ When counsellors work with children, they often desire or are asked to meet with the child's family as well. Person-centred counsellors also hear about couples and family therapy attempted unsatisfactorily from other points of view and wonder if in a less directive, interpretive or didactic environment it might have gone better.

    In this book, the reader will find my own active dialogue between the person-centred approach and the many ways of thinking and acting which make up the collective literature on marriage and family therapy or ‘relational counselling’, to use a relatively new term (Anderson, 1997). The term ‘relational counselling’ encompasses both couples and family counselling. ‘Couples counselling’ will refer to work with any two adults in an intimate relationship and the term ‘family counselling’ will describe work when more than two family members are included.

    I have been offering workshops on relational counselling for person-centred counsellors for over ten years. In every workshop, participants reveal a desire for work with their own families of origins as well as with their spouses. People who, in person-centred groups, develop the habit of expressing their thoughts and feelings directly, would like to continue that at home without being seen as a threat, an eccentric or a bore. They reveal a longing to attempt the same deep connection that they find in the groups with mothers, fathers, sisters or brothers. They want a setting in which their family members can listen to their truest voice without feeling attacked, threatened or diminished.

    I am writing this book because I believe that person-centred counsellors are particularly well prepared to undertake work with couples and families. Proficient person-centred counsellors will have developed that strong sense of self-sufficiency which enables them to ‘make themselves small’ (Friedman, 1991) thus creating a large therapeutic space essential for mutual support and challenge between members of a couple or family. Furthermore, person-centred counsellors have learned how to communicate their understanding of each family member in an atmosphere of acceptance, thus creating for each person the unique experience of being understood yet not judged in the presence of other family members.

    However, I do not want person-centred therapists to attempt relational counselling based only on their experiences in counselling individuals or through participating in groups. Family therapy is a medium which must be respected on its own terms. It is not individual therapy done one by one with other people present. It is not group therapy or encounter group work where people can engage and then detach without concern about consequences in the atmosphere of their home or bedroom that very night. Family or couples counselling almost always has at least one person who is less engaged, less comfortable and more in the dark about the process of counselling. The relational counsellor must be congruent while learning how to welcome reluctant or uncomfortable participants. Family therapist Jay Haley spoke of this need to suspend one's habitual perspective when he said, ‘It is rude to be warm to a cold person’ (Haley, 1982). The power dynamic is more complex when dealing with a family than with an individual or a group of non-related people. In family work, for example, there is both opportunity and challenge to see such phenomena as ‘conditions of worth’ in action (Rogers, 1959). The counsellor is asked to relate simultaneously and with acceptance to a person who feels controlled by someone else and to the person who feels the need to exert such control!

    This book will also raise important questions for every reader about how counselling changes when the dimension of active family relationship is added. Can we add without subtracting? Can we be responsive to the specific medium of family work without losing the unique values of the person-centred approach? I do not want to water down family counselling in order to make it compatible with the person-centred approach. It would, similarly, dilute the power of the person-centred approach to suggest that all, or even most, contemporary family therapy techniques are necessarily compatible with the person-centred approach. In revealing the criticisms that each approach might make of the other, I do not want to be simplistic. Good counsellors doing the best they can for their clients, practice these approaches and inevitably emphasize one side of human experience over another. I hope to lay different ways of counselling side by side so that each counsellor can find models from which to choose when meeting the clients who come to the office or clinic.

    This book is one of many possible dialogues between principles of the person-centred approach and the activity called relational counselling. It is personal and descriptive rather than comprehensive or prescriptive. I have chosen to write this book as a series of reflections about the way in which the person-centred approach already enlivens the best of relational counselling. Many examples I give are drawn from the work of counsellors who do not identify themselves as person-centred. I have interviewed several practising family and couples counsellors in preparation for this work and will quote them throughout the book. I also reflect on ways in which the style of a person trained in person-centred individual therapy would be very effective in relational counselling, as well as the ways in which a counsellor may need to adapt. This is a contribution to a long series of reflections on the application of the person-centred approach to work with couples and families including Barrett-Lennard (1984, 1998), Gaylin (1989, 1993), Ellinwood (1989), Anderson (1989a, 1989b), Cain (1989), Levant (1984), Raskin and Van der Veen (1970), Bozarth and Shanks (1989), Snyder (1989), Thayer (1982), Warner (1983, 1989), Guerney (1984), Mearns and Thorne (1988), Mearns (1994a) and Rogers (1961c, 1972a, 1972b).

