Counseling Multiracial Families
Publication Year: 1999
Multiracial families comprise a rapidly growing population in the United States. This volume addresses this population, so often neglected in the counselling literature. Following an historical overview, the authors: address both the special needs and special strengths of multiracial families; explore the challenges facing interracially married couples; examine social and cultural issues pertinent to parenting multiracial children; and translate results of biracial identity development research into counselling practice.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Historical Overview: Multiracial Individuals, Interracial Couples, and Families
- The Mixing of the Races: Present Time
- Definitions of Terms
- Creation and Current Status of Racial Categories
- The Mixing of Races: A Historical Overview
- Myths and Stereotypes Regarding Interracial Couples and Multiracial Individuals
- Chapter 2: Interracial Marriage: Current Conditions and Challenges
- The Lives of Contemporary Interracial Married Couples
- Issues of Parenting and Child Rearing
- Gay and Lesbian Interracial Couples
- The Significance and Insignificance of Racial Differences for Interracial Couples
- Implications for Counseling Interracial Couples
- Chapter 3: Multiracial Individuals: Issues across the Lifespan
- Issues of Multiracial Individuals
- Racial and Ethnic Reference Group Identity Models for Multiracial Individuals
- Implications for Counseling Multiracial Individuals and Families
- Chapter 4: Other Multiracial Families
- Issues of Families That Have Become Multiracial Through Foster Home Placement
- Issues of Families That Have Become Multiracial Through Transracial Adoption within the United States
- Intercountry Transracial Adoption
- Issues of Gay and Lesbian Transracial Families
- Responding to Issues of Transracial Adoptive Children and Parents
- Chapter 5: Intervention and Treatment of Multiracial Individuals, Couples, and Families
- Multicultural Counseling Competencies
- Approaches, Interventions, and Strategies for Counseling Interracial Couples
- Approaches, Interventions, and Strategies for Counseling Interracial Gay and Lesbian Couples
- Approaches, Interventions, and Strategies for Counseling Multiracial Individuals
- Approaches, Interventions, and Strategies for Counseling Multiracial Families
- Chapter 6: Case Studies
- Counselor Roles in Work with Preschool and Elementary Children in Multiracial Families
- Counselor Roles in Work with a Transracially Adopted College Student
- Counselor Roles in Work with Multiracial Adults
- Counselor Roles in Work with a Multiracial Couple
- Counselor Roles in Work with a Gay Multiracial Family
Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series[Page ii]
Paul Pedersen, Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham
- J. Manuel Casas, Ph.D.
- University of California, Santa Barbara
- Harold E. Cheatham, Ph.D.
- Clemson University
- William E. Cross, Jr., Ph.D.
- University of Massachusetts
- Candace Marie Fleming, Ph.D.
- University of Colorado
- Health Sciences Center
- Nayda A. Fouad, Ph.D.
- University of Wisconsin
- Prem S. Fry, Ph.D.
- University of Calgary
- Mary Fukuyama, Ph.D.
- University of Florida
- L. Sunny Hansen, Ph.D.
- University of Minnesota
- Allen E. Ivey, Ed.D.
- University of Massachusetts
- Teresa D. LaFromboise, Ph.D.
- Stanford University
- Don C. Locke, Ed.D.
- University of North Carolina at Asheville
- Amado M. Padilla, Ph.D.
- Stanford University
- Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D.
- Fordham University
- Derald W. Sue, Ph.D.
- California State University–Hayward
- Norman Sundberg, Ph.D.
- University of Oregon
- Joseph E. Trimble, Ph.D.
- Western Washington University
- Melba J. T. Vasquez, Ph.D.
- The University of Texas at Austin
- Clemmont E. Vontress, Ph.D.
- George Washington University
VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES
- Increasing Multicultural Understanding (2nd edition): A Comprehensive Model
by Don C. Locke
- Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators
by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Paul B. Pedersen
- Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs
edited by Richard W. Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida
- Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients (2nd edition): A Practical Guide
by Freddy A. Paniagua
- Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention
by Charles R. Ridley
- Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide
by Mark S. Kiselica
- Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Assessment, Education and Training, and Supervision
edited by Donald B. Pope-Davis and Hardin L. K. Coleman
- Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, Volume 2
edited by Kenneth Cushner and Richard W. Brislin
- Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment
by Richard H. Dana
- Psychological Testing of American Minorities (2nd edition)
by Ronald J. Samuda
- Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development
by Derald Wing Sue et al.
- Counseling Multiracial Families
by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, and Mark E. Kenney
- Integrating Spirituality In to Multicultural Counseling
by Mary A. Fukuyama and Todd D. Sevig
- Counseling With Native American Indians and Alaska Natives: Strategies for Helping Professionals
by Roger D. Herring
Copyright © 1999 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Wehrly, Bea, 1926—
Counseling multiracial families / by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, Mark E. Kenney.
p. cm.—(Multicultural aspects of counseling series; v. 12)
Includes bibliographical references
ISBN 0-7619-1590-7 (cloth: alk. paper)
ISBN 0-7619-1591-5 (pbk.: alk. paper)
1. Family counseling. 2. Cross-cultural counseling. 3. Racially mixed people—Counseling of. 4. Interracial marriage. 5. Interracial adoption. I. Kenney, Kelley R. II. Kenney, Mark E. III. Title. IV. Series.
HV697 .W43 1999
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
99 00 01 02 03 04 05 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Kassie Gavrilis
Editorial Assistant: Heidi Van Middlesworth
Production Editor: Wendy Westgate
Editorial Assistant: Patricia Zeman
Typesetter: Lynn Miyata
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
Indexer: Molly Hall
Series Editor's Introduction[Page ix]
Our families have typically been the source of those culturally learned assumptions that control our lives, with or without our permission. For that reason it is especially important for us to include Wehrly, Kenney, and Kenney's excellent volume in the Multicultural Aspects of Counseling book series. All families are complicated, but some families are more complicated than others. This is particularly true when those families are multicultural and/or multiracial and when all the complications associated with multiculturalism have been treated as “problematic.” These complications, however, offer opportunities as well as special problems, and Wehrly et al. go into some detail about those special opportunities in the historical and sociopolitical environments of our multicultural society.
