Counseling Across Cultures

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Edited by: Paul B. Pedersen, Juris G. Draguns, Walter J. Lonner & Joseph E. Trimble

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  • Elder Wisdom

    An elder Lakota was teaching his grandchildren about life. He said to them, “A fight is going on inside me … it is a terrible fight and it is between two wolves.

    “One wolf represents fear, anger, envy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego.

    “The other stands for joy, peace, love, hope, sharing, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, friendship, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion, and faith.

    “This same fight is going on inside you, and inside every other person, too.”

    The grandchildren thought about it for a minute, and then one child asked her grandfather, “Which wolf will win?”

    The Elder replied simply, “The one you feed.”

    The Western conception of the person as a bounded, unique, more or less integrated motivational and cognitive universe, a dynamic center of awareness, emotion, judgment, and action, organized into a distinctive whole and set contrastively—both against other such wholes and against social and natural background—is however incorrigible it may seem to us, a rather peculiar idea within the context of the world's cultures. (p. 34)

    Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books.

    The first peace, which is the most important, is that which comes within the souls of men when they realize their relationship, their oneness, with the universe and all its Powers, and when they realize that at the center of the universe dwells Wakan-Tanka, and that this center is everywhere, it is within each of us. This is the real Peace, and the others are but reflections of this.

    The second peace is that which is made between two individuals, and the third is that which is made between two nations. But above all you should understand that there can never be peace between nations until there is first known that true peace which … is within the souls of men. (p. 198)

    Black Elk, in Neihardt, J. G. (1961). Black Elk speaks: Being the life story of the holy man of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

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    Foreword

    The idea of culture is as old as humankind. It is a way of life that one generation of human beings passes to the next. Adult members of a community not only nourish and protect fragile newcomers, but they also teach them how to survive in and adjust to the world. During the Roman Empire, the Latin cultura referred to the cultivation of crops. Since then, the word culture has acquired many other meanings. For example, today it is used to refer to (a) the raising, improvement, or development of some plant, animal, or product; (b) the growth of bacteria or other micro-organisms in a specially prepared nourishing substance; (c) improvement, refinement, or development by study or training; and (d) the training and refinement of the mind, emotions, manners, taste, and the like. In general, social scientists conceive of culture as a complex whole that includes knowledge, beliefs, art, architecture, language, morals, laws, customs, and other capabilities and habits acquired by members of a society.

    Culture is a requirement for human existence. Neonates enter the world unable to walk, talk, or eat solid food. They cannot survive without the love, care, and nourishment of their parents and the larger community into which they are born. As they mature, they acquire the language and way of life of their native group. Inseparable from the people already on the scene when they arrive, they become group dependent. They need the group, and the group needs them. Grown-ups protect and teach the young. Once grown up themselves, they protect and care for their elders. Each generation enhances the knowledge about the human group and invents objects and procedures designed to facilitate their existence. Culture evolves to meet needs of the time.

    There is not just one culture to which people adjust. They are at the center of and influenced by five interactive cultures. First, there is a universal culture that is biologically based. As members of a single species, humans worldwide engage in similar necessary and predictable behaviors in order to meet a multitude of survival needs. Homo sapiens must find food, shelter, and a source of water. Endowed with the sex drive, they produce, nourish, protect, and socialize children in a family context. Since species-specific culture is universal, it enables humans to identify with their confrères across cultures.

    Second, individuals must adjust to the local ecological conditions that support their existence and that of thousands of other living organisms. In establishing an existential relationship with their environment, they develop the ability to live with and use to their advantage available flora and fauna. Moreover, humans learn to relate to elements of nature such as the temperature, humidity, sources of water, and natural occurrences. These and their attitudes toward them affect how they exploit the natural abundance that can be used to support their existence. Of course, the existential challenge differs from one geographical area to another. Humankind can live almost anywhere in the world, so long as they know how to relate to their environment. The specific nature of the relationship is the ecological culture.

    Third, a national culture derives from the fact that a group of people shares the same territory, heritage, language, and economic system and exemplifies an allegiance to a way of life that they hold dear. Although outsiders may join the society, they must fit into the culture already in place. Immigrants acculturate to the host culture in order to benefit from being a part of it.

    The national culture is an interactive network of subsystems. Each subordinate unit provides goods and services to inhabitants of the society. The counseling profession is one of the subsystems. Formally established in 1952, today it has evolved into an association consisting of more than 60,000 members, organized into 19 divisions, 56 branches, and 4 regions in the United States, Europe, Latin America, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Philippines. Affiliates of the American Counseling Association have developed a psychotherapeutic culture. It consists of educational and licensure requirements, laws, a code of ethics, theories, techniques, and other counselor and client behaviors recognized, accepted, understood, and sanctioned by society at large.

    Fourth, people may be culturally unique in their own country because of the peculiarity of the region in which they are socialized. In many nations, it is observed that regions differ from the others in terms of language, religion, crops grown, dress, customs, and in other ways. In large countries, climate zones influence how people negotiate their environment. In other cases, proximity to the borders of neighboring countries contributes to a blending of cultures along the territorial boundaries. Regional cultural differences are often caused by military conquests, political annexations, and immigration.

    Fifth, individuals usually adjust to the way of life of the racio-ethnic group into which they are born and socialized. In general, large racial and ethnic communities exist apart from the dominant racial and cultural community. Separatism is likely to be a reality in countries in which minorities are denied equal opportunity or feel rejected by their dominant group compatriots. On the other hand, some may choose voluntarily to live in their own communities in order to keep vibrant their native culture. Regardless of the reason for racial and ethnic separation, the results are the same. A racio-ethnic culture usually remains intact and is transmitted from one generation to the next so long as minorities remain isolated from the mainstream culture.

