Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring the Cross-Cultural Dynamics within Organizations

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Edited by: Michael A. Moodian

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Introduction

    Part II: Understanding the Evolving Role of Cultural Diversity in the Workplace

    Part III: Applying Cultural Comprehension to Organizations

    Part IV: Measuring Intercultural Competence

    Part V: Concluding Thoughts

  • Dedication

    To my mother, Phyllis Moodian, and my father, Armand Moodian.

    Thank you for your love and support.

    To Margaret Minnis.

    Thank you for your inspiration and encouragement.

    Copyright

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    Acknowledgments

    “Happiness lies in the joy of achievement and the thrill of creative effort.”

    —Franklin D. Roosevelt

    This book would not have been possible without the assistance of Dr. Charles Fischer. Thank you, Chuck, for your mentorship throughout this process. I am fortunate to have you as a friend.

    It is an honor to work with a brilliant group of contributing authors. Thank you to the incredible scholars whose chapters are featured in the pages that follow. Special thanks to Al Bruckner, MaryAnn Vail, Laureen Shea, Diane Foster, Tony Moore, and the entire staff of Sage Publications.

    Thank you to the faculty and staff of the organizational leadership doctoral program at Pepperdine University, led by Dr. June Schmieder-Ramirez, associate dean, and Dr. Farzin Madjidi, program director. At California State University, Fullerton, thank you to Dr. Anthony Fellow of the Department of Communications and Dr. Myron Orleans and Dr. Michael Perez of the Department of Sociology.

    Special thanks to my family, including my aunt, Loretta Leilani Miyashiro; my uncles, James Miyashiro (in loving memory, 1939–2007) and Daniel Ladeira; my brother, Stephen Keith Carvalho; my cousins, Michele Compton and James Miyashiro; my nieces and nephew, Kasie, Kepano, Stephenie, and Kaili Carvalho; Nicole Miyashiro; and all of the members of my family throughout the world. I would also like to thank my close friends and extended family for their support over the years—notably, the Beckman family, the Almeida family, and Teresa Shapley.

    Finally, thank you to the fellow faculty, students, and staff members at the Irvine campus of Chapman University.

    —Dr. Michael A.MoodianRancho Santa Margarita, CA, USA

    Introductory Commentary: Valuing the Diversity of a Nation

    Michael S.Dukakis

    In this day and age, leadership, particularly in the public sector, must include both a deep respect for and a real understanding of the extraordinary and growing range of cultures and backgrounds that increasingly confront an American politician or policymaker.

    For those of us who are first- or second-generation Americans, that respect and understanding should come naturally. After all, we or our parents came here as immigrants. We often found ourselves facing hostile or indifferent receptions from people who had been here for many generations. One would assume that we would have an almost instinctive understanding of the importance of diversity and a sense of how one genuinely involves people and institutions from across the ethnic and racial spectrum in what we do. Unfortunately, that is not always the case. In fact, some of the worst racial and ethnic prejudice in the United States often comes from people whose families arrived here not that long ago. We made it, but we often have difficulty getting used to the fact that we must learn to live with the newest generation of immigrants, who often have skin darker than ours and speak languages we don't understand.

    I was reminded of that a few years ago when Kitty and I had breakfast with two professionally successful Greek Americans who were complaining about the waves of Mexican immigrants that were arriving in Southern California. I had to point out to them that our parents had faced similarly hostile feelings as they brought a different culture and the Eastern Orthodox religion to America, and that if anyone should understand the hopes, aspirations, and fears of newly arrived Mexicans, it was us!

    For a political leader that means not only understanding and respecting the kind of diversity that is today's America but genuinely involving ethnic and racial leaders and constituencies in what one does, particularly if it affects them directly. It means reaching out and recruiting staff members who represent a variety of races and ethnic backgrounds and working hard to make sure one understands them and appreciates the contributions they can make to their adopted country and to the developing of policies that benefit everybody, including newly arrived Americans.

    These new Americans have much to offer. They come here with energy and hope. They have high aspirations for their children. They work hard, often at two or three jobs. They have often left totalitarian societies because they want the freedom and opportunity that democracy offers them, and they want to be full partners in our great American experiment.

