Counseling Latinos and la Familia: A Practical Guide

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Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo & Maritza Gallardo-Cooper

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  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Overview

  • Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series

    Series Editor

    Paul Pedersen, Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham

    Editorial Board
    • Patricia M. Arredondo, Ed.D.

      Arizona State University

    • J. Manuel Casas, Ph.D.

      University of California, Santa Barbara

    • Harold E. Cheatham, Ph.D.

      The Pennsylvania State University

    • William E. Cross, Jr., Ph.D.

      University of Massachusetts

    • Candace Marie Fleming, Ph.D.

      University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

    • Mary Fukuyama, Ph.D.

      University of Florida

    • L. Sunny Hansen, Ph.D.

      University of Minnesota

    • Allen E. Ivey, Ed.D.

      University of Massachusetts

    • Teresa LaFromboise, Ph.D.

      Stanford University

    • Jun-chih Gisela Lin, Ph.D., ABPP

      Texas A&M University

    • Don C. Locke, Ed.D.

      University of North Carolina, Asheville

    • Amado M. Padillo, Ph.D.

      Stanford University

    • Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D.

      Fordham University

    • Derald Wing Sue, Ph.D.

      California State University, Hayward

    • Norman D. Sundberg, Ph.D.

      University of Oregon

    • Junko Tanaka-Matsumi, Ph.D.

      Hofstra University

    • Joseph E. Trimble, Ph.D.

      Western Washington University

    • Melba J.T. Vasquez, Ph.D.

      Independent Practice, Austin, Texas

    • Clemmont E. Vontress, Ph.D.

      George Washington University

    Volumes in This Series
    • Increasing Multicultural Understanding (2nd edition): A Comprehensive Model by Don C. Locke
    • Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Paul B. Pedersen
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs edited by Richard W. Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida
    • Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients (2nd edition): A Practical Guide by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention by Charles R. Ridley
    • Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide by Mark S. Kiselica
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Assessment, Education and Training, and Supervision edited by Donald B. Pope-Davis and Hardin L. K. Coleman
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, Volume 2 edited by Kenneth Cushner and Richard W. Brislin
    • Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment by Richard H. Dana
    • Psychological Testing of American Minorities (2nd edition) by Ronald J. Samuda
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development by Derald Wing Sue et al.
    • Counseling Multiracial Families by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, and Mark E. Kenney
    • Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling by Mary A. Fukuyama and Todd D. Sevig
    • Counseling With Native American Indians and Alaska Natives: Strategies for Helping Professionals by Roger D. Herring
    • Diagnosis in a Multicultural Context: A Casebook for Mental Health Professionals by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Psychotherapy and Counseling With Asian American Clients: A Practical Guide by George K. Hong and Mary Anna Domokos-Cheng Ham
    • Counseling Latinos and la familia: A Practical Guide by Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo, and Maritza Gallardo-Cooper

    Copyright

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    Series Editor's Introduction

    Going beyond the Individual

    The psychological sciences have traditionally been based on the notion of the individual as a basic building block of society. That is all being changed, in part by the demographic shift toward cultures, such as the Latinos, where the unit, and particularly the family unit, is central. This shift has enormous consequences for changing the way that counseling psychology functions as a scientific discipline, modifying the textbooks now being used, rewriting lectures for classes now being taught, redirecting professional guidance to students, and changing the rules of counseling practice. This book will help readers survive all those changes by increasing their awareness of why la familia is so important.

    The remarkable growth of Hispanic and Latino populations in the United States has promoted changes in the way counseling is provided. Given the huge demographic shift, there is no avoiding those changes. Those who do not get on the train now will be left behind at the station. There is some urgency for providers of counseling to catch up with their multicultural consumers to maintain relevance and display competence. Although catching up is not going to be easy or simple, this book will provide considerable help to readers toward that goal through systematic and practical suggestions.

    In the past, the notorious underutilization of counseling services by Latinos and other minority groups was tolerated or ignored by counseling professionals. That is no longer a viable choice. In the past, underutilization resulted in continued suffering for the minority client. In the present and future, underutilization will result in continued suffering for the majority counseling provider and for the profession as a whole. It is not just increased competence for a specialized group that is at stake here but rather the validity of counseling as a human service resource.

