Controversies in Psychotherapy and Counselling
Publication Year: 1999
Subject: General Counseling & Psychotherapy
`My congratulations to Colin Feltham for assembling a set of contentious issues and lively authors which together made me forget my surroundings' - Person-Centred Practice `Editor Colin Feltham's choice of topics shows an astute, on the ground awareness of the issues that dog the industry, while still making lively reading' - New Therapist In this book, leading practitioners, critics and commentators take sides on many topical and core debates including: · Theoretical issues: Does the unconscious really exist? Is birth trauma a fiction? Should one believe in `false memories'? · Clinical issues: Is ther
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Theoretical Issues
- Chapter 2: Does the Unconscious Mind Really Exist?
- Chapter 3: On the Existence of the Unconscious
- Chapter 4: Primal Therapies – Stillborn Theories
- Chapter 5: The Trauma of Birth
- Chapter 6: False Memories – A Peripheral Issue?
- Chapter 7: Believing Patients
Part II: Clinical Issues
- Chapter 8: The Ineffectiveness of Psychotherapy
- Chapter 9: It has been Amply Demonstrated That Psychotherapy is Effective
- Chapter 10: The Main Change Agent in Effective Psychotherapy is Specific Technique and Skill
- Chapter 11: The Main Change Agent in Psychotherapy is the Relationship between Therapist and Client
- Chapter 12: Deconstructing Diagnosis: Psychopathological Practice
- Chapter 13: Psychopathology is a Reality and Psychodiagnosis is a Necessity
- Chapter 14: The Limitations of Boundaries
- Chapter 15: Maintaining Boundaries in Psychotherapy: A View from Evolutionary Psychoanalysis
Part III: Professional Issues
- Chapter 16: Personal Therapy as a Training Requirement: The Lack of Supporting Evidence
- Chapter 17: In Defence of Therapy for Training
- Chapter 18: Becoming an Effective Psychotherapist or Counsellor: Are Training and Supervision Necessary?
- Chapter 19: Training and Supervision Make a Difference
- Chapter 20: Against and beyond Core Theoretical Models
- Chapter 21: Training in a Core Theoretical Model is Essential
- Chapter 22: Professionalization of Therapy by Registration is Unnecessary, Ill Advised and Damaging
- Chapter 23: Registration Benefits and is Necessary to the Public and the Profession
- Chapter 24: Psychotherapy and Counselling are Indistinguishable
- Chapter 25: There are Real Differences between Psychotherapy and Counselling
Part IV: Social Issues
- Chapter 26: Stress Discourse and Individualization
- Chapter 27: Employee Assistance Programmes and Stress Counselling: At a Crossroads?
- Chapter 28: Psychotherapy and Counselling as Unproven, Overblown and Unconvincing
- Chapter 29: Psychotherapy as Essential Health Care
- Chapter 30: Mind at the End of its Tether
- Chapter 31: Counselling and Psychotherapy as Enabling and Empowering
Editorial arrangement and Chapters 1 and 20 © Colin Feltham 1999
Chapters 2 © E.M. Thornton 1999
Chapters 3 © Tim Kendall and Peter Speedwell 1999
Chapters 4 © Jennifer M Cunningham 1999
Chapters 5 © John Rowan 1999
Chapters 6 © Roger Scotford 1999
Chapters 7 © Marjorie Orr 1999
Chapters 8 © W.M. Epstein 1999
Chapters 9 © Stephen Saunders 1999
Chapters 10 © Albert Ellis 1999
Chapters 11 © David Howe 1999
Chapters 12 © Ian Parker 1999
Chapters 13 © Norman D. Macaskill 1999
Chapters 14 © Derek Gale 1999
Chapters 15 © David Livingstone Smith 1999
Chapters 16 © Ann Macaskill 1999
Chapters 17 © Valerie Sinason 1999
Chapters 18 © Jim McLennan 1999
Chapters 19 © Mary Connor 1999
Chapters 21 © Sue Wheeler 1999
Chapters 22 © Richard Mowbray 1999
Chapters 23 © Digby Tantam 1999
Chapters 24 © Brian Thorne 1999
Chapters 25 © Jan Harvie-Clark 1999
Chapters 26 © Tim Newton 1999
Chapters 27 © John Berridge 1999
Chapters 28 © Alex Howard 1999
Chapters 29 © Jeremy Holmes 1999
Chapters 30 © Fay Weldon 1999
Chapters 31 © Sheelagh Strawbridge 1999
First published 1999
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers.
