Counseling Latinos and la Familia: A Practical Guide


Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo & Maritza Gallardo-Cooper

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Overview

  • Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series

    Series Editor

    Paul Pedersen, Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham

    Editorial Board
    • Patricia M. Arredondo, Ed.D.

      Arizona State University

    • J. Manuel Casas, Ph.D.

      University of California, Santa Barbara

    • Harold E. Cheatham, Ph.D.

      The Pennsylvania State University

    • William E. Cross, Jr., Ph.D.

      University of Massachusetts

    • Candace Marie Fleming, Ph.D.

      University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

    • Mary Fukuyama, Ph.D.

      University of Florida

    • L. Sunny Hansen, Ph.D.

      University of Minnesota

    • Allen E. Ivey, Ed.D.

      University of Massachusetts

    • Teresa LaFromboise, Ph.D.

      Stanford University

    • Jun-chih Gisela Lin, Ph.D., ABPP

      Texas A&M University

    • Don C. Locke, Ed.D.

      University of North Carolina, Asheville

    • Amado M. Padillo, Ph.D.

      Stanford University

    • Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D.

      Fordham University

    • Derald Wing Sue, Ph.D.

      California State University, Hayward

    • Norman D. Sundberg, Ph.D.

      University of Oregon

    • Junko Tanaka-Matsumi, Ph.D.

      Hofstra University

    • Joseph E. Trimble, Ph.D.

      Western Washington University

    • Melba J.T. Vasquez, Ph.D.

      Independent Practice, Austin, Texas

    • Clemmont E. Vontress, Ph.D.

      George Washington University

    Volumes in This Series
    • Increasing Multicultural Understanding (2nd edition): A Comprehensive Model by Don C. Locke
    • Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Paul B. Pedersen
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs edited by Richard W. Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida
    • Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients (2nd edition): A Practical Guide by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention by Charles R. Ridley
    • Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide by Mark S. Kiselica
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Assessment, Education and Training, and Supervision edited by Donald B. Pope-Davis and Hardin L. K. Coleman
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, Volume 2 edited by Kenneth Cushner and Richard W. Brislin
    • Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment by Richard H. Dana
    • Psychological Testing of American Minorities (2nd edition) by Ronald J. Samuda
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development by Derald Wing Sue et al.
    • Counseling Multiracial Families by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, and Mark E. Kenney
    • Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling by Mary A. Fukuyama and Todd D. Sevig
    • Counseling With Native American Indians and Alaska Natives: Strategies for Helping Professionals by Roger D. Herring
    • Diagnosis in a Multicultural Context: A Casebook for Mental Health Professionals by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Psychotherapy and Counseling With Asian American Clients: A Practical Guide by George K. Hong and Mary Anna Domokos-Cheng Ham
    • Counseling Latinos and la familia: A Practical Guide by Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo, and Maritza Gallardo-Cooper


    View Copyright Page

    Series Editor's Introduction

    Going beyond the Individual

    The psychological sciences have traditionally been based on the notion of the individual as a basic building block of society. That is all being changed, in part by the demographic shift toward cultures, such as the Latinos, where the unit, and particularly the family unit, is central. This shift has enormous consequences for changing the way that counseling psychology functions as a scientific discipline, modifying the textbooks now being used, rewriting lectures for classes now being taught, redirecting professional guidance to students, and changing the rules of counseling practice. This book will help readers survive all those changes by increasing their awareness of why la familia is so important.

    The remarkable growth of Hispanic and Latino populations in the United States has promoted changes in the way counseling is provided. Given the huge demographic shift, there is no avoiding those changes. Those who do not get on the train now will be left behind at the station. There is some urgency for providers of counseling to catch up with their multicultural consumers to maintain relevance and display competence. Although catching up is not going to be easy or simple, this book will provide considerable help to readers toward that goal through systematic and practical suggestions.

    In the past, the notorious underutilization of counseling services by Latinos and other minority groups was tolerated or ignored by counseling professionals. That is no longer a viable choice. In the past, underutilization resulted in continued suffering for the minority client. In the present and future, underutilization will result in continued suffering for the majority counseling provider and for the profession as a whole. It is not just increased competence for a specialized group that is at stake here but rather the validity of counseling as a human service resource.

    Several specific changes in counseling practice will be addressed in this book. First, the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, which moves beyond the narrowly defined boundaries of counseling, will reflect the variety of relevant factors in counseling. Second, there is the integrative perspective of bringing in whole networks of individuals in the enlarged family group as the client rather an isolated individual. Third, understanding the indigenous worldview and perspective of Latinos, recognizing the extreme diversity of viewpoints within that broadly defined population, will require inclusive thinking. Fourth, balancing the unique advantages and disadvantages that impact the Latino client will provide a balanced perspective from the Latino standpoint.

    The chapters of the book begin with a historical understanding of the Latino cultures and the way counseling is perceived from that perspective. Part I discusses how individualistic counseling has often minimized the importance of history with negative consequences for clients where historical roots are essential. The book then helps readers understand the complexities in defining Latino cultural identity from an insider's perspective. The primary values of Hispanic culture are discussed to help counselors avoid misunderstandings with their Latino clients. Demographic trends help readers project these changes into the future of multicultural counseling, particularly in the family context. Part II of the book reviews counseling intervention models, both from textbook counseling theory and from models indigenous to the Latino context. Key assumptions and concepts are highlighted. These strategies will have profound practical relevance for counselors working with Latinos. Finally, the book describes a balance between clinical and cultural dimensions that has generic relevance far beyond the Latino cultural group.

    The Multicultural Aspects of Counseling series has evolved into an encyclopedia of volumes on different aspects of multicultural counseling. Throughout the series the books have taken an inclusive perspective, recognizing both within-group and between-group differences. Each volume has taken a very practical and applied perspective so that readers can immediately use the ideas they have just read. This book helps fill in an essential gap in the published books on multicultural counseling.

    PaulPedersenUniversity of Hawaii


    Demographic changes and shifts, most notably, the rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States, can no longer be ignored. It is estimated that Latinos will number 59 million by the year 2025, when one in five people in the United States will be of Latino heritage (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1993). Moreover, the number of Latino children ages 0 to 14 increased from 4.7 million in 1970 to 8.8 million in 1997; this population is expected to double in size by 2025 (Estrada, 2000). Likewise, the traditional Latino family unit has changed. Recent data indicate that the percentage of children living in intact families has declined from 74% in 1980 to 64% in 1995 (Estrada, 2000). Undeniably, the growing presence of the Latino population throughout the United States and the rapidly changing structure of the Latino family unit have attracted the attention of the mental health profession. For instance, the negative experiences associated with discrimination in education, employment, and health care, as well as poverty, the migration experience, the process of adaptation, and the language barrier may place Latinos at risk for physical and mental health problems.

    It is well recognized that Latinos have historically underutilized mental health services. As a result, proponents of multicultural counseling have advocated for the development of culturally responsive approaches to increase effective use of such services (Altarriba & Santiago-Rivera, 1994; Santiago-Rivera, 1995; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992). Others propose that we need to work with Latino individuals and their families using an integrative and multidisciplinary approach (Zambrana, 1995). This is important because there are a variety of factors (e.g., economic, sociopolitical, and cultural) interacting with each other that not only contribute to the underutilization of services but also influence treatment outcomes.

    The first aim of this book is to present an integrated approach to understanding Latino individuals and their families. There are few resources available on counseling with Latino families (e.g., Falicov, 1998). The next aim, which fills a void in the literature, is to offer students and professionals-in-training, as well as professionals in the field (e.g., social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, educators), essential background information about this heterogeneous population, as well as practical counseling approaches leading to culturally competent strategies in the assessment and treatment of Latinos and their families.

    A third aim of this text is to broaden the scope of knowledge so that mental health professionals can begin to see how many Latino families are constrained by larger societal and institutional structures. We hope that mental health professionals will develop new ways of working with Latino families and take on more advocacy roles in breaking down these structural barriers that have impeded access to appropriate health care.

    In terms of the book's layout, each chapter begins with a common Spanish proverb or a phrase that the authors have used in their work with Latinos, a set of objectives, and general competencies as outlined by Arredondo et al. (1996). Each chapter offers a set of Latino-centered competencies for each component of the three domains: awareness, knowledge, and skills. A set of statements, designed as a self-assessment, is located at the beginning of each chapter, with the correct answers provided at the end. Where appropriate, a rationale is given to explain a particular answer along with a reference to the pages in the text of the chapter.

    This book is divided into two parts. Part I provides a discussion of critical background information about Latinos and their families. Part I consists of five chapters, each with a specific focus. Chapter 1 offers the reader an historical overview of the development of the Multicultural Counseling Competencies (Arredondo et al., 1996) and describes how this framework can be applied to Latino-specific competencies. This chapter also describes Latino-specific identity models that can serve as reference points when working with Latino clients. Following the personal identity dimensions framework (Arredondo & Glauner, 1992), Chapter 2 provides an overview of historical, sociopolitical, and geographical contexts (e.g., migration patterns) that are critical to understanding the heterogeneity of this population. We highlight the differences and similarities among the three largest Latino groups in the United States—Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban—and give some attention to Central and South Americans. In addition, Dominicans, a strong presence in the Northeast, are highlighted in this chapter because of the dramatic increase in their numbers within the last decade. Particular attention is given to describing key historical events that have shaped, directly or indirectly, the lives of this heterogeneous cultural group. Chapter 3 discusses specific concepts, frames of reference, and issues that focus on identity, adaptation and change, family values, religion and spirituality beliefs, health and illness beliefs, language, and gender socialization. This chapter describes how these various dimensions are important in shaping the lives of Latino people. Chapter 4 provides an overview of specific demographic trends, particularly socioeconomic and family characteristics that are redefining the Latino family. Chapter 5 presents the characteristics and challenges of four types of Latino families (e.g., intact, bicultural/biracial, single parent, and immigrant) and describes the demands and stressors that push individuals and their families to cope in ways that may be maladaptive. Through case illustrations, some of the issues and challenges are highlighted.

    Part II consists of three chapters that focus on counseling issues and interventions. Chapter 6 begins with a discussion on issues to consider before meeting the Latino client such as how the client-therapist match with respect to language and culture may affect the initial stages of counseling. This chapter also describes the role of Latino cultural values such as personalismo and simpatía and social etiquette in enhancing a positive counselor-client relationship. With respect to the important dimension of assessment in counseling, this chapter reviews relevant issues and provides an example of a Latino culture-centered clinical interview. Chapter 7 describes helping strategies that can be used during the counseling process, such as language switching, and the use of narratives and metaphors. Chapter 8 briefly reviews a variety of family therapy models that have been used successfully with Latino families and introduces Latino-centered approaches in clinical practice such as the use of a cultural and ecological approach to assessment (i.e., genogram). In Chapter 8, a number of important recommendations to enhance a balance between clinical and cultural dimensions are also presented. Finally, Chapter 9 provides a synthesis of critical issues covered in the preceding chapters, outlines implications for counselor training and supervision, and offers a set of culture-specific competencies. Chapter 9 ends with a discussion of the challenges ahead.