    Several specific changes in counseling practice will be addressed in this book. First, the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, which moves beyond the narrowly defined boundaries of counseling, will reflect the variety of relevant factors in counseling. Second, there is the integrative perspective of bringing in whole networks of individuals in the enlarged family group as the client rather an isolated individual. Third, understanding the indigenous worldview and perspective of Latinos, recognizing the extreme diversity of viewpoints within that broadly defined population, will require inclusive thinking. Fourth, balancing the unique advantages and disadvantages that impact the Latino client will provide a balanced perspective from the Latino standpoint.

    The chapters of the book begin with a historical understanding of the Latino cultures and the way counseling is perceived from that perspective. Part I discusses how individualistic counseling has often minimized the importance of history with negative consequences for clients where historical roots are essential. The book then helps readers understand the complexities in defining Latino cultural identity from an insider's perspective. The primary values of Hispanic culture are discussed to help counselors avoid misunderstandings with their Latino clients. Demographic trends help readers project these changes into the future of multicultural counseling, particularly in the family context. Part II of the book reviews counseling intervention models, both from textbook counseling theory and from models indigenous to the Latino context. Key assumptions and concepts are highlighted. These strategies will have profound practical relevance for counselors working with Latinos. Finally, the book describes a balance between clinical and cultural dimensions that has generic relevance far beyond the Latino cultural group.

    The Multicultural Aspects of Counseling series has evolved into an encyclopedia of volumes on different aspects of multicultural counseling. Throughout the series the books have taken an inclusive perspective, recognizing both within-group and between-group differences. Each volume has taken a very practical and applied perspective so that readers can immediately use the ideas they have just read. This book helps fill in an essential gap in the published books on multicultural counseling.

    PaulPedersenUniversity of Hawaii

    Preface

    Demographic changes and shifts, most notably, the rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States, can no longer be ignored. It is estimated that Latinos will number 59 million by the year 2025, when one in five people in the United States will be of Latino heritage (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1993). Moreover, the number of Latino children ages 0 to 14 increased from 4.7 million in 1970 to 8.8 million in 1997; this population is expected to double in size by 2025 (Estrada, 2000). Likewise, the traditional Latino family unit has changed. Recent data indicate that the percentage of children living in intact families has declined from 74% in 1980 to 64% in 1995 (Estrada, 2000). Undeniably, the growing presence of the Latino population throughout the United States and the rapidly changing structure of the Latino family unit have attracted the attention of the mental health profession. For instance, the negative experiences associated with discrimination in education, employment, and health care, as well as poverty, the migration experience, the process of adaptation, and the language barrier may place Latinos at risk for physical and mental health problems.

    It is well recognized that Latinos have historically underutilized mental health services. As a result, proponents of multicultural counseling have advocated for the development of culturally responsive approaches to increase effective use of such services (Altarriba & Santiago-Rivera, 1994; Santiago-Rivera, 1995; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992). Others propose that we need to work with Latino individuals and their families using an integrative and multidisciplinary approach (Zambrana, 1995). This is important because there are a variety of factors (e.g., economic, sociopolitical, and cultural) interacting with each other that not only contribute to the underutilization of services but also influence treatment outcomes.

    The first aim of this book is to present an integrated approach to understanding Latino individuals and their families. There are few resources available on counseling with Latino families (e.g., Falicov, 1998). The next aim, which fills a void in the literature, is to offer students and professionals-in-training, as well as professionals in the field (e.g., social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, educators), essential background information about this heterogeneous population, as well as practical counseling approaches leading to culturally competent strategies in the assessment and treatment of Latinos and their families.

    A third aim of this text is to broaden the scope of knowledge so that mental health professionals can begin to see how many Latino families are constrained by larger societal and institutional structures. We hope that mental health professionals will develop new ways of working with Latino families and take on more advocacy roles in breaking down these structural barriers that have impeded access to appropriate health care.