    Like many writers before me (for example Mearns and Thorne, 1988), I do not think there is an exact or useful distinction between the words ‘therapy’ and ‘counselling’. I will use the word ‘counselling’ predominantly, although when quoting or discussing other writers, I will use the word ‘therapy’ if they do. I have approached the personal pronoun dilemma by alternating he and she, him and her whenever possible.

    I would like to thank many counsellors, writers and friends who lent their energy and talents to this work. The great heroes of this book are Dave Mearns, my talented and thorough editor and friend, who in a supreme act of unconditional positive regard suggested this book and shepherded it into existence; John K. Wood, my thoughtful and persistent friend who lent his considerable understanding of the person-centred approach to help shape my thinking and this book; and finally my wife, Martha Johns, who was an indispensable support, inspiration, and imaginative and loving editor. Breffni Barrett, Eliot Weinstein, David Sanders and Ron Urone are generous and excellent therapists who each submitted to several interviews. Other friends who contributed clinical and literary wisdom or other support include Gay Swenson Barfield, Steven Bennett, Norm Chambers, Larry Chamow, Karen Dinan, Janet Elisita, Katie Elsbree, Phil Elsbree, Dick Farson, Harry Johns, Molly Johns, Ralph Keyes, Elke Lambers, Bob Lee, Elias Lefferman, Etta Linton, Susan Lund, Joyce Marx, Jeanne McAlister, Bruce Meador, Milt Miller, Bob Mines, Maureen O'Hara, Kathleen O'Leary, Tom Owen-Towle, George Purvis, George Sargent (much missed since his death early in 1998), Wilson Southam, Linda Terry-Geyer, Brian Thorne, Ferdinand Van der Veen, Katie Webb, Doug Young, Marlyn Young and Alberto Zucconni. I am particularly grateful to three likeable and admirable people who in this book are known as the Clark family.

  • Afterword

    There is more doorknob counselling when working with families and couples than with individuals. There are more people to talk to on the way out the door; more reassurances sought, opinions asked and sometimes, I'm afraid, opinions given. So it is with this book. What is left out? Lots. I have been thinking and learning about relational counselling for more than 20 years. I have not addressed the question of training specifically for family and couples counselling and, except in passing, the book has not discussed approaches to family of origin or ways to use adult knowledge, strength and skills to renew and revise connections with parents and siblings.

    Here at the doorknob, there is not time for lengthy discussion of training. Relational counselling is an art form that requires efforts, intentions and cultivation additional to one's preparation for individual work. My own training included classes, workshops and immersion in books and articles about family and couples counselling on its own terms. Most importantly, I found supervisors who respected me and had a philosophy compatible with the person-centred approach who had spent thousands of hours in the world of couples and families. I observed their work, did co-therapy, and was observed on video, audio and behind a one-way mirror. Mostly I talked with them in the oldest style of supervision, letting conversation sort out what were my problems, strengths, needs and hopes and what belonged to my clients.

    Interest in the exploration of family of origin emerges in any lengthy contact with clients or counsellors in training. The process of individual counselling often naturally includes exploration and revision of the self-concept in relation to the significant others of one's childhood experience. A rich literature exists (for example, Framo, 1992; Boszormenyi-Nagy and Krassner, 1986; Bowen, 1978) which may add an objective dimension to clients' and counsellors' searches to revise their early, so influential relationships. As simple an exercise as a genogram or personalised family map (McGoldrick and Gerson, 1985) can extend empathy into the subjective situation of persons formerly seen only in stagnant memories shaped by childhood powerlessness.

    How has 20 years' experience with families and couples made me feel more helpful than when I began seeing more than one person at once?

    My 20 years have given me consistent feedback that clients always react negatively to perceived counsellor judgement. They will usually catch us if we try to be clever or manipulative; will most of the time react positively to perceived counsellor empathy; and will almost always seek to find out about the persons we genuinely are. To be frank, I have found myself judging more times than I can count and neglecting empathy in favour of some lesson I thought I urgently needed to teach.