    It is important to note that the term Latino instead of Hispanic is used throughout the text. It is the opinion of the authors that the term Latino represents a renewed sociopolitical consciousness and ethnic pride about one's heritage. Evidence of the term's popularity is reflected in preliminary 2000 Census reports in which Latino is used to describe demographic profiles of this population. Chapter 2 provides a rationale for the use of the term.


    A special acknowledgment is extended to several individuals whose scholarly contributions inspired us to write this book. These individuals are Celia Jaes Falicov, Ph.D, whose pioneering work on counseling Latino families set the stage for us to pursue this challenging project, given that there is a paucity in the literature on this topic; Freddy Paniagua, Ph.D., who provided detailed comments on ways to improve earlier versions of the book manuscript (we also thank him for his invaluable contributions to the field, particularly his work on assessment and treatment guidelines for different cultural/ethnic groups); and Paul Pedersen, Ph.D., Series Editor, for believing in us and for being instrumental in initiating this project. He also provided us with suggestions on how to strengthen aspects of the book.

    Our heartfelt thanks go to our clients, whether through direct service delivery or through supervision of our students and staff. This work is the product of their courage and survival and the many lessons they have taught us.

    We wish to thank our friends, colleagues, and families for encouraging us to pursue this project. These individuals are Barry Hensel, Ph.D., clinical director of Circles of Care, Inc., for his continued support throughout the project; and James Braun, Ed.S., staff member at Circles of Care, Inc., in Florida, who provided resource materials.

    We are truly indebted to the many people who helped us during the preparation of the book manuscript. A special thanks goes to Jeannette Gordon Reinoso and Shannon Adams, graduate students in the Department of Counseling Psychology at Arizona State University, for their skillful work in compiling and reviewing references for the book and to Solmerina Aponte, graduate student in Latin American and Caribbean Studies at the University at Albany, who crafted a concise glossary of terms and assisted in obtaining demographic information on the Latino population. We also want to thank the students enrolled in the Counseling Latinos course at Arizona State University, who offered new perspectives that were integrated into the book.

    Finally, we are indebted to our immediate and extended families who were supportive during the book's preparation. Our sincere gratitude goes to George Cooper for his constant encouragement; Nisa Pilar Cooper for her enthusiasm in providing clerical assistance; Jonathan Gallardo-Cooper for his wit and help in locating library resources; and Lourdes, Damaris, Alexis Diana, and Carlos Santiago for their patience and love.


    Para nuestros padres y familias … la fuente de nuestra alegría, motivación y orgullo

    (To our parents and families … the source of our joy, motivation, and pride)

    Apolinar Arredondo y Eva Zaldivar de Arredondo Ignacio Lorenzo Gallardo y Otilia Reinosa de Gallardo Jacinto Rivera y Jenny Rodriguez de Rivera

  • Appendix A: Selected Measures of Acculturation

    Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA). Cuellar, I., Harris, L. C., & Jasso, R. (1980). An acculturation scale for Mexican American normal and clinical population. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2, 199–217.
    Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II). Cuellar, I., Arnold, B., & Maldonado, R. (1995). Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17, 275–304.
    Acculturation Scale (Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans and Central Americans). Marín, G., Sabogal, F., Marín, B.V., Otero-Sabogal, R., & Perez-Stable, E. J. (1987). Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 183–205.
    Behavioral Acculturation Scale (Cubans). Szapocznik, J., Scopetta, M. A., Kurtines, W., & Arnalde, M. A. (1978). Theory and measurement of acculturation. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 12, 113–130.
    Brief Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (Mexicans and Puerto Ricans). Norris, A. E., Ford, K., & Bova, C. A. (1996). Psychometrics of a brief acculturation scale for Hispanics in a probability sample of urban Hispanic adolescents and young adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 29–38.
    Children's Acculturation Scale (Mexicans). Franco, J. N. (1983). An acculturation scale for Mexican American children. Journal of General Psychology, 108, 175–181.
    Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS). Tropp, L.R., Erkut, S., Garcia Coll, C., Alarcon, O., & Vazquez Garica, H. A. (1999). Psychological acculturation: Development of a new measure for Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59, 351–467.

    Appendix B: Glossary of Terms

    NOTE: This glossary was prepared by Solmerina Aponte. She obtained a B.A. in education and Latin American literature from Central University of Bayamón, Puerto Rico, an M.A. in Latin American and Caribbean studies from the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany, Albany, New York, and an M.A. in modern art and contemporary art history, specializing in Latin American art, from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. She is currently a doctoral student in Latin American and Caribbean Studies at SUNY at Albany. She is a New York State-certified secondary school teacher and a certified court interpreter for the State of New York.