When I was a faculty member at the University of Malaya during the race riots of 1969, the faculty members were recruited to continue teaching courses in the university dormitories so that the students would not become involved in the riots. In one of my classes, we decided to use creative problem solving techniques in small groups to “solve” the racial problem in Malaysia. The criterion was to identify solutions that had never been tried. The group that was identified as having the most creative solution suggested (a) that something be put into the drinking water changing everyone to the same color, whichever color that might be; (b) that kissing replace handshakes as the proper form of greeting in society; and (c) that the only [Page x]legal marriages would be bicultural or biracial marriages! Wehrly et al. also emphasize the importance of bicultural or biracial marriages to the formation of a multicultural society. Changes in the legal system, demographic distribution, and population migration all favor the likelihood of increased multicultural and multiracial families in the future. The data supporting these trends are identified in detail by Wehrly et al.
According to Wehrly et al., we are living in a “transition period.” By looking at the strengths and weaknesses of multiracial families we are looking at our own future, both locally and globally. The pretense that monocultural families are standard is less and less viable, as culturally defined special interest groups protect their identities more vigorously and as the need to pretend that “one size fits all” becomes less practical. The myths and stereotypes that attempted to impose monocultural perspectives on multiracial families are documented in detail by Wehrly et al. in the historical context where that imposition was demanded.
The current conditions and challenges demonstrate the up side of membership in a multiracial family, especially when we focus on the broad definition of culture, which includes the cultural categories of gay and lesbian populations (often not perceived as cultural groups). The practical emphasis of Wehrly et al.'s book comes through in examining specific issues within the multiracial family, including the perspectives of both adults and children. Eight popular theories of identity formation are applied to the multiracial family to identify patterns within the family that indicate positive growth and development.
The whole nature of family seems to be changing in both form and function with the increase of single-parent families, families that include unrelated persons, and homeless families, to name a few of the new forms that are increasing in number. The appropriate application of intervention and treatment competencies is addressed directly, as it must be adapted across the wide range of family alternatives. These competencies are applied to five case study examples, where theory is grounded in fact to help the reader see how these innovative ideas can be applied.
There are many positive features of Wehrly et al.'s book. The most important positive feature is the practicality of approaches that are presented so that when you, the reader, meet your client tomorrow morning, you will be better prepared to understand the multiracial context in which that client learned the assumptions that control his or her life. You will find a framework for understanding the family, which might otherwise be confusing. [Page xi]You will be more competent in helping clients manage the problems and opportunities facing them.University of Alabama at Birmingham[Page xii]
A host of people provided support and assistance in putting together this manuscript. First, we extend our gratitude to Paul Pedersen for suggesting that a proposal be submitted to the Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series on the topic of counseling multiracial families. Our special appreciation goes to the Sage staff, particularly to Jim Nageotte, Kassie Gavrilis, Heidi Van Middlesworth, and Wendy Westgate. To Catherine Chilton, our copy editor, we extend our gratitude for her meticulous work. Collectively, this staff helped us to surmount the many barriers to completion of our book. Our special appreciation is extended to the numerous individuals from across the country who participated in our research interviews of multiracial individuals and couples. Several of their stories are included to help to make didactic content come alive.
Insightful suggestions for revision of early drafts of chapters of this book were offered by Paul Clark, Brian Wlazelek, Suzanne Nickeson, Sonia Assad, and Laurie Silverstein. Prepublication reviews by Paul Pedersen, Roger Herring, and Carolyn Tubbs gave valuable insight on ways to strengthen the book.
To these individuals we extend our sincere “thank you.” Karen Hicks provided insurmountable assistance as we attempted to blend our voices into one, adding to the richness of this manuscript. To Susan Reffie, our [Page xiv]clerical assistant, we extent our deepest gratitude and appreciation. Across over 800 miles she (amazingly) coordinated this project. Her understanding, patience, flexibility, and organizational and computer skills were astounding. To Melanie Rawlins, Chair of the Counselor Education and College Student Personnel Department at Western Illinois University, the senior author expresses special appreciation for providing graduate assistant support for locating relevant resource materials and conducting and transcribing taped interviews of multiracial individuals. Western Illinois University graduate assistants Joan Moore, Shannon Garrison, Janet McDaniel, and Amy Kreider participated in these endeavors.
The senior author also wishes to extend her special gratitude to her husband, Jim, for his half century of support to her as a nontraditional wife, mother, grandmother, career woman, and retiree.
Kelley Kenney would like to extend a thank you to her research colleague, Jo Cohen, for the tireless hours she put into their joint research venture on Black-White interracial marriage. Our work together offered a special contribution to the completion of this manuscript. To Connie Hwang, a thank you is expressed for her frequent delivery of interlibrary materials from Lehigh University. To her other colleagues at Kutztown University, Kelley would like to offer sincere appreciation for their support and encouragement through this process. To her husband, who also shared in the writing of this book, Kelley would like to express her genuine gratitude for his unending love, trust, and belief in her and in all that she does.
Mark Kenney would like to extend thanks to the Albright College Library staff, specifically Sandy Stump and Rose Mary Deegan, for their assistance in identifying relevant resources. He also extends his appreciation to Roger Herring and Cindy Yee for their response to his request for resource materials. To his wife, Kelley, he would like to express his deepest feelings of love and appreciation for all that she is and all that she means to him and their family.
Preface[Page xv]Why This Book Was Written
Multiracial families (families in which at least one member of the family has a different racial heritage than the other member[s] of the family) comprise a rapidly growing part of the United States' population. There is still a dearth of counseling literature addressing this unique population.
Counseling Multiracial Families expands and updates the extant professional literature on counseling multiracial people and families. This book broadens the perspectives of helping service personnel on the historical background and the contemporary issues, needs, and strengths of the multiracial population. Culturally sensitive counseling interventions for work with multiracial individuals and families are presented.Overview
Chapter 1 provides a historical overview of the concept of racial mixing in the United States. In so doing, the chapter provides an introduction to the multiracial population, along with definitions and demographic trends. Myths and stereotypes that have often been associated with this population [Page xvi]are examined and discussed. Recommendations are made for the counseling profession in its work with this population.
