Controversies in Contemporary Advertising

Books

Kim Sheehan

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To Tim, with love, forever

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgments

    This book could not have been written without the help and support of many of my colleagues at the University of Oregon. Dean Timothy Gleason made sure that I had the time I needed to bring this book to completion and provided answers to my legal queries on a continual basis. Dave Koranda, Rebecca Force, John Russial, and Jim Upshaw provided insights into the relationship between advertising and mass media. Charlie Frazer, Ann Maxwell, and Bill Ryan are wonderful sounding boards and munificent colleagues.

    Thanks also to those who read and commented on this book's proposal: Jan Slater, Tom Reichert, Chris Cakebread, and Sally McMillan. Chris Cakebread of Boston University gave valuable insights, comments, and suggestions on the manuscript as a whole: When I mention “a colleague” in the text, more often than not it is Chris.

    MaryAnn Vail at Sage was a good listener and a calming influence. Frank Hubert was a patient and thorough copy editor who generously tolerated my questionable grammar choices. Thanks to you both.

    Thanks go to two scholars I've never met: James Twitchell and Michael Schudson. Both have changed my worldview in profound ways.

    Thanks also to all the students who joined me in J446, Advertising and Society, at the University of Oregon. You were all my inspiration to write this book. Special thanks to former students Andrea Swanson, who introduced me to the complexities of direct-to-consumer advertising, and Eric Lammerman, who did some helpful legwork early on in the project.

    Finally, my deep appreciation goes to my family for their support and assistance during the writing of this book. My husband, Tim Sheehan, is willing to talk about these issues'til the cows come home in order to better understand the complexities of advertising today. Dr. Paul Sheehan interpreted medical language that was beyond my comprehension. My mother, Jean Bartel, and my in-laws, Jim and Anne Sheehan, never fail to ask about the book and to marvel at its progress. The four-legged family members sat in silent vigil and gave up numerous walking opportunities to see this book through. I love you all.

  • Bibliography

    AARP. (2000). Are consumers well informed about prescription drugs? The impact of printed direct-to-consumer advertising. Retrieved February 13, 2003, from http://research.aarp.org/health/2000%5f04%5fadvertising.html.
    Abelson, R. (1991). Product bans and controversies. FDA Consumer, 25(8), 10.
    Adams, G. R., & Crossman, S. M. (1978). Physical attractiveness: A cultural perspective. New York: Libra.
    Adler, R. (1996). Stereotypes won't work with seniors anymore. Advertising Age, 67(46), 32.
    Adler, R., Lesser, G. S., Meringoff, L. K., Robertson, T. S., Rossiter, J. R., & Ward, S. (1980). The effects of television advertising on children. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Ahrens, F. (2002, March 13). In TV's numbers game, youth trumps ratings. Retrieved May 10, 2002, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A16935-2002Mar12&notFound=true.
    Aiken, K. J. (2002, October). Direct to consumer advertising of prescription drugs: Current issues. Paper presented at the Advertising Club of New York.
    Albiniak, P. (2002, February 11). For 2002, the buck starts here. Broadcasting and Cable, p. 6.
    Alexander, D., & Dichter, A. (2002). Ads and kids: How young is too young? Retrieved April 13, 2002, from http://www.mediachannel.org/atissue/consumingkids/.
    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychology. (2001). Obesity in children and teens. Retrieved May 2, 2002, from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/79.htm.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. (1995). Children, adolescents and advertising (RE9504). Pediatrics, 95(2), 295–297.
    American Advertising Federation. (1999). Position statements. Retrieved April 10, 2003, from http://www.aaf.org/government/position_bans.html.
    American Advertising Foundation and American Advertising Federation. (2003). Principles and recommended practices for effective advertising in the American multicultural marketplace. Retrieved March 10, 2002, from http://www.aaf.org/multi/principles.pdf.
    American Council on Science and Health. (2000). Physicians and scientists agree that moderate alcohol use, unlike tobacco use, can benefit health. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.acsh.org/press/releases/comparison061600.html.
    Amis, D. (1998, November 24). Freedom of speech, advertising, and the Internet. Retrieved February 19, 2002, from http://www.netfreedom.org/news.asp?item=19.
    Andersen, A. E., & DiDomenico, L. (1992). Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A close response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11, 283–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-108X%28199204%2911:3%3C283::AID-EAT2260110313%3E3.0.CO;2-O
    Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1995). Going negative: How political advertisements shrink and polarize the electorate. New York: Free Press.
    Armstrong, K. L. (1999). Nike's communication with black audiences. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 23(3), 266–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193723599233003
    Armstrong, L., & Mallory, M. (1992, June 23). The diet business starts sweating. BusinessWeek, pp. 22–23.
    Arthur, I. (1995). Make love not war. Bombay, India: Hindustan Thompson.
    Artze, I. (2000, March). Targeting Hispanic consumers. Hispanic, 13, 30–31.
    Ashmore, R. D., & Soloman, M. R. (1996). Thinking about fashion models' looks: A multidimensional approach to the structure of perceived physical attractiveness. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(11), 1083–1105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01461672962211001
    Associated Press. (1995, August 22). AP poll: Most would not snuff out tobacco advertising and promotion. Retrieved April 10, 2003, from http://www.kickbutt.org/learn/ads2.html.
    Associated Press. (2001, March 10). FCC drops inquiry into “RATS.” Ad. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.newstribune.com/stories/031001/wor_0310010018.asp.
    Associated Press. (2002). Limits for campaign finances. Retrieved April 5, 2002, from http://www.CNN.com/.
    Avery, R. J., & Ferraro, R. (2000). Verisimilitude or advertising? Brand appearances on prime-time television. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 34(2), 217–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2000.tb00092.x
    Bagdikian, B. (1983). The media monopoly. Boston: Beacon.
    Bailey, W. T., Harrell, D. R., & Anderson, L. E. (1993). The image of middle-aged and older women in magazine advertisements. Educational Gerontology, 19, 97–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127930190201
    Baker, C. E. (1976). Commercial speech: A problem in the theory of freedom. Iowa Law Review, 62, 1–56.
    Baker, M. J., & Churchill, G. A. (1977, November). The impact of physically attractive models on advertising evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 538–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3151194
    Baker, W. F., & Dessart, G. (1998). Down the tube. New York: Basic Books.
    Balasubramanian, S. K. (1994). Beyond advertising and publicity: Hybrid messages and public policy issues. Journal of Advertising, 23(4), 29–46.
    Bamberger, M., Kim, A., & Mravic, M. (2000, October 9). Nothing subliminal about it. Sports Illustrated, 93, 28.
    Bandyopadhyay, S., Kindra, G., & Sharp, L. (2002). Is television advertising good for children? Retrieved January 25, 2002, from the University of Ottawa Web site: http://www.governance.uottawa.ca/english/Publications/Downloads/Subir/Tvad2-edit.pdf.
    Bannan, K. J. (2002, March 5). Companies try a new approach and a smaller screen for product placements: Video games. New York Times, p. 6.
    Banner, L. W. (1983). American beauty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bass, A. (1994, April 25). Anorexic marketing faces boycott. Boston Globe, p. 1.
    Bean, L. (2001). Toyota pulls gold-tooth ad, opens dialogue with Jesse Jackson. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.diversityonline.com/divarch/2001/aug/0815-1.htm.
    Bedbury, S. (2002). A new brand world. New York: Viking.
    Begeley, S. (2000, November 6). The stereotype trap. Newsweek, 136, 66–68.
    Belkaoui, A., & Belkaoui, J. (1976). A comparative analysis of roles portrayed by women in print advertisements: 1958, 1970 and 1972. Journal of Marketing Research, 13, 168–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150853
    Belkin, L. (2000, March/April). Primetime pushers. Mother Jones, pp. 31–37.
    Bell, R. A., Kravitz, R., & Wilkes, M. S. (1999). Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising and the public. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 14(11), 651–657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.1999.01049.x
    Benetton. (1998). What we say. Retrieved January 9, 2002, from http://www.benetton.com/wws/aboutyou/ucdo/index.html.
    Bercovici, J. (2002). Philip Morris yanks $$ from 80 titles, in big retreat. Media Life. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://209.61.190.23/news2002/feb02/feb04/4_thurs/news1thursday.html.
    Berger, A. A. (2000). Ads, fads and consumer culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Better Business Bureau. (2001). Self-regulatory guidelines for children's advertising. Retrieved June 10, 2001, from http://www.bbb.org/advertising/caruguid.html.
    Black Broadcasters' Association. (2002). Minority ownership report. Retrieved July 8, 2002, from http://www.thebba.org/NTIA.html.
    Bloom, P. N., Hussein, P. Y., & Szykman, L. R. (1995). Social marketing. Marketing Management, 4(3), 8–12.
    Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable weight: Feminism, Western culture and the body. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Bowers, M. (2001, May 18). Country's founders realized political debate must be free and unfettered. Retrieved April 5, 2003, from http://atlanta.bizjournals.com/atlanta/stories/2001/05/21/editorial3.html.
    Brabbs, C. (2000, June 29). Analysis. Marketing, p. 27.
    Bradley, D. E., & Longino, C. F. (2001). How older people think about images of aging in advertising and media. Generations, 25, 17.
    Bradway, J. S. (2000, April). Gender stereotypes and children's television. Paper presented at the Butte College Mass Media and Society Program, Butte, MT.