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Notes on Contributors[Page vi]
John Berridge is Senior Lecturer in Personnel Policy, Manchester School of Management, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). He trained as a sociologist at the London School of Economics and has taught and researched widely in Britain, Europe and the USA. He is author of Employee Assistance Programmes and Workplace Counselling (Wiley, 1997) with Cary L Cooper and Carolyn Highley-Marchington and has edited the journal Employee Relations since 1990.
Mary Connor is Head of Individual and Organization Development Studies at the University College of Ripon and York St John, in York. Her extensive teaching has included specialist lecture tours in the Far East, and she is currently developing collaborative partnerships in counselling training in Greece and Argentina. Her publications include Training the Counsellor (Routledge, 1994).
Jennifer M. Cunningham works as a community paediatrician in the Child Development and Communication Disorder assessment teams within the Balvicar Child Centre, Yorkhill NHS Trust, Glasgow. Most of her work entails the developmental assessment of preschool children who may have special needs or autism.
Albert Ellis is the founder of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), the pioneering cognitive-behavioural therapy. He is President of the Albert Ellis Institute for REBT in New York, practises considerable individual and group therapy every week, gives many talks and workshops throughout the world and has published over 65 books on psychotherapy.
W.M. Epstein teaches social policy in the School of Social Work, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He is the author of The Dilemma of American Social Welfare (Transaction, 1993), The Illusion of Psychotherapy (Transaction, 1995), Welfare in America (University of Wisconsin Press, 1997) and Children Who Could Have Been: The Legacy of Welfare in Wealthy America (University of Wisconsin Press, 1999).
Colin Feltham is Head of the Counselling Development Unit, School of Education, Sheffield Hallam University. He is a British Association for Counselling (BAC) Accredited Counsellor and a BAC Fellow. His publications include Psychotherapy and its Discontents (with Windy Dryden, Open
[Page vii]University Press, 1992), What Is Counselling? (Sage, 1995), Which Psychotherapy? (Sage, 1997), Time-Limited Counselling (Sage, 1997) and Witness and Vision of the Therapists (Sage, 1998). He also edits the series ‘Professional Skills for Counsellors’ and ‘Perspectives on Psychotherapy’ for Sage.
Derek Gale is an author and humanistic psychotherapist in private practice in Essex and London specialising in voice, psychodrama and group work. He is currently developing his work as a consultant to industry. He is the author of What is Psychotherapy? (Gale Centre Books, 1989) and What is Psychodrama? (Gale Centre Books, 1990).
Jan Harvie-Clark is a psychoanalytic psychotherapist in private practice and supervisor and teacher at the Highgate Counselling Centre, London. She is a member of the British Association of Psychotherapists and is registered by the British Confederation of Psychotherapists.
Jeremy Holmes is Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon. His books include John Bowlby and Attachment Theory (Routledge, 1995), Introduction to Psychoanalysis (with Anthony Bateman, Routledge, 1995), Attachment, Intimacy, Autonomy: Using Attachment Theory in Adult Psychotherapy (Jason Aronson, 1996), and Healing Stories: Narrative in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (with G. Roberts, OUP, 1998).
Alex Howard has for many years been a tutor and manager in adult education. His fourth book, Challenges to Counselling and Psychotherapy (Macmillan, 1996), was highly acclaimed. Philosophy in Counselling and Psychotherapy (Macmillan, 1999) will relate over 30 philosophers, from ancient Greece to the present, to the contemporary practice of counselling.