    People and Places
    • Amorcito: Darling, dear (my love). (Oxford Spanish Dictionary, p. 34).
    • Boricua: In the 1960s, as working-class youth and students became politically aware of Puerto Rico's status issues, they began an effort to establish an identity by returning to their pre-Colombian indigenous roots and adopted the name Boricua to identify themselves. (Oboler, pp. 57–58)
    • Borínquen: “Great land of the valiant and noble Lord.” Original Arawak name for the island of Puerto Rico (Coll y Toste, 1972).
    • Brujos: Practitioners of witchcraft or healing rituals; sorcerers. (Roeder, p. 318)
    • Cacique: During precolonial times, this referred to a chieftain or regional lord of the indigenous groups. In modern times, it denotes a regional political boss, often a landowner who controls all issues from behind the scenes; the cacique maintains interests of the ruling party (particularly in Mexico, an unofficial local representative of PRI [ruling party until July 1999]). (Ross, p. 267)
    • Campesino: Country person, peasant-like. Farmworker. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Chicano: Believed to be derived from the word Mexicano. Although the term has been used for centuries, the Mexican American movement in the 1960s reimagined their history through the story of Aztlán, heralding Mexican Americans' Aztec roots, and popularized the term to refer to themselves (Oboler, pp. 57–58, 67–68).
    • Cielo/lito: Angel, sweetheart, darling (my little heaven). (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Constitucionalistas: Supporters of the constitutional aspect of democracy (e.g., division of powers, full respect of individual rights). (Boron, p. 156)
    • Criollo: Creole. First generation of children born to European colonizers (particularly Spaniards) in the Americas. (Samora & Vandel-Simon, p. 28)
    • Curanderos/as: Spiritual folk healers; Indian medicine men/women, especially in Mexican and Mexican American folk medicine. Word has connotation that healer has supernatural powers. (Roeder, p. 319)
    • Espiritistas: Religion based on the belief that good as well as evil spirits have a direct influence in aspects that affect an individual's life; common especially in Spanish-speaking Caribbean. Communication with spirits of the dead can be used for emotional and physical healing purposes. Rituals are performed to appease the spirits and ensure good outcomes of actions (Roeder, p. 320)
    • Guajiro/a: In Cuba, same as jíbaro; peasant. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Jíbaro/a: Land laborer, farm worker in Puerto Rico, mountain dweller. Sometimes a pejorative term used to refer to a rustic, crude, uneducated person; hick (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Marielitos: Wave of Cuban immigrants to Miami in 1980. (Romero, p. 288).
    • Mestizo; mestizaje: Person of mixed race, particularly of Indian and white blood (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • La Migra: Familiar or pejorative Mexican name for Immigration and Naturalization Service and/or officials. U.S.-Mexico Border Police. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • M'ijo/ja/jita/jito: Sweetie, darling, my child (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Mojados: “Wetbacks”; pejorative term for Mexican immigrant farm workers. (Desipio & de la Garza, p. 6)
    • Moreno: In Spain, a dark-haired person. Term derived from the word moor. In the Caribbean, dark-skinned, dark-haired person. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Mulato: Today, any person of mixed white and black blood. Initially, a pejorative term from the Spanish language meaning mule to refer to the offspring born of a white and a black parent
    • Muñeco/a: Sweetie, honey (doll). (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Negro/a/ita/ito: Term of endearment usually for children or spouses. Literally, black, dark. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Nuyorican: Cultural identity that defines the blending of U.S. and Puerto Rican culture, product of migrant experience of Puerto Ricans in New York. (Stavans, pp. 17, 41–43)
    • Pachucos: Mexican American adolescent members of juvenile gangs between the 1930s and 1950s. Commonly called by the media zoot suiters because of their particular style of dress. Later, many youths adopted the manner of dress, speaking style, unique stride, and anti-establishment attitude but were not gang members. (DeLeón, 2001)
    • Parteras: Midwives (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Pochos: Person of Mexican origin who speaks Spanish interspersed with English. Frequently a pejorative term. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Quisqueya: “Place of the High Lands.” Original Arawak name for the central region of the island of Haytí (Haiti), renamed island of Hispaniola by Columbus (today, Dominican Republic). (Coll y Toste, 1972)
    • Santeros: Practitioners of African-derived religion Santería. (Agun, 1996). Santeros also make wood carvings of religious icons, which is considered a craft.
    • Sobadore/as: Healers who administer rubs and massages with ointments and pumices to treat illness. Term derived from the verb sobar, to rub. (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Taíno: Arawak word meaning good. Name Spanish conquistadors believed Arawak inhabitants of the Caribbean islands called themselves (due to misunderstanding of the Arawak language) and conquistadors referred to them as such. Term is still used today. (Coll y Toste, 1972)
    • Tejanos: Texans. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Trigueño/a: Literally, wheat-colored. Tan or dark skin color. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary) [Other terms also used to refer to dark skin: quemadito or tanned, (p. 522) and indio or Indian-color.]
    • Yerberos: Healers who prescribe herbs for medicinal purposes. (Roeder, Chicano Folk Medicine, p. 323)
    • Cariño, Cariñoso/a: Affectionate. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary, p. 111).
    • Caudillismo: Dominance of chief executive in governmental system, i.e. peronismo, castrismo. (Rossi & Piano. Latin America: A Political Dictionary, p. 59)
    • Dignidad: Dignity; pride. Rank or high position. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Fatalismo: Fatalism. Culturally, it is the belief that some things are meant to happen regardless of individual's intervention; events are a result of luck, fate, or powers beyond one's control. (Comas-Díaz, “Hispanic Latino Communities,” Journal of Training & Practice in Professional Psychology pp. 14–35)
    • Hembrismo: Celebration of female attributes. Female equivalent for machismo. Glorification and exaggeration of attitudes and actions considered to be appropriate of feminine women, i.e. sensuality, manipulative and deceiving, possessiveness (Lumsden, 1996)
    • Machismo: Exaltation of masculinity. Glorification and exaggeration of attitudes and actions considered appropriate characteristics of masculine men, such as strength, sexual prowess, and bravery. (Stavans, pp. 108–111)
    • Marianismo: Cult of the feminine spiritual superiority. Teaches that women are morally superior and spiritually stronger than men. Tendency of Latino women to try to attain image of ideal woman using the Virgin Mary as role model. (Yeager, p. 3)
    • Personalismo: Dominant, charismatic person in the political life of a country. People give allegiance to a political leader rather than to constitutional institutions, political organizations, or ideals.
    • Sinvergüenza: Literally, person with no shame. Term that describes person who behaves inappropriately toward others. Crook, rascal, naughty. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    Historical Events
    • Bracero Program: An agreement signed by the governments of Mexico and the United States in which both countries would allow Mexican nationals to enter the United States for temporary periods under stipulated conditions. (Samora & Vandel-Simon, pp. 138–141)
    • Cinco de Mayo: Anniversary of the triumph of the Mexican army over invading French troops in the town of Puebla, Mexico. Day commemorated by the Mexican American population in the United States. (Todo México, Encyclopedia of Mexico: 1985, p. 327)
    • Día de los Muertos: November 1–2. Catholic feast day on which deceased family members and ancestors are remembered. In Mexico, traditional ornate celebration in which Aztec traditions of veneration of the dead are intertwined with Catholic day of observance on November 1. (Vigil, p. 39)
    • Encomiendas: (Colonial) forced labor system in which the governor of the islands allocated Indian labor to the mines or the fields. A certain amount of Native Indians were entrusted to a Spanish conquistador as merit pay for his contribution to the Spanish Conquista. In exchange for the gift, the Indians allocated to his care had to be instructed in the Catholic faith. (Bethell, pp. 17–19)
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Peace treaty between the United States and Mexico, signed in 1848, which settled the Mexican American War. It established provisions for future relations between the two countries by increasing the territory of the United States. (Samora & Vandel-Simon, pp. 98–100)
    • Comadre: Name given to mother and godmother, which defines relationship of compadrazco between them. Affectionate term mother and godmother use to refer to and to address each other. In some Latin American communities, affectionate term used to address a town's elderly woman. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Compadrazco: Godparentage. Family relationship established through the baptism of a child. Family bond is created between parents and godparents of the child. Godparents become surrogate parents in the event of the death of the parents. Also, close bond established between people and/or families. (Vigil, p. xi)
    • Compadre: Name given to father and godfather, which defines the relationship of compadrazco between them. Affectionate term father and godfather use to address each other. In some Latin American communities, affectionate term used to address a town's elderly man. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Familismo: Extension of family beyond nuclear family boundaries. (Comas-Díaz, “Hispanic Latino Communities,” Journal of Training and Practice in Professional Psychology, pp. 14–35)
    • Bautismo: Baptism, christening. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Boda: Wedding. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Charreada: In Mexico, spectacle of horsemanship and rodeo riding. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Quinceañera: A girl's 15th birthday celebration. Traditionally, a girl's formal presentation to society to announce her availability for marriage. (Erickson, pp. 80–81)
    Musical Expressions
    • Bachata: (Dominican Republic) Dominicanized Cuban bolero-son musical rhythm associated with barrio and rural culture. Lyrics are usually composed of street slang and make ironic commentaries on bitter realities. (Austerlitz, pp. 111–114)
    • Merengue: Traditional musical rhythm and dance originated in the Dominican Republic; Afro-Caribbean rhythm. (Austerlitz, pp. 2–8)
    • Rancheras: From the ranch. Mexican folk music. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Salsa: Literal translation means seasoned sauce made with tomatoes. In some regions, it is elaborated with hot or spicy peppers. In music, blend of Cuban and Puerto Rican rhythms, such as mambo, African rhythms, and jazz. These musical rhythms were developed by Cuban and Puerto Rican musicians (mainly percussionists) in New York City in the early 1960s. (Padilla, pp. 28–45)
    Religion and Traditional/Folk Health Beliefs
    • Altares: Altars; shrines decorated with objects as offerings to God, the saints, or departed loved ones, particularly in Mexico during the Day of the Dead celebration on November 1. (Vigil, p. 41)
    • Ataque de nervios: A nervous breakdown accompanied by hysteria. Usually women claim to be afflicted by this ailment. (Oquendo, Horwath & Martinez, pp. 367–376)
    • Empacho: Stomach ailment; gastrointestinal upset; a form of indigestion in which food clings to the stomach or intestinal tract causing sharp pain, nausea, and weakness. Usually caused by overeating, drinking bad water, or chilling. (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Espiritismo: Religion in which communication with the spirit of the dead is sought for guidance and healing purposes. (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Limpias: Cleansing ritual; ritual purifying or sweeping using holy water, an egg, or a small broom made with herbs. Symptoms of illnesses are relieved by ridding patient of evil influences. Usually performed by a santero or an espiritista. (Roeder, pp. 321–322)
    • Mal de ojo: The evil eye. (Roeder, p. 322)
    • Mal puesto: Illness caused by curse, witchcraft. (Roeder, p. 322)
    • Promesas: A vow of penitence offered to God to cure an ailment or to have a prayer or request granted.
    • Santería: Religion initially practiced by descendants of African slaves. Syncretic religion that integrates African animist religion and Catholic faith, in which African deities and Catholic saints are believed to be endowed with certain powers. Deities are believed to be vengeful, and rituals are performed to appease the saints. (Harris, pp. 210–211)
    • Santo: Saint. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Susto: Sudden fright. Illness brought on by fright or a frightening experience, which is believed can jar the soul from the body. It is believed that treatment is required to return the soul to the body. (Roeder, p. 324)
    • Virgen de la Guadalupe: Patron Madonna of Mexico. Cult figure for large number of the Mexican population. Dark-skinned Virgin who is believed to have appeared before the Indian, Juan Diego, with the purpose of instructing him to spread the word of Christianity among the indigenous people. Image Catholic Church used to substitute for Aztec earth-mother deity. (Poole, 1995).
    References for Glossary
    Algun, E.Los secretos de la santería). Miami, FL: Ediciones Universal
    Austerlitz, Paul. Merengue: Dominican Music and Dominican Identity. (1997). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Bethell, Leslie. (Ed.) (1987). Colonial Spanish America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Boron, Atilio. A. (1995). State, Capitalism, and Democracy in Latin America. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    Colly Toste, Dictionary of the Taíno-Indigenous People of the Caribbean. Clásicos de Puerto Rico,
    2nd ed.
    Puerto Rico: Ediciones Latinoamericans.
    Comas-Díaz. (1990). “Hispanic Latino communities: Psychological implications.”Journal of Training and Practice in Professional Psychology, 4(1), 14–35.
    DeLeón, Ethnicity in the Sunbelt: Mexican Americans in Houston. (2001). College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
    Desipio, L., & de la Garza, R. O. (1998.) Making Americans, remaking America: Immigration and immigrant policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Erickson, P. (1998). Latin Adolescent Childbearing in East Los Angeles)Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Harris, I. (Ed.) (1994). Longman Guide to Living Religions.). Harlow, Essex, UK: Longman.
    Lumsden, I. (1996). Machos, Maricones, and Gays: Cuba and Homosexuality. <D Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Oboler, S. (1977). Ethnic labels, Latino lives: Identity and the politics of (re)presentation in the United States. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Oquendo, Horwath, & Martinez, (1977). Culture, medicine, and psychiatry. Boston, D. Reidel.
    Padilla, F. M.Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 11, 28–45) (1989). Salsa music as an expression of Latino consciousness and unity.
    Poole, S. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: The origins and sources of a Mexican national symbol, 1531–1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
    Roeder, B. A. (1988). Chicano Folk Medicine from L.A. California. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Romero, M., Hondagneu-Sotelo, P., & Ortiz, V. (1997). Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S.: An anthology of readings. New York: Routledge, 1997.
    Rossi, E. E., & Piano, J. C. (1992). Latin America: A Political Dictionary. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
    Samora, J., & Vandel-Simon, P. (1993). A history of the Mexican-American people. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Shadows of tender fury: The letters and communiqués of Subcomandante Marcos and the Zapatista Army of National Liberation. (1995). Translated by FrankBardacke, LeslieLopez, and the Watsonville, California, Human Rights Committee; introduction by JohnRoss; afterword by FrankBardacke. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Stavans, I. (1995). The Hispanic condition: Reflections on culture and identity in America. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
    Todo México. (1985). Encyclopedia Britanica de México.
    Vigil, A. (1998). Una Linda Raza: Cultural and artistic traditions of Hispanics. Golden, CO: Fulcrum.
    Yeager, G. M. (Ed.). (1994). Confronting change, challenging tradition: Women in Latin American history. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

    Appendix C: Culture-Centered Clinical Interview

    Clinical and Cultural Impressions

    Preliminary Diagnoses

    • Axis I
    • Axis II
    • Axis III
    • Axis IV
    • Axis V

    Culture Bound Syndromes

    Initial Treatment Plan

    • Individual
    • Systemic/Ecological
    • Cultural Accomodations
    • Referral
    • Community Resources
    • Signature Date

    Appendix D: Selected Bibliotherapy Resources

    Alvarez, J.How the García Girls Lost Their Accent (1992)Fiction
    !Yo! (1997)Fiction
    Augenbraum, H., & Stavans, I. (Eds.)Growing Up Latino: Memoirs and Stories (1993)Anthology
    Carlson. L. (Ed.)Cool Salsa: Bilingual Poems on Growing Up Latino in the United States** (1995)Anthology/Juvenile
    Castillo-Speed, L. (Ed.)Latinas: Women's Voices From the Borderlands (1995)Anthology
    Cisneros, S.The House on Mango Street*(1991)Fiction
    Women Hollering Creek: And Other Stories* (1992)Anthology
    García, C.Dreaming in Cuban* (1993)Fiction
    Gonzalez, R. (Ed.)Muy Macho: Latino Men Confront Their Manhood (1996)Anthology
    Gonzalez, R., & Ruiz, A.My First Book of Proverbs/Mi Primer Libro de Dichos** (1995)Nonfiction for children
    López, T. A. (Ed.)Growing Up Chicana (1995)Anthology
    Marquez, A., & Anaya, A. (Eds.)Cuentos Chicanos: A Short Story Anthology (1984)Anthology
    Nava, Y. (Ed.)It's All in the Frijoles: 100 Famous Latinos Share Real-Life Stories, Time Tested Dichos, Favorite Folktales, and Inspiring Words of Wisdom (2000)Self-Help
    Rodríguez, G.Raising Nuestros Niños: Bringing Up Latino Children in a Bicultural World (1999)Self-help
    Santiago, E.When I Was Puerto Rican* (1994)Autobiography
    Almost a Woman* (1999)Autobiography
    Santiago, E., & Davidow, J. (Eds.)Las Christmas: Favorite Latino Authors Share Their Holidays Memories (1999)Anthology
    Serros, M.How to be a Chicana role model (2000)Fiction
    Stavans, I.The Hispanic condition: Reflections on culture and identity in America (1996)Nonfiction
    Treviño Hart, E.Barefoot heart: Stories of a migrant child (1999)Autobiography

    * Spanish edition available.

