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The ideas of cosmopolitanism and citizenship appear to be in a contradictory relationship: whereas cosmopolitanism implies a sense of belonging that transcends the immediate and local, the idea of citizenship most commonly indicates a formal tie with a specific community or state. This tension is most evident when we think of citizenship as a formal tie which binds citizens to the nation-state. The nation-state represents what Giddens (1994) called a ‘power container’ with a totalising, homogenising and formally equalising effect. It implies a bounded community and imposes a set of cultural norms and expectations, loyalty and exclusivity. It is also often inherently connected to the principle which binds the community together (e.g. blood or territory), and determines the incorporation (naturalisation) rules for the outsiders. ...

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