Chapter 2 explores the lives of contemporary interracial couples, including gay and lesbian interracial couples. Issues and concerns that are salient to interracial couplings are discussed, with special emphasis on parenting and childrearing. Racial difference is considered for the possible significance it has on the dynamics of interracial relationships, and counseling implications are provided.
Chapter 3 discusses issues faced by multiracial individuals across the lifespan, reviews racial and ethnic reference group identity models for multiracial individuals, and translates biracial identity development theory into counseling practice with the children, adolescents, and adults in multiracial families.
Chapter 4 examines significant issues of other multiracial families. Included among these multiracial families are those that have become multiracial through foster home placement, cross-racial adoption from inside the United States, transracial adoption from foreign countries, and gay and lesbian multiracial partnering.
Chapter 5 examines current multicultural counseling competencies and discusses their relevance in working with the multiracial population. Approaches, interventions and strategies that may be effective with the multiracial population are presented.
Chapter 6 includes 5 case studies delineating application of content presented in the preceding chapters to work with an elementary-school-age biracial child, a transracially adopted college student, a multiracial adult, a multiracial couple, and a gay multiracial family.
To Olivia and Elena, our peace and our light, a kiss from big woman, a hug from big man
Love from all, including Grandma Bea who joins our family with all the colors of the rainbow[Page xviii]
References[Page 161][Page 176]1996). Transracial adoption is not the solution to America's problem of child welfare. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 254–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222011(An act to execute certain treaty stipulation relating to Chinese, 1882, 8 U.S.C.A. @ 185 261 (West 1970).An act to amend an act entitled: An act to execute certain treaty stipulation relating to Chinese, 1884, 8 U.S.C.A. @185 262-298 (West 1970).An act to conserve and develop Indian land and resources, 1934, 25 U.S.C.A. @ 185 461-476 West 1970).1997). Exploring the lives of older African American gay men. In B.Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 132–151). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1997). Multiracial identity development: Developmental correlates and themes among multiracial adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.(1985). The child's conception of racial clarification. In M. B.Spencer, G. K.Brookings, & W. R.Allen (Eds.), Beginnings: The social and affective development of Black children (pp. 185–200). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1987). Children and biracial identity. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Children's needs: Psychological perspectives (pp. 56–61). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.(1996). A review of empirical research involving the transracial adoption of African American children. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 223–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222007, & (Alien Land Laws of 1913, 1 Stat. Calif. Amend. Codes Chap. 113 (1913).[Page 162]1990). Self esteem and self label in multiethnic students from two Southern California state universities. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Los Angeles.(1996). (Un)natural boundaries—mixed race, gender, and sexuality. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 277–290). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1994). Clinical observations of adult intercountry adoptees and their adoptive parents. Child Welfare, 73, 261–269., , , , , , , & (1973). Bless me Ultima. Berkeley, CA: Quinto Sol.(1993). Ethnic identity in biracial Asian Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(09-B), 4905.(1981). Government and business ((4th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern.1970). I know why the caged bird sings. New York: Random House.(1995). Heroic possibilities. Teaching Tolerance, 4(1), 11–15.(1992). Personal dimensions of identity model. Boston: Empowerment Workshops., & (1996, January). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Alexandria, VA: Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development., , , , , , & (1982). American Indians and Alaska native families: Emigrants in their own homeland. In M.Goldrich, J. K.Pearce, & J.Giordano (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy ((1st ed., pp. 55–83). New York: Guilford.1995, February 19). A White boy who learned he was Black crossed color line anyway. San Diego Union-Tribune, p. A-35.(1997). Black, Jewish, and interracial: It's not the color of your skin, but the race of your kin and other myths of identity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1993). International and transracial adoptions: A mental health perspective. Brookfield, MA: Avebury.(1975). The American pageant: A history of the republic ((5th ed.). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.1993). Family bonds—Adoption and the politics of parenting. New York: Houghton Mifflin.(1993). Gift children: A story of race, family, and adoption in a divided America. New York: Ticknor & Fields.(1996, April 8). Don't you dare list them as “other.”U.S. News & World Report, 56.(Bennett, L. A. (Ed.). (1992). Encyclopedia of world cultures: Europe (Vol. 4). Boston: G. K. Hall.1998, December/January). Multiracial families. Child, 72(10), 96, 98, 103.(1993a, September/October). Going it alone: The challenge of single parenting. Adoption decisions. Ours, 28.(1993b, August 8). Let's give single mothers the benefit of the doubt. Greensboro News & Record, p. F3.(1995a, January/February). Where's daddy?Adoptive Families, 46–48.(1995b). The passing of innocence. Adoptive Families, pp. 26–28.(July/August,1983). Jenny lives with Eric and Martin. London: Guernsey.(1993). Bi-racial identity: Children born to African-American and White couples. Clinical Social Work Journal, 21, 417–428.(1987). Gay and lesbian parents. New York: Praeger.([Page 163]1992). Beauty and the beast: On racial ambiguity. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 77–88). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988). Treatment of the biracial child: Theoretical and clinical issues. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 16, 176–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1988.tb00408.x(1995, March 20) Storming the color barrier. Newsweek, 29.(1987). Casework with Black-White couples. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 68, 24–29.(1995). Black/White interracial young adults: Quest for a racial identity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65, 125–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079587(Brown v. Board of Educ, 98 U.S.S.C.R. 873 (1954).1991). Making connections: Introducing multicultural books. School Library Journal, 37, 190–191.(1998). The destructive nature of the term race: Growing beyond a false paradigm. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76(3), 277–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1998.tb02543.x, & (1995). The influence of race and racial identity in psychotherapy. New York: Wiley.(1992). Between a rock and a hard place: Social adjustment of biracial youth. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 207–222). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , , , , & (The census snarl. (1997). Wilson Quarterly, 21, 115–116.1992). Cultural considerations in counseling Asian-American lesbians and gay men. In S. H.Dworkin & F. J.Gutierrez (Eds.), Counseling gay men and lesbians: Journey to the end of the rainbow (pp. 115–124). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.(1988). Lesbian couples. Seattle, WA: Seal., & (1988a). Disclosure of sexual preferences to physicians by Black lesbians and bisexual women. Western Journal of Medicine, 149, 616–619., & (1988b). Epidemiologic and sociocultural factors in the transmission of HIV infection in Black gay and bisexual men. In M.Shernoff & W. A.Scott (Eds.), A sourcebook of gay/lesbian health care (, & (2nd ed., pp. 202–211). Washington, DC: National Lesbian and Gay Health Foundation.1994). Learning together in the multicultural classroom. Bothell, WA: Wright Group.