    In terms of the book's layout, each chapter begins with a common Spanish proverb or a phrase that the authors have used in their work with Latinos, a set of objectives, and general competencies as outlined by Arredondo et al. (1996). Each chapter offers a set of Latino-centered competencies for each component of the three domains: awareness, knowledge, and skills. A set of statements, designed as a self-assessment, is located at the beginning of each chapter, with the correct answers provided at the end. Where appropriate, a rationale is given to explain a particular answer along with a reference to the pages in the text of the chapter.

    This book is divided into two parts. Part I provides a discussion of critical background information about Latinos and their families. Part I consists of five chapters, each with a specific focus. Chapter 1 offers the reader an historical overview of the development of the Multicultural Counseling Competencies (Arredondo et al., 1996) and describes how this framework can be applied to Latino-specific competencies. This chapter also describes Latino-specific identity models that can serve as reference points when working with Latino clients. Following the personal identity dimensions framework (Arredondo & Glauner, 1992), Chapter 2 provides an overview of historical, sociopolitical, and geographical contexts (e.g., migration patterns) that are critical to understanding the heterogeneity of this population. We highlight the differences and similarities among the three largest Latino groups in the United States—Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban—and give some attention to Central and South Americans. In addition, Dominicans, a strong presence in the Northeast, are highlighted in this chapter because of the dramatic increase in their numbers within the last decade. Particular attention is given to describing key historical events that have shaped, directly or indirectly, the lives of this heterogeneous cultural group. Chapter 3 discusses specific concepts, frames of reference, and issues that focus on identity, adaptation and change, family values, religion and spirituality beliefs, health and illness beliefs, language, and gender socialization. This chapter describes how these various dimensions are important in shaping the lives of Latino people. Chapter 4 provides an overview of specific demographic trends, particularly socioeconomic and family characteristics that are redefining the Latino family. Chapter 5 presents the characteristics and challenges of four types of Latino families (e.g., intact, bicultural/biracial, single parent, and immigrant) and describes the demands and stressors that push individuals and their families to cope in ways that may be maladaptive. Through case illustrations, some of the issues and challenges are highlighted.

    Part II consists of three chapters that focus on counseling issues and interventions. Chapter 6 begins with a discussion on issues to consider before meeting the Latino client such as how the client-therapist match with respect to language and culture may affect the initial stages of counseling. This chapter also describes the role of Latino cultural values such as personalismo and simpatía and social etiquette in enhancing a positive counselor-client relationship. With respect to the important dimension of assessment in counseling, this chapter reviews relevant issues and provides an example of a Latino culture-centered clinical interview. Chapter 7 describes helping strategies that can be used during the counseling process, such as language switching, and the use of narratives and metaphors. Chapter 8 briefly reviews a variety of family therapy models that have been used successfully with Latino families and introduces Latino-centered approaches in clinical practice such as the use of a cultural and ecological approach to assessment (i.e., genogram). In Chapter 8, a number of important recommendations to enhance a balance between clinical and cultural dimensions are also presented. Finally, Chapter 9 provides a synthesis of critical issues covered in the preceding chapters, outlines implications for counselor training and supervision, and offers a set of culture-specific competencies. Chapter 9 ends with a discussion of the challenges ahead.

    It is important to note that the term Latino instead of Hispanic is used throughout the text. It is the opinion of the authors that the term Latino represents a renewed sociopolitical consciousness and ethnic pride about one's heritage. Evidence of the term's popularity is reflected in preliminary 2000 Census reports in which Latino is used to describe demographic profiles of this population. Chapter 2 provides a rationale for the use of the term.

    Acknowledgments

    A special acknowledgment is extended to several individuals whose scholarly contributions inspired us to write this book. These individuals are Celia Jaes Falicov, Ph.D, whose pioneering work on counseling Latino families set the stage for us to pursue this challenging project, given that there is a paucity in the literature on this topic; Freddy Paniagua, Ph.D., who provided detailed comments on ways to improve earlier versions of the book manuscript (we also thank him for his invaluable contributions to the field, particularly his work on assessment and treatment guidelines for different cultural/ethnic groups); and Paul Pedersen, Ph.D., Series Editor, for believing in us and for being instrumental in initiating this project. He also provided us with suggestions on how to strengthen aspects of the book.