    I have learned to notice and work with the client who is most likely to be or to feel judged. This feeling of being evaluated negatively is the most common experience in the painful side of relational living (see Rogers, 1961b: 330, for his realization of this persistent factor in breakdowns in communication). If I gently contact the person feeling most judged I can bring her into congruent participation and reduce the mistrust and distance of others present.

    I have learned to expect that clients will allow me to facilitate. Clients have an investment in allowing counsellors to allow them to talk together. With rare exceptions, they will do so, if they feel that they will also have a turn to be heard.

    I try to remember that the clients' ideas will hold the key to successful change. Twenty years have given me less cause to expect that my great insights will make a difference and much cause to expect that, if I am listening for it, some unfancy client remark will provide the key to the family or couple's next step. I am convinced that the relational counsellor is like a good teacher who is eagerly looking for subtle changes in her learners’ perceptions of their situation.

    I have also learned to be active and verbal with clients while living out the core conditions of the person-centred approach in the intensity of the counselling sessions. Activity is essential when working with more than one individual, and can be consistent with the person-centred approach if one maintains multi-directional partiality.

    The principles of the person-centred approach have become the deepest foundation for my work with any number of people in complex situations.

    We shall not cease from exploration

    And the end of all our exploring

    Will be to arrive where we started

    And know the place for the first time

    T.S. Eliot

    The best relational counsellor occupies the somewhat paradoxical position of the confident beginner, of which Carl Rogers was the master. The greatest gift he consistently offered was his willingness to learn from and with his clients.