(1995). From “Operation Brown Baby” to “Opportunity”: The placement of children of color at the boys and girls aid society of Oregon. Child Welfare, 74, 242–263.(1994). LatiNegra: Mental health issues of African Latinas. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 5(3/4), 35–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J086v05n03_03(1996). LatiNegra: Mental health issues of African Latinas. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 167–190). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988). Educating poor minority children. Scientific American, 259, 42–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1188-42(1996). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy ((5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.1990). The final closet: The gay parents' guide for coming out to their children. Miami, FL: Editech.(1980). Bibliotherapy: The right book at the right time. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa., & (1995, February 13). One drop of bloody history. Newsweek, 70, 72.(1995, February 13). Freedom from choice: Being biracial has meant denying half of my identity. Newsweek, 16.([Page 164]1986). Gay parents and their children: A review of research and practical implications. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 504–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1986.tb01182.x(1982). Intermarriage in the U.S.: An overview of theory and research. Marriage and Family Review, 5, 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v05n01_02, & (1995). Racial healing: Confronting the fear between Blacks and Whites. New York: Doubleday.(1996). Promoting peace in our schools: Multicultural considerations. School Counselor, 44, 55–64., & (1992). Theories about Black-White interracial marriage: A clinical perspective. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30, 150–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1992.tb00573.x(1991). Who is Black? One nation's definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.(1995). The Hawaiian alternative to the one-drop rule. In N.Zack (Ed.), American mixed race: The culture of microdiversity (pp. 115–131). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Little-field.(1989). Anti-bias curriculum: Tools for empowering young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.(1996, November). Culture club. Men's Fitness, 54, 56.(1977). The bookfinder. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.(1981). The bookfinder (Vol. 2). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.(1985). The bookfinder 3: When kids need books. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.(1989). The bookfinder 4: When kids need books. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.(1994). The bookfinder (Vol. 5). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.(1989). Adoption: The facts, feelings, and issues of a double heritage. Englewood, NJ: Messner.(1997). Counting a “new” type of American. U.S. News & World Report, 123, 22–23.(Enriching classroom diversity with books for children, in-depth discussion of them, and story-extension activities. (1993, March). Young Children, 43(3), 10–12.1963). Children and society. New York: Norton.(1995). The enduring and vanishing American Indian: American Indian population growth and intermarriage in 1990. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18(1), 89–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1995.9993855(1995). Puerto Ricans: The politics of racial identity. In H. W.Harris, H. C.Blue, & E.E.H.Griffith (Eds.) Racial and ethnic identity: Psychological development and creative expression (pp. 193–207). New York: Routledge.(1989). Lesbian mothers: Psychosocial assumptions in family law. American Psychologist, 44, 941–947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.6.941(1983). Assessment and engagement stages in therapy with the interracial family. In J. C.Hansen & C. J.Falicov (Eds.), Cultural perspectives in family therapy (pp. 78–90). Rockville, MD: Aspen., & (1996). Government classification of multiracial/multiethnic people. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 15–36). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1992). Self-concept and adjustment in biracial adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 053/11-B, 5973.(1996). Piecing together the puzzle: Self-concept and group identity in biracial Black/White youth. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 211–226). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.([Page 165]1997, May 4). Now say goodbye to Diane. Washington Post Magazine, pp. 7, 9–17.(1994, January/February). “Is she adopted?”—Multicultural families find haven in UU churches. The World, pp. 24–27.(1993). Placement considerations for children of mixed African American and Caucasian parentage. Child Welfare, 72, 113–125., & (1995). White women, race matters: The social construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1994). Black, White, other: Biracial Americans talk about race and ethnicity. New York: William Morrow.(Galens, J., Sheets, A., & Young, R. (Eds.). (1995). Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 2). Detroit, MI: Gale Research.1987). The rainbow effect: Interracial families. New York: Franklin Watts.(General Allotment Act of 1887, 25 U.S.C.A. § 331 (West 1983).1985). Treatment relationships with Black clients: Interpersonal vs. instrumental strategies. In C. B.Germain, P.Caroff, P. L.Ewalt, P.Glasser, & R.Vaughn (Eds.), Advances in clinical social work practice (pp. 184–195). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.(1987). Identity and marginality: Issues in the treatment of biracial adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 265–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1987.tb03537.x(1989). Biracial adolescents. In J. T.Gibbs, L. N.Huang, & Associates (Eds.), Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth (pp. 322–350). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.(1992). Negotiating ethnic identity: Issues for Black-White biracial adolescents. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 223–238). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1991). Clinical and cultural issues in the treatment of biracial and bicultural adolescents. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 72, 579–591., & (1992). The adoption resource book ((3rd ed.). New York: Harper Perennial.1996). Transracial adoption: Unanswered theoretical and conceptual issues. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 273–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222015(1998, January). Federal law will speed adoption process. Counseling Today, 40, 1, 10, 12., , , & (1996). Critique of “A review of the research on transracial adoption. Journal of Black Pscyhology, 22, 270–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222014(1996). The real world. In M.P.PRoot (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 37–48). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1994a). Ethnic-minority lesbians and gay men: Mental health and treatment issues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 243–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.243(1994b). Lesbian women of color: Triple jeopardy. In L.Comas-Diaz & B.Greene (Eds.), Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy (pp. 389–427). New York: Guilford(1997). Ethnic minority lesbians and gay men: Mental health and treatment issues. In B.Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 216–239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1996). African American lesbian couples: Ethnocultural considerations in psychotherapy. Women and Therapy, 79(3), 49–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v19n03_06, & (1995). Transracial adoptions and the continuing debate on the racial identity of families. In H. W.Harris, H. C.Blue, & E.E.H.Griffith (Eds.), Racial and ethnic identity: Psychological development and creative expression (pp. 95–114). New York: Routledge., & ([Page 166]1989). From sea to shining sea.” A current listing of interracial organizations and support groups across the nation. Interrace, 1, 24–28.(1997, Fall). Just the facts. Interrace, 8(1), 6.(1991). Identity development in interracial, Asian/White late adolescents: Must it be so problematic. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 617–628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537365(1997, April 21). Who is a whiz kid?Newsweek, 21.