    Our heartfelt thanks go to our clients, whether through direct service delivery or through supervision of our students and staff. This work is the product of their courage and survival and the many lessons they have taught us.

    We wish to thank our friends, colleagues, and families for encouraging us to pursue this project. These individuals are Barry Hensel, Ph.D., clinical director of Circles of Care, Inc., for his continued support throughout the project; and James Braun, Ed.S., staff member at Circles of Care, Inc., in Florida, who provided resource materials.

    We are truly indebted to the many people who helped us during the preparation of the book manuscript. A special thanks goes to Jeannette Gordon Reinoso and Shannon Adams, graduate students in the Department of Counseling Psychology at Arizona State University, for their skillful work in compiling and reviewing references for the book and to Solmerina Aponte, graduate student in Latin American and Caribbean Studies at the University at Albany, who crafted a concise glossary of terms and assisted in obtaining demographic information on the Latino population. We also want to thank the students enrolled in the Counseling Latinos course at Arizona State University, who offered new perspectives that were integrated into the book.

    Finally, we are indebted to our immediate and extended families who were supportive during the book's preparation. Our sincere gratitude goes to George Cooper for his constant encouragement; Nisa Pilar Cooper for her enthusiasm in providing clerical assistance; Jonathan Gallardo-Cooper for his wit and help in locating library resources; and Lourdes, Damaris, Alexis Diana, and Carlos Santiago for their patience and love.

    Dedication

    Para nuestros padres y familias … la fuente de nuestra alegría, motivación y orgullo

    (To our parents and families … the source of our joy, motivation, and pride)

    Apolinar Arredondo y Eva Zaldivar de Arredondo Ignacio Lorenzo Gallardo y Otilia Reinosa de Gallardo Jacinto Rivera y Jenny Rodriguez de Rivera

  • Appendix A: Selected Measures of Acculturation

    Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA). Cuellar, I., Harris, L. C., & Jasso, R. (1980). An acculturation scale for Mexican American normal and clinical population. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2, 199–217.
    Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II). Cuellar, I., Arnold, B., & Maldonado, R. (1995). Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17, 275–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863950173001
    Acculturation Scale (Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans and Central Americans). Marín, G., Sabogal, F., Marín, B.V., Otero-Sabogal, R., & Perez-Stable, E. J. (1987). Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 183–205.
    Behavioral Acculturation Scale (Cubans). Szapocznik, J., Scopetta, M. A., Kurtines, W., & Arnalde, M. A. (1978). Theory and measurement of acculturation. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 12, 113–130.
    Brief Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (Mexicans and Puerto Ricans). Norris, A. E., Ford, K., & Bova, C. A. (1996). Psychometrics of a brief acculturation scale for Hispanics in a probability sample of urban Hispanic adolescents and young adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 29–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863960181004
    Children's Acculturation Scale (Mexicans). Franco, J. N. (1983). An acculturation scale for Mexican American children. Journal of General Psychology, 108, 175–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1983.9711491
    Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS). Tropp, L.R., Erkut, S., Garcia Coll, C., Alarcon, O., & Vazquez Garica, H. A. (1999). Psychological acculturation: Development of a new measure for Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59, 351–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00131649921969794

    Appendix B: Glossary of Terms

    NOTE: This glossary was prepared by Solmerina Aponte. She obtained a B.A. in education and Latin American literature from Central University of Bayamón, Puerto Rico, an M.A. in Latin American and Caribbean studies from the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany, Albany, New York, and an M.A. in modern art and contemporary art history, specializing in Latin American art, from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. She is currently a doctoral student in Latin American and Caribbean Studies at SUNY at Albany. She is a New York State-certified secondary school teacher and a certified court interpreter for the State of New York.