    ** Spanish and English used in edition.


    Abalos, D. T. (1986). Latinos in the United States: The sacred and the political. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Abreu, J. M., & Gabarain, G. (2000). Social desirability and Mexican American counselor preferences: Statistical control for a potential confound. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 165–176.
    Acosta-Belén, E., & Santiago, C. (1995, Spring). Merging borders: The remapping of America. The Latino Review of Books, 1(1), 2–12.
    Acosta-Belén, E., & Sjostrom, B. R. (Eds.). (1988). The Hispanic experience in the United States. New York: Praeger.
    Alderete, E., Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. (1999). Depressive symptomatology: Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors among Mexican migrant farm workers in California. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 457–471.
    Altarriba, J., & Santiago-Rivera, A. L. (1994). Current perspectives on using linguistic and cultural factors in counseling the Hispanic client. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 388–397.
    Ambrose, H. J., Flores, M. T., & Carey, G. (2000). Healthcare today: Treating Hispanic families and children with chronic illness. In M. T.Flores & G.Carey (Eds.), Family therapy with Hispanics (pp. 229–250). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    American Psychological Association. (1990). Guidelines for providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse populations. Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychological Association. (1999). Guidelines for psychotherapy with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychological Association. (in press). Guidelines for multicultural counseling proficiency for psychologists: Implications for education and training, research, and clinical practice. Washington, DC: Author.
    Anderson, W. T., Anderson, R. A., & Hovestadt, A. J. (1988). Intergenerational family therapy: A practical primer. In P. E.Keller & S. R.Heyman (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 7, pp. 175–188). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
    Angel, J. (1998). Nuestros padres: Elder care in Hispanic families. Hispanic, 11, 18–23.
    Angel, J. L., & Angel, R. J. (1998). Aging trends: Mexican Americans in the southwestern USA. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 13(3), 281–290.
    Angel, R., & Angel, J. (1997). Who will care for us? Aging and long-term care in multicultural America. New York: New York University Press.
    Arbona, C. (1990). Career counseling research and Hispanics: A review of the literature. The Counseling Psychologist, 18, 300–323.
    Arbona, C. (1998). Psychological assessment: Multicultural or universal. The Counseling Psychologist, 6, 911–921.
    Arcaya, J. M. (1996). The Hispanic male in group therapy. In M. P.Andronico (Ed.), Men in groups: Insights, intervention, and psychoeducation work (pp. 151–161). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Arcia, E., & Johnson, A. (1998). When respect means to obey: Immigrant Mexican mothers' values for their children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 7, 79–95.
    Arciniega, M., Casaus, L., & Castillo, M. (1987). Parenting models and Mexican Americans: A process analysis. Albuquerque, NM: Pajarito.
    Armas, G. (2001, May 8). Hispanic population exceeds predictions. The Daily Gazette, pp. 1A, 6A.
    Arredondo, P. (1998). Integrating multicultural counseling competencies and universal helping conditions in culture-specific contexts. The Counseling Psychologist, 26, 592–601.
    Arredondo, P. (2000, November/December). Suggested “best practices” for increasing diversity in APA Divisions. The APA/Division Dialogue, pp. 1–3.
    Arredondo, P., & Glauner, T. (1992). Personal dimensions of identity model. Boston: Empowerment Workshops.
    Arredondo, P., & Santiago-Rivera, A. (2000). Latino dimensions of personal identity (adapted from Personal Dimensions of Identity Model). Unpublished manuscript.
    Arredondo, P., Toperek, R., Brown, S. P., Jones, J., Locke, D. C., Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 24, 42–78.
    Arredondo-Dowd, P. (1981). Personal loss and grief as a result of immigration. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 59, 376–378.
    Arroyo, J. A. (1996). Psychotherapist bias with Hispanics: An analog study. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 21–28.
    Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (1983). Counseling American minorities: A cross cultural perspective (
    2nd ed.
    ). Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.
    Baca Zinn, M. (1979). Chicano family research: Conceptual distortions and alternative directions. The Journal of Ethnic Studies, 7, 59–71.
    Baca Zinn, M. (1982). Urban kinship and Midwest Chicano families: Evidence in support of revision. De colores, 6, 85–98.
    Bacigalupe, G. (2000). El Latino. In M. T.Flores & G.Carey (Eds.), Family therapy with Hispanics: Toward appreciating diversity (pp. 283–311). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Bailey, D. B., Skinner, D., Rodriguez, P., & Correa, V. (1999). Awareness, use, and satisfaction with services for Latino parents of young children with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65(3), 367–381.
    Bamford, K. W. (1991). Bilingual issues in mental health assessment and treatment. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13(4), 377–390.
    Baptiste, D. A. (1987). Family therapy with Spanish-heritage immigrant families in cultural transition. Contemporary Family Therapy, 9, 229–251.
    Baptiste, D. A. (1990). Therapeutic strategies with Black-Hispanic families: Identity problems of a neglected minority. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 1, 15–38.
    Barker, P. (1985). Using metaphors in psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Barón, A., & Constantine, M. G. (1997). A conceptual framework of conducting psychotherapy with Mexican-American college students. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 108–124). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Battle, J. J. (1997). Academic achievement among Hispanic students from one versus dual-parent households. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 156–170.
    Bean, R. A., Perry, B. J., & Bedell, T. M. (2001). Developing culturally competent marriage and family therapists: Guidelines for working with Hispanic families. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 27, 43–54.
    Berg, I. K., & Miller, S. D. (1992). Working with the problem drinker: A solution-focused approach. New York: Norton.
    Bernal, G., Bonillo, J., & Bellido, C. (1995). Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 67–82.
    Bernal, G., & Flores-Ortiz, Y. (1982). Latino families in therapy: Engagement and evaluation. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 8(3), 357–365.
    Bernal, M. E., & Knight, G. P. (Eds.). (1993). Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Betancourt, H., & López, S. R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist, 48, 629–637.
    Beyebach, M., Rodríguez Morejón, A., Palenzuela, D. L., & Rodríguez-Aras, J. L. (1996). Research on the process of solution-focused therapy. In S. D.Miller & B. L.Duncan (Eds.), Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy (pp. 299–334). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Birman, D. (1998). Biculturalism and perceived competence of Latino immigrant adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 335–354.
    Blacher, J., Shapiro, J., & López, S. (1997). Depression in Latina mothers of children with mental retardation: A neglected concern. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 101, 483–496.
    Blackhall, L. J., Murphy, S. T., Frank, G., Michel, V., & Azen, S. (1995). Ethnicity and attitudes toward patient autonomy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274, 820–825.
    Blank, S., & Torrecilla, R. S. (1998). Understanding the living arrangements of Latino immigrants: A life course approach. International Migration Review, 32, 3–19.
    Boswell, T. (1994). A demographic profile of Cuban Americans. Miami, FL: Cuban American Policy Center, Cuban American National Council.
    Bracero, W. (1998). Intimidades: Confianza, gender, and hierarchy in the construction of Latino-Latina therapeutic relationships. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 4, 264–277.
    Bradford, D. T., & Muñoz, A. (1993). Translation in bilingual psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 52–61.
    Brofenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brook, J., Whiteman, M., Balka, E. A., Win, P. E., & Gursen, M. D. (1997). African American and Puerto Rican drug use: A longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1260–1268.
    Burnette, D. (1999). Physical and emotional well-being of custodial grandparents in Latino families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 305–318.
    Canino, I. A., & Spurlock, J. (2000). Culturally diverse children and adolescents: Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Guilford.
    Carey, G., & Manuppelli, L. (2000). Culture class or not? In M. T.Flores & G.Carey (Eds.), Family therapy with Hispanics: Toward appreciating diversity (pp. 79–123). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). The expanded family life-cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Carter, R. T. (1995). The influence of race and racial identity in psychotherapy. New York: John Wiley.
    Cervantes, R. C., Padilla, A. M., & Salgado de Snyder, V. N. (1991). The Hispanic stress inventory: A culturally relevant approach to psychosocial assessment. Psychological Assessment, 3, 438–447.
    Cervantes, R. C., Salgadode Snyder, V. N., & Padilla, A. M. (1989). Post-traumatic stress disorder among immigrants from Central America and Mexico. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 615–619.
    Cheung, F. K., & Snowden, L. R. (1990). Community mental health and ethnic minority populations. Community Mental Health Journal, 26, 277–291.
    Clauss, C. S. (1998). Language: The unspoken variable in psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy, 35, 188–196.
    Coleman, L. K., Wampold, B. E., & Casali, S. L. (1995). Ethnic minorities' ratings of ethnically similar and European American counselors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 55–64.
    Comas-Díaz, L. (1981). Puerto Rican espiritísmo and psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 636–645.
    Comas-Díaz, L. (1985). Cognitive and behavioral group therapy with Puerto Rican women: A comparison of content themes. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 7, 273–283.
    Comas-Díaz, L. (1987). Feminist therapy with Hispanic/Latina women: Myth or reality?Women and Therapy, 6, 39–61.
    Comas-Díaz, L. (1988). Hispanics. In L.Comas-Díaz & E. E.Griffith (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health (pp. 183–268). New York: John Wiley.
    Comas-Díaz, L. (1996). LatiNegra: Mental health issues of African Latinas. In M.P.P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 167–190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Comas-Díaz, L. (1997). Mental health needs of Latinos with professional status. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 142–165). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Comas-Díaz, L., & Duncan, J. W. (1985). The cultural context: A factor in assertiveness training with mainland Puerto Rican women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 463–475.
    Costantino, G., Colón-Malgady, G., Malgady, R., & Pérez, A. (1991). Assessment of attention deficit disorder using a thematic apperception technique. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 87–95.
    Costantino, G., Flanagan, R., & Malgady, R. G. (2001). Narrative assessment: TAT, CAT, and TEMAS. In L. A.Suzuki, J. G.Ponterotto, & P.Meller (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 217–236). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Costantino, G., Malgady, R. G., & Rogler, L. H. (1986). Cuento therapy: A culturally sensitive modality for Puerto Rican children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 639–645.
    Costantino, G., & Rivera, C. (1994). Culturally sensitive treatment modalities for Puerto Rican children, adolescents, and adults. In R. G.Malgady & O.Rodriguez (Eds.), Theoretical and conceptual issues in Hispanic mental health (pp. 181–226). Malabar, FL: Krieger.
    Council of National Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Issues. (2000). Guidelines for research in ethnic minority communities. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Crohn, J. (1998). Intercultural couples. In M.McGoldrick (Ed.), Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (pp. 295–308). New York: Guilford.
    Croker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608–630.
    Cross, W. E. (1991). Shades of Black: Diversity in African American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Cuellar, I., Harris, L. C., & Jasso, R. (1980). An acculturation scale for Mexican American normal and clinical populations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2, 199–217.
    Currier, R. I. (1966). The hot-cold syndrome and symbolic balance in Mexican and Spanish-American folk medicine. Ethnology, 5, 251–263.
    Dana, R. H. (1993). Multicultural assessment perspectives for professional psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    D'Andrea, M., & Arredondo, P. (2000, April). Convergence of multiple identities presents new challenges. Counseling Today, pp. 12, 40.
    D'Andrea, M., & Daniels, J, (1995). Promoting multicultural and organizational changes in the counseling profession: A case study. In J. B.Ponterotto, J. M.Casas, L. A.Suzuki, & C. M.Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 17–33). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Deater-Deckard, K., & Scarr, S. (1996). Parenting stress among dual-earner mothers and fathers: Are there gender differences?Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 45–59.
    de los Angeles Torres, M. (1998). Transnational political and cultural identities: Crossing theoretical borders. In R. F.Bonilla, E.Melendez, R.Morales, & los Angeles Torres (Eds.), Borderless borders: U.S. Latinos, Latin Americans, and the paradox of interdependence (pp. 169–182). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Dicen que prosperidad en E.E. U.U. se debe a la familia. (2000, September 2). El Nuevo Día Interactivo: Noticias desde Puerto Rico. [On-line]. Available:
    Diez de Leon, C. (2000). Acculturation and family therapy with Hispanics. In M. T.Flores & G.Carey (Eds.), Family therapy with Hispanics: Toward appreciating diversity (pp. 283–311). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Driscoll, A., & Henderson, T. (March 31, 2001). In Dade, Latin percentage highest in nation. Miami Herald.
    Echeverry, J. J. (1997). Treatment barriers: Accessing and accepting professional help. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 94–107). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Ellickson, P. L., & McGuigan, K. A. (2000). Early predictors of adolescent violence. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 566–572.
    Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
    Espín, O. M. (1987). The psychological impact of migration on Latinas: Implications for psychotherapeutic practice. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 489–503.
    Espín, O. M. (1997). Latina realities: Essays on healing, migration, and sexuality. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Espín, O. M. (1999). Women crossing boundaries: A psychology of immigration and transformation of sexuality. New York: Routledge.