(1994). The human mosaic project. Educational Leadership, 57(8), 40–41.(1995). Snow falling on cedars. New York: Vintage.(1992). Gay, lesbian, and African American: Managing the integration of identities. In S. H.Dworkin & F. J.Gutierrez (Eds.), Counseling gay men and lesbians: Journey to the end of the rainbow (pp. 141–156). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development., & (1994). The sweeter the juice. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1980). The ethnic identity of racially mixed people: A study of Black-Japanese. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(4-B), 1565–1566.(1992). Please choose one: Ethnic identity choices for biracial individuals. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 250–264). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Best of both worlds: Body image and satisfaction of a sample of Black-Japanese biracial individuals. Amerasia Journal, 23(1), 87–97.(1992). Crossings: A White man's journey into Black America. New York: Harper Collins.(1996). Comments on transracial adoption. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 236–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222008(1996). Cross-cultural learning in elementary guidance activites. Elementay School Guidance and Counseling, 30, 264–274.(1996a). Addressing the complexities of culture and gender in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, 332–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1996.tb01876.x(1996b). Cultural considerations in couples therapy. Women and Therapy, 79(3), 13–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v19n03_03(1987). Internal and external stressors on interracial marriages: Implications for counseling psychology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.(1994). This land is our land: A guide to multicultural literature for children and young adults. Westport, CT: Greenwood., & (1990). Black and white racial identity: Theory, research, and practice.?New York: Greenwood.(1990). Black and White protagonists in contemporary fiction: Findings and recommendations for interventions on race relations. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 18, 180–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1990.tb00449.x(1984). Soul catcher. New York: Avenel.(1991). How would you feel if your dad was gay?Boston: Alyson., & (1992). Biracial children: An increasing concern for elementary and middle school counselors. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 27, 123–130.(1995). Developing biracial ethnic identity: A review of the increasing dilemma. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 23, 29–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1995.tb00264.x(1997). Multicultural counseling in schools: A synergetic approach. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.([Page 167]1999). Experiencing a lack of money and appropriate skin color. Journal of Counseling and Development, 77, 25–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1999.tb02409.x(Hockings, P. (Ed.). (1993). Encyclopedia of world cultures: East and Southeast Asia (Vol. 5). Boston: G. K. Hall.1997). Effect of transracial/transethnic adoption on children's racial and ethnic identity and self-esteem: A meta-analytic review. Marriage & Family Review, 25, 99–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v25n01_07(1998). Promoting same-race adoption for children of color. Social Work, 43, 104–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/43.2.104(1991, November/December). A legacy of Loving. New People, 2, 9–12.(1993). The contributions of alternative press publishers to multicultural literature for children. Library Trends, 41, 524–540.(1997). “Between two cultures”: A testimony. Amerasia Journal, 23(1), 149–154.(1998, March). Counseling multiracial adolescents. Paper presented at the Professional Development Institute at the Annual Conference of the American Counseling Association, Indianapolis, IN.(1990). Cross-cultural couples counseling: A developmental, psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 21, 193–205., & (Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, 18 U.S.C. § 305a-e (Lawyers Cooperative 1995).In re Estate of Fred Paquet, deceased, 101 Ore. Rep. 393 (Bancroft-Whitney 1922).1977). Black/White interracial families: Marital process and identity development in young children. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(10-B), 5023.(1992). Identity development in biracial children. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 190–206). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1995). Some kind of Indian. In N.Zack (Ed.), American mixed race: The culture of microdiversity (pp. 133–153). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.(1991). Objective news and other myths: The poisoning of young Black minds. Journal of Negro Education, 60(3), 328–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2295486(1992). Developmental pathways: Toward an ecological theoretical formulation of race identity in Black-White biracial children. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 37–49). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1987). Transracial adoption and the development of Black identity at age eight. Child Welfare, 66, 45–55., , & (1986). The adjustment of offspring of within-group and interracial/intercultural marriages: A comparison of personality factor scores. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 279–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352395, & (1996). Creating and maintaining boundaries in male couples. In J.Laird & R.Green (Eds.), Lesbians and gays in couples and families (pp. 231–250). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & (1992). A counseling group for adolescents from interracial families. Unpublished educational specialist's thesis, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.(1997). Of many colors. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press., & (1993). Transcultural family counseling: Theories and techniques. In J.McFadden (Ed.), Transcultural counseling: Bilateral and international perspectives (pp. 109–131). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.(1995). Multiracial births increase as U.S. ponders racial definitions. Population Today: News, Numbers, and Analysis, 23(4), 1–2.(1993). Current transracial adoption practices: Racial dissonance or racial awareness. Psychological Reports, 72, 551–558. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.521, & ([Page 168]1997). Trevor's story: Growing up biracial. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner.(1998). The last good nisei man. Interrace, 8(3), 10.(1998, May). Values and communication patterns among Black-White interracial couples. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach, Boston, MA., & (1994, April). Interracial marriage, a 1990's perspective: Implications for counselors. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Counseling Association, Minneapolis, MN., , & (1991). Racial identity development in biracial children of Black/White racial heritage. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52/07-A, 2469.(1995). Biracial identity development: Theory and research. In J. G.Ponterotto, J. M.Casas, L. A.Suzuki, & C. M.Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 199–217). Newbury Park, CA: Sage, & (1993). Racial identity in biracial children: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 221–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.206, , , & (1995). Worlds of wonder: Resources for multicultural children's literature. Bothell, WA: Wright Group.(1992). The developmental process of asserting a biracial, bicultural identity. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 304–317). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1995). International adoption: A case review of Korean children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 25, 141–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02251299(1985, February). Culture in the clinic. Paper presented at the Third Annual Teachers College Roundtable for Cross-Cultural Counseling, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City.(1992). No single season: Multicultural literature for all children. Wilson Library Bulletin, 66(6), 30–33, 122.(1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 395–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.395, , & (1977). Mixed families: Adopting across racial boundaries. New York: Anchor Press.