David Howe is a Professor in the School of Social Work at the University of East Anglia, Norwich. His research interests include applications of attachment theory, particularly in the fields of child maltreatment, parenting and adoption. He is the author of a number of books, the most recent being On Being a Client: Understanding the Process of Counselling and Psychotherapy (Sage, 1993), Attachment Theory for Social Work Practice (Macmillan, 1995) and Patterns of Adoption: Nature, Nurture and Psychosocial Development (Blackwell Science, 1998).
Tim Kendall was Director of the Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies, University of Sheffield, and is now a Consultant Psychiatrist in the NHS. He is also Chair of the Universities Psychotherapy Association. He has studied medicine, neurochemistry, psychiatry and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. His research interests include power and subjectivity in psychoanalysis and other therapies, and technique in psychotherapy.
[Page viii]Ann Macaskill is Principal Lecturer in the Psychology of Health and Illness in the School of Health and Community Studies, Sheffield Hallam University. Her research interests and publications are in components of the therapy process, treatment of depression, stress and other aspects of health psychology and health education.
Norman D. Macaskill is Senior Lecturer in Psychotherapy at the University of Leeds. He was previously a consultant psychotherapist in the NHS, with honorary lectureships at the Universities of Sheffield and Nottingham. He has trained as both a psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural therapist, and has published extensively on many themes, including cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression and personality disorders and integration of pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy to optimise treatment outcomes.
Jim McLennan has been practising, teaching, researching and supervising in counselling and psychotherapy since 1970. He has worked in a range of counselling and psychotherapy settings and is a Member of the College of Counselling Psychologists of the Australian Psychological Society. He is currently an Associate Professor of Psychology at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne.
Richard Mowbray has over 20 years' experience as a practitioner of Primal Integration. Together with Juliana Brown he is co-director of the Primal Integration Programme in London and is a member of the Open Centre, one of the UK's longest-established growth centres. Publications include The Case Against Psychotherapy Registration: A Conservation Issue for the Human Potential Movement (Trans Marginal Press, 1995).
Tim Newton is a Lecturer in Organizational Studies at the Department of Organizational Psychology, Birkbeck College, London. He is researching subjectivity and the self; management of knowledge; sociology of emotion and the body. His publications include ‘Managing’ Stress: Emotion and Power at Work (Sage, 1995).
Marjorie Orr, originally a BBC documentary producer and journalist, is now a Jungian psychotherapist. In 1991 she founded Accuracy About Abuse, an international information service on sexual abuse. She is on the editorial board of Trauma/Treating Abuse Today, lectures extensively in the UK and elsewhere and has several publications in this field.
Ian Parker is Professor of Psychology at Bolton Institute and Director of the MSc Critical Psychology programme. His publications include Psychoanalytic Culture: Psychoanalytic Discourse in Western Society (Sage, 1997) and Deconstructing Psychotherapy (edited, Sage, 1999). He is a member of Psychology Politics Resistance and the North West Right to Refuse Electroshock Campaign.[Page ix]
John Rowan is the author of The Reality Game (2nd edn, Routledge, 1998) and many other books on counselling and psychotherapy. He teaches at the Minster Centre in London and has a private practice in therapy and supervision in north-east London. He is also a Fellow of the British Psychological Society. With Mick Cooper he has edited The Plural Self (Sage, 1999).
Stephen Saunders received his doctorate from Northwestern University, studying with Kenneth Howard. He is currently Assistant Professor at Marquette University and an executive board member of the Center for Addiction and Behavioral Health Research. He has published extensively in the area of help-seeking and psychotherapy outcomes.
Roger Scotford is Director of the British False Memory Society. Previously an engineer officer in the Royal Navy, and businessman, he broadcasts and writes on false memory and lives with his second wife and eldest daughter and her family in Bradford on Avon.