    Estrada, L. F. (2000). Children: A demographic profile. Unpublished manuscript, UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research.
    Fabbro, F. (1999). The neurolinguistics of bilingualism. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press Ltd.
    Falicov, C. J. (1986). Cross-cultural marriages. In N. S.Jacobson & A. S.Gurman (Eds.), Clinical handbook of marital therapy (pp. 429–450). New York: Guilford.
    Falicov, C. J. (1998). Latino families in therapy: A guide to multicultural practice. New York: Guilford.
    Falicov, C. J. (1999). Latino life cycle. In B.Carter & M.McGoldrick (Eds.), The expanded life cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives (pp. 141–152). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Featherstone, V. (1996). A feminist critique of family therapy. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 9, 15–23.
    Fischer, A. R., Jome, L. M., & Atkinson, D. R. (1998). Back to the future of multicultural psychotherapy with a common factors approach. The Counseling Psychologist, 26, 602–606.
    Fitzgerald, L. F., & Nutt, R. (1986). The Division 17 principles concerning the counseling/psychotherapy of women: Rationale and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 14(1), 180–216.
    Flaskerud, J. H. (1986). The effects of culture-compatible intervention on the utilization of mental health services by minority clients. Community Mental Health Journal, 22, 127–141.
    Flores, M. T., & Carey, G. (2000). Family therapy with Hispanics: Toward appreciating diversity. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Flores-Ortíz, Y. (2000). Injustice in Latino families: Considerations for family therapists. In M. T.Flores & G.Carey (Eds.), Family therapy with Hispanics: Toward appreciating diversity (pp. 251–263). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Flores-Ortíz, Y., & Bernal, G. (1990). Contextual family therapy of addiction with Latinos. In G. W.Saba, B. M.Karrer, & K. V.Hardy (Eds.), Minorities and family therapy (pp. 123–142). Binghamton, NY: Haworth.
    Florsheim, P., Tolan, P. H., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1996). Family process and risk of externalizing behavior problems among African American and Hispanic boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1222–1230.
    Frank, J. D., & Frank, J. B. (1991). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy (
    3rd ed.
    ). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
    Frauenglass, S., Routh, D. K., Pantin, H. M., & Mason, C. A. (1997). Family support decreases influences of deviant peers on Hispanic adolescents' substance use. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26(1), 15–23.
    Fukuyama, M. A. (1990). Taking a universal approach to multicultural counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 36, 6–17.
    Gallardo-Cooper, M. (1998, March). Treatment strategies. In P.Arredondo (Chair), Latino identity. Learning institute conducted at the meeting of the American Counseling Association, Indianapolis, IN.
    Gallardo-Cooper, M. (1999, March). Latino perspectives. In S.Kromash (Chair), Cultural/spiritual diversity: A social worker's guide to sensitive practice. Symposium conducted at the National Association of Social Workers, Melbourne, FL.
    Gallardo-Cooper, M. (2000). Bilingual mental health practice: An emerging specialty. Unpublished manuscript, Melbourne, FL.
    Gallardo-Cooper, M. (2001a). Culture-centered clinical interview. Unpublished manuscript.
    Gallardo-Cooper, M. (2001b, March). The Latino parent-child relationship across the life-span. Learning institute presented at the meeting of the American Counseling Association, San Antonio, TX.
    Garcia Coll, C., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnie, K., Wasik, B. H., & Vázquez García, H. (1998). An integration model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. In M. E.Hertzig & E. A.Farber (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development: 1997 (pp. 437–463). Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.
    García-Preto, N. (1996a). Latino families: An overview. In M.McGoldrick, J.Giordano, & J. K.Pearc (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 141–154). New York: Guilford.
    García-Preto, N. (1996b). Puerto Rican families. In M.McGoldrick, J.Giordano, & J. K.Pearce (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 183–199). New York: Guilford.
    García-Preto, N. (1998). Latinas in United States: Building two bridges. In M.McGoldrick (Ed.), Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (pp. 330–346). New York: Guilford.
    Garvin, G. (2000, January 2). Latin America the main source of immigrants to United States. The Miami Herald [Online],
    Garzon, F., & Siang-Tan, T. (1992). Counseling Hispanics: Cross-cultural and Christian perspectives. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 11(4), 379–390.
    Gil, A. G., Vega, W. A., & Biafora, F. (1998). Temporal influences of family structure and family risk factors on drug abuse initiation in a multiethnic sample of adolescent boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 373–393.
    Gil, R. M., & Vazquez, C. I. (1996). The Maria paradox. New York: Perigee.
    Glickauf-Hughes, C., Hughes, G. B., & Wells, M. (1986). A developmental approach to treating dual-career couples. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 14, 254–263.
    Gloria, A. M., & Rodríguez, E. R. (2000). Counseling Latino university students: Psycho-sociocultural issues for consideration. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 145–154.
    Gómez, M. Y. (1999). The grandmother as an enlightened witness in the Hispanic culture. Psychline: Inter-Transdisciplinary Journal of Mental Health, 3, 15–19.
    Gonzalez, J. (2000). Harvest of empire: The history of Latinos in America. New York: Viking.
    Gonzalez-Wippler, M. (1989). Santería, the religion: A legacy of faith, rites, magic. New York: Harmony Books.
    Gottman, J. M. (1998). Psychology and the study of marital processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 169–197.
    Gregory, D. (1978). Transcultural medicine: Treating Hispanic patients. Behavioral Medicine, 5, 22–29.
    Grossman, J., & Shigaki, I. S. (1994). Investigation of familial and school-based risk factors for Hispanic Head Start children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64, 456–467.
    Guerin, P. J. (Ed.). (1976). Family therapy: Theory and practice. New York: Garder Press.
    Gutierrez, L. M. (1990). Working with women of color: An empowerment perspective. Social Work, 35, 149–153.
    Hakuta, K., & Garcia, E. E. (1989). Bilingualism and education. American Psychologist, 44, 374–379.
    Hardiman, R. (1982). White identity development: A process-oriented model for describing the racial consciousness of White Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 104A. (University Microfilms No. 82-10330)
    Hardy, K. V. (1990). The theoretical myth of sameness: A critical issue in family therapy training and treatment. In G. W.Saba, B. M.Karrer, & K. V.Hardy (Eds.), Minorities and family therapy (pp. 17–33). New York: Haworth.
    Hardy, K. V., & Laszloffy, T. A. (1995). The cultural genogram: Key in training culturally competent family therapists. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy, 21, 227–237.
    Hartman, A. (1995). Diagrammatic assessment of family relationships. Families in Society, 76, 111–122.
    Harwood, A. (1971). The hot-cold theory of disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 216, 1153–1158.
    Hayes-Bautista, D. (1978). Chicano patients and medical practitioners: A sociology of knowledge, paradigms of lay professional interaction. Social Science and Medicine, 12, 83–90.
    Hayghe, H. V., & Bianchi, S. M. (1994). Married mothers' work patterns: The job-family compromise. Monthly Labor Review, 117, 24–30.
    Hazuda, H. P., Stern, M., & Haffner, S. (1988). Acculturation and assimilation among Mexican Americans: Scales and population based data. Social Science Quarterly, 69(3), 687–706.
    Heller, T., Markwardt, R., Rowitz, L., & Farber, B. (1994). Adaptation of Hispanic families to a member with mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 99, 289–300.
    Helms, J. E. (1984). Toward a theoretical explanation of the effects of race on counseling: A Black and White model. The Counseling Psychologist, 12, 153–165.
    Helms, J. E. (1995). An update of Helms' White and people of color racial identity models. In J. G.Ponterotto, J. M.Casas, L. A.Suzuki, & C. M.Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 181–191). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hernández, M. (1996). Central American families. In M.McGoldrick, J.Giordano, & J. K.Pearce (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 214–224). New York: Guilford.
    Hernández, M., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). Migration and the life cycle. In B.Carter & M.McGoldrick (Eds.), The expanded family life-cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives (pp. 169–184). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Hernández, P. (2000, August). The TEMAS life story group: Narrative inpatient therapy. In W.Bracero (Chair), TEMAS therapy: TEMAS narratives as cultural discourse and therapeutic metaphors. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Hernández, R., Rivera-Batiz, F., & Agodini, R. (1995). Dominican New Yorkers: A socioeconomic profile (Dominican Research Monographs). New York: City College of New York, The Dominican Studies Institute.
    Heubusch, K., & Dortch, S. (1996). Meet the new Hispanic family. American Demographics [On-line], 18. Available: Academic Search Elite.
    Ho, M. (1987). Family therapy with ethnic minorities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ho, M. (1990). Intermarried couples in therapy. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Hoberman, H. M. (1992). Ethnic minority status and adolescent mental health service utilization. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 19, 246–267.
    Holcomb-McCoy, C., & Myers, J. E. (1999). Multicultural competence and counselor training: A national survey. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77, 294–302.
    Hong, Y., Morris, M. W., Chiu, C., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709–720.
    Hurtado, A. (1995). Variations, combinations, and evolutions: Latino families in the United States. In R.Zambrana (Ed.), Understanding Latino families: Scholarship, policy, and practice (pp. 40–61). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hurtado, A., Rodriguez, J., Gurin, P., & Beals, J. L. (1993). The impact of Mexican descendants' social identity on the ethnic socialization of children. In M. E.Bernal & G.Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 131–162). Albany: SUNY Press.
    Immigration and Naturalization Service. (2000, August 22). Statistics illegal alien resident population [On-line], Available:
    Inclán, J. E. (1990). Understanding Hispanic families: A curriculum outline. Journal of Strategic & Systemic Therapies, 9, 64–82.
    Inclán, J. E., & Hernandez, M. (1992). Cross-cultural perspectives and codependence: The case of poor Hispanics. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62(2), 245–255.
    Inclán, J. E., & Herron, D. G. (1998). Puerto Rican adolescents. In J. T.Gibbs & L. H.Huang (Eds.), Children of color (pp. 240–263). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Jasinski, J. L. (1998). The role of acculturation in wife assault. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20(2), 175–191.
    Javier, R. (1989). Linguistic considerations in the treatment of bilinguals. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 6, 87–96.
    Jenkins, J. H., & Schumacher, J. G. (1999). Family burden of schizophrenia and depressive illness: Specifying the effects of ethnicity, gender, and social ecology. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 31–38.
    Johnson, J. J. (1986). Life events as stressors in childhood and adolescence (Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 8). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Johnston, C. (1996). Parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 85–101.
    Keefe, S. E., & Padilla, A.M. (1987). Chicano ethnicity. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
    Koss-Chioino, J. (1999). Depression among Puerto Rican women: Culture, etiology, and diagnosis. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21, 330–350.
    Koss-Chioino, J. O., & Vargas, L. M. (1999). Working with latino youth: Culture, development, and context. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kratochwill, T. R., & Sheridan, S. M. (1990). Advances in behavioral assessment. In T. R.Gutkin & C. R.Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of school psychology (pp. 328–364). New York: John Wiley.
    Krauth, L. D. (1995, December). Single-parent families: The risk to children. Family Therapy News, p. 14.
    Kuehl, B. P. (1995). The solution-focused genogram: A collaborative approach. Journal of marital and Family Therapy, 21, 239–250.
    Kunkel, J. H. (1997). The analysis of rule-governed behavior in social psychology. Psychological Reports, 47, 698–715.
    La Roche, M. J. (1999). The association of social relations and depression levels among Dominicans in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21, 420–430.
    Latinos in America: A journey in stages. (2000, January 15). The Washington Post [Online], 15.html
    Leong, T. L., Wagner, N. S., & Tata, S. P. (1995). Racial and ethnic variations in help-seeking attitudes. In J. G.Ponterotto, J. M.Casas, L. A.Suzuki, & C.Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 415–438). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Lequerica, M. (1993). Stress in immigrant families with handicapped children: A child advocacy approach. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63(4), 545–552.
    Leslie, L. A., & Leitch, M. L. (1989). A demographic profile of recent Central American immigrants: Clinical and service implications. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 11(4), 315–329.
    Levine, E. S., & Padilla, A. M. (1980). Crossing cultures in therapy: Pluralistic counseling for the Hispanic. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Lichter, D. T., & Landale, N. S. (1995). Parental work, family structure, and poverty among Latino children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 346–354.
    Lijtmaer, R. M. (1998). Psychotherapy with Latinas. Feminism & Psychology, 8, 537–543.
    Locke, D. C. (1992). Increasing multicultural understanding: A comprehensive model. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    López, E. C., & Gopaul-McNicol, S. (1997). English as a second language. In G. G.Bear, K. M.Minke, & A.Thomas (Eds.), Children's needs: Vol. 2. Development, problems, and alternatives (pp. 523–531). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists Publications.
    López, S. R., Grover, K. P., Holland, D., Johnson, M. J., Kain, C. D., Kanel, K., Mellins, C. A., & Rhyne, M. C. (1989). Development of culturally sensitive psychotherapists. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 20, 369–376.
    López-Baez, S. (1999). Marianismo. In J. S.Mio, J. E.Trimble, P.Arredondo, H. E.Cheatham, & D.Sue (Eds.), Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary (p. 183). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Lorenzo-Hernandez, J. (1998). How social categories may inform the study of Hispanic immigration. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20(1), 39–59.
    Lyle, R. R., & Faure, F. (2000). Life-cycle development, divorce, and the Hispanic family. In M. T.Flores & G.Carey (Eds.), Family therapy with Hispanics: Toward appreciating diversity (pp. 185–203). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Magaña, S. M. (1999). Puerto Rican families caring for an adult with mental retardation: Role of familism. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 104, 466–482.