(1996). Asian American families: An overview. In M.Goldrich, J. K.Pearce, & J.Giordano (Eds.) Ethnicity and family therapy ((2nd ed., pp. 227–248) New York: Guilford.1997, May 5). In living colors. Newsweek, 58–60.& (Levinson, D. (Ed.). (1994). Encyclopedias of the human experience: Ethnic relations. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Levinson, D. (Ed.). (1995). Encyclopedia of marriage and the family. New York: Simon & Schuster/MacMillan.1998, August 16). The beige and the black. New York Times Magazine, 38–39.(1998). The accidental Asian. New York: Random House.(1989). Perceived ethnic identity, conflicts, and needs of biracial individuals. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Long Beach.(1990). A not so provincial view of multicultural counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 30, 18–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.1990.tb01175.x(1987). Racial identity problems of bi-racial clients: Implications for social work practice. Journal of Intergroup Relations, 15, 11–24., , & (1996). It takes an entire village. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 266–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222013, & (Loving et ux. v. Virginia, 18 U.S.S.C.R. Ann. 1010 (1967).[Page 169]1988). A longitudinal study of crosscultural adoption: Identity development among Asian adoptees at adolescence and early adulthood. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.(1985). Racial identity and self-esteem: Problems peculiar to biracial children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 150–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138%2809%2960440-4, , , & (1992). Racial differences in married female labor force participation behavior: An analysis using interracial marriages. Review of Black Political Economy, 21, 59–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02689954, & (1989). There's something I've been meaning to tell you: Lesbian and gay parents come out to their children. Tallahasee, FL: Naiad.(1989). Some freaks. New York: Viking Penguin.(1980). Identity in adolescence. In J.Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159–187). New York: Wiley.(1994). A model for identity intervention with minority adolescents. In S. A.Archer (Ed.), Intervention for adolescent identity development. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1993). The lesbian and gay parenting handbook. New York: Harper Perennial.(1988a). The Black Women's Relationship Project: A national survey of Black lesbians. In M.Shepnoff and W. A.Scott (Eds.), A sourcebook of gay/lesbian health care (, & (2nd ed., pp. 54–62). Washington, DC: National Lesbian and Gay Health Foundation.1988b). Issues in the perception of AIDS risk and reduction by Black and Hispanic/Latina women. American Psychologist, 43, 949–957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.949, & (1993). The impact of perceived discrimination on the intimate relationships of Black lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 25(4), 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v25n04_01, , & (1996). The color of water: A Black man's tribute to his White mother. New York: Riverhead.(1982). Ethnicity and family therapy (, , & (1st ed.). New York: Guilford.1996). Ethnicity and family therapy (, , & (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.1994). Gay parents and child custody: A struggle under the legal system. Mediation Quarterly, 12, 135–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/crq.3900120205(1986). Racial-identity issues among mixed-race children. Social Work in Education, 8, 164–175., & (1996). Transracial adoptions—In whose best interest? In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 63–78). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1997). Achieving same-race adoptive placemements for African American children: Culturally sensitive practice approaches. Child Welfare, 76, 85–104., , & (1983). Transracial and inracial adoptees: The adolescent years. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas., & (1982). Self-esteem and racial identity in transracial and inracial adoptees. Social Work, 27, 522–526., , , & (1987). Raising adopted children: A manual for adoptive parents. New York: Harper Perennial.([Page 170]1990). Racial identity of children of mixed heritage still controversial. Adopted Child, 9(5), 1–4.(1992). The human ecology of multiracial identity. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 24–36). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1992). Our family, our friends, our world: An annotated guide to significant multicultural books for children and teenagers. New Providence, NJ: R. R. Bowker.(1996). Divided to the vein: A journey into race and family. New York: Harcourt Brace.(1996). Census review of ethnic groups raises complex questions. HR Magazine, 41, 144.(1992). Latino gays and Latina lesbians. In S. H.Dworkin & F. J.Gutierrez (Eds.), Counseling gay men and lesbians: Journey to the end of the rainbow (pp. 125–139). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.(1995, February 13). What color is black?Newsweek, 62–65.(1987). The voices of Amerasians: Ethnicity, identity, and empowerment in interracial Japanese Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48(4B), 1143.(1992). An invisible monster: The creation and denial of mixed-race people in America. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 162–178). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1982). Red, black, and white: The people of early America ((2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1997). Coping with interracial dating. New York: Rosen.(1995). Addressing the needs of biracial children: An issue for counselors in a multicultural school environment. School Counselor, 43, 52–57.(1998). Assessing the issues of multiracial students on college campuses. Journal of College Counseling, 7(1), 45–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.1998.tb00123.x(1997). School counselors' perceptions of the counseling needs of biracial children in an urban educational setting. Research in the Schools, 4(2), 17–23., & (1993). What people are saying about their interracial relations. Interrace, 4 (5), 21–27.(1996). Understanding diverse families: What practitioners need to know. New York: Guilford.(1995). Multicultural classroom guidance. In C. C.Lee (Ed.), Counseling for diversity: A guide for school counselors and related professionals (pp. 143–158). Boston: Allyn and Bacon., & (1996, November). Family-centered practice with racially/ethnically mixed families. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(9), 573–582., , & (1990). Biracial adolescents: Areas of conflict in identity formation. Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 14, 157–176.(1996). Showing my color: Impolite essays on race and identity. New York: Harper Collins.(1993). The role of social context in the dynamics of personal relationships. Advances in Personal Relationships, 2, 1–34., & (1991). Race, gender, and intercultural relations: The case of interracial marriage. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 72(1), 5–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3346572([Page 171]1991). Black and white women's attitudes toward interracial marriage. Psychological Reports, 69(3), 753–754. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.113, & (1992). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development, 63, 1025–1042. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131517(1997). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 235–282.(1996). Loving across race and class divides: Relational challenges and the interracial lesbian couple. Women and Therapy, 79(3), 25–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v19n03_04(1991). Families are different. New York: Holiday House.(1996). Transracial adoption: A human rights perspective. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 240–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222009, & (1997). A national survey of the intimate relationship of African American lesbians and gay men: A look at commitment, satisfaction, sexual behavior, and HIV disease. In B.Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 11–38). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , & (1997a, November 3). For today's teens, race “not an issue anymore.”USA Today, pp. 1A, 2A.(1997b, November 3). Interracial dating is no big deal for teens. USA Today, p. 10A.