    Brady, D. (2001, November 8). Patriotic ads–and minuses. Retrieved June 4, 2002, from http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/nov2001/nf2001118_7193.htm.
    Brand, P. Z. (1999, Winter). Beauty matters. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 57(1), 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/432058
    Branscomb, L. (1997). The place of the Internet in national and global information infrastructure. In O'Reilly and Associates (Eds.), The Harvard Conference on the Internet and society (pp. 338–352). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brown, H. W., & Barnes, B. E. (2001). Perceptions of advertising influence on broadcast news. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 55(4), 18–29.
    Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of Marketing, 61(1), 68–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1252190
    Brown, W. (2001, October/November). A deal full of dollars but short on sense. Retrieved April 4, 2003, from http://www.automag.com/AAOWMagazine/2001_octnov/pg42.asp.
    Bruno, D. (2001, September 6). The Bulgari disconnection. Christian Science Monitor, p. 9.
    Bunis, D. (2000, February 23). Direct to you. Retrieved April 4, 2003, from http://www.salon.com/health/feature/2000/02/23/drug_ads.
    Burton, S., & Netemeyer, R. G. (1995). Gender differences for appearance-related attitudes and behaviors: Implications for consumer welfare. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 14(1), 60–75.
    Bush, A. J., Smith, R., & Martin, C. (1999). The influence of consumer socialization variables on attitude toward advertising: A comparison of African-Americans and Caucasians. Journal of Advertising, 28(3), 13–24.
    Butler, R., Lewis, M., & Sunderland, T. (1991). Aging and mental health: Positive psycho-social and biomedical approaches. New York: Macmillan.
    Cable Advertising Bureau. (2000). Multicultural marketing resource center. Retrieved April 6, 2002, from http://www.cab.com.
    Calfee, J. (1997). Fear of persuasion: A new perspective on advertising and regulation. London: Agora.
    Calfee, J. (2002). Public policy issues in direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 21(2), 174–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jppm.21.2.174.17580
    Cameron, G., & Ju-Pak, K.-H. (2000). Information pollution? Labeling and format of advertorials. Newspaper Research Journal, 21(1), 12–23.
    Cameron, L. (2002). Evaluating sources of information. Retrieved November 13, 2001, from the James Madison University Web site: http://www.lib.jmu.edu/library/gold/mod6eval.htm.
    Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. (2000). Big Tobacco shifts ads from billboards to stores. Retrieved February 11, 2002, from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org.
    Campbell, K. (2001, September 20). Death of literature? Not just yet. Christian Science Monitor, p. 15.
    Cantor, J. E. (1997). Soft and hard money in contemporary elections: What federal law does and does not regulate. Washington, DC: Center for Responsive Politics.
    Carrigan, M., & Szmigin, I. (2000). Advertising in an ageing society. Ageing and Society, 20(20), 217–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X99007709
    Carver, R. (2001, January 31). Paid political advertising. Retrieved January 31, 2001, from http://www.aceproject.org/main/english/me/mec04b.htm.
    Cebrzynski, G. (2002, February 11). Panda Express lands roles in movies, hit TV show. Nation's Restaurant News, p. 6.
    Center for Media Education. (1997). Children and television. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://www.cme.org/children/kids_tv/c_and_t.html.
    Center for Media Education. (2002). A field guide to the Children's Television Act. Retrieved January 25, 2002, from http://www.cme.org/fieldguide.html.
    Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2001). National poll shows strong opposition to liquor ads on network television. Retrieved January 11, 2002, from http://www.cspinet.org/new/oppose_liquorads.html.
    Chabria, A. (2002, March 25). Revlon will be incorporated into soap opera storyline. PR Week, p. 2.
    Chafetaz, M. E. (2000, May 20). Critics who say advertising contributes to alcohol-related problems are way off base. Retrieved December 10, 2001, from http://www.drkoop.com.
    Chang, W. H., Park, J.-J., & Shim, S. W. (1998). Effectiveness of negative political advertising. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.scripps.ohiou.edu/wjmcr/vol02/2-1a.htm.
    Chaplin, H. (1999). Centrum's self-inflicted silver bullet. American Demographics, 21(3), 68–69.
    Charatan, F. (2000). US prescription drug sales boosted by advertising. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 321(7264), 783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7264.783
    Chestnut, R. W., LaChance, C. C., & Lubitz, A. (1977). The “decorative” female model: Sexual stimuli and the recognition of advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 6(4), 11–14.
    Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, 6501. (1998).
    Chocano, C. (2001, May 17). They give good head. Retrieved December 3, 2002, from http://archive.salon.com/people/feature/2001/05/17/b_in10nse/.
    Chura, H. (2000). Coors hikes spending on gay ads. Advertising Age, 71, 16.
    Chura, H. (2001, November 12). Sweet spot. Advertising Age, 72, 1–2.
    Clark, E. (1988). The want makers. New York: Viking Penguin.
    Clark, K. (1953). The nude: A study in ideal form. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    CNN. (1999, February 5). Study shows black and white viewing habits coming together. Retrieved January 22, 2002, from the CNN Web site: http://www.cnn.com.
    CNN. (2002). Senate approves campaign finance bill. Retrieved May 6, 2002, from the CNN Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/27/campaign.finance.lawsuit/index.html.
    Coen. (2001, June 11). Coen's spending totals. Retrieved March 15, 2002, from http://www.adage.com/page.cms?pageId=454.
    Courtney, A., & Whipple, T. (1983). Sex stereotyping in advertising. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Craig, R. S. (1992). The effect of television day part on gender portrayals in television commercials: A content analysis. Sex Roles, 26(5/6), 197–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00289707
    Crain, R. (2001, March 26). Husbands are boys and wives their mothers in the land of ads. Advertising Age, 72, 22.
    Crawford, C. T., & Graham, W. L. K. (1985). Cover memo to Omnibus Petition for Regulation of Unfair and Deceptive Alcoholic Beverage Advertising and Marketing Practices (Vol. Docket No. 209-46, p. 2). Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission.
    Cross, G. (2000). The all-consuming century: Why commercialism won in modern America. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Crouch, A., & Degelman, D. (1998). Influence of female body images in printed advertising on self-ratings of physical attractiveness by adolescent girls. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87(2), 585–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1998.87.2.585
    Crowell, G. (2001, May 10). Banner ads: Defusing the dot-bomb. Retrieved February 20, 2002, from http://www.workz.com/content/2303.asp.
    Cuneo, A. (2000). Of contracts and claims: Agencies face liability issues. Advertising Age, 71, 25.
    Cuneo, A. Z. (2000). Can an agency be guilty of malpractice? Advertising Age, 71, 24–25.
    Dali, P. W. (1988). Prime-time television portrayals of older adults in the context of family life. The Gerontologist, 28, 700–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/28.5.700
    D'Amico, M. F., & Hummel, J. W. (1980, July). Sex role portrayals in television commercials: 1971, 1976, 1980. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southern Marketing Association, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
    Davis, J. (2000). Riskier than we think? The relationship between risk statement completeness and perceptions of direct-to-consumer advertised prescription drugs. Journal of Health Communications, 5(4), 349–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730050199141
    Della Femina, J. (1997, March 9). The age boom: A market ignored. New York Times, p. 74.
    Department of Commerce. (2002). 54% of US now online. Retrieved April 24, 2002, from the MSNBC Web site: http://www.nua.com/surveys/index.cgi?f=VS&art_id=905357626&rel=true.
    Dessart, G. (2001). Standards and practices. Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/S/htmlS/standardsand/standardsand.htm.
    Devlin, L. P. (1997). Contrast in presidential campaign commercials of 1996. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 1058–1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764297040008008
    DiPasquale, C., & Fine, J. (2002). PM: Last call for magazines. Advertising Age, 73(5), 1, 31.
    Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (1996). Distillers change advertising code to advance equal treatment. Available: http://www.discus.org/mediaroom/1996/prad.htm. Accessed August 5, 2003.
    Division of Drug Marketing. (1999, August). Consumer-directed broadcast advertisements guidance: Questions and answers. Retrieved July 15, 2002, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/1804q&a.htm.
    Dobrow, L. (2002). How old is old enough? Advertising Age, 73(5), s2.
    Dobzynski, J. (2000). Stereotypes are not evil. Retrieved April 1, 2002, from http://students.uww.edu/stdorgs/philosophy/mfmoct/page4html.
    Donaton, S. (2001). Magazines should consider kicking the tobacco habit. Advertising Age, 72, 15.
    Downs, A. C., & Harrison, S. K. (1985). Embarrassing age spots or just plain ugly? Physical attractiveness stereotyping as an instrument of sexism on American television commercials. Sex Roles, 13, 9–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287457
    DTC Perspectives. (2002). Interview with Dr. Nancy M. Ostrove. Retrieved April 17, 2002, from http://www.dtcperspectives.com.
    Dunn, S. W., & Barban, A. (1986). Advertising, Its role in modern marketing. Chicago: Dryden.
    Duvert, P., & Foster, R. (1999). Decoding minority targeted advertisements: A perspective of the representation of blacks in print advertising. Paper presented at the University of Rochester McNair Program, Rochester, NY.
    Dychtwald, K. (1988). The challenges and opportunities of an aging America. Los Angeles: Tarcher.
    Dyson, A., & Turco, D. (2002). The state of celebrity endorsement in sport. Retrieved April 3, 2003, from http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/1998/cjsm/v2n1/dyson.htm.