    However, in the middle of the 20th century, African Americans protested loudly their perceived “inferiority” and shunting aside in the social order. It was out of protests for inclusion as equal participants in society that the civil rights movement developed under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and others. The demands for change in the society at large soon resonated in the counseling profession. A caucus of African American counselors attending the American Personnel and Guidance Association (now the American Counseling Association [ACA]) in Las Vegas, Nevada, in 1969, demanded at a meeting of the association's governing body that the ACA recognize the specific needs of American minority group clients. The leadership of the body was shocked, annoyed, and frustrated because “everybody knows that counseling is counseling,” the prevailing view of mainstream counselor educators at the time. Although many academicians articulated that position, they at the same time often referred to African Americans as being culturally deprived, disadvantaged, or otherwise deficient.

    As a result of the demands of the Black Caucus in Las Vegas, an office of Non-White Concerns was established at the association's national headquarters. Out of the activities of that office emerged the Association for Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance (now the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development [AMCD]), chartered as a division of the ACA in 1972. The AMCD strives (a) to enhance the awareness of human development and counseling needs of racial and ethnically diverse groups, (b) to sensitize professionals to racial and ethnic differences, (c) to advance the knowledge base of multicultural counseling through theory development and research, and (d) and to consult with others to advance multicultural issues across the counseling profession.

    Since the 1970s, counselors and other psychotherapeutic professionals throughout the world now recognize the importance of culture in counseling. In the United States, culture continues to be defined and redefined. It is no longer just a way of life impressed on the individual by biological, ecological, national, regional, and racio-ethnic forces that are passed on to future generations. It now also includes the way of life of any group that deviates from a perceived cultural norm. Many clients deviating from social standards in terms of sexual orientation, psychophysical challenges, gender, and age declare themselves to be culturally different and demand that they be viewed as such by counselors. Their demands are now reflected in current psychotherapeutic literature.

    Since the first use of the Latin word cultura to refer to growing crops in ancient Rome, culture continues to acquire other connotations. Even so, they all tend to communicate the idea that there is an interactive relationship between individuals and their environments. The environments are natural, social, personal, and spiritual. Humans establish a modus vivendi with them. The living arrangement constitutes the culture of Homo sapiens. They are basic to existence. Until about 50 years ago, culture was primarily associated with sociology and anthropology. However, during the push for equality initiated by Blacks in the United States, it was redefined. African Americans and others who perceived themselves to be outsiders in their own country rejected the cultural norms of mainstream America. The prevailing norms included racist attitudes and practices that were legally sanctioned. Therefore, they refused to accept many of them and began to express their view of other people and conditions that affected their existence. Although in the past, most of them had never considered the concept of culture, they began to understand it and apply it to their lives and enterprises. As an important institution in the society, the counseling profession became involved in the social revolution. Today, culture and its relationship to counseling has become a large literature.

    A complex of diversified subsystems, culture remains difficult to define. It often seems to be a cauldron of entangled ideas and contradictions. For example, public schools are now integrated throughout the United States. Yet, churches remain largely segregated. Since the 1960s, African Americans have sought inclusion in the American society as equal participants. However, there is today an increase in all-Black ideologies, associations, and facilities. The number of advocates of Black psychology and Afrocentrism continues to grow. On many mainstream college campuses, Black students live in all-Black housing units and congregate in racially exclusive sections of student unions. On one hand, African American counselors wanted their mainstream confrères to recognize the unique needs of Black clients. On the other, they created a separate minority division in the American Counseling Association, instead of proposing that counselors in all divisions in the association address issues related to counseling minorities.

    In counselor education and research, contradictions also exist. In the 1960s, African American counselor educators wanted to help majority-group counselors to become aware of the specific needs of minority-group clients. In the first decade of the 21st century, most of them have attempted to achieve this goal by stereotyping minorities. That is, in general, professors lecture about the general characteristics of racial and ethnic groups and discuss their implications for counseling. The same is often the case in cross-cultural counseling research. Usually, researchers design research in which they compare racio-ethnic groups. For example, they compare most often groups that they designate as Hispanic, Asian, European, or African American. Little or no attention is given to the country of origin of the subjects, degree of acculturation, or the social class of the participants. Such omissions tend to call into question the value of much of the research. Indeed, cross-cultural counseling seems to be at the crossroads of an important and innovative movement.

    Although cross-cultural counseling has a long history, there is still a lot to learn about it. This book, the sixth edition of Counseling Across Cultures, is a godsend, just as were the first five editions. The editors deserve appreciation and recognition for introducing the ideas of creative scholars to the profession. The contributors are all original thinkers. They each bring a specific perspective on the exciting, global, and challenging field that means so much to people in a shrinking world, in which inhabitants move daily from one country to another. Their chapters inform educators, counselors, clients, and the public at large. Counseling Across Cultures remains a classic in the counseling profession. The ideas expressed in it should help all therapeutic professionals to evaluate the place of culture in their work and to become more effective counseling all clients.

    ClemmontE.VontressPhD Professor Emeritus of Counseling George Washington University

    Introduction to the Sixth Edition

    Learning From Our “Culture Teachers”

    Capture the visual image of a thousand persons sitting around you. People that you have chosen, or have chosen you, over a lifetime from friends, enemies, heroes, heroines, mentors, family members, and fantasy figures that influenced you in sometimes subtle but often profound ways. As these “culture teachers” talk with one another and sometimes include you in their conversations, they provide a vivid and concrete image of “multiculturalism.” Many if not all our decisions are controlled or at least influenced by imagined conversations with our culture teachers. They broadly define the cultural context in which we live through ethnographic, demographic, status-oriented, and personal affiliations. All behaviors are learned and displayed in specific cultural contexts.

    Therefore, accurate assessment, meaningful understanding, and appropriate interventions require that we learn more about our own cultural context and the culture teachers who shape our lives. To ignore our culture teachers is tantamount to driving down a busy highway and taking our hands off the steering wheel!

    Since the first edition of Counseling Across Cultures was published in 1976, thousands of publications and research projects have increased our understanding of these culture teachers. Many of these sources are listed in the reference sections of this book. We owe a great debt to these culture teachers for the wisdom we have gained from them. As recently as 1973, when we presented a symposium at the American Psychological Association on “Counseling Across Cultures” and subsequently planned the first edition of this book, the term multiculturalism was largely unknown to counseling professionals. The University of Hawaii Press agreed to publish our book, provided we waived royalties. The book went through five printings the first year and then through three more editions in 1981, 1989, and 1996. The fifth edition was published by Sage in 2002, followed by the current sixth edition and illustrating the growing popularity of counseling across cultures.