Valerie Sinason is a poet, writer, adult psychoanalyst and child psychotherapist. She is Director of the Clinic for Dissociative Studies, and Consultant Research Psychotherapist at St George's Hospital Medical School Psychiatry of Disability Department. She specializes in work with learning disabled and abused/abusing clients. She lectures nationally and internationally and was made a Life Member of Poms, the Swedish psychology organization, and an Honorary Consultant at University of Cape Town Child Guidance Clinic. Her books include Mental Handicap and the Human Condition (Free Association Books, 1991), Memory in Dispute (Karnac, 1998) and The Shoemaker and the Elves: Working with Multiplicity (Routledge, forthcoming).
David Livingstone Smith is the author of numerous publications on psychoanalysis, philosophy and related subjects including Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course (Karnac, 1999), Hidden Conservations: An Introduction to Communicative Psychoanalysis (Rebus, 1999) and Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious (Kluwer, 1999). He is a registered psychotherapist as well as a trained philosopher, and is clinical supervisor for Kids Company, a charity providing psychotherapy and counselling for inner city children. He is visiting lecturer on psychoanalysis at a number of UK universities.
Peter Speedwell has worked professionally in the arts, writing and directing for Channel 4, and writing for theatre. He completed a PhD on Bakhtin and psychoanalysis, and is now undertaking a research project on scapegoating and sacrifice.
Sheelagh Strawbridge is a Chartered Counselling Psychologist in independent practice. She has a background in university teaching on degree [Page x]courses in social science and professional courses in counselling and social work. Her publications include Exploring Self and Society (with Rosamund Billington and Jenny Hockey, Macmillan, 1998).
Digby Tantam is Clinical Professor of Psychotherapy at the Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies, University of Sheffield, Associate Medical Director of the School for Health and Related Research, Director of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, and an Honorary Consultant Psychotherapist for Community Health Sheffield. He has previously been Chair of the Universities Psychotherapy Association, and Chair of the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy, and is currently Registrar of the European Association of Psychotherapy. He has been the author of over 90 published scientific articles, and the author or editor of eight books, including Clinical Topics in Psychotherapy (Gaskell, 1998).
Brian Thorne is a Professorial Fellow and Director of the Centre for Counselling Studies at the University of East Anglia, Norwich. He is also a Professor of Education in the College of Teachers, London. He has contributed substantially to the professional literature and is an international figure in the world of person-centred therapy. His most recent books are Person-Centred Counselling and Person-Centred Christian Spirituality (Whurr, 1998) and Person-Centred Therapy: A European Perspective (coedited with Elke Lambers, Sage, 1998).
E.M. Thornton is a medical historian specializing in the history of psychiatry and neurology, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (History of Medicine Section). Her books include Hypnotism, Hysteria and Epilepsy: An Historical Synthesis (Heinemann Medical Books, 1979) and Freud and Cocaine: The Freudian Fallacy (Blond & Briggs, 1983). She is currently engaged in a historical study of Darwinism.
Fay Weldon is one of Britain's leading writers. Novelist, screenwriter and critic, her work is translated the world over. Her novels include, most famously, The Life and Loves of a She-Devil (Flamingo, 1983), The Cloning of Joanna May (Flamingo, 1998) and Big Women (Flamingo, 1989), a fictional perspective on 25 years of feminism.
Sue Wheeler is a counsellor and psychotherapist, supervisor and Senior Lecturer in Counselling at the University of Birmingham. She has many years of experience as a counsellor in further and higher education, and as a counsellor trainer and supervisor. She is a course tutor for the MA Counselling and course director of the Certificate in Supervision at the university. She is the author of A Handbook for Personal Tutors (with Jan Birtle, Open University Press, 1994) and Training Counsellors: The Assessment of Competence (Cassell, 1997), and of many articles and book chapters related to counselling and supervision of counsellors.