    Eagly, A. H., Ashmore, R. D., Makhijani, M. G., & Longo, L. C. (1991). What is beautiful is good, but … A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1), 109–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.109
    Edenfield v. Fane (123 L. Ed. 2d 543, 113 S. Ct. 1792, 1798 1993).
    Ehrlich, B. (2002). 35 seconds to DTC success. Retrieved April 17, 2002, from http://www.dtcperspectives.com.
    Eighmey, J. (1999, February 15). Accident prevention in advertising. Ad Age, p. 24.
    Elliott, R., Jones, A., Benfield, A., & Barlow, M. (1995, June). Overt sexuality: A discourse analysis of gender responses. Journal of Consumer Policy, 18, 187–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01016511
    Elliott, S. (2001). Advertising: Four A's discuss creativity with a purpose. Retrieved May 2, 2002, from http://www.veridiem.com.
    Elliott, S. (2002, a, April 19). An ad executive tells his colleagues to mend their ways. New York Times, p. 2.
    Elliott, S. (2002, b, March 21). Facing outcry, NBC ends plan to run liquor ads. New York Times, p. 1.
    England, P., Kuhn, A., & Gardner, T. (1981). The ages of men and women in magazine advertisements. Journalism Quarterly, 58, 468–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908105800321
    Englis, B., Soloman, M. R., & Ashmore, R. D. (1994). Beauty before the eyes of beholders: The cultural encoding of beauty types in magazine advertising and music television. Journal of Advertising, 23(2), 49–64.
    Entman, R. M., & Rojecki, A. (2000). The black image in the white mind: Media and race in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Etcoff, N. (1999). Survival of the prettiest. New York: Doubleday.
    Face reality of new demo. (2001, November 19). Advertising Age, 72, s2–s6.
    Fazari, L. (1997, July 22). New mag looks at big picture. Toronto Sun, p. 47.
    Federal Trade Commission. (1999). FTC reports on industry efforts to avoid promoting alcohol to underage consumers. Washington, DC: Author.
    Federal Trade Commission. (2000). Marketing violent entertainment to children: A review of self-regulation and industry practices in the motion picture, music recording & electronic game industries. Washington, DC: Author.
    Federal Trade Commission. (2002). Privacy agenda. Retrieved April 24, 2002, from the Federal Trade Commission Web site: http://www.ftc.gov.
    Feingold, A. (1992, March). Good-looking people are not what we think. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 304–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.111.2.304
    Ferguson, J. H., Kreshel, P., & Tinkham, S. (1990). In the pages of Ms., Sex roles portrayals of women in advertising. Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 40–51.
    Ferrante, C. L., Haynes, A. M., & Kingsley, S. (1988). Images of women in television advertising. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 32(2), 231–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158809386697
    Festervand, T. A., & Lumpkin, J. R. (1985). Responses of elderly consumers to their portrayals by advertisers. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 8(1), 203–226.
    Fisher, H. E. (1999). The first sex: The natural talents of women and how they are changing the world. New York: Random House.
    Fisher, J. C. (1993). Advertising, alcohol consumption, and abuse: A worldwide survey. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Fiske, J. (1986). Understanding popular culture. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
    Fletcher, W. (1992). A glittering haze: Strategic advertising in the 1990s. Henley-on-Thames, England: NTC Publications.
    Fletcher, W. (2001, November 22). Rub egg off, Fcuk: Your ads are bollocks that just peddle smut. Marketing, p. 20.
    Flint, J. (2002, January 11). CBS won't take commercials for hard liquor. Wall Street Journal, p. 8.
    Food and Drug Administration (1995). Direct to consumer promotion. Silver Springs, MD: Author.
    Food and Drug Administration. (1997). Warning letter to Merck. Retrieved September 11, 2000, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cder/warn/jan97/zocor.pdf.
    Food and Drug Administration. (1998a). Warning letter to Merck. Retrieved September 11, 2000, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cder/warn/apr98/6494.pdf.
    Food and Drug Administration. (1998b). Warning letter to Pharmacia and Upjohn. Retrieved September 11, 2000, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cder/warn/mar98/6421.pdf.
    Food and Drug Administration. (1998c). Warning letter to Rhode-Puolene Rore. Retrieved September 11, 2000, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cder/warn/may98/6610.pdf.
    Food and Drug Administration. (1999). Warning letter to Hoffman-LaRoche. Retrieved September 12, 2000, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cder/warn/july99/8089.pdf.
    Food and Drug Administration. (2000). Warning Letter to Eli Lilly and Company. Retrieved September 12, 2000, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cder/warn/july99/8089.pdf.
    Fox, R. J., Krugman, D. M., Fletcher, J. E., & Fischer, P. M. (1998). Adolescents' attention to beer and cigarette print ads and associated product warnings. Journal of Advertising, 27(3), 57–68.
    Francher, J. (1973). It's the Pepsi generation … Accelerated aging and the television commercial. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 4, 245–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/QJ15-7PD9-M14Y-U8YY
    Franklin, C. (2000, February 28). The need to look beyond Black History Month. Advertising Age, 71, 62.
    Freedman, P., & Lawton, L. D. (2000, May). Does campaign advertising depress voter turnout? The Virginia News Letter, 76, 1–4.
    Friedman, W. (2001, November 19). “Squeeze” play stokes concerns. Advertising Age, 72, 41.
    Friedman, W. (2002). Nearly all NBC prime time shows qualify for liquor ads. Retrieved January 11, 2002, from http://www.adage.com/news.cms?newsId-33734.
    Galbraith, J. K. (1957). The affluent society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Gantz, W., Gartenberg, H., & Rainbow, C. (1980). Approaching invisibility: The portrayal of the elderly in magazine advertisements. Journal of Communications, 30, 56–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01769.x
    Gardner, M. (2000, November 22). Stereotypes tarnish golden years. Christian Science Monitor, 92(253), p. 15.
    Gardyn, R. (2000). REtirement REdefined. American Demographics, 22(11), 52–57.
    Garfield, B. (1997). Benetton's hype: Free publicity for pricey clothes. Advertising Age, 62(31), 38.
    Garfield, B. (2001, a, September 17). Ads must be sensitive, but don't try to profit from grief. Advertising Age, 72, 29.
    Garfield, B. (2001b). Mass murder is no occasion for marketing. Retrieved January 29, 2002, from http://www.adreview.com/article.cms?articleId=861.
    Garner, D. (2001, December 9). Content. New York Times, p. 63.
    Garner, D. M. (1997). 1997 body image survey results. Psychology Today, 30(1), 30–47.
    Garner, D. M., Garfinkel, P. E., Schwartz, D., & Thompson, M. (1980, October). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychological Reports, 47, 483–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1980.47.2.483
    Geller, A., & Lawrence, B. (2002, February). TV production: Trends, tone and technology. Campaigns and Elections, p. 63.
    Gerbner, G. (1993a). Learning productive aging as a social role: The lessons of television. In S. A.Bass, F. G.Caro, & Y. P.Chen (Eds.), Achieving a productive aging society (pp. 350–365). Westport, CT: Auburn House.
    Gerbner, G. (1993b). Women and minorities on television, a study in casting and fate. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School of Communications.
    Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorelli, N. (1981). Aging with television commercials: Images on television commercials and dramatic programming, 1977–1979. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School of Communications.
    Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorelli, N. (1986). Living with television: The dynamics of the cultivation process. In J.Bryant & D.Zillman (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects (pp. 17–40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Gibbs, N., August, M., Cole, W., Lofaro, L., Padgett, T., Ressner, J., & Winters, R. (2001). Who's in charge here? Time, 158, 40–48.
    Giroux, H. (1994). Benetton's world without borders: Buying social change. In C.Becker (Ed.), The subversive imagination: Artists, society and social responsibility (p. 198). London: Routledge.
    Gobé, M. (2001). Emotional branding: The new paradigm for connecting brands to people. New York: Allworth.
    Goetzl, D. (2000a). New venture aims to measure effectiveness of DTC drug work. Advertising Age, 71(23), 16–18.
    Goetzl, D. (2000b). TVB study: DTC disclosures lend credibility to drug ads. Advertising Age, 71(24), 6.
    Goetzl, D., Klaassen, A., Teinowitz, I., & Sanders, L. (2001, July 23). Dose of reality. Advertising Age, 72, 1–2.
    Goffman, E. (1979). Gender advertisements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Goldman, D. (2002, January 7). Bumping and grinding with Britney rage. AdWeek, p. 11.
    Goldring, J. (1997). Netting the cybershark: Consumer protection, cyberspace, the nation-state, and democracy. In B.Kahin & C.Nesson (Eds.), Borders in cyberspace: Information policy and the global information infrastructure (pp. 322–354). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Goodwill, B. (1999, October). Cause marketing pros and cons. Broadcast Cafe Newsletter. Retrieved December 28, 2000, from http://www.psaresearch.com/CRMFEATURE.html.
    Gordon, J., & Pappas, B. (1998, October 19). A larger dose of reality. Forbes, 162, 47.
    Gould, J. (2002). Political television advertisements: Pro. Retrieved May 14, 2002, from http://www.etext.org/Zines/Intl_Teletimes/Teletimes_HTML/debate_room_9402.html.
    Gould, S. J., Gupta, P. B., & Graner-Krauter, S. (2000). Product placements in movies: A cross cultural analysis of Austrian, French and American consumers' attitudes toward this emerging international promotional medium. Journal of Advertising, 29(4), 41–58.