    Any American political leader worth his or her salt should take them seriously. If one can speak a few words or more of their language, so much the better. It is another reflection of the respect in which you hold them.

    I was lucky. I had a scholarship to study one semester in Peru, and since the Greek and Spanish accents are identical, the fact that I had been brought up bilingual in Greek and English made learning decent Spanish a lot easier for me. But I also had the chance to study Korean when I was in the army there in the mid-1950s; to study a good deal of French in both high school and college, which my Haitian constituents could understand; and since Greeks and Italians can't talk without using their hands, I could do a pretty good imitation of an almost-Italian when I arrived at the Sons of Italy with my standard greeting: “Oggi, siamo tutti figli d'Italia.” (“Today we are all sons of Italy.”)

    But it wasn't just an act. I loved the opportunity it gave me to connect with a lot of people who had shared the same experience my parents had had in coming to this country as immigrants and living the American Dream.

    So my advice to aspiring political leaders in this country, no matter what their background, is not only to understand their immigrant experience but to appreciate the extraordinary richness it has given to America. And by all means reach out to these communities of new Americans and make them part of what you do.

    It will pay dividends—both personally and politically.

  • Closing Commentary: The Future of Intercultural Competence in an Era of Globalization

    Marc LamontHill

    As we near the end of the 21st century's first decade, organizational leaders face a unique set of circumstances. The expansion of global capitalism has changed the very structure and scope of many organizations, transforming them from local to transnational, monocultural to multicultural. In addition to the changing economic landscape, globalization has effected profound shifts in the way that culture is imagined, transmitted, and consumed within the global landscape. As the contributors to this fine volume have demonstrated, the ability to recognize and respond to this new cultural milieu stands as one of the primary challenges of organizational leaders. To respond to these conditions in ways that yield more safe, humane, and productive organizations, several challenges lay before us.

    First, we must acknowledge the intrinsic value of multiculturalism. Although legal mandates and public invocations of “political correctness” create the conditions for compulsory forms of diversity, authentic intercultural competence hinges on a deeper investment in diversity, one that extends beyond the instrumental and the pragmatic. Simply put, organizational leaders must recognize the fundamental advantage of appealing to the vast range of histories, perspectives, traditions, and practices that inevitably constitute contemporary organizations. Absent this stance, organizational diversity and intercultural engagement become superficial and perfunctory responses to political exigency, rather than a signpost of deepening humanistic principles. Such principles are vital to the development of thicker forms of multiculturalism within and outside of organizational structures.

    To fully appreciate the fundamental value of multiculturalism, organizational leaders must also move beyond ethnocentric approaches to intercultural competence. Although extreme forms of ethnocentrism such as White supremacy and anti-Semitism are becoming considerably less permissible (in overt fashion) within mainstream contexts—although no doubt coterminous with rising tides of xenophobia and sustained levels of sexism and homophobia—more subtle and nuanced forms of cultural chauvinism continue to countervail institutional attempts at increased intercultural competence.

    As a result, forms of cultural difference are often recognized within institutions but nonetheless rendered marginal. A classic example of this is the schoolteacher who decides to teach students about Hanukkah and Ramadan in addition to Christmas. Rather than teaching students about these holidays on their own terms, the teacher devotes all of class time to explaining how these holidays are similar to and different than Christmas. In response to such well-meaning but narrow-minded approaches, organizational leaders must resist the urge to view the world strictly through the lens of their own experiences, values, and worldviews. Instead, we must begin to understand and engage various cultures on their own terms. Such a shift requires organizational leaders to reposition themselves at varying moments as both leaders and followers, teachers and students, mainstream and “other.”

    In our attempts to create institutional spaces that promote forms of pluralism without hierarchy, we are forced to expand dominant conceptions of difference. Although the current body of theory and research on intercultural competence within organizations appropriately spotlights race, gender, and geographic origin as predicates of difference, this preoccupation has frequently undervalued or obscured other forms of difference. This focus is problematic for two reasons. First, it relies on static notions of identity that ignore the ways in which racialized, gendered, and national identities are constantly transformed within the contemporary global context. Also, by privileging the aforementioned forms of difference, we ignore the ways in which subject categories such as disability, age, and class position, to name a few, are linked to globally mediated cultural practices that must be taken seriously within organizational settings.