    The culture-centered or multicultural perspective provides us with at least 12 uniquely valuable outcomes:

    • Accuracy: because all behaviors are learned and displayed in a cultural context
    • Common ground: because the basic values in which we believe are expressed through different behaviors across cultures
    • Identity: because we learn who we are from the thousands of culture teachers in our lives
    • Health: because our socio-ecosystems require a diversified gene pool
    • Protection: because psychology has been culturally encapsulated through much of its history, and we need to identify our own biases to protect ourselves from failure
    • Survival: because the best preparation for life in the global village is to learn from persons who are culturally different from ourselves
    • Social justice: because history documents the injustices that result when a monocultural, dominant group is allowed to define the rules of living for everyone
    • Right thinking: because not only the content of our thinking is culturally biased but the linear thinking process itself also requires modification when thinking about nonlinear alternatives
    • Learning: because effective learning that results in change is also likely to result in culture shock
    • Spirituality: because it can be expected that we all experience the same Ultimate Reality in different ways
    • Political stability: because some form of cultural pluralism is the only alternative to either anarchy or oppression
    • Competence: because multiculturalism is generic to a genuine and realistic understanding of human behavior in all counseling and communication

    Over and above these 12 points, culturally informed counseling can be likened to a bridge that helps transcend the gulf or the chasm of differences in practices, expectations, and modes of communication that separate persons whose backgrounds and outlooks have been molded by their respective cultures.

    The present edition includes many new authors and offers ideas that have emerged since the appearance of the preceding edition in 2002. This edition is divided into five parts, which increases the number of topics while streamlining chapter lengths to fit with academic class assignments. Each part features an introduction that contains discussion questions for each chapter. Each chapter identifies primary and secondary objectives and includes conclusions, as well as a “critical incident” to illustrate key points of the chapter at the case level. We concede that not all of these incidents are critical in the strict sense of the term. They do, however, make abstract concepts concrete and exemplify, often in a vivid way, the interface between culture and counseling. Over and above this feature, authors in the present edition have been liberal with instances and vignettes of culturally distinctive ways of presenting personal dilemmas, seeking relief from distress, and, in the optimal case, reducing suffering and resolving quandaries and problems of living. On the theoretical plane, the authors of these chapters have contributed several explicit models of culturally sensitive intervention in a variety of contexts. Moreover, the results of several major multinational research projects have been brought to bear upon the current multicultural counseling enterprise. In this manner, contributors to this volume have endeavored to narrow the gap between basic cross-cultural research findings and culturally appropriate intervention at the case level.

    A Web site is available that includes discussion questions, multiple-choice test items, simulations, classroom activities, additional readings, and information to supplement each chapter as well as other teaching/learning resources. Sample syllabi for teaching classes while using this edition have also been prepared, and plans for evaluating classes and opportunities for direct Internet contact between the authors, editors, and users of this edition have been developed. Increased emphasis is placed on global issues in this edition, not only because more counselors are likely to work outside of the United States and Canada, or their own societies, but also because modes of interventions developed beyond North America are increasingly relevant in the domestic context. Many of the authors have written on the basis of their international experience, and several live and work outside the United States.

    Part I provides a foundation for the rest of the book. Chapter 1 on ethics, competence, and professional issues demonstrates the generic value of a multicultural perspective and the negative consequences of a monocultural orientation. Chapter 2 demonstrates that the same behavior can have different meanings across cultures and that, conversely, different behaviors within a specific culture may have the same meaning. Chapter 3 provides guidance on appraisal and assessment strategies in multicultural contexts. Chapter 4 outlines considerations for investigating competencies in cross-cultural counseling. Chapter 5 examines the self-concept and identity development, particularly in African American communities.

    Part II surveys a sampling of the ethnocultural contexts in which counseling occurs. Chapter 6 provides guidance for working in the Native American Indian context. Chapter 7 suggests strategies for working with Asian and/or Asian American clients. Chapter 8 describes the distinctive features relevant to counseling in Latino/a settings. Chapter 9 introduces the needs and presenting problems of Arab and Muslim clients and proposes a number of culturally appropriate treatment approaches. This marks the first time that Counseling Across Cultures has committed a chapter to this segment of the world's population. Chapter 10 describes issues involving counseling persons of Black African ancestry.

    Part III reviews demographic factors, statuses, and affiliations that often become culturally salient. Both differences between and within groups are examined. Chapter 11 explores gender issues from service providers’ and recipients’ points of view. Chapter 12 focuses on the unique dynamics of lesbian and gay communities and represents a topic not covered in earlier editions. Chapter 13 addresses the problems that are encountered by individuals who are marginalized in some way. Chapter 14 examines age as a social category in interaction with ethnicity and its relationship with counseling. Chapter 15 is devoted to the operation and dynamics of counseling in schools.

    Part IV contains four chapters that feature a wide range of problems encountered by individuals who find themselves in other cultures or in nature-made or human-made disasters. Chapter 16 surveys numerous concerns and problems facing international students. Chapter 17 breaks new ground in describing research about acculturation and adaptation processes when individuals encounter other cultures, usually for the first time. Chapter 18 deals with the increasingly prominent problems of refugees and migrants. Chapter 19 tackles the novel challenge of providing counseling to survivors and sometimes witnesses of major disasters in diverse cultural contexts.

    Part V contains five chapters that feature a variety of contexts in which culturally informed counseling increasingly occurs. The common denominator among these chapters features problems and perspectives that most people encounter every day. Chapter 20 addresses the importance of religion and spirituality as counseling resources. Chapter 21 highlights the prominence of health issues that are managed through a combination of clinically based and culturally isomorphic strategies. Chapter 22 provides a new perspective on cultural confrontation supplementing and enriching cultural empathy. Chapter 23 examines the role of counseling individuals and their loved ones who are living with alcohol and drug abuse. Chapter 24 is a new chapter concerned with the role of family across cultures in research, assessment, and intervention.