    People and Places
    • Amorcito: Darling, dear (my love). (Oxford Spanish Dictionary, p. 34).
    • Boricua: In the 1960s, as working-class youth and students became politically aware of Puerto Rico's status issues, they began an effort to establish an identity by returning to their pre-Colombian indigenous roots and adopted the name Boricua to identify themselves. (Oboler, pp. 57–58)
    • Borínquen: “Great land of the valiant and noble Lord.” Original Arawak name for the island of Puerto Rico (Coll y Toste, 1972).
    • Brujos: Practitioners of witchcraft or healing rituals; sorcerers. (Roeder, p. 318)
    • Cacique: During precolonial times, this referred to a chieftain or regional lord of the indigenous groups. In modern times, it denotes a regional political boss, often a landowner who controls all issues from behind the scenes; the cacique maintains interests of the ruling party (particularly in Mexico, an unofficial local representative of PRI [ruling party until July 1999]). (Ross, p. 267)
    • Campesino: Country person, peasant-like. Farmworker. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Chicano: Believed to be derived from the word Mexicano. Although the term has been used for centuries, the Mexican American movement in the 1960s reimagined their history through the story of Aztlán, heralding Mexican Americans' Aztec roots, and popularized the term to refer to themselves (Oboler, pp. 57–58, 67–68).
    • Cielo/lito: Angel, sweetheart, darling (my little heaven). (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Constitucionalistas: Supporters of the constitutional aspect of democracy (e.g., division of powers, full respect of individual rights). (Boron, p. 156)
    • Criollo: Creole. First generation of children born to European colonizers (particularly Spaniards) in the Americas. (Samora & Vandel-Simon, p. 28)
    • Curanderos/as: Spiritual folk healers; Indian medicine men/women, especially in Mexican and Mexican American folk medicine. Word has connotation that healer has supernatural powers. (Roeder, p. 319)
    • Espiritistas: Religion based on the belief that good as well as evil spirits have a direct influence in aspects that affect an individual's life; common especially in Spanish-speaking Caribbean. Communication with spirits of the dead can be used for emotional and physical healing purposes. Rituals are performed to appease the spirits and ensure good outcomes of actions (Roeder, p. 320)
    • Guajiro/a: In Cuba, same as jíbaro; peasant. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Jíbaro/a: Land laborer, farm worker in Puerto Rico, mountain dweller. Sometimes a pejorative term used to refer to a rustic, crude, uneducated person; hick (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Marielitos: Wave of Cuban immigrants to Miami in 1980. (Romero, p. 288).
    • Mestizo; mestizaje: Person of mixed race, particularly of Indian and white blood (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • La Migra: Familiar or pejorative Mexican name for Immigration and Naturalization Service and/or officials. U.S.-Mexico Border Police. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • M'ijo/ja/jita/jito: Sweetie, darling, my child (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Mojados: “Wetbacks”; pejorative term for Mexican immigrant farm workers. (Desipio & de la Garza, p. 6)
    • Moreno: In Spain, a dark-haired person. Term derived from the word moor. In the Caribbean, dark-skinned, dark-haired person. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Mulato: Today, any person of mixed white and black blood. Initially, a pejorative term from the Spanish language meaning mule to refer to the offspring born of a white and a black parent
    • Muñeco/a: Sweetie, honey (doll). (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Negro/a/ita/ito: Term of endearment usually for children or spouses. Literally, black, dark. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Nuyorican: Cultural identity that defines the blending of U.S. and Puerto Rican culture, product of migrant experience of Puerto Ricans in New York. (Stavans, pp. 17, 41–43)
    • Pachucos: Mexican American adolescent members of juvenile gangs between the 1930s and 1950s. Commonly called by the media zoot suiters because of their particular style of dress. Later, many youths adopted the manner of dress, speaking style, unique stride, and anti-establishment attitude but were not gang members. (DeLeón, 2001)
    • Parteras: Midwives (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Pochos: Person of Mexican origin who speaks Spanish interspersed with English. Frequently a pejorative term. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Quisqueya: “Place of the High Lands.” Original Arawak name for the central region of the island of Haytí (Haiti), renamed island of Hispaniola by Columbus (today, Dominican Republic). (Coll y Toste, 1972)