    Finally, we must consider the broader contexts within which contemporary organizations and cultures are situated. As discussed throughout this brief essay, organizations, as well as the individuals that operate within them, are shaped by myriad social, cultural, political, and economic forces. Thus, our ability to engender more culturally diverse and responsive organizational environments rests on our understanding of these forces within the current historical moment. This requires organizational leaders to transform themselves from insulated technocrats to worldly cultural workers who take seriously the public and its problems. Furthermore, in practical terms, this means that organizational leaders must eschew one-size-fits-all models of leadership in favor of dynamic, engaged, and contextually specific approaches.

    Although the future of organizational leadership and intercultural competence is by no means certain, this book provides us with tangible reasons to be encouraged. The insights offered throughout this text, and hopefully this essay, better enable us to craft spaces that positively respond to an increasingly multicultural world. From these spaces, we are able to radically transform both our organizations and the world.

    About the Editor

    Michael A. Moodian (http://www.moodian.com) is an assistant professor of social science and sociology at Chapman University. He holds an EdD in organizational leadership from Pepperdine University and an MA in communications from California State University, Fullerton. His doctoral dissertation research focused on the intercultural competence levels of postgraduate students throughout various stages of study.

    Dr. Moodian has contributed to numerous books, academic journals, and other publications. Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence is his first edited volume. In addition to his scholarly endeavors, Dr. Moodian serves as a consultant in a variety of areas, including leadership development and communication skills. He is a certified administrator of the Intercultural Development Inventory and Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory. His memberships include the International Academy for Intercultural Research and the World Affairs Council of Orange County.

    A native of Southern California, Dr. Moodian lives in the city of Rancho Santa Margarita.

    About the Contributors

    Soon Ang is Goh Tjoei Kok Chair Professor in Management at the Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, in Singapore. She is the executive director for the Center for Global Leadership and Cultural Intelligence. She specializes in cultural intelligence, global leadership, and outsourcing. She has published extensively in Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Management Science, Information Systems Research, Journal of Organizational Behavior, MIS Quarterly, Organization Science, and Social Forces, among others. She co-authored two pioneering books on cultural intelligence (Stanford University Press) and co-edited the Handbook on Cultural Intelligence (ME Sharpe). She won Best Paper awards at the Academy of Management, Association of Computing Machinery, and HICSS; Best Reviewer Award from Human Relations; and the Distinguished Leadership Award for International Alumni from the University of Minnesota. She is senior editor of Information Systems Research, associate editor of Management Science and Decision Sciences, and on editorial boards of other management and applied psychology journals. She holds a PhD from the University of Minnesota.

    LaRay M. Barna, Associate Professor Emerita, is well-known as a pioneer in the field of intercultural communication. She developed one of the first courses in intercultural communication in 1967, which was used as a model for other universities. One of her articles, “Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication,” has appeared in many anthologies, which, along with her numerous presentations for professional conferences in the United States and seven foreign countries, helped initiate international interest in the field. Professor Barna originated and directed the intercultural communication program at Portland State University, where she was a faculty member for 32 years, and served as assistant dean for the College of Arts and Letters from 1978 to 1980. Currently she is teaching in the intercultural relations program of the University of the Pacific and the Intercultural Communication Institute. She is also on the faculty of the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication.

    Janet M. Bennett is the executive director and co-founder of the Intercultural Communi cation Institute (ICI) and the ICI director of the master of arts in intercultural relations program. For 12 years, Dr. Bennett was the chair of the Liberal Arts Division at Marylhurst College, where she developed innovative academic programs for adult degree students. As a trainer and consultant, Dr. Bennett designs and conducts intercultural and diversity training for colleges and universities, corporations, social service agencies, healthcare organizations, and international aid agencies. She teaches in the training and development program at Portland State University and has published numerous articles on the subjects of intercultural training and adjustment processes. Most recently she co-edited the third edition of the Handbook of Intercultural Training.