    Although this edition introduces a great many new topics and approaches, it also reaffirms the relevance of major contributions from earlier editions. In the fourth edition of Counseling Across Cultures, David Sue and Norman Sundberg contributed an important chapter on “Research and Research Hypotheses About Effectiveness in Intercultural Counseling.” It contained 15 research hypotheses that are as relevant now as they were then. They are reproduced as follows:

    • Entry into the counseling system is affected by cultural conceptualization of mental disorders and by the socialization of help-seeking behavior.
    • The more similar the expectations of the intercultural client and counselor in regard to the goals and process of counseling, the more effective the counseling will be.
    • Of special importance in intercultural counseling effectiveness is the degree of congruence between the counselor and client in their orientations in philosophical values and views toward dependency, authority, power, openness of communication, and other special relationships inherent in counseling.
    • The more the aims and desires of the client can be appropriately simplified and formulated as objective behavior or information (such as university course requirements or specific tasks), the more effective the intercultural counseling will be.
    • Culture-sensitive empathy and rapport are important in establishing a working alliance between the counselor and the culturally different client.
    • Effectiveness is enhanced by the counselor's general sensitivity to communications, both verbal and nonverbal. The more personal and emotionally laden the counseling becomes, the more the client will rely on words and concepts learned early in life, and the more helpful it will be for the counselor to be knowledgeable about socialization and communication styles in the client's culture.
    • The less familiar the client is with the counseling process, the more the counselor or the counseling program will need to instruct the client in what counseling is and in the role of the client.
    • Culture-specific modes of counseling will be found that work more effectively with certain cultural and ethnic groups than others.
    • Ethnic similarity between counselor and client increases the probability of a positive outcome.
    • Within-group differences on variables such as acculturation and stage of racial identity may influence receptivity to counseling.
    • Credibility can be enhanced through acknowledgment of cultural factors in cross-cultural encounters.
    • In general, women respond more positively than men to Western-style counseling.
    • Persons who act with intentionality have a sense of capability and can generate alternative behaviors in a given situation to approach a problem from different vantage points.
    • Identity-related characteristics of White counselors can influence their reaction to ethnic minority clients.
    • Despite great differences in cultural contexts in language and the implicit theory of the counseling process, a majority of the important elements of intercultural counseling are common across cultures and clients.

    The infusion of multiculturalism in the theory and practice of counseling is a long process that requires the understanding of “new rules.” Clients in counseling and psychotherapy come from a multitude of cultures and ethnicities, each with their own unique assortment of culture teachers. The imposition of a one-size-fits-all approach to counseling is no longer acceptable for clients who represent a substantial number of diverse cultural contexts. The counselor who thinks there are only two people involved in the transactions—the client and the counselor—is already in great difficulty.

    In addressing these wide-ranging and key issues, we seek to articulate in this volume the positive contributions that can be realized when multicultural awareness is incorporated into the training of counselors. Properly understood and applied, this awareness of our culture teachers will make the work of counselors easier rather than harder, more satisfying rather than frustrating, and more efficient rather than clumsy and cumbersome.

    Acknowledgments

    SAGE Publications gratefully acknowledges the following reviewers:

    Charlene M. Alexander, Ball State University; Greg Bolich, Webster University-Greenville; Linda G. Castillo, Texas A&M University; Suzanne Degges-White, Purdue University-Calumet; Jane Fried, Central Connecticut State University; Harvey Hoyo, National University; Heesoon Jun, Evergreen State College; Carol A. Langelier, Rivier College; Aneneosa A. G. Okocha, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater; Jeanne M. Slattery, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; and Leo Wilton, University of New York at Binghamton

    PaulB.Pedersen
    JurisG.Draguns
    WalterJ.Lonner
    JosephE.Trimble

    Dedication

    To the many scholars who have influenced our thinking about the complexities in, and rewards of, counseling across cultures—wonderfully represented by C. Gilbert Wrenn, Otto Klineberg, Wolfgang M. Pfeiffer, and Anthony J. Marsella.

  • About the Editors

    Juris G. Draguns was born in Latvia, completed primary schooling in his native country, graduated from high school in Germany, and obtained his undergraduate degree in the United States. His PhD in clinical psychology is from the University of Rochester. In 1997, he retired from Pennsylvania State University as Professor Emeritus of Psychology. He has taught and lectured, in five languages, at the University of Mainz in Germany; Lund University in Sweden; East-West Center in Hawaii; Flinders University of South Australia; National Taiwan University in Taipei, University of the Americas-Puebla in Cholula, Mexico; and University of Latvia and Baltic Russian Institute, both in Riga. He continues to pursue his interests in cross-cultural research on psychotherapy and counseling and other topics. He is recipient of the American Psychological Association's Award for Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology and of an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Latvia and is President of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research.

    Walter J. Lonner has been dedicated to cross-cultural psychological research since the mid-1960s. He is Founding and Special Issues Editor of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, which was inaugurated in 1970. A charter member, past president, and Honorary Fellow of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP), he has been involved with about forty books concerning various facets of cross-cultural psychological research and its applications. In 2006 IACCP inaugurated a Distinguished Invited Lecturer Series in his name to honor his contributions and continuing dedication to the field. In 2007 the Center for Cross-Cultural Research at Western Washington University followed suit and inaugurated a similar series. He has had sabbatical leaves in Germany, Mexico, and New Zealand and has attended conferences and delivered papers in more than 30 countries. A former Fulbright scholar (Germany, 1984–1985), he is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Western Washington University, where he co-founded the Center for Cross-Cultural Research in 1969. Most importantly, prior to his retirement in 2001 for nearly 35 years he taught his favorite course, Psychology and Culture, more than 100 times.