    References

    American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists (1995) Special Issue: The Effectiveness of Marital and Family Therapy, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21 (4).
    Anderson, H. (1997) Conversation, Language and Possibilities: A Postmodern Approach to Therapy. New York: Basic Books.
    Anderson, W.J. (1989a) ‘Family therapy in the client-centered tradition: a legacy in the narrative mode’, Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 295–307.
    Anderson, W.J. (1989b) ‘Client-centered approaches to couple and family therapy: expanding theory and practice’, Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 425–7.
    Anonymous (1972) ‘Toward the differentiation of self in one's own family’, in J.L.Framo (ed.), Family Interaction. New York: Springer.
    Aponte, H.J. (1976) ‘The family school interview’, Family Process, 15: 303–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.1976.15.issue-3
    Aponte, H.J. (1994) ‘How personal can training get?’Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 20 (1): 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1994.tb01007.x
    Barrett, B. (1996) ‘An Insider's View of Marriage’, Living Better, San Diego, CA.
    Barrett-Lennard, G.T. (1984) ‘The world of family relationships: a person-centered systems view’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Shlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger. pp. 222–42.
    Barrett-Lennard, G.T. (1998) Carl Rogers' Helping System: Journey and Substance. London: Sage.
    Bateson, G. (1979) Mind and Nature. New York: Dutton.
    Bateson, G., Jackson, D.D., Haley, J. and Weakland, J.H. (1956) ‘Toward a theory of schizophrenia’, Behavioral Science, 1: 251–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bs.v1:4
    Berg, I.K. and Miller, S.D. (1992) Working With the Problem Drinker: A Solution-Focused Approach. New York: Norton.
    Boszormenyi-Nagy, I. and Krassner, B. (1986) Between Give and Take: A Clinical Guide to Contextual Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Boszormenyi-Nagy, I. and Ulrich, D. (1981) ‘Contextual family therapy’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds), Handbook of Family Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 159–86.
    Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., Grunebaum, J. and Ulrich, D. (1991) ‘Contextual therapy’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds), Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 2. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 200–39.
    Bowen, M. (1978) Family Therapy in Clinical Practice. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Bozarth, J.D. (1984) ‘Beyond reflection: emergent modes of empathy’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Schlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger. pp. 222–42.
    Bozarth, J.D. and Shanks, A. (1989) ‘Person-centered family therapy with couples’, Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 280–94.
    Bray, J.H. and Jouriles, E.N. (1995) ‘Treatment of marital conflict and prevention of divorce’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21 (4): 461–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1995.tb00175.x
    Broderick, C.B. and Schrader, S.S. (1991) ‘The history of professional marriage and family therapy’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds), Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 2. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 3–41.
    Brown, L.S. and Zimmer, D. (1986) ‘An introduction to therapy issues of lesbian and gay male couples’, in N.J.Jacobson and A.S.Gurman (eds), Clinical Handbook of Marital Therapy. New York: Guilford. pp. 451–71.
    Cain, D.J. (1989) ‘From the individual to the family’, Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 248–55.
    Carl, D. (1990) Counseling Same-Sex Couples. New York: Norton.
    Carter, B. (1986) ‘Success in family therapy’, The Family Therapy Networker, 10 (4): 17–22.
    Carter, B. (1989) ‘Gender sensitive therapy’. The Family Therapy Networker, 13 (4): 57–62.
    Carter, B. (1992) ‘Stonewalling feminism’. The Family Therapy Networker, 16 (1): 60–4.
    Cechin, G., Lane, G. and Ray, W.A. (1993) ‘From strategizing to nonintervention: toward irreverence in systemic practice’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 19 (2): 125–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1993.tb00972.x
    Chambers, N. (1998) Personal communication.
    Clark, W.M. and Serovich, J.M. (1997) ‘Twenty years and still in the dark? Content analysis of articles pertaining to gay, lesbian and bi-sexual issues in marriage and family journals’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23 (3): 239–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1997.tb01034.x
    Combs, A.W. (1989) A Theory of Therapy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Cordova, J., Jacobson, N. and Christensen, A. (1977) ‘Acceptance versus change interventions in behavioural couple therapy: impact on couples' in-session communication’. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 24 (4): 437–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1998.tb01099.x