    • Santeros: Practitioners of African-derived religion Santería. (Agun, 1996). Santeros also make wood carvings of religious icons, which is considered a craft.
    • Sobadore/as: Healers who administer rubs and massages with ointments and pumices to treat illness. Term derived from the verb sobar, to rub. (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Taíno: Arawak word meaning good. Name Spanish conquistadors believed Arawak inhabitants of the Caribbean islands called themselves (due to misunderstanding of the Arawak language) and conquistadors referred to them as such. Term is still used today. (Coll y Toste, 1972)
    • Tejanos: Texans. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Trigueño/a: Literally, wheat-colored. Tan or dark skin color. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary) [Other terms also used to refer to dark skin: quemadito or tanned, (p. 522) and indio or Indian-color.]
    • Yerberos: Healers who prescribe herbs for medicinal purposes. (Roeder, Chicano Folk Medicine, p. 323)
    Values
    • Cariño, Cariñoso/a: Affectionate. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary, p. 111).
    • Caudillismo: Dominance of chief executive in governmental system, i.e. peronismo, castrismo. (Rossi & Piano. Latin America: A Political Dictionary, p. 59)
    • Dignidad: Dignity; pride. Rank or high position. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Fatalismo: Fatalism. Culturally, it is the belief that some things are meant to happen regardless of individual's intervention; events are a result of luck, fate, or powers beyond one's control. (Comas-Díaz, “Hispanic Latino Communities,” Journal of Training & Practice in Professional Psychology pp. 14–35)
    • Hembrismo: Celebration of female attributes. Female equivalent for machismo. Glorification and exaggeration of attitudes and actions considered to be appropriate of feminine women, i.e. sensuality, manipulative and deceiving, possessiveness (Lumsden, 1996)
    • Machismo: Exaltation of masculinity. Glorification and exaggeration of attitudes and actions considered appropriate characteristics of masculine men, such as strength, sexual prowess, and bravery. (Stavans, pp. 108–111)
    • Marianismo: Cult of the feminine spiritual superiority. Teaches that women are morally superior and spiritually stronger than men. Tendency of Latino women to try to attain image of ideal woman using the Virgin Mary as role model. (Yeager, p. 3)
    • Personalismo: Dominant, charismatic person in the political life of a country. People give allegiance to a political leader rather than to constitutional institutions, political organizations, or ideals.
    • Sinvergüenza: Literally, person with no shame. Term that describes person who behaves inappropriately toward others. Crook, rascal, naughty. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    Historical Events
    • Bracero Program: An agreement signed by the governments of Mexico and the United States in which both countries would allow Mexican nationals to enter the United States for temporary periods under stipulated conditions. (Samora & Vandel-Simon, pp. 138–141)
    • Cinco de Mayo: Anniversary of the triumph of the Mexican army over invading French troops in the town of Puebla, Mexico. Day commemorated by the Mexican American population in the United States. (Todo México, Encyclopedia of Mexico: 1985, p. 327)
    • Día de los Muertos: November 1–2. Catholic feast day on which deceased family members and ancestors are remembered. In Mexico, traditional ornate celebration in which Aztec traditions of veneration of the dead are intertwined with Catholic day of observance on November 1. (Vigil, p. 39)
    • Encomiendas: (Colonial) forced labor system in which the governor of the islands allocated Indian labor to the mines or the fields. A certain amount of Native Indians were entrusted to a Spanish conquistador as merit pay for his contribution to the Spanish Conquista. In exchange for the gift, the Indians allocated to his care had to be instructed in the Catholic faith. (Bethell, pp. 17–19)
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Peace treaty between the United States and Mexico, signed in 1848, which settled the Mexican American War. It established provisions for future relations between the two countries by increasing the territory of the United States. (Samora & Vandel-Simon, pp. 98–100)
    Family