    Martin F. Bennett, a principal in Bennett Consulting, consults on the diversity implications of nationality, ethnicity, and spirituality in organizations. Founder of the Hong Kong Institute of Human Relations, co-founder of Bennett Associates, a former vice president in Cendant Intercultural, and a clergyman, Mr. Bennett has over 35 years' experience in the application of intercultural theory, training, consulting, and business and organization development for companies such as Nokia, Motorola, P&G, General Motors, and Capital One. He authored Hong Kong Update and co-authored Global Diversity Desk Reference: Managing an International Workforce. He is currently writing God's in the Boardroom—Managing Religious and Spiritual Workplace Diversity.

    Dharm P. S. Bhawuk is a professor of management and culture and community psychology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He received his PhD in organizational behavior and human resource management from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and also holds an MBA from the University of Hawaii at Manoa and a degree in mechanical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. His research interests include cross-cultural training, intercultural sensitivity, diversity in the workplace, individualism and collectivism, culture and quality, culture and entrepreneurship, culture and creativity, indigenous psychology and management, and political behavior in the workplace. He has published several papers in the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, International Journal of Psychology, Cross-Cultural Research, Applied Psychology: International Review, Indian Psychological Review, Delhi Business Review, and Journal of Management. Dr. Bhawuk is a citizen of Nepal.

    Carlos E. Cortés is Professor Emeritus of history at the University of California, Riverside, and recipient of the American Society for Training and Development's National Multicultural Trainer of the Year Award. With Dr. Louise C. Wilkinson, he teaches an annual course, Developing and Implementing a Multicultural Vision, at the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication. The author of such books as The Making—and Remaking—of a Multiculturalist, he has facilitated multicultural vision development for corporations, educational institutions, government entities, communities, and the mass media. Dr. Cortés lectures throughout the world, serves on the faculties of the Harvard Institutes for Higher Education and the Federal Executive Institute, is creative/cultural advisor for Nickelodeon's Dora the Explorer and Go, Diego, Go!, co-authors a social studies textbook series, and performs his one-person autobiographical play, “A Conversation With Alana: One Boy's Multicultural Rite of Passage.”

    Michael S. Dukakis was the longest serving governor in the history of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the Democratic Party's nomination for president of the United States in 1988. In 1986, his colleagues in the National Governors Association voted him the most effective governor in the United States. He has served in the Massachusetts state legislature and on the board of directors for Amtrak. Today, Governor Dukakis is a Distinguished Professor of political science at North eastern University and a visiting professor of public policy at UCLA. He holds a JD from the Harvard Law School.

    Leslie A. Evans holds an EdD in organizational leadership and an MBA with a double emphasis in leading organizational change and global business from Pepperdine University. With over 20 years of leadership experience, Dr. Evans has consulted for both large corporations—including Amgen, BP, and First American Title—and small nonprofit organizations. Dr. Evans has published many peer-reviewed articles and is a frequent presenter on such topics as global business strategy, cross-cultural capability, leadership, women in business, and ethics in the workplace. She was the co-recipient of the Best Theoretical Paper Award from the Western Business and Management Conference in 2004. Dr. Evans is currently an adjunct professor of management at California State University, Fullerton, coauthor of a book on writing, and an active board member of the Society of Educators and Scholars.

    Charles M. Fischer is an associate professor at the University of California, San Francisco, teaching health services management. He is also the president of Profiles Pacific, Inc., a company that provides psychological assessments and training for organizations and businesses. For the past 25 years, Dr. Fischer has been a health services management and communications consultant. His company, Health Industry Management, specializes in program design and implementation plus strategic planning. Dr. Fischer has a BS in public health from UCLA, a DDS and MS in psychopharmacology and toxicology from the University of California, San Francisco, and a EdD in organizational leadership from Pepperdine University. Dr. Fischer has lived and traveled extensively throughout Europe, Asia, and Latin America and has been a cross-cultural business communication consultant.