    Gray, R. (2001, May 3). Cause related marketing. Marketing, p. 35.
    Grebb, M. (2001, a, April 3). Don't forget about email. Retrieved February 15, 2002, from http://www.bizreport.com.
    Grebb, M. (2001, b, May 11). Let's talk about privacy–again. Retrieved February 15, 2002, from http://www.bisreport.com.
    Green, C. L. (1999). Ethnic evaluations of advertising: Interaction effects of strength of ethnic identification, media placement, and degree of racial composition. Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 49–64.
    Greenfield, P. M. (1984). Mind and media: The effects of television, video games and computers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Grimm, M. (2002). A spirited debate. American Demographics, 24(4), 48–50.
    Grossman, A. (2001). NBC drinking in revenue from hard-liquor ads. Retrieved January 11, 2002, from Yahoo News Web site: http://dailynews.yahoo.com/NBC_drinking_in_revenue_from_hard-liquor_ads_1.html.
    Grown up women (2000, March 9). Marketing Week, p. 57.
    Guillen, E., & Barr, S. I. (1994, September). Nutrition, dieting and fitness messages in a magazine for adolescent women, 1970–1990. Journal of Adolescent Health, 15, 464–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2894%2990493-M
    Gulas, C., & McKeage, K. (2000). Extending social comparison: An examination of the unintended consequences of idealized advertising imagery. Journal of Advertising, 29(2), 17–28.
    Gwinner, K., & Eaton, J. (1999). Building brand image through event sponsorship: The role of image transfer. Journal of Advertising, 28(4), 47–57.
    Hacker, G. A. (2002, January 10). Alcohol advertising: Are our kids collateral or intended targets? Paper presented at the meeting of Leadership to Keep Children Alcohol Free, Washington, DC.
    Hahn, H. (1987). Advertising the acceptably employable image: Disability and capitalism. Policy Studies Journal, 15, 551–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.1987.tb00729.x
    Hall, C., Ijima, C., & Crum, M. J. (1994). Women and body-isms in television beer commercials. Sex Roles, 31(5–6), 329–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01544592
    Hall, S. (2001, March 12). Claritin and Schering-Plough: A prescription for profit. Retrieved April 17, 2002, from the New York Times Online Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/11/magazine/11CLARITIN.html.
    Hallerman, D. (2002, February 20). Mindshare over matter: Interstitials, pop-ups and pop-unders. Retrieved March 11, 2002, from http://www.emarketers.com/analysis/marketings/20020220_mark.html.
    Halprin, S. (1995). Look at my ugly face. New York: Penguin.
    Hamilton, A. (2001). Stopping those pop-up ads. Time, 158(10), 87.
    Hanson, D. J. (2001). Alcohol advertising. Retrieved February 11, 2002, from http://www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol-info/Advertising/Advertising.html.
    Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243–1248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3859.1243
    Hastings, G., & MacFadyen, L. (2000). A day in the life of an advertising man: Review of internal documents from the UK tobacco industry's principal advertising agencies. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 321(7257), 366–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7257.366
    Hatfield, E., & Sprecher, S. (1986). Mirror mirror … The importance of looks in everyday life. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Hays, R. G., & Reisner, A. E. (1990). Feeling the heat from advertisers: Farm magazine writers and ethical pressures. Journalism Quarterly, 40, 936–942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769909006700448
    Henderson, S. (1997, February 23). A magazine looks at the plus-side of the fashion world. New York Times, p. 41.
    Henney, J. E. (2000). Challenges in regulating direct-to-consumer advertising. MS JAMA, 284, 2242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.17.2242
    Herrmann, D. (1997). Query: Origins of the term melting pot. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.h-net.msu.edu/gateways/migration/threads/terminology/disc-meltingpot1E97.html.
    Hespos, T. (2001, a, April 19). The dilemma of ad-blocking software. Retrieved May 21, 2002, from http://www.clickz.com/media/media_buy/article.php/840581.
    Hespos, T. (2001, b, August 2). How to make users hate online advertising. Retrieved February 15, 2002, from http://www.clickz.com/media/media_buy/article.php.844432.
    Hespos, T. (2002, February 19). Signs of recovery [E-mail newsletter]. Media Post Communications.
    Hirschman, E., & Thompson, C. J. (1997). Why media matter: Toward a richer understanding of consumers' relationship with advertising and mass media. Journal of Advertising, 26(1), 43–60.
    Hite, M. (1988). Adman: Morris Hite's methods for winning the ad game. Dallas, TX: E-Heart Press.
    Hoffman, J. R. (1999). Direct to consumer advertising of prescription drugs. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 318(7194), 1301–1303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.318.7194.1301
    Holmer, A. F. (1999). Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising builds bridges between patients and physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(4), 380–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.4.380
    Homer did it first. (2001, September 8). Economist, 360, 92.
    Howard, T. (2001, December 31). Wacky 7up ads agree with men, women of all ages. Retrieved April 10, 2003, from http://www.usatoday.com/money/index/2001-12-31-main.htm.
    Howland, J. (1989, December). Ad vs. edit: The pressure mounts. Folio, pp. 92–100.
    Hranchak, W. (1999, August 5). Bad addytude. Retrieved January 15, 2002, from http://www.commando.com/ARCHIVE/post13.html.
    Hu, J. (2000). AOL's Schuler defends Time Warner merger as consumer friendly. Retrieved January 11, 2002, from http://news.cnet.com/news/0-1014-201-2402089-0.html.
    Humphrey, R., & Schuman, H. (1984). The portrayal of blacks in magazine advertisements: 1950–1982. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48(3), 551–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/268857
    Humphreys, J. (2000). Buying power at the beginning of the new century: Projections for 2000 and 2001. Unpublished manuscript, University of Georgia at Athens.
    Indiana State Department of Health. (1992). Prevention newsline. Retrieved November 14, 2001, from the Indiana Prevention Resource Center Web site: http://www.drugs.indiana.edu/publications/iprc/newsline/spring92.html.
    Internet Marketing. (2002). Internet marketing dictionary. Retrieved February 19, 2002, from http://www.marketingterms.com/dictionary/.
    Irving, H. (1991). Little elves and mind control: Advertising and its critics. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://wwwmcc.murdoch.edu.au/ReadingRoom/4.2/Irving.html.
    Iyengar, S., & Prior, M. (1999, June). Political advertising: What effect on commercial advertisers? Retrieved April 10, 2003, from http://www.stanford.edu/~siyengar/research/papers/advertising.html.
    Jacobson, M. F., & Mazur, L. A. (1995). Marketing madness: A survival guide for a consumer society. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Jahnke, A. (2001). Hard liquor, soft resolve. Retrieved January 11, 2002, from http://www.darwinmag.com/connect/opinoin/column.html?ArticleID=217.
    Jenkins, K. E. (1999). Health care communications: Creating messages that help heal. Business and Management Practices, 2(8), 4–6.
    Johnson, C., & Petrie, T. (1995). The relationship of gender: Discrepancy of eating attitudes and behaviors. Sex Roles, 33, 405–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01954576
    Johnson, S. (2001, October 18). Patriotism for sale. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from the Chicago Tribune Web site: http://chicagotribune.com/features/columnists/chi-0110180015oct18,0,7073275.column.
    Johnston-Jones, N. (2001, August 1). Geri-ad-tricks don't go down well. Brand Strategy, p. 30.
    Jones, M. Y., Stanaland, A. J. S., & Gelb, B. D. (1998). Beefcake and cheesecake: Insights for advertisers. Journal of Advertising, 27(2), 33–51.
    Jordan, A. B. (2000). Is the three hour rule living up to its potential?Philadelphia: Annenberg Public Policy Center.
    Joseph, W. B. (1982). The credibility of physically attractive communicators: A review. Journal of Advertising, 11(3), 15–24.
    Kahle, L., & Homer, P. M. (1985). Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: A social adaptation perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(4), 954–961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209029
    Kang, M. (1997). The portrayal of women's images in magazine advertisements: Goffman's gender analysis revisited. Sex Roles, 37(11/12), 979–997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02936350
    Kantrowitz, B., King, P., Downey, S., & Scott, H. W. (2000). The road ahead: A boomer's guide to happiness. Newsweek, 135(14), 56–59.
    Kanungo, R., & Pang, S. (1993). Effects of human models on perceived product quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(2), 172–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037042
    Kaplar, R. T. (1998, May). It's time to remove the brief summary from DTC print ads. Retrieved November 5, 2002, from http://www.cpsnet.com/reprints/1998/05/dtcprint.pdf.
    Kawachi, I., & Conrad, P. (1996). Medicalization and the pharmacological treatment of blood pressure. In P.Davis (Ed.), Contested ground: Public purpose and private interests in the regulation of prescription drugs (pp. 26–41). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Kelly, K. J. (1997, October 15). Chrysler folds. New York Daily News, p. 42.
    Kennedy, J. P. (2002). DTC marketing of prescription drugs: Citizen's health. Retrieved April 17, 2002, from http://www.dtcperspectives.com.
    Kern, M. (1989). 30-second politics: Political advertising in the eighties. New York: Praeger.
    Kiefe, O. D. W., & Lewis, C. E. (2001). Ten-year changes in smoking among young adults: Are racial differences explained by socioeconomic factors in the CAR-DIA study? American Journal of Public Health, 91(2), 213–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.91.2.213
    Kilbourne, J. (1999). Deadly persuasion: Why women and girls must fight the addictive power of advertising. New York: Free Press.