    • Comadre: Name given to mother and godmother, which defines relationship of compadrazco between them. Affectionate term mother and godmother use to refer to and to address each other. In some Latin American communities, affectionate term used to address a town's elderly woman. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Compadrazco: Godparentage. Family relationship established through the baptism of a child. Family bond is created between parents and godparents of the child. Godparents become surrogate parents in the event of the death of the parents. Also, close bond established between people and/or families. (Vigil, p. xi)
    • Compadre: Name given to father and godfather, which defines the relationship of compadrazco between them. Affectionate term father and godfather use to address each other. In some Latin American communities, affectionate term used to address a town's elderly man. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Familismo: Extension of family beyond nuclear family boundaries. (Comas-Díaz, “Hispanic Latino Communities,” Journal of Training and Practice in Professional Psychology, pp. 14–35)
    Traditions
    • Bautismo: Baptism, christening. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Boda: Wedding. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Charreada: In Mexico, spectacle of horsemanship and rodeo riding. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Quinceañera: A girl's 15th birthday celebration. Traditionally, a girl's formal presentation to society to announce her availability for marriage. (Erickson, pp. 80–81)
    Musical Expressions
    • Bachata: (Dominican Republic) Dominicanized Cuban bolero-son musical rhythm associated with barrio and rural culture. Lyrics are usually composed of street slang and make ironic commentaries on bitter realities. (Austerlitz, pp. 111–114)
    • Merengue: Traditional musical rhythm and dance originated in the Dominican Republic; Afro-Caribbean rhythm. (Austerlitz, pp. 2–8)
    • Rancheras: From the ranch. Mexican folk music. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Salsa: Literal translation means seasoned sauce made with tomatoes. In some regions, it is elaborated with hot or spicy peppers. In music, blend of Cuban and Puerto Rican rhythms, such as mambo, African rhythms, and jazz. These musical rhythms were developed by Cuban and Puerto Rican musicians (mainly percussionists) in New York City in the early 1960s. (Padilla, pp. 28–45)
    Religion and Traditional/Folk Health Beliefs
    • Altares: Altars; shrines decorated with objects as offerings to God, the saints, or departed loved ones, particularly in Mexico during the Day of the Dead celebration on November 1. (Vigil, p. 41)
    • Ataque de nervios: A nervous breakdown accompanied by hysteria. Usually women claim to be afflicted by this ailment. (Oquendo, Horwath & Martinez, pp. 367–376)
    • Empacho: Stomach ailment; gastrointestinal upset; a form of indigestion in which food clings to the stomach or intestinal tract causing sharp pain, nausea, and weakness. Usually caused by overeating, drinking bad water, or chilling. (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Espiritismo: Religion in which communication with the spirit of the dead is sought for guidance and healing purposes. (Roeder, p. 323)
    • Limpias: Cleansing ritual; ritual purifying or sweeping using holy water, an egg, or a small broom made with herbs. Symptoms of illnesses are relieved by ridding patient of evil influences. Usually performed by a santero or an espiritista. (Roeder, pp. 321–322)
    • Mal de ojo: The evil eye. (Roeder, p. 322)
    • Mal puesto: Illness caused by curse, witchcraft. (Roeder, p. 322)
    • Promesas: A vow of penitence offered to God to cure an ailment or to have a prayer or request granted.
    • Santería: Religion initially practiced by descendants of African slaves. Syncretic religion that integrates African animist religion and Catholic faith, in which African deities and Catholic saints are believed to be endowed with certain powers. Deities are believed to be vengeful, and rituals are performed to appease the saints. (Harris, pp. 210–211)
    • Santo: Saint. (Oxford Spanish Dictionary)
    • Susto: Sudden fright. Illness brought on by fright or a frightening experience, which is believed can jar the soul from the body. It is believed that treatment is required to return the soul to the body. (Roeder, p. 324)
    • Virgen de la Guadalupe: Patron Madonna of Mexico. Cult figure for large number of the Mexican population. Dark-skinned Virgin who is believed to have appeared before the Indian, Juan Diego, with the purpose of instructing him to spread the word of Christianity among the indigenous people. Image Catholic Church used to substitute for Aztec earth-mother deity. (Poole, 1995).
    References for Glossary
    Algun, E.Los secretos de la santería). Miami, FL: Ediciones Universal
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    Appendix C: Culture-Centered Clinical Interview