    Lee Gardenswartz, partner in Gardenswartz & Rowe, has been consulting with organizations regarding diversity since 1977, including Sempra Energy, Shell Oil, British Tele communication, Kaiser Permanente, Boeing, Home Depot, Walt Disney World, Starbucks, Harvard Medical School, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Train-the-Trainer certificate program of SHRM. Dr. Gardenswartz and her partner, Dr. Anita Rowe, co-authored the award-winning Managing Diversity: A Complete Desk Reference and Planning Guide in addition to The Managing Diversity Survival Guide, The Diversity Tool Kit, Diverse Teams at Work, Managing Diversity in Health Care, Managing Diversity in Health Care Manual, and The Global Diversity Desk Reference: Managing an International Workforce with Patricia Digh and Martin Bennett. Their newest book, Emotional Intelligence for Managing Results in a Diverse World: The Hard Truth About Soft Skills, will be out in early 2009.

    Sangeeta R. Gupta is a management and organizational development consultant and a specialist in diversity and intercultural consulting, facilitation, and training. Dr. Gupta is an expert in non-Western history and cultures and speaks several languages. She has conducted research and published extensively in the fields of gender, ethnicity, and immigrant studies. Dr. Gupta is the co-founder and a partner in Gupta Consulting Group. She is also the founder and director of the South Asian Women's Conference (SAWC), an interactive international forum for the discussion of issues relating to South Asian women globally. By combining her academic background and her business experience, Dr. Gupta works with her clients to improve their overall performance while targeting bottom-line results. She won UCLA's coveted Cary McWilliams Award for her honors thesis on the Asian Indian immigrant community. She is the editor of and a contributor to Emerging Voices: South Asian American Women Redefine Self, Family, and Community.

    Mitchell R. Hammer has an international reputation as a social innovator, developing powerful ideas and innovative practices that improve people's lives by addressing some of our most difficult human problems. He is president of several organizations and in 2006 was awarded Professor Emeritus from the American University in Washington, DC. Dr. Hammer has developed (a) the Inter cultural Conflict Style Inventory, (b) the Intercultural Development Inventory, and (c) the S.A.F.E. model of crisis negotiation for de-escalating hostage/crisis situations. His work focuses on intercultural communication, cross-cultural adaptation, cultural diversity, cultural considerations in crisis (e.g., hostage) negotiations, and conflict resolution. His new book, Saving Lives (2007), presents a comprehensive explanation of the innovative S.A.F.E. approach for resolving crisis situations. His earlier book, Dynamic Processes of Crisis Negotiation (1997), was honored with the Outstanding Book Award in 1998 by the International Association of Conflict Management. In 1992, Dr. H ammer was given the Senior Inter culturalist Award of Achievement by the Society of Intercultural Education, Training, and Research. He holds a PhD from the University of Minnesota.

    Md Mahbubul Haque is a third-year doctoral student in organizational leadership at the Graduate School of Education and Psychology at Pepperdine University. Mr. Haque has more than 8 years of work experience in financial, technical, and management industries, including with HSBC and ANZ Grindlays Bank, two leading financial services organizations. Mr. Haque holds a master's degree in public administration. In addition, he earned a master's degree in business administration (MBA) from Maastricht School of Management, Netherlands, and a master's degree in business technologies (MBT) from Marymount University and Virginia Commonwealth University. He has presented and published in several refereed conferences, including the fourth Hawaii International Conference, the International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD) Conference, Society of Educators and Scholars (SES) Conference, International Academy of Business and Economics (IABE) Conference, and OD Network Conference.

    Marc Lamont Hill is assistant professor of urban education and American studies and affiliated assistant professor of anthropology at Temple University. His primary research examines the relationships between neoliberal globalization, pedagogy, and youth identities. His work has appeared in numerous books, journals, and anthologies. He is the co-editor of Media Learning and Sites of Possibility and the author of the forthcoming books Beats, Rhymes and Classroom Life: Hip-Hop, Pedagogy, and Youth Identities and You Ain't Heard It From Me: The Politics of Other People's Business in Hip-Hop's Public Sphere.

    L. Hyatt is an associate professor in the organizational leadership doctoral program at the University of La Verne. She earned an MBA and a doctorate degree at Pepperdine University with research leading to the development of a model for the new paradigm of sustainable leaders. Her other scholarly endeavors include writing numerous articles, presenting at conferences, serving as associate managing editor for a peer-reviewed journal and on several editorial boards, and authoring two books for McGraw-Hill. Her research interests include leadership, learning and change, and the powerful climates created by our convergent stories as individuals, organizations, and communities.