    Duncan, B.L. (1992) ‘Strategic therapy, eclecticism and the therapeutic relationship’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 18 (1): 24–30.
    Duncan, B.L., Hubble, M.A. and Miller, S.D. (1997a) ‘Stepping off the throne’, The Family Therapy Networker, 21 (4): 22–33.
    Duncan, B.L., Hubble, M.A. and Miller, S.D. (1997b) Escape from Babel: Toward a Unifying Language for Psychotherapy Practice. New York: Norton.
    Duncan, B.L., Hubble, M.A. and Miller, S.D. (1997c) Psychotherapy with ‘Impossible’ Cases. New York: Norton.
    Efran, J., Greene, M. and Gordon, D. (1998) ‘Lessons of the new genetics’, The Family Therapy Networker, 22 (2): 26–30; 35–40.
    Ellinwood, C. (1989) ‘The young child in person-centred family therapy’, Person-Centred Review, 4 (3): 256–61.
    Epston, D. (1994) ‘Extending the conversation: letters can be power tools for reauthoring lives’, The Family Therapy Networker, 18 (6): 30–7, 62–3.
    Falicov, C.J. (1986) ‘Cross-cultural marriages’, in N.J.Jacobson and A.S.Gurman (eds), Clinical Handbook of Marital Therapy. New York: Guilford. pp. 429–51.
    Falicov, C.J. (1998) ‘Commentary on Hoffman: from rigid borderline to fertile borderlands: reconfiguring family therapy’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 24 (2): 157–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1998.tb01072.x
    Farson, R. (1996) Management of the Absurd. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Farson, R. (1987) ‘Dick Farson with the community’, Living Now Institute: Center For Studies of the Person. La Jolla, CA.
    Fisch, R., Weakland, J.H. and Segal, L (1982) The Tactics of Change: Doing Therapy Briefly. New York: Jossey-Bass.
    Framo, J.L. (1981) ‘The integration of marital therapy with sessions with family of origin’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds). Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 1. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 133–58.
    Framo, J.L. (1992) Family of Origin Therapy. An Intergenerational Approach. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Framo, J.L. (1996) ‘A personal retrospective of the family therapy field: then and now’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 22 (3): 289–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1996.tb00207.x
    Freedman, J. and Combs, G. (1996) Narrative Therapy: The Social Construction of Preferred Realities. New York: Norton.
    Friedman, E. (1991) ‘Bowen theory and therapy’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds), Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 2. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 134–71.
    Gaylin, N.L. (1989) ‘The necessary and sufficient conditions for change: individual versus family therapy’, Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 263–79.
    Gaylin, N.L. (1990) ‘Roundtable discussion’, Person Centered Review, 5 (4): 470–72.
    Gaylin, N.L. (1993) ‘Person centred family therapy’, in D.Brazier (ed.), Beyond Carl Rogers. London: Constable. pp. 181–201.
    Gendlin, E.T. (1970) ‘A theory of personality change’, in J.T.Hart and T.M.Tomlinson (eds), New Directions in Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 129–73.
    Gendlin, E.T. (1984) ‘The client's client: the edge of awareness’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Schlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person Centered Approach. New York: Praeger.
    Goolishian, H.A. and AndersonH. (1992) ‘Strategy and intervention versus nonintervention: a matter of theory’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 18(1): 5–15.
    Gordon, T. (1975) P.E.T. Parent Effectiveness Training. New York: Plume Books.
    Gordon, T. (1988) ‘The case against disciplining children at home or in school’, Person Centered Review, 3 (1): 59–86.
    Gottman, J.M. (1991) ‘Predicting the longitudinal course of marriages’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 17 (1): 3–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1991.tb00856.x
    Gottman, J.M. (1994) ‘An agenda for marital therapy’, in S.M.Johnson and L.S.Greenberg (eds), The Heart of the Matter: Perspectives on Emotion in Marital Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 256–97.
    Gottman, J.M. (1994) Why Marriages Succeed and Fail … and How You Can Make Yours Last. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Gottman, J.M., Notarius, C., Gonso, J. and Markman, H. (1976) A Couple's Guide to Communication. Champaign, IL: Research.
    Greenberg, L.S. and Johnson, S.M. (1986) ‘Emotionally focused therapy for couples’, in N.J.Jacobson and A.S.Gurman (eds), Clinical Handbook of Marital Therapy. New York: Guilford. pp. 253–79.
    Guerney, B.G. (1984) ‘Contributions of client-centered therapy to filial, marital and family relationship enhancement therapies’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Schlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger. pp. 261–77.
    Guerney, B.G. (1994) ‘The role of emotion in relationship enhancement marital/family therapy’, in S.M.Johnson and L.S.Greenberg (eds), The Heart of the Matter: Perspectives on Emotion in Marital Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 124–51.