    Clinical and Cultural Impressions

    Preliminary Diagnoses

    • Axis I
    • Axis II
    • Axis III
    • Axis IV
    • Axis V

    Culture Bound Syndromes

    Initial Treatment Plan

    • Individual
    • Systemic/Ecological
    • Cultural Accomodations
    • Referral
    • Community Resources
    • Signature Date

    Appendix D: Selected Bibliotherapy Resources

    ReferenceTitleType
    Alvarez, J.How the García Girls Lost Their Accent (1992)Fiction
    !Yo! (1997)Fiction
    Augenbraum, H., & Stavans, I. (Eds.)Growing Up Latino: Memoirs and Stories (1993)Anthology
    Carlson. L. (Ed.)Cool Salsa: Bilingual Poems on Growing Up Latino in the United States** (1995)Anthology/Juvenile
    Castillo-Speed, L. (Ed.)Latinas: Women's Voices From the Borderlands (1995)Anthology
    Cisneros, S.The House on Mango Street*(1991)Fiction
    Women Hollering Creek: And Other Stories* (1992)Anthology
    García, C.Dreaming in Cuban* (1993)Fiction
    Gonzalez, R. (Ed.)Muy Macho: Latino Men Confront Their Manhood (1996)Anthology
    Gonzalez, R., & Ruiz, A.My First Book of Proverbs/Mi Primer Libro de Dichos** (1995)Nonfiction for children
    López, T. A. (Ed.)Growing Up Chicana (1995)Anthology
    Marquez, A., & Anaya, A. (Eds.)Cuentos Chicanos: A Short Story Anthology (1984)Anthology
    Nava, Y. (Ed.)It's All in the Frijoles: 100 Famous Latinos Share Real-Life Stories, Time Tested Dichos, Favorite Folktales, and Inspiring Words of Wisdom (2000)Self-Help
    Rodríguez, G.Raising Nuestros Niños: Bringing Up Latino Children in a Bicultural World (1999)Self-help
    Santiago, E.When I Was Puerto Rican* (1994)Autobiography
    Almost a Woman* (1999)Autobiography
    Santiago, E., & Davidow, J. (Eds.)Las Christmas: Favorite Latino Authors Share Their Holidays Memories (1999)Anthology
    Serros, M.How to be a Chicana role model (2000)Fiction
    Stavans, I.The Hispanic condition: Reflections on culture and identity in America (1996)Nonfiction
    Treviño Hart, E.Barefoot heart: Stories of a migrant child (1999)Autobiography

    * Spanish edition available.

    ** Spanish and English used in edition.

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    About the Authors

    Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and holds academic appointments in the Department of Latin American and Caribbean Studies and the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, Division of Counseling Psychology, at the State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York. She earned a doctorate in counseling from Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. She is a national certified counselor and has held leadership positions within the counseling profession. She served as vice president of the Latino Interest Network of the Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) and as president of Counselors for Social Justice (CSJ) within the American Counseling Association. Her publications and research interests include bilingual therapy, health and the environment, and stress and coping. She has presented on these topics at major conferences and has published in such journals as the Journal of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice and the Journal of Counseling and Development.

    Patricia Arredondo, Ed.D, is Associate Professor in the Division of Psychology in Education at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. She earned a doctorate in counseling psychology at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. She is a licensed psychologist and began her professional career as a teacher. She has held leadership positions within the counseling field and is renowned for her contributions in the development of multicultural counseling competencies, with such publications as the “Operationalization of the Multicultural Counseling Competencies” (with R. Toporek, S. P. Brown, J. Jones, D. C. Locke, J. Sanchez, and H. Stadler) appearing in the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. Dr. Arredondo's research interests and publications include managing diversity in the workplace, racism, Latino/Hispanic health issues, gender issues, and the impact of migration on psychological health. She has authored several books and has written articles for Business Week, Latina Magazine, and Counseling Today. She has served in numerous leadership positions including president of the Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) of the American Counseling Association and president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Minority Issues, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association.

    Maritza Gallardo-Cooper, Ph. D., is a school psychologist and marriage family therapist with more than 25 years experience as a clinician in the private sector, practicing in Texas, Puerto Rico, and Florida. She obtained her doctorate from the University of Florida. Dr. Gallardo-Cooper has developed and directed a variety of mental health treatment programs in Florida. Currently, she is the outpatient program director for a large behavioral health consortium in Florida, a position she has held for the past 12 years. She was a member of the Hispanic Task Force in the 1978 President's Commission on Mental Health and has presented in numerous professional training programs at the local, state, and national level in areas such as child and family therapy, marital interventions, Latino psychology, and organizational development. Her research interests focus on brief therapy models, treatment outcome, biculturalism, and bilingual assessment and intervention therapy.


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