    Christine Koh is assistant professor at Nanyang Technological University. Her research interests include cultural intelligence, cross-cultural issues in managing foreign talent, and outsourcing management. Her papers have been published in Group and Organization Management, Management and Organization Review, Information Systems Research, MIS Quarterly, Journal of IT Cases and Applications, and Journal of Global IT Management. She is the director of technology and psychometrics at the Center for Leadership and Cultural Intelligence. Dr. Koh earned her PhD from Nanyang Technological University.

    Dan Landis is an affiliate professor of psychology at the University of Hawaii at Hilo. He holds a similar appointment at the Manoa campus of the same university. Previously he was professor of psychology, director of the Center for Applied Research and Evaluation, and dean of the Liberal Arts College at the University of Mississippi. He is the editor of all three editions of The Handbook of Intercultural Training (1983, 1996, and 2004) and author and co-author of over 120 books, chapters, and articles in referred publications. He is also the founding and continuing editor of the International Journal of Intercultural Relations and the founding president of the International Academy for Inter cultural Research, which, in 2007, honored him with a Lifetime Achievement Award.

    Leo A. Mallette is an engineering manager, has worked in the aerospace industry since 1974, and is currently managing high-technology subcontracts for space systems. He received his MSE degree from the University of Central Florida and MBA and EdD degrees from Pepperdine University. He has co-authored the book The SPELIT Power Matrix (BookSurge, 2007) and is co-authoring the book Writing for Conferences (expected 2008). He has published over 50 conference and journal articles on atomic frequency standards, satellite systems, optical detectors, circuits, genealogy, and organizational leadership. Dr. Mallette is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a member of the advisory board for the Precise Time and Time Interval Conference, and a board member of the Society of Educators and Scholars. He and his wife, Kathy, live in Irvine and Rancho Mirage, California. He enjoys playing with his granddaughters, gardening projects, traveling, and writing.

    Vijayan P. Munusamy is a senior research associate at the Center for Creative Leadership-Asia. He started his career as a mechanical engineer in Malaysia and made his first “cultural crossing” after observing that many of the conflicts in the workplace and in society are due to cultural misunderstandings. Recognizing cultural education as a powerful tool to advance multicultural understanding, he founded a social enterprise to promote the sharing of children's stories from different cultures in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. The lessons he learned from this experience and the need to develop theoretical, methodological, and experiential expertise in cross-cultural issues led him to make his second “cultural crossing” toward becoming a Degree Fellow at the East-West Center, Hawaii, and a PhD student at the University of Hawaii. His recent publication includes a book chapter in Teaching About Asian Pacific Islanders: Effective Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Workshops (AltaMira Press, 2006). An Asian Development Bank Scholar and a recipient of the Wall Street Journal Student Achievement Award, he has been recognized numerous times for his achievement in academic, work, and community service.

    Jennifer Palthe is associate professor of management at Western Michigan University and a PhD and MLIR graduate from Michigan State University. She teaches graduate MBA classes in managing change and international human resource management, and undergraduate classes in multinational management and organization development at the Haworth College of Business. Prior to commencing her doctoral studies, Dr. Palthe was senior change management consultant for Andersen Consulting (now Accenture). She has change management consulting experience in Europe, Africa, and the United States. Dr. Palthe has publications in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Journal of Asia Business Studies, California Management Review, Competitive ness Review, Health Care Manager, Consulting Psychology Journal, and Journal of Organizational Change Management. She is also co-author of the book Knowledge-Driven Work: Unexpected Lessons From Japanese and U.S. Work Practices (Oxford University Press, 1998) and author of “Globally Managing Human Resources” in Managing Human Resources in the 21st Century (South-Western Publishing, 1999).