    Guerney, B.G. (1998) ‘Revitalizing intimacy’, Twenty-First Family Therapy Network Symposium, Relationship Enhancement Day Workshop. Washington, D.C.
    Guerney, B.G. and Mason, P. (1990) ‘Marital and family enrichment research: a decade review and look ahead’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52: 1127–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353323
    Gurman, A.S. and Kniskern, D.P. (eds) (1981) Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 1. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Gurman, A.S. and Kniskern, D.P. (eds) (1991) Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 2. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Guttman, H.A. (1991) ‘Systems theory, cybernetics and epistomology’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds), Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 2. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 41–65.
    Haley, J. (1963) Strategies of Psychotherapy. New York: Grune and Stratton.
    Haley, J. (1973) Uncommon Therapy. New York: Norton.
    Haley, J. (1976) Problem-Solving Therapy: New Strategies for Effective Family Therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Haley, J. (1980) Leaving Home. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Haley, J. (1982) Reflection on Therapy and Other Issues. Chevy Chase, MD: Family Therapy Institute of Washington, D.C.
    Hart, J.T. and Tomlinson, T.M. (eds) (1970) New Directions in Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Hoffman, L (1990) ‘Constructing realities: an art of lenses’, Family Process, 29 (1): 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.1990.29.issue-1
    Hoffman, L (1998) ‘Setting aside the model in family therapy’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 24 (2): 145–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1998.tb01071.x
    Imber-Black, E. (1991) ‘A family – larger systems perspective’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds), Handbook of Family Therapy, Volume 1. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 583–606.
    Johnson, S.M. (1997) ‘The biology of love: what therapists need to know about attachment’, The Family Therapy Networker, 21 (5): 36–41.
    Johnson, S.M. (1998) ‘Creating healing relations for couples dealing with trauma: the use of emotionally focused marital therapy’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 24 (1): 3–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1998.tb01061.x
    Johnson, S.M. and Greenberg, L.S. (1994a) ‘Emotion in intimate relationships: a synthesis’, in The Heart of the Matter: Perspectives on Emotion in Marital Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 297–325.
    Johnson, S.M. and Greenberg, L.S. (eds) (1994b) The Heart of the Matter. Perspectives on Emotion in Marital Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Kirschenbaum, H. (1979) On Becoming Carl Rogers. New York: Delacorte Press.
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V. (eds) (1990) Carl Rogers: Dialogues. London: Constable.
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V. (eds) (1990) The Carl Rogers Reader. London: Constable.
    Kleckner, T., Frank, L, Bland, C, Amendt, J.H. and Bryant, R.D. (1992) ‘The myth of the unfeeling strategic therapist’. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 18 (1): 41–51.
    Knudson-Martin, C. (1997) ‘The politics of gender in family therapy’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23 (4): 421–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1997.tb01054.x
    Koerner, K. and Jacobson, N.S. (1994) ‘Emotion and behavioral couple therapy’, in The Heart of the Matter: Perspectives on Emotion in Marital Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 2207–27.
    Layton, M. (1995) ‘Mastering mindfulness’, The Family Therapy Networker, 19 (6): 28–30, 57.
    Lebow, J. (1997) ‘Is couples therapy obsolete? Psychoeducation raises questions about traditional clinical approaches’, The Family Therapy Networker, 21 (5): 81–8.
    Levant, R.F. (1984) ‘From person to system: two perspectives’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Shlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger. pp. 261–77.
    Levant, R.F. (1997) ‘Commentary on Knudson-Martin gender equality and the new psychology of man’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23 (4): 439–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1997.tb01055.x
    Levant, R.F. and SchlienJ.M. (eds) (1984) Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger.
    Mace, D.R. and MaceV. (1986) ‘Marriage enrichment – developing interpersonal potential’, in P.Dial and R.Jewson (eds.), In Praise of Fifty Years: The Groves Conference on the Conservation of Marriage and the Family. Lake Mills, IA: Graphic.
    Madanes, C. (1981) Strategic Family Therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Madigan, S. (1994) ‘The discourse unnoticed: story-telling rights and the deconstruction of longstanding problems’, Journal of Child and Youth Care, 9 (2): 79–86.