(1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 34–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431689091004(1990). Ethnic identity in adolescence and adulthood: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499(1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with divers. groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074355489272003(1993). A three-stage model of ethnic identity development in adolescence. In M. E.Bernal & G. P.Knight (Eds), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 61–79). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.(1990). Ethnic identity in college students from four ethnic groups. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 171–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2890%2990006-S, & (1996). At the interface of cultures: Multiethnic/multiracial high school and college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 139–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1996.9713988, & (1992). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: An exploratory longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 15, 271–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2892%2990030-9, & (1988). Ethnic identity search and commitment in Black and White eighth graders. Journal of Early Adolescence, 8, 265–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431688083004, & (1995). Biracial identity—Asset or handicap? In H. W.Harris, H. C.Blue, & E.E.H.Griffith (Eds.), Racial and ethnic identity: Psychological development and creative expression (pp. 73–93). New York: Routledge.(Plessy v. Ferguson, 41 U.S.S.C.R. 256 (1896).1991). The nature of prejudice revisited: Implications for counseling intervention. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 216–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1991.tb01587.x(1978). Black and White mixed marriages. Chicago: Nelson Hall.(1982). Black-American intermarriage in the United States. Marriage and Family Review, 5, 17–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v05n01_03(1990). The biracial identity development model: A needed addition. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 152–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1990.tb01477.x(1984). Study of interracial children presents positive picture. Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 75(6), 9–10.([Page 172]Protection of Indians and Conservation of Resources Act of 1934, 25 U.S.C.S. § 461 et seq. (Bancroft-Whitney 1983).1996). Multiracial identity in a color-conscious world. In M.P.PRoot (Ed.). The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 49–62). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Mommy doesn't look like me!Interrace, 8(2), 15–16.(1994). Crossing the color line: Race, parenting, and culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1990). “Are those kids yours?” American families with children adopted from other countries. New York: Free Press.(1993). Developing multicultural awareness through children's literature: A guide for teachers and librarians, grades K-8. Jefferson, NC: McFarland., & (1994). An Afrocentric paradigm: Foundations for a healthy self-image and healthy interpersonal relationships. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 16(3), 327–339., & (1991). Latino racial identity: In the eye of the beholder. Latino Studies Journal, 2, 33–48., , , & (1997, May). The children left behind. Good Housekeeping, 104–107.(1990). Resolving “other” status: Identity development of biracial individuals. In L. S.Brown & M.P.PRoot (Eds.), Diversity and complexity in feminist therapy (pp. 185–205). New York: Haworth.(Root, M.P.P (Ed.). (1992). Racially mixed people in America. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1994). Mixedrace women. In L.Comas-Diaz & B.Greene (Eds.), Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy (pp. 455–478). New York: Guilford(1995). The multiracial contribution to the psychological browning of America. In M.Zack (Ed.), American mixed race: The culture of microdiversity (pp. 231–236). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.(Root, M.P.P (Ed.). (1996). The multiracial experience: racial borders as the new frontier. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.1997a). Contemporary mixed-heritage Filipino Americans: Fighting colonized identities. In M. R. R.Root (Ed.). Filipino Americans: Transformation and identity (pp. 80–94). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243177(1997b). Multiracial Asians: Models of ethnic identity. Amerasia Journal, 23(1), 29–41.(1998). Multiracial Americans: Changing the face of Asian America. In L. C.Lee & N. W.Zane (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology (pp. 261–287). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1984). Being adopted. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard.(1986). Living in two worlds. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard.(1995). Multiracial couples: Black and White voices. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , & (1995). Persistence and change in Asian identity among children of intermarried couples. Sociological Perspectives, 38, 175–194., , , & (1986). American Indian intermarriage. Social Science Research, 15, 347–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0049-089X%2886%2990018-9, & (1997). Lifespan development ((6th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.1987). Cross-cultural ethnic relationships. Unpublished manuscript.([Page 173]1985). Considerations in counseling interracial children. Journal of Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, 13, 3–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4950.1984.tb00308.x(1986). A longitudinal study of Black adoptions: Single parent, transracial, and traditional. Social Work, 31, 172–176., & (1981). The adjustment of Black children adopted by White families. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 62, 529–536., & (1992). Adoption, race, and identity: From infancy through adolescence. New York: Praeger., & (1994). The case for transracial adoption. Washington, DC: American University Press., , & (1985). Racial and cultural minorities: An analysis of prejudice and discrimination (, & (5th ed.). New York: William Morrow.1997). Cultural diversity and the coming-out process: Implications for clinical practice. In B.Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 279–300). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1997). Some observations about racial boundaries and the experiences of American Indians. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20, 667–689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1997.9993984(1994). Interracial couples in the United States of America: Implications for mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 4, 304–377.(1997). The new colored people: The mixed-race movement in America. New York: New York University Press.(1990). Challenges in studying minority youth. In S. S.Feldman & G. R.Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent. Cambridge: Harvard University Press., & (1989). Mixed blood: Intermarriage and ethnic identity in twentieth-century America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1992). The illogic of American racial categories. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 12–23). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). What must I be? Asian Americans and the question of multiethnic identity. Amerasia Journal, 23(1), 43–60.(1995). New colors: Mixed-race families still find a mixed reception. Teaching Tolerance, 4(1), 44–46, 48–49.(1992). Mixed-heritage individuals: Ethnic identity and trait characteristics. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 50–63). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1989). After intermarriage: Ethnic identity among mixed-heritage Japanese-Americans and Hispanics. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 507–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352512, & (1991). Intermarriage: Effects on personality, adjustment, and intergroup relations in two samples of students. Journal of Marriage and Family, 53, 241–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353148, & (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20, 64–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1992.tb00563.x, , & (1998, March). Multicultural counseling competencies: Individual, professional, and organizational development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232027, , , , , , , , , & (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (, & ([Page 174]2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.1995). Policy issues in gay and lesbian adoption. Adoption and Fostering, 19, 21–25.