    Sheila J. Ramsey is founder of the Crestone Institute, a Washington, DC–based consulting firm, specializing in the interface between global leadership, change, and creativity. Since 1975, she has worked with global leaders in the corporate sector, in government, and in international development. Clients have included the U.S. Department of State, the United Nations World Food Program and UNAIDS, the Smithsonian Institution, the U.S. Peace Corps, the National Albanian American Council, the Environmental Protection Agency, Jakarta International School, Intel Corporation, Apple Computer–Japan, Proctor and Gamble, Fuji–Xerox, Kodak–Japan, and Motorola–Japan. She is a visual artist, worked for several years as a professional photographer, and has studied as a potter's apprentice in Japan. Dr. Ramsey is one of the three founding directors of Personal Leadership Seminars, LLC, and a co-author of the book Making a World of Difference. Personal Leadership: A Methodology of Two Principles and Six Practices.

    Anita Rowe is a partner in Gardenswartz & Rowe, where, for over 20 years, she has helped a variety of regional and national clients manage change, handle stress, build productive and cohesive work teams, and create intercultural understanding and harmony in the workplace. She has helped clients such as Cox Communications, Starbucks, Shell, Boeing, and the IRS manage diversity and create cultures of inclusion. Together with Dr. Lee Gardenswartz, Dr. Rowe has co-authored a series of books on diversity themes, including Managing Diversity: A Complete Desk Reference and Planning Guide, The Managing Diversity Survival Guide, The Diversity Tool Kit, and Diverse Teams at Work. She is also co-author of The Global Diversity Desk Reference: Managing an International Workforce. Their newest book, Emotional Intelligence for Managing Results in a Diverse World: The Hard Truth About Soft Skills, will be out in early 2009.

    Keith H. Sakuda is a third-year doctoral student in international management specializing in international organization and strategy at the Shilder College of Business at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. His research interests include cross-cultural training and intercultural group dynamics. Prior to joining the PhD program, he was an instructor at TransPacific Hawaii College. He currently holds a master's degree in business administration (MBA) from the University of Hawaii and a graduate certificate from Fujitsu's Japan America Institute of Management Science (JAIMS). His work experience includes education, education administration, and business in both the United States and Japan. He is also involved in several social entrepreneurial ventures. Mr. Sakuda has presented at conferences for the Academy of Management (AOM) and the Society for the Advancement of Management (SAM).

    Barbara F. Schaetti is one of the three founding directors of Personal Leadership Seminars, LLC, principal consultant of Transition Dynamics, and a member of the faculty of the Intercultural Communication Institute. She has a particular passion for helping people access their core creative capacity and works worldwide to help her clients engage the transformative potential inherent in a life lived across cultures. Dr. Schaetti consults primarily in the academic and civil sectors and with organizations working in the field of international cooperation. She specializes in multicultural team development, building inclusive communities, providing expatriate family services, and developing a personal practice to leverage intercultural competence. Dr. Schaetti is lead author of the book Making a World of Difference. Personal Leadership: A Methodology of Two Principles and Six Practices. She holds dual nationality (U.S. and Swiss), was raised in ten countries on five continents, and is currently based in Seattle, Washington.

    June Schmieder-Ramirez is the interim associate dean of education of the Education Division of the Graduate School of Education and Psychology of Pepperdine University. She has co-authored numerous texts on school finance, personnel, and law. She has published over 50 articles on leadership, environmental forces, and the political nature of governance groups. She received her MBA from Saint Mary's College of California and her PhD from Stanford University in administration and policy analysis. She and her husband, Ramon, live in Quail Valley, California.

    Douglas Stuart, director of intercultural training at IOR Global Services, is an authority on intercultural competency tools. He is licensed to deliver and interpret a variety of intercultural assessment instruments, and he writes and presents on the selection and use of such tools at conferences and seminars, including the 2005 SHRM Global Forum in Chicago and a 2007 white paper for the SHRM Web site. Dr. Stuart also develops intercultural competence curricula, delivers workshops, and conducts executive coaching. Prior to joining IOR, he served as an educational specialist in Andersen Worldwide's Performance Consulting group. His background in international education includes faculty positions at Chicago's Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and the Economics Institute, University of Colorado, as well as training management positions in Algeria, the U.A.E., and Vietnam and teaching positions in Germany and Egypt. Dr. Stuart earned his PhD in linguistics at IIT and pursued postgraduate studies at the Illinois School of Professional Psychology and Naropa University, earning a certification in client-centered therapy from the Chicago Counseling and Psychotherapy Center.