    King, C., & Siegel, M. (2001). The master settlement agreement with the tobacco industry and cigarette advertising in magazines. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(7), 504–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa003149
    Kirby, K. (1999, November, 1999). Rules of the race. Retrieved February 22, 2002, from http://www.rtnda.org/foi/ror.shtml.
    Kirk, E. E. (1996, July 16). Evaluating information found on the Internet. Retrieved November 13, 2001, from http://www.library.jhu.edu/elp/useit/evaluate/.
    Klein, N. (1999). No logo-taking aim at the brand bullies. New York: St. Martin's.
    Koezler, B. (2000). What's all this talk about branding? Retrieved March 15, 2002, from http://realtytimes.com/rtnews/rtapages/20000405_branding.htm.
    Kolassa, E. M. (2001). Maximizing patient choice. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.pfizerforum.com/english/kolassa.shtml.
    Kopp, S. W., & Sheffet, M. J. (1997). The effect of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs on retail gross margins: Empirical evidence and public policy implications. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 16(2), 270.
    Kravitz, R. L. (2000). Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: Implications for the patient-physician relationship. MS JAMA, 284, 2244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.17.2244
    Krol, C. (1998, February 23). Full figured women a great fit for model. Advertising Age, 69, s16.
    Kuczynski, A. (1998, a, March 29). The incredible shrinking plus-size model. New York Times, p. 4.
    Kuczynski, A. (1998, b, November 9). Some consumer magazines are getting real. New York Times, p. 1.
    Kuczynski, A. (2001, August 11). Tobacco industry still advertises in magazines read by youth. Retrieved February 11, 2002, from the New York Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/featured_articles/20010816thursday.html.
    Kvasnicka, B., Beymer, B., & Perloff, R. (1982). Portrayals of the elderly in magazine advertisements. Journalism Quarterly, 59, 656–658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908205900423
    Lagnado, L. (2000, January 20). Choosing between drugs, necessities. Retrieved January 19, 2001, from the Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition Web site: http://www.msnbc.com/news/215703.asp.
    Lang, M. (1994, November 19). Building your social marketing skills. Strategy, p. 9.
    League of Women Voters. (2000). Tired of negative political campaigns? Retrieved May 17, 2002, from http://www.cboss.com/lwv/politicalcampaigns.htm.
    Lee, R. A. (1997). The youth bias in advertising. American Demographics, 19(1), 47–50.
    Leiber, L. (1997). Should the government restrict advertising of alcoholic beverages?–Yes. Retrieved December 11, 2001, from http://www.acsh.org/publications/priorities/0903/govadyes.html.
    Leigh, T. W., Rethans, A. J., & Whitney, T. R. (1987). Role portrayals of women in advertising: Cognitive responses and advertising effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 27, 54–63.
    Leinweber, F. (2001). The older adult market: New research highlights key values. Generations, 25(3), 22–23.
    Lerner, N. (2001, June 4). Ad World “dumbs down” American males. Christian Science Monitor, 93, p. 16.
    Leshner, G., & Thorson, E. (2000). Over reporting voting: Campaign media, public mood and the vote. Political Communication, 17(3), 263–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/105846000414278
    Liebeskind, K. (2002, February 15). Affiliate teetotalers. Retrieved February 15, 2002, from http://www.mediapost.com.
    Lies about Toyota. (2001, August 10). Retrieved June 10, 2002, from http://www.smartertimes.com/archive/2001/08/010810.html.
    Limberg, V. E. (2002). Ethics and television. Retrieved January 14, 2002, from http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/E/htmlE/ethicsandte/ethicsandte.htm.
    Lin, C. A. (1995, March). Manipulating sex appeals in television advertising. Paper presented at the conference of the American Academy of Advertising, Waco, TX.
    Linder, D. (2002). Exploring constitutional conflicts: 44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island. Retrieved March 19, 2002, from http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/liquormart.html.
    Lipke, D. J. (2000, a, November). Databasics. American Demographics, 22, 40.
    Lipke, D. J. (2000, b, September). Fountain of youth. American Demographics, 22, 37.
    Loyd, T. (2000). Postcards from the bleeding edge. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.linezine.com/2.1/features/tlpbe.htm.
    Lysonski, S. (1983). Female and male role portrayals in magazine advertisements: A re-examination. Akron Business and Economic Review, 14(3), 45–50.
    Magazine Publishers of America. (2001). Marketing to the emerging majorities. Retrieved April 14, 2003, from http://www.magazine.org/Diversity/articles/ad_pages.html.
    Magazines that do not accept tobacco advertising. (2001, May 10). Retrieved February 11, 2002, from http://www.tobacco.org/Misc/tob_ad_mags.html.
    Mand, A. (2001). Site for gay ads debuts. Advertising Age, 72(19), 50.
    Mandese, J. (1994). Stymied TV nets take promotion to new level. Advertising Age, 65(12), s6—s9.
    Martin, M. C. (1995). The influence of the beauty of advertising models on female pre-adolescent and adolescent self-perceptions, self-esteem and brand intentions: A longitudinal study. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Martin, M. C., & Gentry, J. (1994, August). Assessing the internalization of physical attractiveness norms. Paper presented at the 1994 AMA Educators' Proceedings, Chicago.
    Martin, M. C., & Gentry, J. W. (1997). Stuck in the model trap: The effects of beautiful models in ads on female pre-adolescents and adolescents. Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 19–33.
    Mason, T. (2002, June 6). Analysis. Marketing, p. 11.
    Masterson, P. (1993, January 11). Many editors report advertising pressure. Advertising Age, p. 22.
    Mays, A. E., & Brady, D. L. (1990). Women's changing role portrayals in magazine advertisements: 1955–1985 (Working paper: Millersville State University Series). Millersville, PA: Millersville State University.
    Mazzetti, M. (2001, April 2). Tobacco is still smokin'. U.S. News and World Report, 130, 25.
    McCracken, G. (1988). Culture and consumption. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    McDonald, C. (1992). How advertising works: A review of current thinking. Detroit, MI: NTC Publications.
    McDonald, M., & Lavelle, M. (2001, July 30). Call it kid-fluence. U.S. News and World Report, 131, 32–34.
    McInturff, B. (2001, March 26). While critics may fret, public likes DTC ads. Advertising Age, 72, 24.
    McLaughlin, P. (1993, August 29). Madison Avenue discriminates against disabled–just like it does the rest of us. Southern Illinoisan Plus, p. 1.
    McLuhan, R. (2000, May 11). Internet: Silver surfers join the Internet party. Marketing, p. 37.
    Media Action Network for Asian Americans. (2001). Asian stereotypes: Restrictive portrayals of Asians in the media and how to balance them. Retrieved March 10, 2002, from http://www.manaa.org/.
    Media audiences. (2000, January 12). Retrieved January 21, 2002, from http://www.asne.org/kiosk/reports/98reports/media_audiences.html.
    MediaDailyNews. (2002, February 15). Benefit to public health lost in debate over DTC advertising. Retrieved March 11, 2002, from http://www.mediapost.com.
    Mehta, A. (2000). Advertising attitudes and advertising effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(3), 67–72.
    Melton, G. W., & Fowler, G. L. (1987). Females roles in radio advertising. Journalism Quarterly, 64(1), 145–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908706400120
    Merrit, S. (1984). Negative political advertising: Some empirical findings. Journal of Advertising, 13(3), 27–38.
    Meyer, H. (1999, November/December). When the cause is just. Journal of Business Strategy, 20, 27–29.
    Millard, P. (2001). Patriotism becomes trendy advertising theme. Retrieved June 29, 2002, from http://www.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2001/12/03/.
    Miller, B., & Sweeney, H. (1999). Are current DTC ads ineffective? Retrieved April 9, 2003, from http://www.cpsnet.com/reprints/1999/05/face2face.pdf.
    Miller, C. (1994, June 6). Give them a cheeseburger. Marketing News, p. 6.
    Miller, C. L. (1987). Qualitative differences among gender-stereotyped toys: Implications for cognitive and social development in girls and boys. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 16, 473–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00292482
    Mintzes, B. (2002). Direct to consumer advertising is medicalising normal human experience. BJM: British Medical Journal, 324(7342), 908–909. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7342.908
    Mishra, R. (2000, September 13). TV spot gaffe revives decade old suspicion. Boston Globe, p. A26.
    Mitchell, A. (1999). Marketing. Marketing Week, 21, 40.
    Mitchell, A. A. (1986, June). The effect of verbal and visual components of advertisements on brand attitudes and attitude toward the advertisement. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 12–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209044
    Mitchell, A. A., & Olson, J. C. (1981, August). Are product attribute beliefs the only mediator of advertising effects on brand attitude? Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 318–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150973
    Modzelweski, J. (1996). Liquor deserves equal ad time on TV. Retrieved January, 11, 2002, from the MIT Web site: http://the-tech.mit.edu/V116/N61/liquor.61c.html.
    Mogelonsky, M. (1998, April). Watching in tongues. American Demographics, p. 48.
    Monteath, S. A., & McCabe, M. P. (1997). The influence of societal factors on female body image. Journal of Social Psychology, 37(6), 708–727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224549709595493
    Moore, C. (2001, November). How old are you?Communication Arts Design Annual, pp. 10–11.
    Moore, P. L. (2000). An overdose of drug advertising? BusinessWeek, 3682, 52.