    Magilvy, J. K., Congdon, J. G., Martinez, R. J., Davis, R., & Averill, J. (2000). Caring for our own: Health care experiences of rural Hispanic elders. Journal of Aging Studies, 14, 171–190.
    Malgady, R. G., & Costantino, G. (1998). Symptom severity in bilingual Hispanics as a function of clinician and language of interview. Psychological Assessment, 10, 120–127.
    Malgady, R., Costantino, G., & Rogler, L. (1984). Development of a Thematic Apperception Test (TEMAS) for urban Hispanic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 986–996.
    Malgady, R. G., & Rodriguez, O. (Eds.). (1994). Theoretical and conceptual issues in Hispanic mental health. Melbourne, FL: Robert E. Krieger.
    Malgady, R. G., Rogler, L. H., & Costantino, G. (1990a). Culturally sensitive psychotherapy for Puerto Rican children and adolescents: A program of treatment outcome research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology [Special Series on Treatment of Children], 58, 704–712.
    Malgady, R. G., Rogler, L. H., & Costantino, G. (1990b). Hero/heroine modeling for Puerto Rican adolescents: A preventive mental health intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 469–474.
    Marcos, L. R. (1976). Bilinguals in psychotherapy: Language as an emotional barrier. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 30, 552–560.
    Marcos, L. R. (1994). The psychiatric examination of Hispanics: Across the language barrier. In R.Malgady & O.Rodriguez (Eds.), Theroetical and conceptual issues in Hispanic mental health (pp. 143–153). Malbar, FL: Krieger.
    Marcos, L. R., & Alpert, M. (1976). Strategies and risks in psychotherapy with bilingual patients. American journal of Psychiatry, 133, 1275–1278.
    Marcos, L. R., Alpert, M., Urcuyo, L., & Kesselman, M. (1973). The effects of interview language on the evaluation of psychopathology in Spanish-American schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 549–553.
    Marcos, L. R., & Urcuyo, L. (1979). Dynamic psychotherapy with the bilingual patient. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 33, 331–338.
    Marín, G. (1992). Issues in the measurement of acculturation among Hispanics. In K. F.Geisinger (Ed.), Psychological testing of Hispanics (pp. 235–251). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Marín, G. (1993). Influence of acculturation on familialism and self-identification among Hispanics. In M. E.Bernal & G. P.Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formations and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 181–196). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Marín, G., & Marín, B. V. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Marín, G., Sabogal, F., Marín, B. V., Otero-Sabogal, R., & Perez-Stable, E. (1987). Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 183–205.
    Marín, G., & Triandis, H. C. (1985). Allocentrism as an important characteristic of the behavior of Latin Americans and Hispanics. In R.Diaz-Guerrero (Ed.), Cross-cultural and national studies in social psychology (pp. 85–104). Amsterdam: North Holland.
    Markides, K. S., Ray, L. A., Stroup-Behnam, C. A., & Trevino, F. (1990). Acculturation and alcohol consumption in the Mexican American population of the southwestern US: Findings from HHANES 1982–1984. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 42–46.
    Marsella, A. J., & Yamada, N. M. (2000). Culture and mental health: An introduction and overview of foundations, concepts, and issues. In I.Cuellar & F. A.Paniagua (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural and mental health assessment and treatment of diverse populations (pp. 3–24). New York: Academic Press.
    Martínez, C. (2000). Conducting the cross-cultural clinical interview. In I.Cuellar & F. A.Paniagua (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural mental health assessment and treatment of diverse populations (pp. 311–322). New York: Academic Press.
    Martinez, R. J. (1999). Close friends of God: An ethnographic study of health in older Hispanic adults. Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, 5, 40–45.
    Mary, N. L. (1990). Reactions of Blacks, Hispanics, and White mothers to having a child with handicaps. Mental Retardation, 28(1), 1–5.
    Massey, D., Zambrana, R. E., & Alonzo-Bell, S. (1994). Contemporary issues in Latino families: Future directions for research, policy, and practice. In R. E.Zambrana (Ed.), Understanding Latino families: Scholarship, policy, and practice (pp. 190–204). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Masud-Piloto, F. (1988). With open arms. Totowa, NJ: Rowan & Littlefield.
    McGoldrick, M., & Carter, B. (1998). Self in context: The individual life cycle in systemic perspective. In B.Carter & M.McGoldrick (Eds.), The expanded life cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives (pp. 27–45). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    McGoldrick, M., & García-Preto, N. (1984). Ethnic intermarriage: Implications for therapy. Family Process, 23, 347–364.
    McGoldrick, M., Gerson, R., & Schellenberger, S. (1999). Genograms in family assessment. New York: Norton.
    McMiller, W. P., & Weisz, J. R. (1996). Help seeking preceding mental health clinic intake among African-American, Latino, and Caucasian youths. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1086–1094.
    Mena, F. J., Padilla, A. M., & Maldonado, M. (1987). Acculturative stress and specific coping strategies among immigrant and later generation college students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 207–255.
    Microtraining Associates. (1999). Culturally competent counseling & therapy, Part III: Innovative approaches to counseling Latina/o people [Film]. (Available from Microtraining and Multicultural Development, PO Box 9641, North Amherst, MA 01059-9641)
    Miller-Jones, D. (1989). Culture and testing. American Psychologist, 44, 360–366.
    Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mirandé, A (1985). The Chicano experience: An alternative perspective. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Mock, M. R. (1998). Clinical reflections on refugee families: Transforming crisis into opportunities. In M.McGoldrick (Ed.), Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (pp. 347–359). New York: Guilford.
    Molina, C., Zambrana, E. E., & Aguirre-Molina, M. J. (1994). The influence of culture, class, and environment on health care. In C. W.Molina & M.Aguirre-Molina (Eds.), Latino health in the US: A growing challenge. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
    Molina, C. W., & Aguirre-Molina, M. (Eds.). (1994). Latino health in the US: A growing challenge. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
    Moncher, M. S., Holden, G. W., Schinke, S. P., & Palleja, J. (1990). Behavioral family treatment of the substance abusing Hispanic adolescent. In E. L.Feindler & G. R.Kalfus (Eds.), Adolescent behavioral therapy handbook (pp. 329–349). New York: Springer.
    Montalvo, B., & Gutiérrez, M. J. (1989). Nine assumptions for work with ethnic minority families. Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family, 6, 35–52.
    Moore, J., & Pachon, H. (1985). Hispanics in the United States. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Moore Hines, O., Garcia-Preto, N., McGoldrick, M., Almeida, R., & Weltman, S. (1999). In B.Carter & M.McGoldrick (Eds.), The expanded life cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives (pp. 27–45). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Morales, E. (1996). Gender roles among Latino gay and bisexual men: Implications for family and couple relationships. In J.Laird & R. J.Green (Eds.), Lesbians and gays in couples and families: A handbook for therapists (pp. 272–297). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Murphy, J. J., & Duncan, B. L. (1997). Practical solutions to school problems: A brief intervention. New York: Guilford.
    Nava, Y. (Ed.). (2000). It's all in the frijoles: 100 famous Latinos share real-life stories, time-tested dichos, favorite folktales, and inspiring words of wisdom. New York: Fireside.
    Negy, C. (2000). Limitations of the multicultural approach to psychotherapy with diverse clients. In I.Cuellar & F. A.Paniagua (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural mental health assessment and treatment of diverse populations (pp. 439–453). New York: Academic Press.
    Negy, C., & Snyder, D. K. (2000). Relationship satisfaction of Mexican American and non-Hispanic White American interethnic couples: Issues of acculturation and clinical intervention. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 26, 293–304.
    Novas, H. (1994). Everything you needed to know about Latino history. New York: Plume.
    Office of Management and Budget. (1978, May 4). Directive 15: Race and ethnic standards for federal statistics and administrative reporting. Federal Registry, 43, 19269.
    Oquendo, M., Horwath, E., & Martinez, A. (1989). Ataque de nervios: Proposed diagnostic criteria for a culture-specific syndrome. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 16, 367–376.
    Oropesa, R. S. (1996). Normative beliefs about marriage and cohabitation: A comparison of non-Latino Whites, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 58, 49–62.
    Ortiz, V. (1995). The diversity of the Latino family. In R. E.Zambrana (Ed.), Understanding Latino families: Scholarship, policy, and practice (pp. 18–38). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Pabón, E. (1998). Hispanic delinquency and the family: A discussion of sociocultural influences. Adolescence, 33, 941–951.
    Padilla, A. M. (1994). Bicultural development: A theoretical and empirical examination. In R. G.Malgady & O.Rodriguez (Eds.), Theoretical and conceptual issues in Hispanic mental health (pp. 19–51). Malabar, FL: Krieger.
    Padilla, A. M. (Ed.). (1995). Hispanic psychology: Critical issues in theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Padilla, A. M., Cervantes, R. C., Maldonado, M., & Garcia, R. E. (1988). Coping responses to psychosocial stressors among Mexican and Central American immigrants. Journal of Community Psychology, 16(4), 418–427.;2-R
    Paniagua, F. A. (1996). Cross-cultural guidelines in family therapy practice. Family Journal, 4, 127–138.
    Paniagua, F. A. (1998). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Paniagua, P. (2001). A casebook for mental health professionals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Papp, P. (Ed.). (2000). Couples on the fault line: New directions for therapists. New York: Guilford.
    Pedersen, P. (1999). Multiculturalism as a fourth force. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.
    Penn, C. D., Hernández, S. L., & Bermúdez, M. (1997). Using a cross-cultural perspective to understand infidelity in couples therapy. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 25, 169–185.
    Perel, E. (2000). A tourist's view of marriage: Cross-cultural couples—challenges, choices, and implications. In P.Papp (Ed.), Couples on the fault line (pp. 180–204). New York: Guilford.
    Pérez-Foster, R. P. (1998). The power of language in the clinical process: Assessing and treating the bilingual person. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    Pernani, D., Paulesu, E., Galles, N. S., Dupoux, E., Dehaene, S., Bettinardi, V., Cappa, S. F., Fazio, F., & Mehler, J. (1998). The bilingual brain: Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language. Brain, 121, 1841–1852.
    Phinney, J. S. (1993). A three-stage model of ethnic identity in adolescence. In M. E.Bernal & G. P.Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Planos, R., Zayas, L. H., & Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1997). Mental health factors and teaching behaviors among low income Hispanic mothers. Families in Society, 78, 4–12.
    Poma, P. (1983). Hispanic cultural influences on medical practice. Journal of the National Medical Association, 75, 941–946.
    Ponterotto, J. G. (1987). Counseling Mexican Americans: A multimodal approach. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 308–312.
    Ponterotto, J. G. (1988). Racial consciousness development among white counselors' trainees: A stage model. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 16, 146–156.
    Ponterotto, J., & Pedersen, P. B. (1993). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors and educators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Poston, W. C. (1990). The biracial identity development model: A needed addition. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 152–155.
    Preciado, J., & Henry, M. (1997). Linguistic barriers in health education and services. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 235–254). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Quintana, S. M. (1995). Acculturative stress: Latino immigrants and the counseling profession. The Counseling Psychologist, 23, 68–73.
    Quintana, S. M., & Vega, E. M. (1999). Mexican American children's ethnic identity, understanding of ethnic prejudice, and parental ethnic socialization. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21, 387–404.
    Ramirez, M. (1998). Multicultural/multiracial psychology: Mestizo perspectives in personality and mental health. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    Ramírez, O. (1998). Mexican American children and adolescents. In J. T.Gibbs & L. H.Huang (Eds.), Children of color (pp. 217–239). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ramos-McKay, J. M., Comas-Díaz, L., & Rivera, L. A. (1988). Puerto Ricans. In L.Comas-Díaz & E.E.H.Griffith (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health (pp. 204–232). New York: John Wiley.
    Ramos-Sánchez, L., Atkinson, D. R., & Fraga, E. D. (1999). Mexican Americans' bilingual ability, counselor bilingualism cues, counselor ethnicity, and perceived counselor credibility. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 125–131.
    Ranson, M. A. (2000, August). TEMAS psychoeducational group therapy with Latina mothers of at-risk children. In W.Bracero (Chair), TEMAS therapy: TEMAS narratives as cultural discourse and therapeutic metaphors. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Rhodes, J. E., Contreras, J. M., & Mangelsdorf, S. C. (1994). Natural mentor relationships among Latina adolescent mothers: Psychological adjustment, moderating processes, and the role of early parental acceptance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22(2), 211–227.
    Rhodes, J. E., Gingiss, P. L., & Smith, P. B. (1994). Risk and protective factors for alcohol use among pregnant African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents: The influence of peers, sexual partners, family members, and mentors. Addictive Behaviors, 19, 555–564.
    Rivera-Arzola, M., & Ramos-Grenier, J. (1997). Anger, ataques de nervios, and la mujer Puertorriqueña: Sociocultural considerations and treatment implications. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 125–141). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Rivera-Batiz, F., & Santiago, C. (1994). Puerto Ricans in the United States: A changing reality. Washington, DC: National Puerto Rican Coalition.
    Rivera-Batiz, F., & Santiago, C. (1996). Island paradox: Puerto Rico in the 1990s. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Roberts, R. E., & Chen, Y. (1995). Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among Mexican-origin and Anglo adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 81–90.
    Robinson, L. (1998, May 11). Hispanics don't exist. U.S. News & World Report, pp. 27–32.