    Paul B. Pedersen is a Visiting Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii and Professor Emeritus from Syracuse University. He has taught at the University of Minnesota, Syracuse University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and for 6 years at universities in Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia. He was also on the Summer School Faculty at Harvard University, 1984–1988, and the University of Pittsburgh—Semester at Sea voyage around the world, spring 1992. International experience includes numerous consulting experiences in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, and Europe and a Senior Fulbright award teaching at National Taiwan University, 1999–2000. He has authored, coauthored, or edited 40 books, 99 articles, and 72 chapters on aspects of multicultural counseling and international communication. He is a Fellow in Divisions 9, 17, 45, and 52 of the American Psychological Association. For more information and a complete curriculum vitae, contact http//:soeweb.syr.edu/chs/Pedersen.

    Joseph E. Trimble, PhD (University of Oklahoma, Institute of Group Relations), formerly a Fellow at Harvard University' Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, is Professor of Psychology at Western Washington University, a Senior Scholar at the Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research at Colorado State University, and a Research Associate for the National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. He has held offices in the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the American Psychological Association. He holds Fellow status in three divisions in the APA (Divisions 9, 27, and 45). He is past President of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 45 of the APA) and a Council member for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (Division 9 of the APA Association). He has generated more than 100 publications on cross-cultural and ethnic topics in psychology, including 16 edited, coedited, and coauthored books; one of his coedited books, the Handbook of Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology, was selected as CHOICE Magazine' Outstanding Academic Titles for 2004. His most recent book, with Celia B. Fisher, is titled The Handbook of Ethical Research With Ethnocultural Populations and Communities. The majority of his articles, book chapters, and books focus on the role of culture and ethnicity in psychology, with an emphasis on American Indian and Alaska Native populations. In the past decade, though, he expanded his interests to include writing and research on ethnic and racial identity, cultural measurement equivalence, spirituality, and ethics, as well as contributing to the growth of ethnic psychology. He has received numerous excellence in teaching and mentoring awards for his work in the field of ethnic and cultural psychology, including the Excellence in Teaching Award and the Paul J. Olscamp Faculty Research Award from Western Washington University; APA' Division 45 Lifetime Achievement Award; the Janet E. Helms Award for Mentoring and Scholarship in Professional Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University; the Washington State Psychological Association Distinguished Psychologist Award for 2002; the Peace and Social Justice Award from APA' Division 48; and the Distinguished Elder Award in 2007 from the National Multicultural Summit and Conference. Also, he was the O'Brien Visiting Fellow at Scripps College in 2007.

    About the Contributors

    Frances E. Aboud is Professor of Psychology at McGill University in Montreal. She has been conducting research on ethnic identity and prejudice for the past 30 years. In addition to her publication in social psychology and child development journals, she is the author of Children and Prejudice (1988). She has also taught courses in and studied issues related to health psychology, particularly as they apply to problems of developing countries. After her experience in Ethiopia as a member of the McGill-Ethiopia Community Health Project, she published Health Psychology in Global Perspective (1998). More recently, as a scientist associated with the Centre for Health and Population Research (ICDDR, B) in Bangladesh, she has given courses and conducted research on early childhood education and feeding in rural Bangladesh. She is currently Senior Editor of Health Psychology for the international journal Social Science and Medicine.

    James Allen is Professor of Psychology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and, recently, a Fulbright scholar at the Psychosocial Centre for Refugees, University of Oslo. His interests are in cultural, clinical, and community psychology. His research focuses on cross-cultural measurement development and adaptation, acculturation and human rights issues with indigenous people and refugees, and participatory research methodologies with tribal communities. His recent work focuses on protective and recovery factors with Alaska Natives, as well as the development and implementation of culturally based prevention and treatment services for Alaska Native youth.

    Nancy Arthur is Professor in the Division of Applied Psychology and a Canada Research Chair in professional education at the University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Her teaching and research interests include multicultural counseling and career development. She authored the book Counselling International Students: Clients From Around the World. Her coedited book with Sandra Collins, Culture-Infused Counselling: Celebrating the Canadian Mosaic, received the Canadian Counselling Association Book Award in 2006. She is currently coediting a book with Paul Pedersen on case incidents in counseling for international transitions that involves collaboration with authors from 12 different countries.

    Fred Bemak is Professor in the Counseling and Development Program and the Director and cofounder of the Diversity Research and Action Center at George Mason University. His research focuses on cross-counseling counseling, social justice, youth and families at risk, and refugee and immigrant psychosocial adjustment. He has provided training and consultation in 30 countries, as well as throughout the United States, and is a former Fulbright Scholar, Kellogg Foundation International Fellow, and World Rehabilitation Fund International Fellow. He has authored numerous publications in his areas of research, including a coauthored book with Rita Chi-Ying Chung and Paul Pedersen on the psychosocial adjustment of refugees. He is currently working with Rita Chi-Ying Chung on a book on social justice and multiculturalism.

    J. Manuel Casas is Professor in the Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He has published extensively (more than 130 publications) and serves on numerous editorial boards. He is the coauthor of the Handbook of Racial/Ethnic Minority Counseling Research and is one of the editors of both editions of the Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. His recent research has focused on Hispanic families and children who are at risk for experiencing educational and psychosocial problems, including drug and alcohol abuse. His research emphasizes the resiliency factors that can help Hispanic families avoid or overcome such problems. Together with his colleagues, he has brought numerous research grants to the campus and the community. He is a consultant to several private and governmental agencies and organizations.

    Ana Mari Cauce is Executive Vice Provost and Earl T. Carlson Professor of Psychology at the University of Washington, where she previously served as Chair of the Department of Psychology and Chair of American Ethnic Studies. She is interested in the development of ethnic minority youth and at-risk youth more generally. She is recipient of numerous awards, including the University of Washington' Distinguished Teaching Award, as well as Distinguished Contribution Awards from the American Psychological Association for excellence in research on minority groups and families and from the Society for Community Research and Action for her work with at-risk youth and families.