    Morant, H. (2000, June 3). BMA demands more responsible media attitude on body image. BMJ: British Medical Journal, p. 1495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7248.1495
    More controversy, please, we're Italian. (1992). Economist, 332(7744), 70.
    More than just causes. (2000, August). Chain Store Age Executive, 76, 37.
    Morris, L., Brinberg, D., Klimberg, R., Rivera, C., & Millstein, L. (1986). Miscomprehension rates for prescription drug advertisements. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 9(1&2), 93–117.
    Morton, J. (1995). Farewell to more family dynasties. American Journalism Review, 17(8), 68.
    Morton, L. P. (2001). Segmenting baby boomers. Public Relations Quarterly, 46(3), 46–48.
    Moyers, B. (1998). The :30 second candidate. Retrieved April 10, 2003, from http://www.pbs.org/30secondcandidate/.
    Murphy, C. (1999). Cause related marketing. Marketing, 10, 31.
    Murray, N. M., Manrai, L., & Manrai, A. (1998). How super are video supers? A test of communication efficiency. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 17(10), 24–34.
    Murray, W. (1989, March). Taxation of advertising: A violation of free speech? USA Today Magazine, 117, 23–24.
    Myers, P. N., & Biocca, F. A. (1992, Summer). The elastic body image: The effect of television advertising and programming on body image distortions among young women. Journal of Communications, 42, 108–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00802.x
    National Association of Broadcasters. (2002). Campaign finance reform. Retrieved June 25, 2002, from http://www.nab.org/Newsroom/Issues/issuepapers/issuecfr.asp.
    National Institute for Healthcare Management Foundation. (2001). Prescription drugs and mass media advertising. Washington, DC: Author.
    National Telecommunications and Information Administration. (2002). A nation online: How Americans are expanding their use of the Internet. Retrieved April 13, 2002, from http://cyberatlas.internet.com/big_picture/geographics/article/0,5911_969541,00.html.
    Nayyar, S. (1992, June 29). Green light for drug ads. Adweek, p. 9.
    Nelson, J. P. (1995). Advertising and U.S. alcoholic beverage demand: A growth-accounting analysis. Empirical Economics, 22, 1–20.
    Neuborne, E. (2001, a, August 13). For kids on the Web, it's an ad, ad, ad, ad world. BusinessWeek, pp. 108–109.
    Neuborne, E. (2001, b, September 3). Irksome and effective. BusinessWeek, p. EB6.
    Neuborne, E. (2001, c, October 1). Stop the zzz-mails. BusinessWeek, p. EB6.
    New York Times. (2000, September 17). Agency investigates rats ad. New York Times, p. 16.
    Newman, L. (2000). Avalanche of direct-to-consumer drug marketing brings new questions. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92(12), 964–967. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/92.12.964
    http://NewsBatch.com. (2002). Background on campaign financing from http://NewsBatch.com. Retrieved February 22, 2002, from http://www.newsbatch.com/news-campaignfin.htm.
    Nicosia, F. M. (1974). Advertising, management and society. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Nielsen Media Research. (2000). Minority television usage. Retrieved April 10, 2002, from http://www.nielsenmedia.com/ethnicmeasure.
    Noonan, D. (2000, October 16). A new way to sell smokes. Newsweek, 136, 54.
    Nordenberg, T. (1998). Direct to you: TV drug ads that make sense. Retrieved February 20, 2003, from the Food and Drug Administration Web site: http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1998/198_ads.html.
    Noriega, C. A. (1997, May). There may be a Frito bandito in your house. Presented at Chicago/Latino and Native American Student Film and Video Festival Program, Chicago.
    Nuiry, O. (1996, July). Ban the bandito: Madison Avenue takes a more sophisticated approach to Latino stereotypes. Hispanic, 9, 5–11.
    Obermiller, C. (1995). The baby is sick/the baby is well: A test of environmental communication appeals. Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 55–70.
    Ogletree, S., Williams, S., Raffeld, P., Mason, B., & Fricke, K. (1990). Female attractiveness and eating disorders: Do children's television commercials play a role? Sex Roles, 22, 791–797. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00292061
    Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorser's perceived expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39–52.
    OIT Network Group. (2002). Reference definition of terms. Retrieved April 25, 2002, from The University of Wisconsin-Platteville Web site: http://www.uwplatt.edu/network/reference/terms/b.html.
    Ormondroyd, J. (2001, September 18). Critically analyzing information sources. Retrieved November 14, 2001, from the Cornell University Library Web site: http://www.library.cornell.edu/okuref/research/skill126.htm.
    Owens, M. (2001, April 25). Four letters too far. Retrieved July 10, 2002, from http://abcnews.go.com/sections/business/DailyNews/Frenchconnection010425.html.
    Paff, J. L., & Lakner, H. B. (1997). Dress and the female gender role in magazine advertisements of 1950–1994: A content analysis. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 26(1), 29–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077727X970261002
    Palmer, C. (2001, September 21). Does advertising have a conscience?Campaign, p. 22.
    Parnes, F. (1997, November 1). Magazine puts a plus on big sizes. Denver Post, p. E–01.
    Pastore, M. (2002). Internet key to communication among teens. Retrieved April 13, 2003, from http://cyberatlas.internet.com/big_picture/demographics/article/0,5901_961881,00.html.
    PBS. (2000). Life on the Internet timeline. Retrieved June 11, 2001, from http://www.pbs.org/internet/timeline/timeline-txt.html.
    Peck, R. (1993). Is cigarette advertising protected by the First Amendment? Yes. American Council on Science and Health Priorities, 5(3), 1–2.
    Peracchio, L. A., & Luna, D. (1998). The development of an advertising campaign to discourage smoking initiation among children and youth. Journal of Advertising, 27(3), 49–60.
    Perlman, E. (1996, December). Lotto's little luxuries. Governing, p. 18.
    Perry, N. J., & Rogers, A. (1992, August 10). Why it's so tough to be a girl. Fortune, 126, 82–84.
    Perse, E. M., & Ferguson, D. A. (1994). Cultivation in the newer media environment. Communication Research, 21(1), 70–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365094021001005
    Peterson, M. (2002, March 8). TV ads spur a rise in prescription drug sales. New York Times, p. 13.
    Petroshius, S. M., & Crocker, K. E. (1989). An empirical analysis of spokesperson characteristics on advertisement and product evaluations. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 17(3), 217–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02729813
    Peyrot, M., Alpersetein, N. M., Doren, D. V., & Poli, L. G. (1998). Direct-to-consumer ads can influence behavior. Marketing Health Services, 18(2), 26–32.
    Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. (2000, February 1). Quick facts: Direct to consumer advertising. Retrieved February 11, 2002, from http://www.phrma.org/publications/quickfacts/05.11.2000.189.cfml.
    Phillips, M. J. (1997). Ethics and manipulation in advertising: Answering a flawed indictment. Westport, CT: Quorum.
    Pinhas, L., Toner, B. B., Ali, A., Garfinkel, P. E., & Stuckless, N. (1999). The effects of the ideal of female beauty of mood and body satisfaction. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25(2), 223–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291098-108X%28199903%2925:2%3C223::AID-EAT12%3E3.0.CO;2-B
    Pivato, M. (1999, October 10). Tax advertising. Retrieved May 10, 2002, from http://xaravve.trentu.ca/vato/Policy/adtax.html.
    Plous, S., & Neptune, D. (1997). Racial and gender biases in magazine advertising: A content-analytic study. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 627–644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00135.x
    Pogrebin, R. (1997, September 29). Magazine publishers circling wagons against advertisers. New York Times, p. 1.
    Point of purchase. (2001, November). Business and Management Practices, 7, 12.
    Pollay, R. W., & Gallagher, K. (1990). Advertising and cultural values: Reflections in the distorted mirror. International Journal of Advertising, 9(4), 359–372.
    Polonsky, M., & Wood, G. (2001). Can the over-commercialization of cause-related marketing harm society? Journal of Macromarketing, 21(1), 8–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0276146701211002
    Polyak, I. (2000). The center of attention. American Demographics, 22(11), 30–32.
    Popcorn, F., & Marigold, L. (2000). EVEolution: The eight truths of marketing to women. New York: Hyperion.
    Postman, N. (1985). Amusing ourselves to death. New York: Viking.
    Powell, J. (2001, August 28). The pulse–Television advertising. Manchester Guardian, p. 4C.
    The price of DTC success. (1999). Advertising Age, 70(30), 14.
    Raz, U. (2002). Advertising on the Internet, or why is spam bad? Retrieved March 4, 2002, from http://www.private.org.il/anti-spam.html.
    Rebek-Wegener, J., Eickhoff-Schemek, J., & Kelly-Vance, L. (1998). The effect of media analysis on attitudes and behaviors regarding body image among college students. Journal of American College Health, 47(1), 29–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448489809595616
    Regan, K. (2001, July 19). Studies say banner ads work, but. Retrieved July 8, 2002, from http://www.ecommercetimes.com/perl/story/12127.html.
    Reinhard, K. (2000, June 15). The ethics of advertising. Speech presented at the Umber Center, Goshen, IN.
    Reinhard, K. (2001). De gustibus non est disputandum. Retrieved October 30, 2001, from http://www.aaaa.org/transcripts/transcripts_main.asp?format=detail&sitew.../transcript8.htm.
    Reuters. (1999, February 9). Selling books or screen space? Retrieved August 15, 2002, from http://www.wired.com/news/news/businesss/story/17810.html.