    John C. Tobin is an adjunct professor who holds dual appointments at Pepperdine University's Graduate School of Education and Psychology and the Graziadio School of Business and Management. He has lectured on negotiation theory, business law, and bankruptcy law. He has been involved with legal research and writing at Pepperdine University, the College of Law at the University of La Verne, and the University of California, Riverside, since 1995. When not at the lectern, Professor Tobin is a United States administrative law judge, as well as a colonel in the judge advocate general's corps of the U.S. Army Reserve. He is a 1981 graduate of the Judge Advocate General's School at the University of Virginia and a 1980 Juris Doctor graduate of School of Law of the University of Louisville. He completed the certification in mediation at the Straus Institute at Pepperdine University in 1995 and was designated a mediator for the bankruptcy courts of the Central District of California and the Superior Court, Riverside County, California, in 1996.

    Fons Trompenaars is CEO of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner Consulting, an innovative center of excellence on intercultural management. He is the world's foremost authority on cross-cultural management and is author of many books and related articles, including the bestseller Riding the Waves of Culture, Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business (McGraw-Hill, 1993). This book sold over 120,000 copies and was translated into French, German, Dutch, Korean, Danish, Turkish, Chinese, Hungarian, and Portuguese. Dr. Trompenaars is the coauthor of Seven Cultures of Capitalism (Doubleday, 1993) and Mastering the Infinite Game with Dr. Charles Hampden-Turner. In 1999, he was listed as a top five management consultant alongside Michael Porter, Tom Peters, and Edward de Bono, in a leading business magazine.

    Linn Van Dyne, professor at Michigan State University, has two primary research programs: proactive employee behaviors and cultural intelligence. She is associate editor of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes and is on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Perspectives, Personnel Psychology, Human Relations, Management and Organization Review, and Journal of Organizational Behavior. She is a fellow in the Society of Organizational Behavior and has published in the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Research in Organizational Behavior, and other outlets. Prior to becoming an academic, she was director of worldwide human resources and director of compensation, benefits, and international personnel for a global manufacturing firm. Dr. Van Dyne earned her PhD at the University of Minnesota.

    Gordon C. Watanabe is Professor Emeritus of education and former special assistant to the president for intercultural relations at Whitworth University in Spokane, Washington. Dr. Watanabe is one of the three founding directors of Personal Leadership Seminars, LLC, and is co-author of the book Making a World of Difference. Personal Leadership: A Methodology of Two Principles and Six Practices. Dr. Watanabe is a member of the faculty of the Intercultural Communication Institute and consults with corporate, community, and educational institutions. His work focus, whether in the United States, Europe, or Asia, is on the critical role of deep self-understanding in intercultural teaching, learning, and team building. Informed by his background as a third-generation Japanese American, and his years counseling international and American ethnic-minority students, Dr. Watanabe is often called upon to be a cultural bridge between individuals and groups. He is a qualified facilitator of the Intercultural Development Inventory.

    Louise C. Wilkinson is on the faculty of the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication where she teaches Developing and Implementing a Multicultural Vision with Dr. Carlos Cortés. She brings to it her work empowering teams and leaders to develop themselves and the cultures around them. She helps design programs to increase inclusion in the corporate environment and develops and facilitates sessions on diversity, leadership, globalization, mentoring, privilege, and intercultural competence for the Boeing Company and other companies and universities. She has shared her vision as a global multicultural leader at national and international conferences. An award-winning video writer/producer/director, her doctoral research focused on the use of film for intercultural education. This research is summarized in her recent article, “A Developmental Approach to Uses of Moving Pictures in Intercultural Education,” in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Dr. Wilkinson uses her certificate in developmental coaching to support intercultural development.

    Peter Woolliams is Emeritus Professor of international management at Anglia Ruskin University (UK) and is an owner/partner in Trompenaars Hampden-Turner Consulting with Dr. Fons Trompenaars. He has collaborated and published jointly with Dr. Trompenaars for over 18 years. Dr. Woolliams is co-author of Business Across Cultures (available in several languages) and Marketing Across Cultures (Capstone-Wiley, 2004).


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