    Doris Chang is Assistant Professor of Psychology at the New School for Social Research. She completed postdoctoral training at the Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School in clinically relevant medical anthropology. Grounded in an interdisciplinary framework, her research and clinical interests include cross-cultural issues in diagnosis and mental health treatment, the cultural contexts of domestic violence and service delivery in Asian immigrant communities, and social change and mental health care in the People' Republic of China. In 2006, she received the Early Career Award for Distinguished Contributions from the Asian American Psychological Association.

    Rita Chi-Ying Chung is Professor in the Counseling and Development Program, George Mason University. Her research focuses on social justice and multiculturalism in the areas of psychosocial adjustment of refugees and immigrants, interethnic group relations and racial stereotypes, and trafficking of Asian girls. She has lived and worked in the Pacific Rim, Asia, and Latin America. She was the former Chair of the American Counseling Association (ACA) Human Rights Committee and the ACA International Committee; currently, she is an Executive Council Member of the International Association for Counselling. She has coauthored with Fred Bemak and Paul Pedersen on a book about the psychosocial adjustment of refugees and is currently working with Fred Bemak on a book on social justice and multiculturalism.

    Tuere Binta Cross graduated with a BA in psychology from Mount Holyoke College and completed her master' degree in social work from New York University. Her work and internship experience include counseling at-risk families, working in specialized foster care, and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy at the Training Institute for Mental Health in New York City. Her future plans involve obtaining a certificate in analysis and eventually opening a clinical practice.

    William E. Cross Jr. received his doctorate in social psychology from Princeton University. He is the author of Shades of Black (1991), a frequently cited text on Black identity. Currently, he coordinates the doctoral program in social-personality psychology at the Graduate Center for the City University of New York.

    Marwan Dwairy is Associate Professor of Psychology at Emek Yezreel College and Oranim College. He is a licensed expert and supervisor in three areas: educational, medical, and developmental psychology. In addition, he is a licensed clinical psychologist. In 1978, he established Israel' first psychological services center for Arabs in Nazareth, Israel. He continues to serve in this capacity as a supervisor in different psychological centers. He has developed and standardized several psychological tests for Arabs. He served as a professor in several universities: graduate program at Nova Southeastern University in Florida; Haifa University, Israel; and Technion, Israel. He is a reviewer for several journals, and he served on the editorial board of Clinical Psychology Review and edited a special issue (December 1999) for that journal devoted to cross-cultural psychotherapy in the Middle East. He has published several books and articles on cross-cultural psychology and mental health among Arabs, in which he presented his models and theories concerning culturally sensitive psychology.

    Susan J. Eklund is Professor Emerita in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at Indiana University, Bloomington. She also holds emerita status as Byron Root Professor of Aging, Director of the Center on Aging and Aged, and Associate Dean of the Faculties. Her research interests include cognitive function and mental health issues in aging as well as influences of culture on the experience of aging.

    Lanaya L. Ethington is a doctoral student in the Counseling Psychology program at Indiana University in Bloomington. She received a BA in Spanish and psychology from the University of Michigan and an MA in intercultural studies from Dublin City University. Her research interests include multicultural counseling, multicultural consultation, and career development.

    Mary A. Fukuyama has worked at the University of Florida Counseling Center for the past 25 years as a counseling psychologist, supervisor, and trainer. She is a clinical professor and teaches courses on spirituality and multicultural counseling for the Department of Counselor Education and also the Counseling Psychology Program. She is an active member of the University of Florida' Center for Spirituality and Health, and her research interests include a qualitative study on “multicultural expressions” of spirituality. She coauthored, with Todd Sevig, Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling.

    Elizabeth M. P. Gama completed her doctoral studies at the University of Minnesota and was a university professor in Brazil, where she taught for many years. An accomplished researcher, she has published many articles and presented papers at national and international meetings. Her interest in women' issues started in graduate school and has continued in many of the articles she has written since then. Currently, she lives in Brazil, where she is Managing Director and Senior Consultant of Develop, a human management consulting firm, and has been providing selection and development assessment and coaching to managers and executives.

    James Georgas is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Athens, Athens, Greece. He is President of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology; Member of the Executive Committee, International Union of Psychological Science; Member of the Board of Directors, International Association of Applied Psychology; Member of the Aristotle Prize Committee, European Federation of Psychologists Associations; and Member of the Scholarship Committee, Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation. A recent publication is Families Across Culture: A 30 Nation Psychological Study (2006).

    John Gonzalez is Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. He is a member of the White Earth Ojibwe Nation in Northern Minnesota and a graduate of the Indians into Psychology Doctoral Education (INPSYDE) program at the University of North Dakota. His interests are in the areas of mental health issues for indigenous people and ethnic minorities, with an emphasis on understanding ethnic and cultural identity factors to increase prevention programs. His work is guided by his life experience of growing up on the reservation, and he hopes to be able to give back to his people someday.

    Ingrid Grieger currently is Director of the Counseling Center at Iona College in New Rochelle, New York, and Adjunct Professor of Counseling at Fordham University' Graduate School of Education. She has strong clinical, teaching, and research interests in women' issues in counseling, as well as in multicultural counseling, multicultural organizational development, and mental health and wellness issues for college student populations. A frequent presenter and writer regarding these topics, she has authored chapters in the Handbook on Counseling Women, the Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (2nd ed.), and the Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Applications (3rd ed.).

    Sunny S. Hansen is Professor Emerita in the Counseling and Student Personnel Psychology Program in the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Minnesota, where she earned her doctorate She has taught and advised students in career development, gender issues, and multicultural counseling for many years. She was creator of the BORN FREE program to expand options and reduce stereotyping of both genders. BORN FREE currently is being updated with an international component and should be on a Web site by 2007. Her research interests are in gender-role socialization, career guidance across cultures, and career development of women. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), American Counseling Association (ACA), and the National Career Development Association (NCDA). She has lectured and conducted workshops in all states and 35 countries. In 2006, she was honored as one of 100 distinguished alumni of the College of Education in its centennial year. Her most recent book, now under revision, is Integrative Life Planning, a holistic model of career development.