    Robinson, T. L., & Howard-Hamilton, M. F. (2000). The convergence of race, ethnicity, and gender: Multiple identities in counseling. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Rogler, L. H. (2000). Methodological sources of cultural insensitivity in mental health research. American Psychologist, 54, 424–433.
    Rogler, L. H., Malgady, R. G., Costantino, G., & Blumenthal, R. (1987). What do culturally sensitive mental health services mean? The case of Hispanics. American Psychologist, 42, 565–570.
    Rogoff, B., & Morelli, G. (1989). Perspectives on children's development from cultural psychology. American Psychologist, 44, 343–348.
    Romero, A. J. (2000). Assessing and treating Latinos: Overview of research. In I.Cuellar & F.Paniagua (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural mental health (pp. 209–223). New York: John Wiley.
    Romero, A. J., Cuéllar, I., & Roberts, R. E. (2000). Ethnocultural variables and attitudes toward cultural socialization of children. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 79–89.;2-N
    Root, M.P.P. (Ed.). (1992). Racially mixed people in America. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Rosado, J. W., & Elias, M. J. (1993). Ecological and psychoeducational mediators in the delivery of services for urban, culturally diverse Hispanic clients. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 24, 450–459.
    Rotter, J. C., & Casado, M. (1998). Promoting strengths and celebrating culture: Working with Hispanic families. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 6(2), 132–136.
    Rovira, L. I. (1984). Spanish proverbs: A survey of Spanish culture and civilization. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Rozensky, R. H., & Gómez, M. Y. (1983). Language switching in psychotherapy with bilinguals: Two problems, two models, and case examples. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 20, 152–160.
    Ruiz, A. S. (1990). Ethnic identity: Crisis and resolution. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 18, 29–40.
    Sabogal, F., Marín, G., Otero-Sabogal, R., Marín, B., & Perez-Stable, E. (1987). Hispanic familism and acculturation: What changes and what doesn't?Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 397–412.
    Saldaña, D. (1996). Acculturative stress: Minority status and distress. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 16, 116–128.
    Salgado de Snyder, V. N. (1999). Latina women: Constructing a new vision from within. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21, 229–235.
    Sánchez, B., & Reyes, O. (1999). Descriptive profile of the mentorship relationships of Latino adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 299–302.
    Sánchez-Ayéndez, M. (1989). Puerto Rican elderly women: The cultural dimension of social support networks. Women and Health, 14, 239–252.
    Santiago-Rivera, A. (1995). Developing a culturally sensitive treatment modality for bilingual Spanish-speaking clients: Incorporating culture and language in therapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, 12–17.
    Santiago-Rivera, A. L. (1999). Central American. In J. S.Mio, J. E.Trimble, P.Arredondo, H. E.Cheatham, & D.Sue (Eds.), Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary (pp. 39–40). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Santiago-Rivera, A. L., & Altarriba, J. (2001). The role of language in therapy with bilingual Spanish-speaking clients: Past contributions, contemporary perspectives, and future directions. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Santiago-Rivera, A. L., & Esterman, K. (1999, August). Why multicultural family therapy? Paper presented at the meeting of the American Counseling Association, San Diego, CA.
    Schrauf, R. W. (1999). Mother tongue maintenance among North American ethnic groups. Cross-Cultural Research, 33, 175–192.
    Sciarra, D. T. (1999). Intrafamilial separations in the immigrant family: Implications for cross-cultural counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 27, 31–41.
    Sciarra, D. T., & Ponterotto, J. G. (1991). Counseling the Hispanic bilingual family: Challenges to the therapeutic process. Psychotherapy, 28, 473–479.
    Seijo, R., Gómez, H., & Freidenberg, J. (1991). Language as a communication barrier in medical care for Hispanic patients. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13, 363–376.
    Sesin, M. C. (2000, August). Healing open wounds: The paintings of Frida Kahlo in group therapy with Latinas. In W.Bracero (Chair), TEMAS therapy: TEMAS narratives as cultural discourse and therapeutic metaphors. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Shank, M. S., & Turnball, A. P. (1993). Cooperative family problem solving: An intervention with single-parent families of children with disabilities. In G.H.S.Singer & L. E.Powers (Eds.), Families, disability, and empowerment: Active coping skills and strategies for family interventions (pp. 231–254). Baltimore, MD: Brooks.
    Sluzki, C. E. (1998). Migration and the disruption of the social network. In M.McGoldrick (Ed.), Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (pp. 360–369). New York: Guilford.
    Smart, J. F., & Smart, D. W. (1994). The rehabilitation of Hispanics experiencing acculturative stress: Implications for practice. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 60, 8–12.
    Smart, J. F., & Smart, D. W. (1995a). Acculturative stress of Hispanics: Loss and challenge. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 390–396.
    Smart, J. F., & Smart, D. W. (1995b). Acculturative stress: The experience of the Hispanic immigrant. The Counseling Psychologist, 23, 25–42.
    Sodowsky, G. R., Taffe, R. C., Gutkins, T. B., & Wise, S. L. (1992). Development of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: A self-report measure of multicultural competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 137–148.
    Speight, S. L., & Vera, E. M. (1997). Similarity and difference in multicultural counseling: Considering the attraction and repulsion hypotheses. The Counseling Psychologist, 25, 280–298.
    Stevens, E. P. (1973). The prospect for a women's liberation movement in Latin America. American Journal of Marriage and the Family, 231–320.
    Sue, D. W. (1978). Eliminating cultural oppression in counseling: Toward a general theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25, 419–428.
    Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 477–483.
    Sue, D. W., Bernier, J., Durran, M., Feinberg, L., Pedersen, P., Smith, E., & Vasquez-Nuttall, E. (1982). Position paper: Cross-cultural counseling competencies. The Counseling Psychologist, 10, 45–52.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice. New York: John Wiley.
    Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different. New York: John Wiley.
    Suro, R. (1999). Mixed doubles. American Demographics, 21, 56–62.
    Szapocznick, J. (1994, August). Hispanic families: Contributions to a psychology for all people. Invited address presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA.
    Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. (1980). Acculturation, biculturalism, and adjustment among Cuban Americans. In A. M.Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models, and some new findings (pp. 139–159). Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. M. (1993). Family psychology and cultural diversity: Opportunities for theory, research, and application. American Psychologist, 48, 400–407.
    Szapocznick, J., Kurtines, W. M., Foote, F., Pérez-Vidal, A., & Hervis, O. (1986). Conjoint versus one-person family therapy through one person with drug-abusing adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 395–397.
    Szapocznik, J., Kurtines, W. M., Santisteban, D. A., Patín, H., Scopetta, M., Mancilla, Y., Aisenberg, S., Pérez-Vidal, A., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1997). The evolution of a structural ecosystemic theory for working with Latino families. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 166–190). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Szapocznick, J., Kurtines, W. M., Santisteban, D. A., & Rio, A. T. (1990). Interplay of advances between theory, research, and application in the treatment interventions aimed at behavior problem children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 693–703.
    Szapocznick, J., Pérez-Vidal, A., Brickman, A. L., Foote, F. H., Santisteban, D., Hervis, O., & Kurtines, W. M. (1988). Engaging adolescent drug abusers and their families in treatment: A strategic structural systems approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 552–557.
    Szapocznick, J., Rio, A. T., Murray, E., Cohen, R., Scopetta, M., Rivas-Vázquez, A., Hervis, O., Posada, V., & Kurtines, W. M. (1989). Structural family versus psychodynamic child therapy for problematic Hispanic boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical, 57, 571–578.
    Szapocznik, J., Santisteban, D., Kurtines, W. M., Pérez-Vidal, A., & Hervis, O. (1984). Bicultural effectiveness training: A treatment intervention for enhancing intercultural adjustment in Cuban American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 6(4), 317–344.
    Szapocznick, J., Santisteban, D., Rio, A., Pérez-Vidal, A., Kurtines, W., & Hervis, O. (1986). Bicultural effectiveness training (BET): An intervention modality for families experiencing intergenerational/intercultural conflict. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 11, 4–27.
    Szapocznick, J., Scopetta, M. A., Aranalde, M. A., & Kurtines, W. M. (1978). Cuban value structure: Treatment implications. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 961–970.
    Szapocznick, J., Scopetta, M. A., King, O. (1978). Theory and practice in matching to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants. Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112–122.
    Szapocznick, J., Scopetta, M. A., Kurtines, W. M., & Aranalde, M. A. (1978). Theory and measurement of acculturation. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 12, 113–130.
    Teti, D. M., Gelfand, D. M., Messinger, D. S., & Isabella, R. (1995). Maternal depression and the quality of early attachment: An examination of infants, preschoolers, and their mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31, 364–376.
    Tiet, Q. Q., Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Hoven, C., Cohen, P., Jensen, P. S., & Goodman, S. (1998). Adverse life events and resilience. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191–1200.
    Titelman, P. (1998a). Family systems assessment based on Bowen theory. In P.Titelman (Ed.), Clinical applications of Bowen family systems theory (pp. 51–116). New York: Hawthorne.
    Titelman, P. (1998b). Overview of the Bowen theoretical-therapeutic system. In P.Titelman (Ed.), Clinical applications of Bowen family systems theory (pp. 7–49). New York: Hawthorne.
    Todd, T. (2000). Solution-focused strategic parenting of challenging teens: A class for parents. Family Relations, 49, 165–168.
    Toppelberg, C. O. (1997). Minority help seeking [Letter to the editor]. Journal of the American Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 443–444.
    Torres-Rivera, E. (1999). Group work with Latino clients: A psychoeducational model. Journal of Specialists in Group Work, 24, 383–402.
    Torres-Saillant, S., & Hernández, R. (1998). The Dominican Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Trevino, F. M., & Sumaya, C. (1993). Increasing the representation of Hispanics in the health professions. Public Health Reports, 108, 551–558.
    Triandis, H. C., Marín, G., Lisansky, J., & Betancourt, H. (1984). Simpatía as a cultural script of Hispanics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1363–1375.
    Trostle, S. L. (1988). The effects of child-centered group play sessions on social-emotional growth of three- to six-year-old bilingual Puerto Rican children. Research in Childhood Education, 3, 93–106.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1990). 1990 census population (Public use microdata sample). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1993). Hispanic Americans today (Current Population Reports, P 23–183). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1999). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1999 (Current Population Reports, P 20–535). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2001a). The Hispanic population: Census brief (C2KBR/01-3). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2001b). The Hispanic population in the United States: Population characteristics: March 2000 (Current Population Survey, P 20–535). Available:
    Vasquez, M. (1994). Latinas. In L.Comas-Díaz & B.Greene (Eds.), Women of color: A portrait of heterogeneity (pp. 114–138). New York: Guilford.
    Vega, W. A., Gil, A. G., Warheit, G. J., Zimmerman, R. S., & Apospori, E. (1993). Acculturation and delinquent behavior among Cuban American adolescents: Toward an empirical model. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21(1), 113–125.
    Warda, M. R. (2000). Mexican Americans perceptions of culturally competent care. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22, 203–224.
    Wasserstein, S. B. (1998). Hurricane Andre parent conflict as a moderator of children's adjustment. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20, 212–224.
    Wehrly, B., Kenney, K. R., & Kenney, M. E. (1999). Counseling multiracial families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Wilson, M. N., Kohn, L. P., & Lee, T. S. (2000). Cultural relativistic approach toward ethnic minorities in family therapy. In J. F.Aponte & J.Wohl (Eds.), Psychological intervention and cultural diversity (pp. 92–109). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Wolin, S., & Bennett, L. (1984). Family rituals. Family Process, 23, 401–420.
    Wrenn, C. G. (1962). The culturally encapsulated counselor. Harvard Educational Review, 32, 444–449.
    Yoshioka, M. (2000). Substantive differences in the assertiveness of low-income African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian women. The Journal of Psychology, 134, 243–259.
    Zambrana, R. (Ed.). (1995). Understanding Latino families: Scholarship, policy, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Zavala, M. V. (2000). Puerto Rican identity: What language has to do with it? In S.Nieto (Ed.), Puerto Rican students in U.S. schools (pp. 115–135). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Zayas, L. H., Kaplan, C., Turner, S., Romano, K., & Gonzàlez-Ramos, G. (2000). Understanding suicide attempts by adolescent Hispanic females. Social Work, 45, 53–63.
    Zea, M. C., Diehl, V. A., & Porterfield, K. S. (1997). Central American youth exposed to war violence. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 39–55). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Zea, M. C., Mason, M. A., & Murguía, A. (2000). Psychotherapy with members of Latino/Latina religions and spiritual traditions. In P. S.Richards & A. E.Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity (pp. 397–419). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Zea, M. C., Quezada, T., & Belgrave, F. Z. (1997). Limitations of an acultural health psychology for Latinos: Reconstructing the African influence on Latino culture and health-related behaviors. In J. G.Garcia & M. C.Zea (Eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 255–266). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Zepeda, M., & Espinosa, M. (1988). Parental knowledge of children's behavioral capabilities: A study of low income parents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 10, 149–159.
    Zúñiga, M. E. (1992a). Dichos as metaphorical tools for resistant Latino clients. Psychotherapy, 28, 480–483.
    Zúñiga, M. E. (1992b). Families with Latino roots. In E. W.Lynch & M. J.Hanson (Eds.), Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with young children and their families (pp. 151–179). Baltimore, MD: Brooks.