    Richards, J. I., & Zakia, R. (1981). Pictures: An advertiser's expressway through FTC regulation. Georgia Law Review, (16), 77–134.
    Richins, M. (1991, June). Social comparison and the idealized images of advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 71–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209242
    Riffe, D., Lacy, S., & Fico, F. G. (1998). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Rodin, J., Silberstein, L. R., & Striegel-Moore, R. H. (1985). Women and weight: A normative discontent. In T. B.Sondregger (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 32. Psychology and gender (pp. 267–307). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Rogers, M., & Seiler, C. A. (1994). The answer is no: A national survey of advertising industry practitioners and their clients. Journal of Advertising Research, 34(2), 36–45.
    Roth, M. S. (1996). Patterns in direct-to-consumer prescription drug print advertising and their public policy implications. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 15(1), 63–76.
    Rothenberg, R. (2001, September 10). Marketing's borders blurred by product placement revival. Advertising Age, 72, 24.
    Rotzoll, K., & Haefner, J. E. (1996). Advertising in contemporary society (
    3rd ed.
    ). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Roussos, D. (1998, October 14). Top ten reasons to give up dieting. Retrieved April 30, 2001, from the University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation Web site: http://www.udoctors.org.
    Ruggiero, J. A., & Weston, L. (1985). Work options for women in women's magazines: The medium and the message. Sex Roles, 12(5/6), 535–547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00288174
    “Runner” test. (2001, May 7). Advertising Age, 72, 20.
    Rushkoff, D. (2000). Merchants of cool: Interview with Malcolm Gladwell. Retrieved January 22, 2002, from http://www.pbs.org.
    Russell, J. T., & Lane, R. (2002). Kleppner's advertising procedure. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Rutkowski, T. (1997). Institutional structure for the Internet: Who will control it? In O'Reilly and Associates (Eds.), The Harvard Conference on the Internet and society (pp. 325–336). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Sager, R. (1999, December). Public drinking. Reason, 31, 10–11.
    Samoriski, J. (2002). Issues in cyberspace: Communication, technology, law and society on the Internet frontier. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Saunders, C. (2001). Fox launches “take over” ads on portals. Retrieved April 24, 2002, from http://www.internetnews.com/IAR/article/0,12_783351,00.html.
    Scanlon, J. (2000). Advertising women: The J. Walter Thompson Company women's editorial department. In J.Scanlon (Ed.), The gender and consumer culture reader (pp. 201–225). New York: New York University Press.
    Schmideg, P. (1999). Brother low-rez on Daisy ad. Retrieved May 10, 2002, from http://members.aol.com/schmideg/daisy.html.
    Schommer, J., Doucette, W., & Mehta, B. (1998). Rote learning after exposure to a direct-to-consumer television advertisement for a prescription drug. Clinical Therapeutics, 20(3), 617–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2918%2898%2980070-2
    Schudson, M. (1984). Advertising, the uneasy persuasion. New York: Basic Books.
    Scott, L. M. (1994, December). The bridge from text to mind: Adapting reader-response theory to consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 252–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209396
    Shallitt, R. (1999). The ad from hell. Retrieved March 20, 2002, from http://www.salon.com/media/col/shal/1999/05/28/kenya/.
    Shanahan, L. (1999, September 27). Multicultural? Get into the mix!Brandweek, 40, 29.
    Shannon, A. (1998). Advocating for adolescent reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth.
    Shapiro, A. L. (1998). New voices in cyberspace: The Net could become a vibrant alternative to the media oligopoly. The Nation, 266(21), 36–38.
    Shavitt, S., & Lowrey, P. (1998). Public attitudes toward advertising: More favorable than you might think. Journal of Advertising Research, 38(4), 7–22.
    Shaw, D. (1987, February 16). Credibility vs. sensitivity: High, thick wall divides editors and advertisers. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
    Shaw, M. (2001, May). The DTC dilemma. Retrieved February 20, 2003, from http://www.HealthcareMedia.com.
    Sheehan, K. (2000). Is thin still in? In Charles R.Taylor (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2000 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising (p. 1). Villanova, PA: Villanova University Press.
    Sherman, C. (2001). Consumer watchdog files complaint against eight search engines for “crass commercialism.”Information Today, 18(8), 28.
    Shultz, C. J., & Holbook, M. B. (1999). Marketing and the tragedy of the commons: A synthesis, commentary and analysis for action. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 18(2), 218–229.
    Sibley, C. (2000). Research report: DTC advertising studies. Greenwich, CT: Coalition for Healthcare Communication.
    Siebert, F. S., Peterson, T., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four theories of the press. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Silent dishwasher ad too quiet. (2000). Broadcaster, 59(2), 6.
    Silverstein, B., Perdue, L., Peterson, B., & Kelly, E. (1986). The role of the mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women. Sex Roles, 14(9/10), 519–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287452
    Simmons, J. M. (1986). Gender differences of nonverbal power cues in television commercials. In E. F.Larkin (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1986 Convention of the American Academy of Advertising (pp. R72–R76). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Singer, S. (1991, September). Auto dealers muscle: The newsroom. Washington Journalism Review, pp. 25–28.
    Singh, S. (2000, July). Modern strategies needed for grey area. Marketing Week, p. 20.
    Skelton, R. (1997). The next generation Internet. In O'Reilly and Associates (Eds.), The Harvard Conference on the Internet and society (pp. 77–91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Smith, A., & Kidder, R. M. (1996). Political attack advertising. Camden, ME: Institute for Global Ethics.
    Smith, F. (1997). Advertising: Boon or bane? Consumers Research Magazine, 80(4), 315.
    Smith, L. J. (1994). A content analysis of gender differences in children's advertising. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 38(3), 323–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838159409364268
    Smith, T. (2001). Marketing mood. Retrieved April 15, 2003, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/media/july-dec01/advert_12_27.html.
    Society for Women's Health Research. (1998, March). Society calls on women's magazines to “stop pushing cancer!” Retrieved February 11, 2002, from http://www.womens-health.org/news_article11.html.
    Soley, L., & Kurzbad, G. (1986). Sex in advertising: A comparison of 1964 and 1968 magazine advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 15(3), 46–54.
    Soley, L., & Reid, L. (1988). Taking it off: Are models in magazine ads wearing less? Journalism Quarterly, 65, 960–966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908806500419
    Soley, L. C., & Craig, R. L. (1992). Advertising pressures on newspapers: A survey. Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 1–10.
    Solomon, M. R., & Ashmore, R. D. (1992). The beauty match-up hypothesis: Congruence between types of beauty and product images in advertising. Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 23–34.
    Sorkin. (2001, February 4). Technical approaches to unsolicited electronic email. Retrieved May 22, 2002, from http://www.sorkin.org/articlers/usf.html.
    Stafford, M. R. (1998). Advertising sex-types services: The effects of sex, service type, and employee type on consumer attitudes. Journal of Advertising, 27(2), 65–82.
    Staples, R., & Jones, T. (1985). Culture, ideology and black television images. Black Scholar, 16, 10–20.
    State governments and lotteries. (1999). Consumers Research Magazine, 82(8), 12–13.
    State of Texas. (1999, April 26, 2000). Political advertising: What you need to know. Retrieved March 13, 2002, from http://www.ethics.state.tx.us/pamphlet/ polad.htm.
    Steckel, R. (1999). Making money while making a difference. Homewood, IL: High Tide Press.
    Steel, K. (1998, March 9). The waif and the babe. Alberta Report, 25, 34–35.
    Stefik, M. (1999). The Internet edge: Social, legal, and technological challenges for a networked world. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Stein, J. (1997, March 6). A new mode of women's magazines. Los Angeles Times, p. 2.
    Steinhauer, J. (1997, September 27). Strutting their own stuff: Department stores pushing in-house clothing labels. New York Times, p. 1.
    Stephens, D., Hill, R. P., & Hanson, C. (1994, Summer). The beauty myth and female consumers: The controversial role of advertising. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 28, 137–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.1994.tb00819.x
    Sullivan, D. (2002). Lawsuit over paid placements to define search engines. Retrieved February 4, 2002, from http://www.searchenginewatch.com.
    Sullivan, D., Schommer, J., & Birdwell, S. (1999). Consumer retention of risk information from direct-to-consumer advertising. Drug Information Journal, 22, 281–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009286159903300132
    Surowiecki, J. (2002, April 1). Ageism in advertising. The New Yorker, p. 40.
    Surveys, N. I. (2000). How many online. Retrieved October 12, 2001, from http://www.nua.ie/surveys/how_many_online/index.html.
    Sutherland, M. (1993). Advertising and the mind of the consumer. St. Leonard's, Australia: Allen and Unwin.
    Swayne, L. E., & Grego, A. J. (1987). The portrayal of older Americans in television commercials. Journal of Advertising, 16, 47–54.
    Taflinger, R. (1996). You and me, babe: Sex and advertising. Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~taflinge/sex.html.
    Tanouye, E. (2000, January 19). US develops expensive habit with drug sector growth spurt. Retrieved December 1, 2002, from http://www.msnbc.com/news/215163.asp.
    Taylor, C. R., & Stern, B. B. (1997). Asian Americans: Television advertising and the “model minority” stereotype. Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 48–60.
    Taylor, P. (2002). New nationwide coalition calls for free air time as next step in campaign finance reform. Retrieved June 1, 2002, from http://www.bettercampaigns.org/press/release.php?ReleaseID=32.
    Teinowitz, I. (2000). Ad creates a “rat” problem for GOP. Advertising Age, 71, 4–5.