    Amy K. Harkins received her doctorate in counseling psychology from Arizona State University in 2005. She earned her BA in psychology at the University of Vermont and an MA from the Counseling and Student Personnel Psychology Program at the University of Minnesota. Currently, she is a geropsychology postdoctoral resident with Deer Oaks, a behavioral health organization in Texas. Her primary research and practice interests have focused on multicultural issues within the framework of positive psychology.

    Susanna A. Hayes is Associate Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology at Western Washington University. During her career, her primary teaching responsibilities were in the master'-level School Counseling and Mental Health Counseling programs. For eight years, she was a teacher and counselor on the Colville Indian Reservation in Eastern Washington. She also worked with innercity schools in Saginaw, Michigan, for three years. For three months early in 2007, she taught in Rome, Italy, for Loyola University of Chicago in its Study Abroad program.

    P. Paul Heppner currently is Professor at the University of Missouri-Columbia and one of the founders and codirectors of the Center for Multicultural Research, Training, and Consultation. He has received numerous MU and national awards, including three Fulbright awards. He has been an active researcher with more than 120 publications and more than 200 presentations at national conferences, and he has been an invited speaker in 12 countries. He has served on several editorial boards, as well as the Editor of The Counseling Psychologist. He has a long list of professional service, including serving as President of the Society of Counseling Psychology.

    Carrie L. Hill earned her doctorate in counseling psychology with a minor in gerontology from Indiana University-Bloomington in 2001. She has spent more than 10 years working for agencies in the health, human service, and senior markets, and currently she is owner of Blooming Hill Writing Services. She is the Southern Regional Representative to the Executive Board of the Utah Gerontological Society and serves as Editor of its newsletter. She has published more than a dozen journal articles and book chapters on subjects related to gerontology, multicultural issues, and psychology.

    Farah A. Ibrahim is Professor at the University of Colorado Denver and Health Sciences Center. A fellow of the American Psychological Association and a licensed psychologist, she has served as the elected president of Counselors for Social Justice (2002–2003), a national division of the American Counseling Association. Her research and teaching has focused on cultural issues in counseling. She developed the Cultural Identity Checklist and, with Harris Kahn, the Scale to Assess Worldview. She has served on several counseling psychology and counseling journal editorial boards and currently serves as the book review editor and a reviewer for the International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. She consults nationally on issues of cultural competence with organizations, colleges, universities, and public schools.

    Szu-Hui Lee following her internship at McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School stayed on to become a clinical postdoctoral fellow at the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Institute, a residential treatment facility for patients with severe and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Her interests include multidisciplinary mental health treatment and service delivery as well as education/prevention and training within the cross-cultural context. Her research has focused on the correlates between culturally salient factors and psychological well-being of people of color broadly and Asian/Asian Americans specifically. She is actively involved with the Asian American Psychological Association and American Psychological Association.

    Frederick T. L. Leong is Professor of Psychology at Michigan State University (MSU) in the 1–0 and Clinical Psychology Programs. Prior to MSU, he was on the faculty at Southern Illinois University (1988–1991), The Ohio State University (1991–2003), and the University of Tennessee (2003–2006). He has authored or coauthored more than 100 articles in various counseling and psychology journals and 50 book chapters; he has also edited or coedited six books. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 1, 2, 17, 45, and 52) and the Association for Psychological Science. He is a Charter Fellow of the Asian American Psychological Association. He was the recipient of the 1998 Distinguished Contributions Award from the Asian American Psychological Association and the 1999 John Holland Award from the APA Division of Counseling Psychology. His major research interests are in cultural and personality factors in career development and work adjustment, occupational stress, culture and mental health (particularly with Asians and Asian Americans), and cross-cultural psychotherapy. He is the immediate past President of both the Asian American Psychological Association and the Division of Counseling Psychology of the International Association of Applied Psychology. Currently, he is President of Division 45 of the APA (Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues). His latest project is the Sage Encyclopedia of Counseling, for which he is the Editor-in-Chief.

    Arleen C. Lewis is Professor of Psychology and Director of the MEd School Counseling Program at Western Washington University in Bellingham, WA, where she has been a member of the faculty since 1987. She was previously Associate Professor of Counselor Education at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville.

    Charlea T. McNeal is Research Associate with the Anxiety Disorders Program in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Michigan. She obtained her doctoral degree in social psychology and master' degree in social work at the University of Michigan in 1999 and completed a postdoctoral fellowship with the Family Research Consortium—III under the tutelage of Vonnie McLoyd. She is also a licensed social worker. Her clinical, teaching, and research interests center on mental health in interpersonal contexts, with an emphasis on family processes in racial ethnic minorities, especially African American couples.

    Gerald V. Mohatt is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Center for Alaska Native Health Research at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Throughout his career, he has focused on building new settings in rural areas to increase opportunity for rural indigenous groups. His current work is to establish a permanent center to do interdisciplinary research on health disparities of Alaska Natives. He was raised in rural Iowa. He has two sons, their two partners, and a granddaughter. He has worked with American Indian, Canadian First Nations, and Alaska Natives since 1968.

    Joseph G. Ponterotto currently is Professor of Education in the counseling programs at Fordham University' Graduate School of Education. His primary research and teaching interests are in the areas of multiculturalism and research design. He coedited the April 2005 special issue of the Journal of Counseling Psychology on Qualitative Research Methods with Beth Haverkamp and Sue Morrow. His most recent book is Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents (2nd ed., 2006), coauthored with Shawn Utsey and Paul Pedersen.

    Mark Pope is Professor of Counseling and Family Therapy and Chair of that same division at the University of Missouri-Saint Louis. He is past President of the American Counseling Association, the National Career Development Association, and the Association for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling, and he is the Editor of The Career Development Quarterly. He previously served as the Director of Psychological Services for the Native American AIDS Project in San Francisco. His research interests include multicultural career counseling, psychological assessment, history of and public policy issues in counseling and psychology, gay/lesbian issues, Native American issues, and violence in schools.