    About the Authors

    Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and holds academic appointments in the Department of Latin American and Caribbean Studies and the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, Division of Counseling Psychology, at the State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York. She earned a doctorate in counseling from Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. She is a national certified counselor and has held leadership positions within the counseling profession. She served as vice president of the Latino Interest Network of the Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) and as president of Counselors for Social Justice (CSJ) within the American Counseling Association. Her publications and research interests include bilingual therapy, health and the environment, and stress and coping. She has presented on these topics at major conferences and has published in such journals as the Journal of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice and the Journal of Counseling and Development.

    Patricia Arredondo, Ed.D, is Associate Professor in the Division of Psychology in Education at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. She earned a doctorate in counseling psychology at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. She is a licensed psychologist and began her professional career as a teacher. She has held leadership positions within the counseling field and is renowned for her contributions in the development of multicultural counseling competencies, with such publications as the “Operationalization of the Multicultural Counseling Competencies” (with R. Toporek, S. P. Brown, J. Jones, D. C. Locke, J. Sanchez, and H. Stadler) appearing in the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. Dr. Arredondo's research interests and publications include managing diversity in the workplace, racism, Latino/Hispanic health issues, gender issues, and the impact of migration on psychological health. She has authored several books and has written articles for Business Week, Latina Magazine, and Counseling Today. She has served in numerous leadership positions including president of the Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) of the American Counseling Association and president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Minority Issues, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association.

    Maritza Gallardo-Cooper, Ph. D., is a school psychologist and marriage family therapist with more than 25 years experience as a clinician in the private sector, practicing in Texas, Puerto Rico, and Florida. She obtained her doctorate from the University of Florida. Dr. Gallardo-Cooper has developed and directed a variety of mental health treatment programs in Florida. Currently, she is the outpatient program director for a large behavioral health consortium in Florida, a position she has held for the past 12 years. She was a member of the Hispanic Task Force in the 1978 President's Commission on Mental Health and has presented in numerous professional training programs at the local, state, and national level in areas such as child and family therapy, marital interventions, Latino psychology, and organizational development. Her research interests focus on brief therapy models, treatment outcome, biculturalism, and bilingual assessment and intervention therapy.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website