(1997). Native gay and lesbian issues: The two-spirited. In B.Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 1–10). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1988). Counseling Native American lesbians and gays. In M.Shernoff and W. A.Scott (Eds.), A sourcebook of lesbian/gay health care (pp. 63–67). Washington, DC: National Lesbian and Gay Health Foundation., & (1989). The joy luck club. New York: Putnam.(1996). Child welfare and transracial adoption. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 282–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222016, & (Thernstrom, S. (Ed). (1980). Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University.1983). A social history of a multiethnic identity: The case of Black Japanese Americans. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.(1992). The quiet immigration: Foreign spouses of U. S. citizens, 1945–1985. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 64–76). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1996). Hidden agendas, identity theories, and multiracial people. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial boders as the new frontier (pp. 101–120). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1995). Intermarriage. In D.Levison (Ed.), Encyclopedia of marriage and the family (pp. 396–402). New York: Macmillan., & (1982). Intermarriage and assimilations in a plural society: Japanese Americans in the United States. Marriage and Family Review, 57(1), 1–74.(1995). The identity of mixed parentage adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 36, 1399–1410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01671.x, & (1995). International adoption: Issues of acknowledgement of adoption and birth culture. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 12, 465–479., , & (1996). Happy to be: Raising happy, healthy multiracial children in a racially divided society. Interrace, 7(1), 14–17.(1990). New trends in Black American interracial marriage: The social structural context. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 209–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352851, & (1996). Unexplored issues in transracial adoption. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 262–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222012, & (U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1990). Census of population: General population characteristics—United States (Vol. 1990CP-1-1). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1998). Statistical abstract of the United States: 1998 (118th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.United States v. William S. Rogers, 11 U.S.C.S. 1105 (1846).1995). Shades of gray: The conundrum of color categories. Teaching Tolerance, 4(1), 47.(1995a, April 12). “Biracial” doesn't mean one or the other. Star Tribune, pp. 1, 10A.(1995b, April 12). Redefining the races. Census categories are likely to change. Star Tribune, pp. 1, 10A.(1994, March 21). The politics of adoption. Newsweek, pp. 64–65., & (1987). Are you sensitive to interracial children's special identity needs?Young Children, 42(2), 53–59.([Page 175]1990). Who has ten fingers and light brown skin and likes to sing “Bingo?” Identity development of biracial children. Dimensions, 18(4), 24–25, 31.(1991). Interracial children and their families: How school social workers should respond. Social Work in Education, 13, 215–223.(1992a). Supporting biracial children in the school setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 15, 163–172.(1992b, March/April). Transracial and interracial adoption: The myth of cultural genocide. Interrace, 29–31.(1993, April). Interracial families and biracial children. Child Care Information Exchange, pp. 45–48.(1988). Growing up biracially in America: The inalienable rights of biracial children. Nurturing Today, 9(4), 9, 21., & (1995). Pathways to multicultural counseling competence: A developmental journey. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1996). Counseling interracial individuals and families. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.(1998). Bibliotherapy. In H. G.Rosenthal (Ed.), Favorite counseling and therapy techniques: 51 therapists share their most creative strategies (pp. 185–188). Bristol, PA: Accelerated Development.(1998, May 3). Anomalous like me. Washington Post, p. F8.(1995). Psycholegal process and issues in international adoption. American Journal of Family Therapy, 23, 173–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926189508251347(1990). Daddy's roommate. Boston: Alyson.(1995). Life on the color line: The true story of a White boy who discovered he was Black. New York: Dutton.(1992). Prism lives: Identity of binational Amerasians. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 280–303). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1996). Race as process: Reassessing the “What are you?” encounters of biracial individuals. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 191–210). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Raceing and being raced: The critical interrogation of “passing.”Amerasia Journal, 23(1), 61–65.(1980). New people: Miscegenation andmulattoes in the United States. New York: Free Press.(1996). The real issues in transracial adoption: A response. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 246–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222010(1992). Blood quantum: Native American mixed bloods. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 108–125). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1998, August 2). It's about love. Parade Magazine, pp. 4–7.(1993). Counseling biracial children: A forgotten component of multicultural counseling. Family Therapy, 20, 29–36., & (1991). Do people grow on family trees? Genealogy for kids & other beginners. New York: Workman.(1989). A look at intermarriage among the Chinese in the United States in 1980. Sociological Perspectives, 52(1), 87–107.(1998). Fact vs. fiction. Interrace, 8(2), 8.(
About the Authors[Page 189]
Bea Wehrly, Ph.D., N.C.C., has 40 years of experience in teaching and counseling, the last 25 of which were at Western Illinois University. She is the author of Pathways to Multicultural Counseling Competence: A Developmental Journey (1995) and Counseling Interracial Individuals and Families (1996). She developed and taught the multicultural counseling course at Western Illinois University for the 8 years before she retired. Most recently, she has been conducting seminars on multiracial counseling in the United States, Canada, and Europe. She is the 1999 recipient of the ACA Professional Development award.
Kelley R. Kenney, Ed.D., is Full Professor and Counselor at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania and Adjunct Professor at Chestnut Hill College of Philadelphia. She has over 15 years of counseling, supervision, teaching, and consultation experience. Her areas of interest and specialization include college student development, sexuality and HIV/AIDS awareness, diversity and multicultural issues, and multiracial individuals and families. She has presented programs, conducted workshops, and published on a number of these issues for local, regional, national, and international conferences and meetings. She will serve as Chair of the North Atlantic Region American Counseling Association for 2000–2001.
[Page 190]Mark E. Kenney, M.Ed., N.C.C., is a counselor at Albright College in Reading, PA. His professional experince includes teaching in special education, secondary education, and higher education settings. As a counselor, he has worked in both private practice and college settings. His areas of specialization include academic intervention and mediation, adolescent male identity development, gay and lesbian issues, children coping with divorce, and fathering issues. He is a certified diversity trainer for the National Coalition Building Institute, as well as a certified presenter for the STEP Parenting program. He has done a significant amount of research on the historical context of interracial marriage and multiracialism and has been called upon as a consultant and presenter on these topics. He is the husband of Dr. Kelley Kenney.