    Markowitz, L.M. (1994) ‘When same sex couples divorce’, The Family Therapy Networker, 18 (3): 30–31.
    McGoldrick, M. and Gerson, R. (1985) Genograms in Family Assessment. New York: Norton.
    McGoldrick, M., Pierce, J.K. and Giordano, J. (eds) (1982) Ethnicity and Family Therapy. New York: Guilford.
    Mearns, D. (1991) ‘The unspoken relationship between psychotherapist and client’, paper presented at the Second International Conference on Client-centered and Experiential Psychotherapy, Stirling, Scotland.
    Mearns, D. (1994a) Developing Person Centred Counselling. London: Sage.
    Mearns, D. (1994b) ‘How to work with a couple?’, in Developing Person Centred Counselling. London: Sage. pp. 56–60.
    Mearns, D. (1995) ‘Supervision: a tale of the missing client’, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 23 (3): 421–27.
    Mearns, D. (1997) Person-Centred Counselling Training. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217290
    Mearns, D. (1999) ‘Person-centred therapy with configuration of self’, Counselling, 10 (2): 1–6.
    Mearns, D. and Dryden, W. (eds) (1989) Experiences of Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (1988) Person-Centred Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Miller, S.D., Hubble, M. and Duncan, B. (1995) ‘No more bells and whistles’, The Family Therapy Networker, 19 (2): 53–63.
    Minuchin, S. (1974) Families and Family Therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Minuchin, S. and Nichols, M.P. (1993) Family Healing: Tales of Hope and Renewal from Family Therapy. New York: The Free Press.
    Neill, J.R. and Kniskern, D.P. (1982) From Psyche to System: The Evolving Therapy of Carl Whitaker. New York: Guilford.
    O'Hanlon, W. (1994) ‘The third wave: can a brief therapy open doors to transformation?’The Family Therapy Networker, 18 (6): 18–29.
    O'Hanlon, W.H. and Wiener-Davis, M. (1989) In Search of Solutions. New York: Norton.
    O'Hara, M. (1996) ‘Divided we stand’, The Family Therapy Networker, 20 (5): 46–54.
    O'Leary, C.J. (1989) ‘The person-centered approach and family therapy: a dialogue between two traditions’, Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 308–23.
    Ono, L.M.L, de Haes, J.C.J.M., Hoos, A.M. and Lammes, F.B. (1995) ‘Doctor-patient communication: a review of the literature’, Social Science Medicine, 40 (7): 904–18.
    Papp, P. (1983) The Process of Change. New York: Guilford.
    Papp, P. (1984) ‘The creative leap: the links between clinical and artistic creativity’, The Family Therapy Networker, 8 (5): 20–29.
    Papp, P. (1996) ‘Listening to the system’, The Family Therapy Networker, 21 (1): 52–58.
    Papp, P. (1998) Personal communication.
    Perske, R. and Perske, M. (1988) Circles of Friends: People with Disabilities and their Friends Enrich the Lives of One Another. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
    Prather, H. and Prather, G. (1988) A Book for Couples. New York: Doubleday.
    Raskin, N.J. and Van der Veen, F. (1970) ‘Client-centered family therapy: some clinical and research perspectives’, in J.T.Hart and T.M.Tomlimson (eds), New Directions in Client-Centered Therapy. New York: Houghton-Mifflin. pp. 387–406.
    Rogers, C.R. (1951) Client Centred Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1957) ‘The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change’, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 21 (2): 95–103.
    Rogers, C.R. (1959) ‘A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework’, in S.Koch (ed.), Psychology: a Study of a Science. Volume 3. Formulations of the Person and the Social Contract. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 184–256.
    Rogers, C.R. (1961a) ‘A tentative formulation of a general law of interpersonal relationships’, in On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 338–47.
    Rogers, C.R. (1961b) ‘Dealing with breakdowns in communication – interpersonal and intergroup’, in On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 329–38.
    Rogers, C.R. (1961c) ‘The implications of client-centered therapy for family life’, in On Becommg a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 314–29.
    Rogers, C.R. (1961d) On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1967) ‘Autobiography’, in E.W.Boring and G.Lindzey (eds), A History of Psychology in Autobiography, Vol. V. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. pp. 343–84.
    Rogers, C.R. (1972a) Becoming Partners: Marriage and its Alternatives. New York: Delta.
    Rogers, C.R. (1972b) Person To Person: Parent and Adolescent. Unpublished. La Jolla CA: Center for Studies of the Person, Carl Rogers Research Center.
    Rogers, C.R. (1978) ‘The formative tendency’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 18 (1): 23–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002216787801800103
    Rogers, C.R. (1979) Counselling Demonstration, Living Now Institute, Center for Studies of the Person, La Jolla, CA.
    Rogers, C.R. (1980) A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. and Buber, M. (1990) ‘Martin Buber’, in H.Kirschenbaum and V.Henderson (eds), Carl Rogers: Dialogues. London: Constable. pp. 41–64.