    Jason Duque Raley is Assistant Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He received his doctoral training in Stanford University' Graduate School of Education in the area of Language, Literacy, and Culture. His current work explores the relationship among culture, learning, and social interaction, as well as the epistemology and practice of qualitative research. As codirector of the Center for the Study of Teacher Learning in Practice, he focuses on the contribution of contemporary learning theories to the understanding of teaching and learning in schools. Recent publications examine the nature of peer relations among Mexican American youth, the role of ethnicity in school experience, and the way people in diverse groups negotiate and accomplish “safe spaces” for learning.

    Charles R. Ridley is Professor and Codirector of Training of the doctoral program in Counseling Psychology at Indiana University in Bloomington. He also is a former Associate Dean of Research and the University Graduate School at that institution. He is a Fellow in Divisions 17 and 45 of the American Psychological Association. His various scholarly interests include multicultural counseling, training, and assessment; organizational consultation; the use of religious resources in psychotherapy; and therapeutic change. His book, Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner' Guide to Intervention, was the recipient of the Gus Meyers Center Award for Human Rights.

    Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez is Associate Professor of Psychology at Utah State University. Currently, she is evaluating the effectiveness of a Parent Management Training-Oregon intervention, culturally adapted for use with Spanish-speaking Latinos, to prevent the escalation of externalizing behavior problems into clinical syndromes. The research is supported by a K01 grant from the National Institute of Mental Health. She also has ongoing collaboration with researchers in Mexico City and Monterrey. She is a licensed psychologist. She completed her doctoral degree at Colorado State University in 1999 and a postdoctoral fellowship with the Family Research Consortium—III. She was born and raised in Puerto Rico and lives in Logan, Utah, with her spouse and two daughters.

    Todd Sevig is Director of Counseling & Psychological Services at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He has focused his career on the delivery of mental health services to university students in various capacities, including peer programming/counseling, multicultural training and counseling, and administration. He has also worked in the Program on Intergroup Relations at the University of Michigan and focused on areas such as White awareness, intergroup dialogue, and social justice. He is coauthor, with Mary Fukuyama, of Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling. He is the son of a Lutheran minister and a musician and was raised in northern Minnesota and Iowa. He is married to Sharon Vaughters and has two children, Mara and Joseph. Recent areas of research interest include spirituality in counseling, bi/multiracial identity development, and changing trends in college student mental health.

    Johanna Soet is the Director of the Sexual Assault Prevention and Awareness Center at the University of Michigan. She is a counseling psychologist who has focused on issues that disproportionately affect women, sexuality, multicultural competency, and spirituality. Her current work includes addressing sexual violence on college campuses, the role of men in the antiviolence movement, and researching and attending to college student mental health needs. She is also an advocate for Jewish student concerns and works to address Christian privilege in the academic setting. She shares her home with two young sons, three cats, and a guinea pig.

    Lisa Rey Thomas received her doctorate from the University of Washington in clinical psychology. Following her internship at the Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, she became a postdoctoral fellow at the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute (ADAI), University of Washington. She is currently a Research Scientist at ADAI and coinvestigator on an NCMHD-funded Community-Based Participatory Research project with a local reservation tribal community. She is committed to reducing health disparities, increasing access to effective and culturally appropriate services, and promoting good health in underserved communities, with a particular focus on mental health and substance abuse issues in American Indian and Alaska Native communities. She serves on numerous committees and task groups, including the American Psychological Association' Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (chair-elect, 2006).

    Ivory Achebe Toldson is Assistant Professor in Counseling Psychology at Howard University and Senior Research Analyst for the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation. He received his doctorate in counseling psychology from Temple University and the Du Bois Fellowship from the U.S. Department of Justice. His clinical experiences include serving as a correctional and forensic psychology intern at the U.S. Penitentiary and the clinical director of the Manhood Training Village, a residential group home for adolescents in state custody. His primary areas of research include Black men in the criminal justice system, social justice in counseling and education, culturally responsive counseling, substance abuse treatment, and counseling in urban diverse communities.

    Melba J. T. Vasquez is a psychologist in independent practice in Austin, Texas. She is coauthor, with Ken Pope, of the books Ethics in Psychotherapy & Counseling: A Practical Guide (3rd ed., 2007) and How to Survive and Thrive as a Therapist: Information, Ideas and Resources for Psychologists in Practice (2005). She served as President of the Texas Psychological Association, past President of APA Divisions 35 (Society of Psychology of Women) and 17 (Society of Counseling Psychology), and as the first Latina member-at-large of the APA Board of Directors. She is a Fellow of the APA and holds the Diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology. She is a cofounder of APA Division 45, Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, and of the National Multicultural Conference and Summit.

    Clemmont E. Vontress, a licensed psychologist, is one of the country' best-known authorities on cross-cultural counseling. He also is recognized for his articles, chapters, and books on existential counseling and traditional healing. He has made several field trips to West Africa to study methods used by folk healers to treat patients complaining of physical, psychological, social, and spiritual problems. He also has studied and written about ethnopsychiatry, an approach used in France for counseling immigrants from developing countries. Professor Emeritus of Counseling at George Washington University, where he worked for 28 years, he has been a Visiting Professor at the Johns Hopkins University, Atlanta University, Kuwait University, Howard University, and other institutions. A consultant to numerous organizations in this country and abroad, he has traveled widely in the United States, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and the Caribbean. His interest in finding effective approaches for counseling culturally different clients began when he was in graduate school. His book, Counseling Negroes (1971), was the first one to call attention to the impact of culture and race on counseling Blacks in the United States. Since that time, he has written more than a hundred articles, chapters, and books on cross-cultural counseling, traditional healing, and existential counseling and psychotherapy.

    Colleen A. Ward is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Center for Applied Cross-Cultural Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. She has held teaching and research appointments at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad; Science University of Malaysia; National University of Singapore; and University of Canterbury, New Zealand. She is currently President of the Asian Association of Social Psychology and holds the James Cook Fellowship in Social Science in New Zealand. Her major research interests are in the area of acculturation, and she is coauthor (with Stephen Bochner and Adrian Furnham) of The Psychology of Culture Shock.


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