    Teinowitz, I. (2001a). Congress eyes DTC ad threat. Advertising Age, 72, 3.
    Teinowitz, I. (2001b). Supremes sink mass ad curbs. Advertising Age, 72, 3–4.
    Teinowitz, I. (2002). Congress quite on issue of liquor ads. Advertising Age, 73, 2.
    Templeton, J. (1997). Ad spending slights black consumers. Advertising Age, 68, 28.
    The Search Engine Report. (1999). Amazon paid placements raise ethics questions. Retrieved February 15, 2002, from http://www.searchenginewatch.com.
    Thernstrom, A., & Thernstrom, S. (1998). Black progress. Brookings Review, 16(2), 12–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20080776
    Thomas, M. E., & Treiber, L. (2000). Race, gender and status: A content analysis of print advertisements in four popular magazines. Sociological Spectrum, 20(3), 357–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/027321700405090
    Till, B. D., & Busler, M. (2000). The match-up hypothesis: Physical attractiveness, expertise, and the role of fit on brand attitude, purchase intent, and brand beliefs. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 1–13.
    Till, B., & Nowak, L. I. (2000). Toward effective use of cause-related marketing alliances. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 9(7), 472–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610420010351394
    Tobacco Advertising in the United States. (1997). Issue briefs. Studio City, CA: MediaScope Press.
    Try to keep it simple. (2002). Advertising Age, 73, s2.
    Tsu, B. (2000). Time to get real: Teen girl survey rates advertising. Advertising Age, 71, 47.
    Tung, J. (2002). Bigger bodies are back. Good Housekeeping, 235(1), 133.
    Tupper, M. (1995). The representation of elderly persons in prime time advertising. Retrieved April 21, 2003, from http://www.geocities.com/lightgrrrrrl/.
    Turner, S., Hamilton, H., Jacobs, M., Angood, L. M., & Dwyer, D. (1997). The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis. Adolescence, 32(127), 603–614.
    Twitchell, J. B. (1996). AdCult: The triumph of advertising in American culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Twitchell, J. B. (1999). Lead us into temptation. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Underhill, P. (1999). Why we buy: The science of shopping. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Unger, R. K., & Crawford, M. (1992). Women and gender: A feminist psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Ursic, A. C., Ursic, M. L., & Ursic, V. L. (1986). A longitudinal study of the use of the elderly in magazine advertisements. Journal of Communication Research, 13, 131–133.
    U.S. Census Bureau. (1999). Current population reports (311). Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1990). Seventh Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Rockville, MD: Author.
    U.S. Department of Labor. (2000). Women at the millennium, accomplishments and challenges ahead (Report). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau.
    U.S. General Accounting Office. (2002). FDA oversight of direct-to-consumer advertising has limitations. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Multicultural Advertising Agency Ranking. (2001, November 19). Advertising Age, 72, s14.
    Utt, S. H. E. (1984). The effect of sexual stereotyping in print advertising on brand name recall, sales point recall and buying attitude: An experimental study. DAI, 45(5), 1231–a.
    Valenti, C. (2001). Patriot games. Retrieved April 10, 2003, from the ABC News Web site: http://abcnews.go.com/sections/business/DailyNews/patriotic_ads_011019.html.
    Van Bakel, R. (2001, May). Do the taste test. Creativity Magazine, p. 4.
    Vanden Bergh, B., & Katz, H. (1999). Advertising principles: Choice challenge change. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.
    Vasil, L., & Wass, H. (1990). Portrayal of the elderly in the media: A literature review and implications for educational gerontologists. Educational Gerontology, 19, 71–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127930190107
    Venkatesan, M., & Losco, J. (1975, October). Women in magazine ads 1959–1971. Journal of Advertising Research, 15, 49–54.
    Voegele, J. (2002). Recursive advertising–The joke's on us. Retrieved April 15, 2002, from http://www.jvoegele.com/essays/spoofads.html.
    Vogt, S. (2001, July 2). RX advertising Redux. Strategy, 18.
    Voigt, J., & Melillo, W. (2002, March 11). Rough cut. Adweek, p. 4.
    Wake, B. (2002, March 12). How Big Tobacco got Hollywood to light up. Ottawa Citizen, p. A12.
    Walker, C. (1993, January). Fat and happy? American Demographics, 15, 52–57.
    Washington State Attorney General's Office. (2002). Stomping out youth tobacco use. Retrieved April 16, 2002, from the Washington State Attorney General's Office Web site: http://www.wa.gov/ago/tobacco/settlement.html.
    Wayman, R. (2000). What is the Chinese Wall and why is it in the news? Retrieved January 14, 2002, from http://www.investopedia.com/printable.asp?a=/arti-cles/analyst/090501.asp.
    Weaver, D. T., & Oliver, M. B. (2000, May). Television programs and advertising: Measuring the effectiveness of product placement within Seinfeld. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Communication Association, Acapulco, Mexico.
    Webb, D. J., & Mohr, L. A. (1998). A typology of consumer responses to cause-related marketing: From skeptics to socially concerned. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 17(2), 226–240.
    Wechsler, J. (1998). DTC marketing issues fill up DDMAC's plate. Business and Management Practices, 10–12.
    Weissman, R. X. (1998, October). But first, call your drug company. American Demographics, pp. 27–28.
    Welch, M. (2000). AOL, Time Warner and journalism: Life really ain't so bad. Retrieved January 11, 2002, from http://www.ojr.org/ojr/business/1017966073.php.
    Welke, B. (1999). Why we should get rid of political advertising–now. Retrieved March 2, 2000, from http://www.salon.com/media/feature/1999/09/02/advertising/.
    Wells, M. (2001, October 29). Who really needs Madison Avenue? Forbes, 168, 131–132.
    Wentz, L. (2001, November 19). Reverse English. Advertising Age, 72, s1–s2.
    West Legal Directory. (2002). Freedom of speech. Retrieved April 19, 2002, from http://www.wld.com/conbus/weal/wfrspeec.htm.
    Whipple, T. W., & Courtney, A. E. (1985). Female role portrayals in advertising and communication effectiveness: A review. Journal of Advertising, 14(3), 4–17.
    Wilcox, J. (2000). Legal experts say merger OK likely. Retrieved January 10, 2002, from the CNET News Web site: http://news.cnet.com/news/0-1005-200-1519200.html.
    Wilson, N. L., & Blackhurst, A. E. (1999). Food advertising and eating disorders: Marketing body dissatisfaction, the drive for thinness, and dieting in women's magazines. Journal of Humanistic Counseling Education and Development, 38(2), 111–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-490X.1999.tb00069.x
    Wirthlin Worldwide. (1999, March). Buying influences: Consider the source (Research Report). Reston, VA: Author.
    Wisconsin Public Television. (1996). 30 second candidate. Retrieved April 1, 2000, from http://www.pbs.org/30secondcandidate/q_and_a/.
    Woellert, L., & Walczak, L. (2002). Campaign reform's dangerous aftershocks. BusinessWeek, 3777, 42.
    Wolf, N. (1991). The beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women. New York: William Morrow.
    Wolszon, L. R. (1998). Women's body image theory and research. American Behavioral Scientist, 41(4), 542–557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764298041004006
    Wong, E. (2001, June 19). Nike trying new strategies for women: Company seeks merger of athletics and fashion. New York Times, p. 1.
    Wood, D. J. (2002). How to avoid false or misleading Internet advertising. Retrieved February 15, 2002, from http://www.gigalaw.com.
    Wood, K. (2000). Freedom of expression: Terms, dates and concepts. Retrieved March 20, 2002, from http://kylewood.com/firstamendment/terms.htm.
    Woods, B. (2001). Additional side effects. Retrieved April 12, 2003, from http://www.promomagazine.com/ar/marketing_additional_side_effects/.
    Workman, J. E., & Freeburg, E. W. (1996). Consumer responses to fashion advertisements using models in wheelchairs: Is there a relationship to consumers' optimal stimulus level? Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 24(3), 237–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077727X960243002
    Yoo, M. (1997). Taming the TV. Retrieved January 22, 2002, from http://www.4children.org/news/300tv.htm.
    Zinkhan, G. M., & Carlson, L. (1995). Green advertising and the reluctant consumer. Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 1–7.
    Zinkhan, G., Qualls, W. J., & Biswas, A. (1990). The use of blacks in magazine and television advertising: 1946–1986. Journalism Quarterly, 67(3), 547–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769909006700310

    About the Author

    Kim Sheehan is Assistant Professor at the University of Oregon's School of Journalism and Communication. Her teaching and research interests include online consumer behavior, research methods, and advertising creative strategy. Her research has appeared in the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, and Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. Kim is coauthor of Using Qualitative Research Methods in Advertising (Sage, 2002); in addition, she contributed chapters to Internet Marketing: Readings and Online Resources, Paul Richardson (McGraw-Hill, 2000), and Frontiers in Direct Marketing Research, Joseph Phelps (Wiley, 1998). In 1997, the Advertising Research Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication awarded her Best Paper. In 1999, Kim was a finalist for Best Paper of the year in the Journal of Advertising. Prior to joining the academy, Kim worked as Associate Media Director and Media Supervisor for several advertising agencies, including Foote Cone and Belding in Chicago. Her clients included Budweiser, Coldwell Banker Real Estate, McDonald's, Laura Ashley, People Magazine, 1Bank of Boston, and Kraft-Miracle Whip.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website