    Rowan, J. (1990) Subpersonalities. London: Routledge.
    Sanders, D. (1997) Personal communication. Satir, V. (1964) Conjoint Family Therapy. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
    Satir, V. (1972) Perceptions: the Personal Aspects of Therapy. Videotape: The Boston Family Institute.
    Schwarz, R. (1987) ‘Our multiple selves’, The Family Therapy Networker, 11 (2): 24–31, 80–85.
    Seligman, M.E.P. (1990) Learned Optimism. New York: Pocket Books.
    de Shazer, S. (1985) Keys to Solutions in Brief Therapy. New York: Norton.
    Shein, E.H. (1987) Process Consultation, Vol. 2. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Simon, R. (1984) ‘Stranger in a strange land: an interview with Salvador Minuchin’, The Family Therapy Networker, 8 (6): 20–32.
    Simon, R. (1985) ‘The take it or leave it therapy of Carl Whitaker’, The Family Therapy Networker, 9 (5): 26–42.
    Simon, R. (1997) ‘Fearless foursome: an interview with the women's project’, The Family Therapy Networker, 21 (6): 58–68.
    Skynner, A.C.R. (1976) Systems of Family and Marital Psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Snyder, M. (1989) ‘The relationship enhancement model of couple therapy: an integration of Rogers and Bateson’, Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 358–384.
    Stanton, M.D. and Todd, T.C. (1982) The Family Therapy of Drug Abuse and Addiction. New York: Guilford.
    Stuart, R.B. (1980) Helping Couples Change: A Social Learning Approach to Marital Therapy. New York: Guilford.
    Stuart, R.B. (1989) ‘Cognitive-behavioural couple therapy’, Workshop at California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists' Annual Conference. San Diego, CA.
    Stuart, R.B. and Jacobson, B. (1987) Couple's Therapy Workbook. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Suchman, A.L., Roter, D., Green, M., Lipkin, M. and The Collaborative Study Group of the American Academy on Physician and Patient (1993) ‘Physician satisfaction with primary care office visits’, Medical Care, 31 (12): 1083–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199312000-00002
    Taffel, R. (1991a) Parenting by Heart. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Taffel, R. (1991b) ‘How to talk with kids’, The Family Therapy Networker, 15 (4): 38–46, 68–70.
    Taffel, R. (1995) ‘Honoring the everyday’, The Family Therapy Networker, 19 (6): 25–8, 56.
    Taffel, R. (1996) ‘The second family’, The Family Therapy Networker, 20 (3): 36–45.
    Taffel, R. (1998) ‘Getting through to difficult parents’, workshop at Family Therapy Network Symposium. Washington, D.C.
    Taffel, R. and Master, R. (1990) ‘Is briefer better?’, The Family Therapy Networker, 14 (2): 50–56.
    Thayer, L. (1982) ‘A person-centered approach to family therapy’, in A.MHorne and M.M.Ohlsen (eds), Family Therapy and Counseling. Ithaca, IL: Peacock.
    Thorne, B.F. (1992) Carl Rogers. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446215135
    Titelman, P. (1987) The Therapist's Own Family: Toward the Differentiation of Self. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    Visher, E.B. and Visher, J.S. (1979) Stepfamilies: A Guide to Working with Stepparents and Stepchildren. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Visher, E.B. and Visher, J.S. (1987) Old Loyalties, New Ties: Therapeutic Strategies with Step-families. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Walters, M. (1984) ‘Coming of age: reflections on the journey’, The Family Therapy Networker, 8 (4): 48–50.
    Warner, M. (1983) ‘Soft meaning and sincerity in the family system’. Family Process, 22: 522–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.1983.22.issue-4
    Warner, M. (1989) ‘Empathy and strategy in the family system’. Person Centered Review, 4 (3): 324–44.
    Whitaker, C.A. (1990) ‘A day with Carl Whitaker’. Workshop in San Diego, CA.
    Whitaker, C.A. and Keith, D.V. (1981) ‘Symbolic experiential family therapy’, in A.S.Gurman and D.P.Kniskern (eds), Handbook of Family Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 187–226.
    Whitaker, C.A. and Napier, A.Y. (1978) The Family Crucible. New York: Harper and Row.
    White, M. and Epston, D. (1990) Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. New York: Norton.
    Williamson, D.D. (1978) ‘New life at the graveyard: a method of therapy for individuation from a dead former parent’. Journal of Marriage and Family Counseling, 4 (1): 93–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1978.tb00500.x
    Wiltburger, A. (1985) ‘Gender and Communication’, Living Now Institute, Center for Studies of the Person, La Jolla, CA.
    Wood, J.K. (1995) ‘The person-centered approach: toward an understanding of its implications’, The Person Centered journal, 2 (2): 18–36.
    Zimring, F.M. (1988) ‘Attaining mastery: the shift from the “me” to the “I”’, Person Centered Review, 3 (2): 165–76.
    Zimring, F.M. (1995) ‘A new explanation for the beneficial results of client centered therapy: the possibility of a new paradigm’, The Person Centered Journal, 2 (2): 36–48.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website